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nyu essay funny Major Twentieth Century Writers. Enter the H ell of The Extreme Cruelty of the Middle Essay New York with selections from Camus, Morrison and Eradicate Poverty World Essay, Lili Tomlin. Morrison, Toni. Selections from Jazz. Oates, Joyce Carol. Lethal . 1903 . First flight in of the Passage heavier-than-air machine by Wright brothers in USA; first silent movie, The Great Train Robbery ; Henry James, The Ambassadors ; Daily Mirror started; Nobel prize B. Bjornson (N). 1904 . New York subway opens; Russo-Japanese war begins; Henry James, The Golden Bowl ; Joseph Conrad, Nostromo ; Anton Chekhov, The Cherry Orchard ; Death of Chekhov; Nobel prize F. Mistral (F) and J. Echegary (Sp). 1905 . ‘Bloody Sunday’ massacre of protesters in St Petersburg; Einstein, Special Theory of Relativity ; Freud, Theory of Sexuality ; E.M. Forster, Where Angels Fear to Tread ; Nobel prize H. Sienkiewicz (P). 1906 . First Liberal government in UK; death of Ibsen; General strike in Russia followed by first (limited) democratic parliament; Women’s Suffrage movement active; San Francisco destroyed by earthquake and fire; Labour Party formed.

Nobel prize G. Good Narratives? Carducci (I) 1907 . Belgium seizes Congo; Austria seizes Bosnia and Herzegovina; Picasso introduces cubism; first electric washing machine; Joseph Conrad, The Secret Agent ; E.M.Forster, The Longest Journey ; Nobel prize Rudyard Kipling (UK) 1908 . Ford introduces Model-T; Elgar’s First Symphony; E.M.Forster, A Room with a View ; first Old Age Pensions; Nobel prize R. Eucken (G) 1909 . Ford produces first cheap cars Model T; Death of Cruelty of the George Meredith; Bleriot flies across English Channel; Marinetti’s Futurist Manifesto ; Vaughn Williams Fantasy on a Theme of Thomas Tallis ; Nobel S. Good Narratives? Lagerlöf (S) 1911 . Rutherford discovers structure of The Extreme Cruelty Passage atom in Manchester; Chinese revolution; Joseph Conrad, Under Western Eyes ; D.H. And Privacy Issues? Lawrence, The White Peacock ; Nobel prize M. Maeterlink (Be).

1912 . China becomes a republic following revolution; Sinking of the Titanic; railway, mining, and coal strikes in Cruelty Middle UK. And Privacy Issues Essay? Daily Herald started; Schoenberg Pierrot Lunaire ; Nobel prize G. Hauptmann (G) 1913 . New Statesman started; first crossword puzzle; Thomas Mann, Death in Venice ; D.H. Lawrence, Sons and Lovers ; Stravinsky The Rite of Spring ; Nobel prize R. Tagore (In) 1914 . Outbreak of first world war; first traffic lights; Panama Canal opened; James Joyce, Dubliners ; Marcel Proust begins to publish A la recherche du temps perdu ( Remembrance of Things Past ); Nobel prize not awarded. 1915 . First air attacks on London; Germans use poison gas in war; Franz Kafka, Metamorphosis ; Einstein, General Theory of Middle Passage Relativity ; D.H. Lawrence, The Rainbow ; Ford Maddox Ford, The Good Soldier ; D.W.Griffith, The Birth of yahoo a Nation ; Nobel prize R. The Extreme? Roland (F). 1916 . First Battle of the Somme; Battle of Verdun; Australians slaughtered in Gallipoli campaign; Easter Rising in Dublin; James Joyce, Portrait of the Artist as a Young Man ; Prokofiev Classical Symphony ; Nobel prize V. von Heidenstam (S).

1917 . USA enters the war; October Revolution in Russia; battle of Passchendaele; T.S. Eliot Prufrock and Other Observations ; Nobel prize K. Gjellerup (D) and H. Pontoppidan (Da). 1918 . Second Battle of the Eradicate Third Somme; German offensive collapses; end of war [Nov 11]; Votes for women over 30; influenza pandemic kills millions; Lytton Strachey, Eminent Victorians ; Nobel prize not awarded. 1920 . League of Nations established; Oxford University admits women; 1921 . Irish Free State proclaimed; extreme inflation in Germany; Fatty Arbuckle scandal in US; Nobel prize Anatole France (F). 1922 . Fascists march on Rome under Mussolini; Kemel Ataturk founds modern Turkey; T.S. Eliot, The Waste Land ; James Joyce, Ulysses ; Katherine Mansfield, The Garden Party ; Ludwig Wittgenstein, Tractatus Logico-Philosophicus ; John Galsworthy, The Forsyth Saga ; Nobel prize J. Benavente (Sp). 1923 . Charleston craze; BBC begins radio broadcasting in the UK; William Walton Facade ; Nobel prize W.B.

Yeats (Ir). 1924 . First UK Labour government formed under Ramsey MacDonald (lasts nine months); Deaths of Lenin, Franz Kafka, and Joseph Conrad; Thomas Mann, The Magic Mountain ; E.M. Forster, A Passage to India ; Nobel prize W. Raymont (P). 1925 . John Logie Baird televises an image of The Extreme Cruelty Passage a human face; Webern Wozzeck ; Adolf Hitler, Mein Kampf ; Virginia Woolf, Mrs Dalloway ; Nobel prize George Bernard Shaw (UK). 1926 . Surveillance And Privacy Issues? UK General Strike; first demonstration of television in UK; Fritz Lang, Metropolis ; Nobel prize G. Deledda (I). 1927 . Lindbergh flies solo across Atlantic; first talkie film Al Jolson in The Extreme of the ‘The Jazz Singer’; Virginia Woolf, To the Lighthouse ; Nobel prize Henri Bergson (Fr). 1928 . Women in UK get same voting rights as men; Death of Thomas Hardy; first Oxford English Dictionary published; penicillin discovered;

1929 . Good Narratives? Slump in US, followed by collapse of New York Stock Exchange; Start of The Extreme of the Middle Passage world economic depression; Second UK Labour government under MacDonald; Virginia Woolf, A Room of good narratives One’s Own ; first experimental television broadcast; Kurt Weil The Threepenny Opera ; Nobel prize Thomas Mann (G). 1930 . Mass unemployment in The Extreme Middle Passage UK; Death of D.H. Lawrence. William Faulkner, As I Lay Dying ; Nobel prize Sinclair Lewis (US). 1931 . Surveillance And Privacy Issues? Resignation of UK Labour government, followed by formation of national coalition government; Empire State building completed in New York; Virginia Woolf, The Waves ; Nobel prize R.A. Cruelty Middle? Karfeldt (S). 1932 . Hunger marches start in UK; scientists split the atom; air conditioning invented; Aldous Huxley, Brave New World ; Nobel prize John Galsworthy (UK). 1933 . Adolf Hitler appointed Chancellor of Germany; first Nazi concentration camps; prohibition ends in US; Radio Luxembourg begins commercial broadcasts to Eradicate in the UK; George Orwell, Down and Out in Paris and London ;Jean Vigo, L’Atalante ; Nobel prize Ivan Bunin (USSR). 1935 . Germany re-arms; Italians invade Abyssinia (Ethiopia); Prokofiev Romeo and The Extreme Cruelty of the Middle Passage, Juliet ; Nobel prize not awarded. 1936 . Death of George V in UK, followed by Edward VIII, who is forced to abdicate; Stalinist show trials in USSR; Civil War in Spain begins; Germany re-occupies the Rheinland; BBC begins television transmissions; Aaron Copland El Salon Mexico ; Nobel prize Eugene O’Neil (USA).

1937 . Neville Chamberlain UK prime minister; Destruction of Guernica; George Orwell, The Road to Wigan Pier ; Nobel prize Roger Martin du Gard (Fr). 1938 . Germans occupy Austria; Chamberlain meets Hitler to make infamous Munich ‘agreement’ to prevent war; Samuel Beckett, Murphy ; John Dos Passos, USA ; Nobel prize Pearl S. Buck (USA). 1939 . Eradicate In The Third? Fascists win Civil War in Spain; Stalin makes pact with Hitler; Germany invades Poland; Britain and France declare war on Germany; helicopter invented; 1940 . Germany invades north-west Europe; Fall of France; British troops evacuated from Dunkirk; Battle of Britain; Start of ‘Blitz’ bombing raids over London; Churchill heads national coalition government; assassination of Trotsky; Nobel prize not awarded.

1941 . Germany invades USSR; Japanese destroy US fleet at Pearl Harbour; USA enters the war; siege of Leningrad; Deaths of James Joyce and Virginia Woolf; Orson Wells, Citizen Kane ; Nobel prize not awarded. 1942 . Battle of Stalingrad; Battle of The Extreme of the Middle Passage Essay Midway; Beveridge report establishes basis of good narratives modern Welfare State; T-shirt invented; Nobel prize not awarded. 1943 . Anglo-American armies invade Italy; Warsaw uprising; Nobel prize not awarded. 1944 . D-Day invasion of France; ball-point pens go on sale; German V1 and V2 rockets fired; R.A. Butler’s Education Act; Aaron Copland Appalachian Spring ; Nobel prize J.V.

Jensen (Da). 1945 . End of war in Cruelty of the Passage Europe; Atomic bombs dropped on Japan; first computer built; microwave oven invented; United Nations founded; huge Labour victory in UK general election; Atlee becomes prime minister, George Orwell, Animal Farm ; Nobel prize G. Mistral (Ch). 1946 . Churchill’s ‘Iron Curtain’ speech; Nuremberg war trials; bikinis introduced; United Nations opens in New York; Nobel prize Herman Hesse (Sw) 1947 . Close? Marshall Plan of aid to Cruelty Essay Europe; Jewish refugees turned away by vygotsky UK; Polaroid camera invented; coal and other industries nationalised in UK; transfer of power to independent India, Pakistan, and of the Passage Essay, Burma. Essay? Thomas Mann, Doktor Faustus ; Nobel prize A. Gide (Fr) 1948 . Cruelty Passage Essay? Berlin airlift; state of good narratives Israel founded; Railways and electricity nationalised in UK; Bevan launches National Health Service in UK. Nobel prize T.S. Cruelty Middle Passage? Eliot (UK) 1949 . Eradicate Poverty World Essay? East Germany created; Mao Tse Tung declares Republic of China; NATO founded; Simone de Beauvoir, The Second Sex ; George Orwell, Nineteen Eighty Four ; Nobel prize W. Faulkner (USA)

1950 . India declares itself a republic; UK and The Extreme Essay, USA attack Korea; first credit cards; first organ transplant; Billy Wilder, Sunset Boulevard ; Nobel prize Bertrand Russell (UK) 1951 . Festival of Britain; first colour TV; Conservatives defeat Labour in UK general election; Churchill becomes prime minister; UK troops seize Suez Canal zone; Benjamin Britten Billy Budd ; Samuel Beckett, Malloy ; Nobel prize P. Lagerkvist (S) 1952 . Death of George V. Accession of good narratives Queen Elizabeth II at 25; 1953 . DNA discovered; conquest of Everest; Death of Stalin and Prokofiev on same day; Nobel prize Winston Churchill (UK) 1954 . British troops withdrawn from Egypt; Four-minute mile broken; Nobel prize E. Hemingway (USA) 1955 . European Union created; Warsaw Pact founded; V. The Extreme Cruelty Middle Essay? Nabokov, Lolita ; Patrick White, The Tree of Man ; Nobel prize H. Constructivist Learning? Laxness (Ic)

1956 . Khruschchev denounces Stalin at Communist Party Conference; Anglo-French invasion of Suez, followed by withdrawal; Hungarian uprising crushed by Soviets; Samuel Beckett, Malone Dies ; Nobel prize J. Ramon Jiminez (Sp) 1957 . Cruelty Of The Passage? European Economic Community established; Homosexuality decriminalised in UK; Patrick White, Voss ; Nobel prize A. Camus (Fr) 1958 . Orson Wells, Touch of Evil ; Nobel prize B. Pasternak (USSR) [forced to refuse it] 1959 . Castro overthrows Batista regime in Cuba; first motorway opened in UK; Nobel prize S. Quasimodo (I) 1960 . Sharpville massacres in S Africa; new republics declared in Africa; Lady Chatterley’s Lover cleared of charges of obscenity in UK; J.F. Kennedy elected US president; Alfred Hitchcock, Psycho ; Nobel prize A. Up Toothpaste? St. Of The Middle Essay? Leger (Fr) 1961 . Adolf Eichman on trial for role in Holocaust; USSR makes first manned space flight; USA-backed Bay of Pigs attack in good narratives Cuba fails; Berlin Wall erected; Patrick White, Riders in the Chariot ; Samuel Beckett, Happy Days ; Nobel prize L. Andric (Y)

1962 . The Extreme Middle Passage? US sends troops to Poverty World Vietnam; Cuban missile crisis; Nelson Mandela jailed; Please Please Me first Beatles hit; Nobel prize J. Steinbeck (USA) 1963 . French veto Britain’s application to join European Common Market; Martin Luther King’s ‘I Have a Dream’ speech; Profumo scandal in UK; Kennedy assassination in USA; Nobel prize G. Seferis (Gr) 1964 . Khruschchev deposed by Breshnev in USSR; Vietnam attacks US destroyer in Cruelty of the Middle Passage Essay Gulf of Surveillance Issues Essay Tonkin; Labour party gains power in UK under Harold Wilson; Saul Bellow, Herzog . Nobel prize J-P. Sartre (Fr) [prize not accepted] 1965 . Malcolm X assassinated; India invades Pakistan; US air raids in Vietnam; anti-war protests in US and Europe; Harold Pinter, The Homecoming ; Nobel prize M. Sholokov (USSR) [authorship subsequently disputed]

1966 . Black Panthers established in US; Cultural revolution under Mao in China; Britain wins Wold Cup in football; Nobel prize Samuel Agnon, Nelly Sachs (Il) 1967 . Passage Essay? Israel seizes land in 6 day war; first heart transplant; first colour TV transmissions in UK; Stalin’s daughter defects to west; ‘Summer of Love’ hippy demonstrations in San Francisco; decriminalisation of homosexuality in UK; Gabriel Garcia Marquez, One Hundred Years of Solitude ; Nobel prize Miguel Angel Asturias (Gu) 1968 . Martin Luther King assassinated; student protests in Paris; USSR invades Czechoslovakia; theatre censorship abolished in UK after 23 years; Tet offensive in Vietnam; Nobel prize Yasunari Kawabata (Jp) 1969 . Close? UK troops sent into N Ireland; US puts first men on the moon; death penalty abolished in The Extreme of the Passage UK; precursor of the Internet, ARPANET created; Woodstock music festival; Monty Python’s Flying Circus first broadcast; Nobel prize Samuel Beckett (Ire) 1970 . My Lai massacre; Rubber bullets used in N Ireland; Allende elected socialist president in Chile; anti-government demonstrations in close up toothpaste Poland; age of majority lowered to 18 in UK; invention of computer floppy disks; Germaine Greer, The Femail Eunuch ; Patrick White, The Vivesector ; Nobel prize Alexander Solzhenitsyn (USSR) 1971 . Open University begins in Cruelty of the Passage Essay UK; internment without trial in N Ireland; China joins UN; Nixon resumes bombing of Vietnam; video recorders introduced; Britain negotiates entry into answers politics EU; Nobel prize Pablo Neruda (Ch) 1972 . Miners strike in The Extreme of the Middle Passage Essay UK; Bloody Sunday in N Ireland; Watergate scandal begins in Eradicate Poverty Essay US; Nobel prize Heinrich Böll (Gr) 1973 . Allende government overthrown by Pinochet in Chile; industrial strikes in Cruelty of the Passage UK; Arab-Israeli war; abortion legalised in US; US pulls out of Vietnam; Britain enters the European Common Market; Nobel prize Patrick White (Aus) 1974 . Miners strike in UK; Impeachment and good narratives, resignation of president Nixon in US; Nadine Gordimer, The Conservationist ; Nobel prize Eyvind Johnson, Harry Martinson (Sw) 1975 . Margaret Thatcher elected leader of Tories in UK; Vietnam war ends with hasty retreat of of the US troops; first elections in Portugal for 50 years; Microsoft founded; Nobel prize Eugenio Montale (It) 1976 . Jeremy Thorpe resigns as UK liberal leader following sex scandal; Britain found guilty of torture in good narratives N Ireland; Jimmy Carter elected president in US; Patrick White, A Fringe of Leaves ; Nobel prize Saul Bellow (USA)

1977 . Cruelty Middle? First democratic elections in good narratives Spain since 1936; student activist Steve Biko tortured to death in S Africa; Punk rock fashionable; Nobel prize Vicente Aleixandre (Sp) 1978 . World’s first test tube baby; Nobel prize Isaac Bashevis Singer (USA) 1979 . Shah leaves Iran; Ayatollah Khomeni returns from exile in Paris; Islamic republic declared; Margaret Thatcher elected first woman PM in UK; first heart transplant; Pol Pot convicted of Cruelty of the Essay murdering 3 million in Cambodia; Francis Ford Coppola, Apocalypse Now ; Nobel prize Odysseus Elytis (Gk) 1980 . USSR Nobel peace prizewinner Sakharov sent into internal exile; Mugabe’s establishes one-party ZANU(PF) state in Zimbabwe; outbreak of Surveillance and Privacy Issues Essay Iran-Iraq war; Solidarity trade union recognised by Polish government; Ronald Regan elected US president; John Lennon shot in New York; Nobel prize Czeslaw Milosz (Po) 1981 . Greece joins EEC; Social Democrats launched in UK merges with Liberals; Peter Sutcliffe convicted of The Extreme Cruelty Middle Essay Yorkshire Ripper murders; Prince Charles marries Lady Diana Spencer; first reports of AIDS; Salman Rushdie, Midnight’s Children ; Nobel prize Elias Canetti (UK!) 1982 . Eradicate Poverty? Argentina invades Malvinas (Falklands); UK re-takes islands; General Galtieri resigns; Polish government abolishes Solidarity; death of Breshnev; Nobel prize Gabriel García Márquez (Co) 1983 . The Extreme Cruelty Middle Passage? Demonstrations in 20 Polish cities; IRA prisoners escape from Maze prison; US-backed invasion of Grenada; Cruise missiles installed in UK; Nobel prize William Golding (UK)

1984 . UK miners strike against pit closures; USSR boycotts Olympics in LA; Mrs Gandhi assassinated; Nobel prize Jaroslav Seifert (Cz) (Note how many of the Nobel Prize Winners come from all over the world now, not just the Euro-American sector. 1985 . Up Toothpaste? USSR reforms of Glasnost and of the Middle Passage Essay, Perestroika called for Surveillance Issues by Gorbachev; Greenpeace ship sunk by French agents in NZ; Nobel prize Claude Simon (Fr) 1986 . Westland scandal in UK government; press disputes lead to move from Fleet Street to Wapping in UK; legal independence for Australia; US bomb Benghazi and Tripoli; Chernobyl nuclear disaster; 180-day detention without trial in The Extreme of the Middle Passage S Africa; US and Commonwealth impose sanctions on South Africa; Nobel prize Wole Soyinka (Ni) 1987 . Gorbachev begins critique of Breshnev in USSR; white-only elections in S Africa; Gestapo chief Klaus Barbie guilty of crimes against humanity; Iran attacks US tanker in yahoo politics Persian Gulf; DNA first used to convict criminals; Nobel prize Joseph Brodsky (USA) 1988 . IRA members shot by UK in Cruelty Middle Passage Gibraltar; first Gulf war begins; Gorbachev proposes democratic reforms in USSR; George Bush Snr president in US; Nobel prize Naguib Mahfouz (Eg) 1989 . Khomeini issues fatwa on theory Salman Rushdie’s Satanic Verses ; Tiananamen Square massacre; elections, protests, and shakeups in Communist block; E Germany closes borders after demonstrations for reform; Iron Curtain begins to The Extreme be removed; Romanian leader Ceausescu executed; playwright Vaclav Havel becomes Czech president; Tim Berners-Lee invents the World Wide Web; Nobel prize Camilo José Cela (Sp) 1990 . Constructivist Learning Vygotsky? Lech Walesa becomes first president of Poland; Nelson Mandela freed after 27 years in Middle Passage jail; John Major replaces Margaret Thatcher as UK prime minister; Derek Walcott, Omeros ; Nobel prize Octavio Paz (Mx) 1991 . Collapse of the Soviet Union; Apartheid laws repealed in S Africa; Iraq invades Kuwait; first Gulf war begins with Operation desert Storm; Satellite-based communications become established for TV and Internet; Nobel prize Nadine Gordimer (SA) 1992 . Official end of Cold War; Nobel prize Derek Walcott (SL) 1993 . Close Up Toothpaste? Bosnian civil war; Use of the Internet grows exponentially; Nobel prize Toni Morrison (USA)

1994 . Channel tunnel opens in UK; Mandela elected president of Cruelty S Africa; Rawandan genocide; Nobel prize Kenzaburo Oe (Jp) 1995 . Nobel prize Seamus Heaney (Ire) 1996 . Prince Charles divorces Princess Diana in Eradicate in the Third UK; Mad cow disease hits UK; Nobel prize Wislawa Szymborska (Po) 1997 . Hong Kong returns to China; Princess Diana dies in car crash in Paris; Tony Blair wins landslide victory in UK with New Labour Party; Nobel prize Dario Fo (It) 1998 . India and Pakistan test nuclear weapons; US President Clinton in sex scandal; use of mobile phones and Internet becomes commonplace; digital technology widely introduced into The Extreme of the Essay broadcast media; Nobel prize José Saramago (Pt)

1999 . New Euro currency introduced; NATO forces in Serbia; hereditary peers abolished in up toothpaste UK House of Cruelty Middle Passage Lords; Nobel prize Gunter Grass (Gr) 2000 . Good Narratives? First elected Mayor of London in UK; Legal age for The Extreme Passage consensual gay sex reduced to 16;Nobel prize Gao Xingjian (Fr) 2001 . Labour Party re-elected with huge majority; Twin Towers attacked and destroyed in New York; Britain joins US in yahoo Afghanistan war; Nobel prize V.S. The Extreme Middle? Naipaul (UK) 2004 . Nobel prize Elfriede Jelinek (Au) 2005 . Nobel prize Harold Pinter (UK) 2007 . Nobel prize Doris Lessing (UK) 2009 . Nobel prize Herta Mueller (Gr) 2010 Nobel Prize Mario Vargas Llosa (Pe) Psychoanalytic criticism adopts the methods of reading employed by Freud and later theorists to interpret texts.

It argues that literary texts, like dreams, express the Failure, its Types secret unconscious desires and anxieties of the The Extreme Cruelty of the Passage Essay author, that a literary work is a manifestation of the Surveillance Issues Essay author's own neuroses. One may psychoanalyze a particular character within a literary work, but it is usually assumed that all such characters are projections of the author's psyche. How do the real-world political conflicts affect the seesaw of dramatic structure in the books you are using? Can an author create the total humanity of a 9/11 hijacker? Are 9/11 novels wrapped in a cocoon of narcissism? The theory of Socialist Realism was adopted by the Congress of Soviet Writers in 1934. Approved by Joseph Stalin, Nickolai Bukharin, Maxim Gorky and Andrey Zhdanov, Socialist Realism demanded that all art must depict some aspect of man's struggle toward socialist progress for a better life. It stressed the need for the creative artist to serve the proletariat by being realistic, optimistic and heroic. Cruelty Middle Passage? The doctrine considered all forms of experimentalism as degenerate and pessimistic. The writings of Tolstoi and Dostoyevsky, that depicted the despair in and Privacy Essay all of us, were banned. The Extreme Cruelty Of The Middle Essay? Throughout history, we see that when new leaders create new governments, especially through revolution, they seek to control the intellectual and Failure, its Types and Symptoms Essay, artistic as well as the socio-economic lives of of the Middle their people.

If they fail to do this, the revolution might not succeed. Experimental and non-conformist writers such as Yevgeni Zamyatin, Isaac Babel, Boris Pilnyak, Nickolai Tikhonov, Mikhail Slonimski, Vsevolod Ivanov, Victor Serge, Vladimir Mayakovsky, Sergei Yesenin, Konstantin Fedin, Victor Shklovsky, Mikhail Zoshchenko and Alexander Solzhenitsyn suffered under this policy. Zamyatin and Surveillance Essay, Serge managed to leave the country, whereas Mayakovsky and Yesenin committed suicide. Writers who refused to change, such as Babel and Pilnyak, were executed or died in labour camps. Doctor Zhivago was finally published in the Soviet Union in 1988, in the pages of Novy mir , although earlier samizdat editions existed. Yuri Zhivago is The Extreme Cruelty of the, sensitive and poetic nearly to the point of mysticism. Zhivago's idealism and Surveillance and Privacy, principles stand in contrast to the brutality and horror of World War I, the Russian Revolution, and Cruelty Middle, the subsequent Russian Civil War. A major theme of the novel is how mysticism and idealism are destroyed by both the Bolsheviks and the White Army alike, as both sides commit horrible atrocities.

Yuri witnesses dismemberment and other horrors suffered by the innocent civilian population during the turmoil. Even the love of his life, Lara, is taken from him. Zhivago ponders how war can turn the whole world senseless, and make an otherwise reasonable group of people destroy each other with no regard for life. His journey through Russia has an in the World Essay epic, dreamlike, almost surreal feeling. He travels through a world which is in such striking contrast to Cruelty of the Passage Essay himself, relatively uncorrupted by Eradicate Poverty violence. His desire to find a place away from it all drives him across the Arctic Siberia of Russia, and The Extreme Middle, eventually back to Moscow. Pasternak subtly criticizes of Soviet ideology: he disagrees with the idea of building a new man, which, he suggests, is against nature. His great love's life is also dealt with in considerable detail. Lara, whose full name is Issues, Larissa Feodorovna Guishar (later Antipova), born into the bourgeoisie, is engaged to Pavel Pasha Antipov, an The Extreme of the Middle Passage idealistic young student who becomes involved in Bolshevism through his father. Lara starts having an affair with Viktor Komarovsky, a powerful lawyer with political connections, who both repulses and attracts her. To gain independence from Komarovsky, Lara spends three years working as a live-in nanny for and Privacy Issues Essay a wealthy family (the Kologrivovs).

Upon returning, Lara's brother begs her to get 700 rubles from The Extreme Passage Essay Komarovsky to repay money that he has gambled away. Lara gets the money from her generous employer, Kologrivov. However, when her pupil Lipa graduates, she feels like she is on charity instead of working for her keep in good narratives the Kologrivov household. She decides that Komarovsky owes her. She attends a party to The Extreme Essay demand the money from Komarovsky. Surveillance And Privacy Essay? But he spends the evening playing cards and pays her no attention. Middle? She finally walks in and attempts to shoot him but misses.[4] Lara and Zhivago have a number of brief encounters before truly meeting.

One of these takes place after Lara's mother attempts suicide and Zhivago gives medical help. Zhivago also sees Lara at the Christmas party where she tries to Essay shoot Komarovsky. Lara and Zhivago have their first real conversation after a roadside encounter between First World War troop columns: a miserable troop of retreating Russian Army deserters and new recruits bound for the hopeless conditions at the Front. Lara has been serving as nurse while searching for her assumed-dead husband Antipov. Lara and Zhivago serve together in a makeshift field hospital and fall in Cruelty of the love. They do not consummate their relationship until much later, meeting in the town of Yuriatin after the war.

Pasha Antipov and Komarovsky continue to play important roles in constructivist vygotsky the story. Pasha is assumed killed in World War I, but is actually captured by the Germans and The Extreme of the Middle Passage Essay, escapes. Pasha Antipov joins the Eradicate Third World Bolsheviks and becomes Strelnikov (the shooter), a fearsome Red Army general who becomes infamous for The Extreme of the executing White prisoners (hence his nickname). However, he is never a true Bolshevik and politics, yearns for the fighting to of the Passage be over so he can return to good narratives Lara. (The film version changes his character significantly, making him a hard-line Bolshevik.) Another major character is Liberius, commander of the Forest Brotherhood, the Red Partisan band which conscripts Yuri into service. The Extreme Cruelty Middle Passage? Liberius is Failure, its Types and Symptoms Essay, a dedicated and heroic revolutionary. But he is of the Middle Passage Essay, also a cocaine addict, loud-mouthed and vain, and constructivist learning theory vygotsky, bores Yuri with his constant lectures about the justice of their cause and the inevitability of The Extreme Cruelty of the Middle their victory. Komarovsky reappears towards the answers end of the story.

He has gained some influence in the Bolshevik government and been appointed minister of justice of the Far Eastern Republic, a Bolshevik puppet state in of the Middle Passage Siberia. He offers Zhivago and Lara transit out of Russia. Politics? They initially refuse. But Komarovsky lies about Cruelty of the Middle Essay Pasha Antipov's death and persuades Zhivago that it is in Lara's best interests to leave; Zhivago convinces Lara to go with Komarovsky, telling her (falsely) that he will follow her shortly. Meanwhile, Antipov/Strelnikov falls from grace, loses his position in close up toothpaste the Red Army, and returns to Varykino, near Yuriatin, where he hopes to find Lara. She, however, has just left with Komarovsky. After having a lengthy conversation with Zhivago, Pasha Antipov commits suicide and is found the next morning by Zhivago. (In the movie Komarovsky tells Zhivago that he was captured 5 miles outside of Cruelty of the Yuriatin and on Poverty in the World the way to his execution he grabbed a pistol from a guard and killed himself.) Zhivago's life and health go downhill after this; he lives with another woman and The Extreme Cruelty of the, has two children with her, plans numerous writing projects but does not finish them, and is increasingly absent-minded, erratic, and unwell.

Lara eventually returns to Russia on the day of Zhivago's funeral. She gets Yevgraf, his half brother, to try to find her daughter but then disappears. During World War II Zhivago's old friends Nika Dudorov and Misha Gordon meet up. One of their discussions revolves around a local laundress named Tanya, a bezprizornaya or parentless child, one of many left by the Civil War, and her resemblance to yahoo answers politics Zhivago. Cruelty? Much later they meet over the first edition of Zhivago's poems.

Other major characters include Tonya Gromeko, Zhivago's wife, and her parents Alexander and Anna, with whom Zhivago lived after he lost his parents as a child. Surveillance And Privacy Issues? Yevgraf (Evgraf) Zhivago, Yuri's younger illegitimate half-brother (son of Passage his father and answers politics, a Mongolian princess), is a mysterious figure who gains power and influence with the Bolsheviks and The Extreme Cruelty of the Essay, helps his brother evade arrest throughout the course of the story. The book is packed full of odd coincidences; characters disappear and reappear seemingly at Surveillance and Privacy Essay, random, encountering each other in the most unlikely places. The Russian Revolution was at its core an Middle Passage ideological struggle, forcing young and old alike to Issues Essay align themselves or risk extermination. Its uncompromising nature put great strain on the ideals of individual thought and choice, represented in Yuri Zhivago's constant attempts to The Extreme Cruelty of the Middle Essay come to terms with the Revolution.

Yuri is the politics ultimate individual, expressing himself through poetry and recognizing beauty in all aspects of life. He is Cruelty of the Middle Essay, frequently overcome by Eradicate Poverty Third World emotion, and is deeply introspective. His affair with Lara was primarily fueled by passion and romanticism. However, he gradually realizes that his commitment to own unique philosophy is rapidly becoming untenable in the face of a crystallizing Soviet ideology. His attempts to exert control over his own individual self end in futility: in one pivotal scene, he wounds and possibly kills several White soldiers despite his best efforts avoid doing so. The taking of lives is a betrayal of The Extreme of the Middle his personal core beliefs, and Yuri is horrified and answers, demoralized by the incident. Ultimately, the revolution's refusal to acknowledge the The Extreme Cruelty Passage fundamental nature of the Eradicate World individual ensured that regardless of which faction Yuri sided with, he would not be able to survive in the new Soviet era as a true individual. (from The Master and Margarita ) Mihail Bulgakov was born in Kiev, Ukraine, the The Extreme Cruelty Middle Passage eldest son of a theology professor at the Kiev Theological Academy. After attending First Kiev High School (1900-09), Bulgakov studied medicine at the Kiev University (1909-16).

From 1916 to 1918 he served as a doctor in front-line and district hospitals. These experiences he described in notes of a young doctor, 'Zapiski yunogo vracha' (1925-26). In 1918-19 Bulgakov worked as a doctor in in the Essay Kiev, and witnessed the The Extreme Cruelty Middle Essay German occupation and then the occupation by the Red Army. During these war years he used a morphine, but with the good narratives helped of his first wife he managed to win the addiction. Cruelty Middle Essay? In 1920 Bulgakov abandoned medicine in favor of a career as a writer. He organized in Vladikavkaz, Caucasus, a 'sub-department of the arts', wrote stories for newspapers. Bulgakov moved in 1921 to Moskow, where he worked for the literary department of the People's Commissariat of answers politics Education, and wrote as a journalist for The Extreme Middle Passage various groups and papers. His largely autobiographical novel BELAYA GVARDIYA (1925, full text 1973, The White Guard) was an in the Third account of the turbulent years between 1914 and 1921 as reflected in the lives of a White family in the Ukraine. Two parts of the book was published in the journal Rossiya , which was closed before the third part could appear. The Extreme Cruelty Middle Passage? Bulgakov abandoned his plans for a trilogy; the proofs of the new ending surfaced in 1987, but the Eradicate in the Third final pages were missing. From 1925 Bulgakov was associated with the Moscow Arts Theatre.

He wrote and staged many plays, which enjoyed great popularity. Bulgakov's criticism of the Soviet system was not swallowed by the authorities. The Heart of the Dog (written in Cruelty Essay 1925), a satire on good narratives Soviet life in the guise of science fiction, was condemned unpublishable. The Extreme Cruelty Middle Passage? In the yahoo politics story 'Pokhozhdenia Chichikova' the protaginist of Cruelty of the Passage Essay Gogol's Dead Souls was dropped in constructivist the middle of the Soviet Russia's New Economic Policy period of 1921-27. The Extreme Of The Middle? 'Diaboliad' (1925) portrayed a poor clerk in a gigantic bureaucracy, where he loses his identity and life. In 1928 Bulgakov had three plays running in three Moscow theatres, Zoya's Apartment , The Crimson Island , and The Days of the Poverty Third World Turbins , dramatized from his novel The White Guard . The Extreme? It brought the author overnight success and became 'a new Seagull ' for the new generation, although it also received hostile reviews for the sympathetic portrayal of Failure, its Types and Symptoms White officers. Paradoxically, The White Guard was one of Stalin's favorite plays. It was banned in 1929, reinstated in The Extreme Middle Passage 1932 but not published until 1955. By 1930s Bulgakov's works were published rarely or not at all - Zoya's Apartment (1926), a play set in constructivist learning theory vygotsky an atelier-bordello, was banned, as The Crimson Island (1928). Flight (1928), dealing with White fugitives leaving Russia, was banned before its premiere.

In 1929 he wrote to of the Essay Maxim Gorky: All my plays have been banned; not a line of mine is being printed anywhere; I have no work ready, and not a kopeck of royalties is coming in from any source; not a single institution, not a single individual will reply to my applications. After writing a letter to Soviet government, requesting permission to emigrate, Bulgakov received a personal telephone call from Stalin and was employed as an assistant producer with the Moscow Arts Theatre. He adapted classics for the stage. During the Eradicate Third Essay late 1930s he was librettist and consultant at Bolshoi Theatre. However, Stalin's favour protected Bulgakov only from arrests and executions, but his writings remained unpublished. In Black Snow, a Theatrical Novel , Bulgakov described his love-hate relationship and Cruelty of the Passage Essay, took a revenge on Stanislavsky for the failure of up toothpaste his play A Cabal of Hypocrites , produced under the title Molière . In one scene Louis XIV, the Sun King, says: Then hear this: my author is oppressed. He is frightened.

I will show kindness to anyone who forewarns me of whatever danger imperils him. The ban is lifted. You may stage Tartuffe . The Last Days was performed first in 1943 under the title Pushkin . Bulgakov's stage version of Gogol's Dead Souls had a modest success. Bulgakov's most important work was The Master and Margarita , a fantasy about the The Extreme Passage Essay Devil, disguised as a professor, who causes havoc in the city. The work was suppressed because Bulgakov refused to make the changes reguired by constructivist the authorities. Although Bulgakov worked still on the text on his death bed, the The Extreme Middle Passage Essay novel was completed.

The first Soviet edition was published in Eradicate Poverty in the World 1966-67, a fuller text appeared in 1973 and the revised full text in The Extreme Cruelty of the 1989. The Master and Margarita (1928-40). Published in installments in 1966 and 1967 in the journal Moskva . The large novel takes place on three levels, each of which provides a commentary on the others. Close? Historical narrative is set in Jerusalem, where Pontius Pilate condemns to death a man, Jeshua, whom he knows to be innocent. Contemporary narrative is set in Moscow, in Passage Essay the 1930s, where the Master and Margarita live and where the good narratives Master has written a novel about Pilate. The third, fantastic level introduces the devil, who steps out of Goethe's Faust.

He appears in Moscow with a retinue that includes an enormous black cat. The devil, Woland, is unconventionally seen as a relatively sympathetic figure, Righteous Man in of the Middle Passage Sodom. Moreover, the character of Jesus, called Yeshua, in not very Biblical. The philosophical and Renal its Types Essay, religious themes and examination of the freedom of art circulate around the intrusion of the devil into the life of Cruelty Passage Essay modern Moscow and the crucifixion of its Types Essay Christ. Interacting and competing discourses from the realms of science, religion, literature, history, and politics, complicate further the narrative. Master burns his manuscript and retires to a madhouse.

Margarita's love for the master drives her to a pact with Satan. However, manuscripts don't burn and Woland defends the existence of Jeshua. Bulgakov composed two versions of the work. The Extreme Cruelty Middle Passage Essay? One was written at Surveillance Essay, home and another, when he did not have the original available, was born while he was living with a mistress. Much of the the satire is of the Essay, aimed at greed, vanity, and pettiness, but is possible to read the book as a tribute to Stalin's policy to cut the bourgeois elements of Soviet society.

After the publication Bulgakov was seen as a link between such writers as Vasilii Aksenov, Andrei Siniavskii, and the Strugatskii brothers, and the great past tradition of Gogol and Dostoevskii. Bulgakov was married three times: with Tatiana Nikolaevna Lappa (1913), Liubov Evgenevna Belozerskaia (1924), and Elena Sergeevna Shilovskaya (1932), who gave invaluable support to the author when he wrote The Master and Margarita and had his fits of and Privacy Issues paranoia. Bulgakov was writing Black Snow , his theatre novel, when he died in Moskow on Cruelty of the Essay March 10, 1940. It took until the 1980s before all Bulgakov's works could be printed in Failure, its Types his own home country. For decades Bulgakov was considered an outsider and the most un-Soviet writer. Supernatural and occult attracted him, and he used sudden cuts into Cruelty Middle Essay the fantastic and mockery. Although he was subjected to a number of Eradicate Poverty restrictions as a writer, he survived attacks from the officials, when others were imprisoned and perished in the 'Gulag Archipelago'.

During her high school years, she was eyewitness to both the Kerensky Revolution, which she supported, andin 1917the Bolshevik Revolution, which she denounced from the outset. In order to escape the fighting, her family went to the Crimea, where she finished high school. The Extreme Of The Middle? The final Communist victory brought the Surveillance Issues confiscation of her father's pharmacy and periods of near-starvation. The Extreme Of The Middle Passage? When introduced to American history in her last year of high school, she immediately took America as her model of what a nation of free men could be. When her family returned from the Crimea, she entered the University of Petrograd to study philosophy and history. World Essay? Graduating in 1924, she experienced the disintegration of free inquiry and the takeover of the university by communist thugs. Amidst the The Extreme Middle Passage increasingly gray life, her greatest pleasures were Viennese operettas and Western films and plays. Long an admirer of cinema, she entered the State Institute for Eradicate World Essay Cinema Arts in 1924 to study screenwriting. It was at The Extreme Cruelty of the Middle Passage, this time that she was first published: a booklet on actress Pola Negri (1925) and a booklet titled “Hollywood: American Movie City” (1926), both reprinted in Eradicate Poverty Third Essay 1999 in Cruelty of the Middle Russian Writings on Hollywood. In late 1925 she obtained permission to yahoo answers politics leave Soviet Russia for a visit to relatives in the United States.

Although she told Soviet authorities that her visit would be short, she was determined never to return to Russia. She arrived in New York City in February 1926. She spent the next six months with her relatives in Chicago, obtained an extension to her visa, and then left for Hollywood to pursue a career as a screenwriter. On Ayn Rand’s second day in Hollywood, Cecil B. DeMille saw her standing at the gate of his studio, offered her a ride to the set of The Extreme Cruelty of the Middle Essay his movie The King of Kings, and gave her a job, first as an extra, then as a script reader. During the next week at the studio, she met an actor, Frank O’Connor, whom she married in 1929; they were married until his death fifty years later. After struggling for several years at various nonwriting jobs, including one in the wardrobe department at the RKO Radio Pictures, Inc., she sold her first screenplay, “Red Pawn,” to Universal Pictures in 1932 and saw her first stage play, Night of January 16th, produced in Hollywood and then on Broadway. Her first novel, We the Living, was completed in 1934 but was rejected by numerous publishers, until The Macmillan Company in the United States and Cassells and Company in England published the book in good narratives 1936.

The most autobiographical of The Extreme Cruelty Passage her novels, it was based on her years under Soviet tyranny. She began writing The Fountainhead in 1935 (taking a short break in 1937 to write the anti-collectivist novelette Anthem). In the character of the architect Howard Roark, she presented for the first time the kind of hero whose depiction was the chief goal of her writing: the good narratives ideal man, man as “he could be and ought to be.” The Fountainhead was rejected by twelve publishers but finally accepted by the Bobbs-Merrill Company. When published in 1943, it made history by The Extreme Cruelty Passage becoming a best-seller through word of mouth two years later, and gained for its author lasting recognition as a champion of individualism. Ayn Rand returned to Hollywood in late 1943 to write the close screenplay for The Fountainhead, but wartime restrictions delayed production until 1948. Working part time as a screenwriter for Hal Wallis Productions, she began her major novel Atlas Shrugged, in The Extreme Cruelty 1946. In 1951 she moved back to New York City and devoted herself full time to the completion of Eradicate Poverty Third World Essay Atlas Shrugged. Published in 1957, Atlas Shrugged was her greatest achievement and last work of fiction. The Extreme Of The Essay? In this novel she dramatized her unique philosophy in an intellectual mystery story that integrated ethics, metaphysics, epistemology, politics, economics and sex. Although she considered herself primarily a fiction writer, she realized that in order to constructivist create heroic fictional characters, she had to identify the philosophic principles which make such individuals possible.

Thereafter, Ayn Rand wrote and lectured on her philosophyObjectivism, which she characterized as “a philosophy for living on earth. She published and edited her own periodicals from 1962 to 1976, her essays providing much of the material for six books on Objectivism and The Extreme Cruelty, its application to the culture. Good Narratives? Ayn Rand died on March 6, 1982, in her New York City apartment. Every book by The Extreme Cruelty of the Middle Essay Ayn Rand published in her lifetime is yahoo, still in Cruelty Passage print, and hundreds of thousands of copies are sold each year, so far totaling more than 25 million. Several new volumes have been published posthumously. Her vision of man and her philosophy for living on earth have changed the lives of thousands of readers and launched a philosophic movement with a growing impact on American culture. Everything is Illuminated was Foer's first novel published in 2002 when he was in theory vygotsky his twenties and so it was considered a work of precocious genius. It chronicles a young, Jewish-American writer's attempt to research his grandfather's life in Ukraine.

Jonathan, who has the same name as the book's author, is attempting to find his grandfather's shtetl, Trachimbrod. Of The Passage? He has only constructivist learning vygotsky, a few maps and a photograph of a woman named Augustine, who is said to have saved his grandfather from the Nazis. The Extreme Of The Middle Passage Essay? Jonathan's guide on his trip is Alex, a young Ukrainian man. They are both twenty-one. Their driver is Alex's grandfather, who claims to Poverty World Essay be blind. Of The Passage? Accompanying the men is Grandfather's seeing-eye dog Sammy Davis Junior, Junior. Poverty Third Essay? The novel is comprised by three basic narratives: chapters written by Jonathan, chapters written by Cruelty Middle Essay Alex, and letters from Alex to up toothpaste Jonathan. Chapters written by Jonathan describe different events in his family's history in Trachimbrod. Chapters written by Alex describe Jonathan's present trip. Cruelty Passage? Letters from Alex to Jonathan reveal the two characters' growing relationship as writers and yahoo politics, friends.

This book has Safran Foer's unique postmodern style, distorting language to fit narrators even if it means ESL grammar, typographical innovations, and The Extreme of the Middle, non-linear sequencing. Although unconfirmed by Foer, it is good narratives, speculated that the title of the book is an The Extreme Essay inspiration from a line in the novel The Unbearable Lightness of Being by Milan Kundera: 'In the sunset of good narratives dissolution, everything is illuminated by the aura of nostalgia.' Erich Maria Remarque was born in Osnabrück, Lower Saxony, into modest circumstances. His ancestors were French, the family name was 'Germanized' early in the nineteeth century. The Extreme Of The Passage Essay? Peter Franz Remark, Remarque's father, was a poorly paid bookbinder. Although Franz Remark did not show much interest in intellectual activities, except his interest in the occult, the family had a piano, and at one point in Poverty Essay his life Remarque planned a musical career. The Extreme Cruelty Passage? In 1904, at the age of six, Remarque entered the Domschule (cathedral school), and four years later he moved to the Johannisschle.

Remarque was always the best in class, as one of his closest school friends later recalled. For a time Remarque studied at the University of Münster, but had to politics enlist in the German army at the age of 18. Remarque fought on the Western Front and was wounded several times. After his discharge Remarque had taken a teacher's course offered to Cruelty Passage Essay veterans by the government. Renal And Symptoms? He taught for a year in a school, and tried also his hand as a stonecutter and of the Essay, a test-cardriver for a Berlin tire company.

Remarque began his writing career as a sporting journalist, eventually becoming the assistant editor of Sportbild . Among his friends was Leni Riefenstahl, who later made the Nazi propaganda film Triumph of the Will (1935), and answers, the two-part Olympia (1938), about the 1936 Berlin Olympic Games. Remarque's wife, Jutta Zambona, tall, slender as a fashion model, and strikingly dressed, as Riefenstahl described Jutta in her book of Cruelty Middle Passage memoir later inspired heroines in close his books. Cruelty Passage Essay? The marriage was stormy, and they both had extra-marital activities. His longest, intercontinental affair Remarque had with Marlene Dietrich; they met first time in Venice in the late 1930s. Fame came with Remarque's first novel, All Quiet on the Westerns Front, which touched a nerve of the time, and sparkled off a storm of political controversy. The book, which first had been rejected by one publisher, sold 1.2 million copies in its first year. H.L. Mencken called it unquestionably the best story of the World War. Surveillance And Privacy Essay? Its sequel, DER WEG ZURÜCK ( The Way Back ), appeared in 1931. It dealt with the collapse of the German Army after the war, and the fate of the surviving heroes, Ernst and his friends. All Quiet on the Western Front is the most famous novel dealing with World War I. The book starts in The Extreme of the Middle Essay 1917 after a battle, in which half of Paul Bäumer's company has been killed.

Bäumer is mostly the narrator and Remarque goes through his life in flashbacks. Paul and his classmates have been encouraged by and Privacy their teacher, Kantorek, to The Extreme Cruelty Essay enlist the German army. Bäumer's group includes some school fellows, and Katczinsky, an older man. The group goes through basic training and go to the front. Bäumer tries to understand what is going on. Good Narratives? He realizes that back home no one had the The Extreme Cruelty Passage Essay vaguest idea what we were in for. The wisest were just the poor and simple people.

They knew the and Privacy Essay war to be a misfortune, whereas those who were better off, and should have been able to see more clearly what the consequences would be, were beside themselves with joy. The Extreme Cruelty Middle Passage Essay? Paul visits home on leave, returns to and Privacy Essay the trenches, is wounded and sent to The Extreme Passage a military hospital. In the constructivist learning vygotsky summer of 1918 German front is pushed back, and the soldiers are waiting for the end of the war. In October, when there is nothing much to report on the western front, Paul is killed, a week or so before the armistice. Cruelty Of The Middle Essay? - The story is narrated in first person in a cool style, a contrast to patriotic rhetoric. Remarque records the daily horrors in the trenches, where machine guns killed millions, in laconic understatement. - At the next war let all the Kaisers, Presidents and Generals and diplomats go into a big field and fight it out first among themselves. That will satisfy us and keep us home. (Katzinsky) Lewis Milestone's film (1930), based on the novel, is a landmark of American cinema.

One of the best scenes is when Paul (Lew Ayres) returns to his school and tells new students the truth. Learning? When it comes to The Extreme Passage Essay dying for your country, it's better not to die at all. The film was denounced by Goebbels as anti-German, but the Poles banned it for being pro-German. Particularly effective were the answers tracking shots of soldiers attacking enemy lines. The Extreme Of The Middle Passage Essay? In France it was prohibited until 1962. Constructivist? The close-up of Paul's hand reaching for the butterfly at the end, is actually the hand of the director Milestone. - A sequel, The Road Back , was made in 1937. With All Quiet on the Western Front Remarque became a spokesman of a generation that was destroyed by war, even though it might have escaped its shells, as he said himself.

The German defeat inspired two major war films of the year 1930 - G.W. Pabst's Westfront 1918 , adapted from a novel by Ernest Johannsen and Lewis Milestone's film based on Remarque's novel. Milestone was unhappy with the original script - he saw it changed the point of the book, and he hired his friend Del Andrews and George Abbott, a stage director, the shape the final script. Of The Middle Essay? The producer Carl Laemmle Junior and Milestone both hated the up toothpaste original ending of the book, in which Paul Baumer dies heroically. The Extreme Cruelty Of The Passage? Karl Freund, the cameraman, put forward the idea of the hand stretching out toward the butterfly. In the 1930s Remarque's books were banned in Germany by yahoo answers politics the government.

All Quiet on the Western Front and The Road Back were among the works consigned to be publicly burnt in 1933 by the Nazis. Stores were ordered to stop selling his books. The Extreme Of The Essay? The film's premiere was disrupted by yahoo politics Nazi gangs; Remarque was accused of pacifism. Of The Passage? It was not until the 1950s the film was shown again in Renal Failure, its Types West Germany. In 1938 Remarque lost his citizenship. He had moved to Switzerland in 1932 and in 1939 he emigrated to the United States, where in 1947 he became a citizen. In New York he spent much time at the Stork Club and at 21. In Hollywood he made friends with stars, including the The Extreme Cruelty of the Middle actress Paulette Goddard (1911-1990), whom he married in 1958. Remarque had been married twice before, and to the same woman, Jutta Ilse Ingeborg Ellen Zambona, in 1925 and good narratives, again in 1938. After the Middle Essay war Remarque settled eventually back in Switzerland, where he made his residence at Porto Ronco on the Seiss shore of Lake Maggiore.

His play, DIE LETZTE STATION, about the fall of the Third Reich, was produced in Berlin in 1956. Surveillance And Privacy Essay? Remarque died at The Extreme Cruelty Essay, the Sant Agnese clinic at yahoo answers, Locarno, on September 25, 1970. The Extreme Of The Middle Passage? He had suffered for months from aneurysm. If things went according to the death notices, man would be absolutely perfect. There you find only first-class fathers, immaculate husbands, model children, unselfish, self-sacrificing mothers, grandparents mourned by all, businessmen in contrast with whom Francis of Assisi would seem an infinite egoist, generals dripping with kindness, humane prosecuting attorneys, almost holy munitions makers - in short, the earth seems to have been populated by Renal Failure, Essay a horde of wingless angels without one's having been aware of it. (from The Black Obelisk , 1956) Remarque's later works, depicting the political upheavals of Europe from the 1920s to The Extreme Middle the cold war, did not achieve the critical acclaim of his first novel. Yahoo Answers? However, his skill to create interesting characters, fascinating plots, and balancing between realistic and sentimental scenes made him a highly popular writer.

DREI KAMERADEN (1937) received good reviews and was made into a film in 1938, directed by Frank Borzage. The screenplay was written by Edward A. Paramore and F. Scott Fitzgerald, who was determined to do a good job. Fitzgerald kept completely sober, for of the Essay a while. However, his contract with M-G-M was not renewed. The final scene in which the answers politics two friends of the Cruelty story are joined by their ghostly comrade, has still a strong emotional charge.

Several of Remarque's later novels dealt with people struggling under Nazi rule. Learning Theory Vygotsky? Arch of Triumph (1946) told a story about a German refugee physician and an actress. The Extreme Of The Middle Passage? The work was adapted into screen in 1947, starring Charles Boyer and Ingrid Bergman. Remarque himself played the schoolmaster Pohlmann in good narratives A Time to Love and a Time to Die (1958), based on his novel ZEIT ZU LEBEN UND ZEIT ZU STERBEN (1954). In the Cruelty Middle Passage story a German soldier, Ernst Graeber, on furlough from the Russian front, falls in love with his childhood friend, Elisabeth. But he must return to the trenches.

The German edition was censored for good narratives its unnational passages. Douglas Sirk's film version, beautifully photographed in CinemaScope, ends dramatically in Graeber's death. Italian-Jewish writer and chemist, who first gained fame with his autobiographical story SE QUESTO È UN UOMO (1947, If This is Middle Passage, a Man) of survival in Nazi concentration camps. Eradicate Third World? For the Cruelty of the Essay last forty years of his life Levi devoted himself to attempting to deal with the good narratives fact that he was not killed in Auschwitz. The worst survived, that is, the fittest; the best all died, he said. Levi also published poetry, science fiction, essays, and short stories. In 1987, at the age of 67, he killed himself. Italo Calvino called Levi one of the most important and gifted writers of our time. Consider whether this is a man,

Who labours in the mud. Who knows no peace. Who fights for a crust of The Extreme Cruelty of the Passage bread. Who dies at a yes or a no. Consider whether this is a woman, Without hair or name.

With no more strength to remember. Eyes empty and womb cold. As a frog in winter. Primo Levi was born in Turin into a Jewish middle-class family, the Surveillance and Privacy son of Cesare Levi, an engineer, and Ester Rina Luzzati; she had been his secretary. Cruelty Of The Middle Passage? His grandmother Bimba was a baroness.

She and her entire family had been made barons by Napoleon, because they had supported him economically. As a youth Levi knew very little about Issues Jewishness, but Mussolini's anti-Semitic policy soon taught Levi that it was not ''a cheerful little anomaly'' in a Catholic country. An underdeveloped, quiet boy, Levi was derided at school for his size. Through cycling and of the Middle Passage Essay, mountain climbing he acquired friends, but according to a biography he did not have any sexual experience before meeting his wife, Lucia, in 1946. Just before the Fascist racial law of 1938 forbade Jews access to academic status, Levi started his chemistry studies at yahoo answers, the University of Turin. He graduated first in his class in 1941, the year after Italy had entered World War II as an ally of Germany.

During the war Levi wrote for the resistance magazine Giustizia e Libertà . After the collapse of Mussolini's regime, he tried to contact a partisan group in the north of Italy. Levi was captured in The Extreme Cruelty December 1943. I was twenty-four, Levi wrote in If This Is a Man , with little wisdom, no experience and a decided tendency . to live in an unrealistic world of my own, a world inhabited by Renal Failure, its Types civilized Cartesian phantoms, by sincere male and bloodless female friendships. The Extreme Cruelty Middle? He was first interned in and Symptoms Essay a transit camp in Fòssoli, and then, two months later, deported to the camp of Moniwitz-Auschwitz. The number 174517 was tattooed on his left forearm. From the railroad convoy of 650 people, fifteen men and nine women survived. Levi worked at one of Cruelty of the Passage three I.G. Farben laboratories and politics, was spared the gas chambers.

The company made synthetic rubber for the Nazi war machine. As a chemist he knew he could safely eat cotton wool and drink paraffin. A non-Jewish guest worker secretly gave him extra helpings of soup. To his friend Jean Samuel he taught Italian by quoting Dante; eating and translating Dante were both keys to survival. Dante remained a constant point of reference throughout Levi's writing. Middle Essay? From the constructivist learning vygotsky Ulysses episode of Inferno he chose a passage, which dealt with the The Extreme Middle crucial question What is a man? Levi's superior in the laboratory, Dr. Ferdinand Mayer, gave him a pair of leather shoes. Liberated by the Soviets in good narratives January 1945, Levi returned to Turin in October. He took up his work as a chemist, living in a stately old building that his family had occupied for The Extreme Cruelty three generations. In 1961 Levi became the general manager of a factory producing paints.

He retired in 1977 to become a full-time writer. With Hety Schmitt-Maas, whose husband had been a chemist for I.G. Farben, Levi corresponded almost 20 years. She also helped Levi to track down Dr. Close? Meyer and Cruelty of the Middle Passage Essay, sent him German books and newspaper clippings on Nazism.

His prison recollections Levi wrote in Eradicate the form of Cruelty of the Passage a memoir, Se questo è un uomo , which documented how the camp deprived prisoners of their identity and finally annihilated them. When the yahoo answers major publisher Einaudi rejected the work, it was published by a small house. Ten years later it was reprinted in an enlarged edition. In Italy the book sold over half a million copies, was translated into eight languages and adapted for the theater and Cruelty Middle, radio. Part of the book's impact was based on Levi's sober and precise style. In spite of the brutality to which he was subjected Levi described the terrible events objectively like an observing scientist, but also noted with compassion the heroism in Failure, its Types and Symptoms the suffering. Its sequel, LA TREGUA (1963), portrayed Levi's wanderings in war-torn eastern Europe in Poland, Belorussia, the The Extreme Cruelty Soviet Union, Hungary, and Romania. During the journey Levi meets a gallery of close colorful, rootless companions in misfortune, among them Mordo Nahum, a Greek, from whom Levi learns that in war you must first think of shoes, then the The Extreme of the Passage Essay food. Without shoes you can't go after food. Levi returns home on the last pages of his account, but he has a continual nightmare in which his present life turns out to be a mere illusion and he wakes up with Auschwitz's morning call: Wstawac.

But Levi also uses his experiences as a basis for philosophical meditations, which connects the Surveillance book to Jorge Semprún's L'écriture ou la vie (1994, Literature or Life), dealing with the return to life after the camp. It is The Extreme, not at all an idle matter trying to close define what a human being is. LA CHIAVE A STELLA (1978, The Monkey's Wrench) presented vivid stories told by The Extreme Essay Libertini Faussone, a construction worker and self-educated philosopher. The writer-chemist listens to learning vygotsky him, and records his experiences in different parts of the world. The Extreme Middle Essay? All kids dream of Renal its Types Essay going into the jungle or the desert of Malaya, and I also had those dreams, only I like to have my dreams come true; otherwise they're like some disease you carry around with you all your life, or like the scar of an operation that, whenever the weather turns damp, it starts aching again. Among Levi's other works is IL SISTEMA PERIODICO (The Periodic Table, 1975), which uses the Russian chemist Mendeleyev's periodical table of elements as the basis of autobiographical meditations. Its 21 pieces are each named after a chemical element. Every element brings a kind of 'click' for Middle Passage Essay me, Levi wrote.

It triggers a memory. 'Argon' is a homage to close the author's Jewish ancestors. 'Vanadium' represents Levi's uncanny encounter with a former official in Cruelty of the Auschwitz, Dr. Yahoo Answers Politics? Müller, who was the chief of the laboratory, and 'Zinc', a boring metal, explorers the fascist myth of racial purity. SE NON ORA, QUANDO? (1989, If Not Now, When?) combined the emergence of Jewish consciousness and documentation of action taken on the Russian front by partisan Jewish groups against retreating Nazi forces. A group of Jewish partisans moves toward Palestine, blows up trains, and rescues victims of concentration camps. Two years before the war began, the bell rope broke. It snapped near the top; the stairs were rotten; the bell ringer was an old man, and he was afraid to climb up there and put in a new rope. So after he announced the time by shooting a hunting rifle into the air; one shot, or two or three or four, That went on of the Middle Passage till the Germans came. They took his gun away from good narratives him, and the village was left without any time. The Extreme Middle? (from If Not Now, When? ) Levi died in Turin on April 11, 1987. His death was apparently a suicide - Levi hurled himself down the central stairwell of his home building. Before and after Auschwitz Levi had suffered from depression, but his death was interpreted as a sign that he had not triumphed over his horrible experiences.

In a lecture in 1979 Levi had expressed his deeply pessimistic view of humanity, seeing life as terrible. The last work he completed was the essay collection I SOMMERSI E I SALVATI (1986), where Levi returned to his belief in the historical uniqueness of the Holocaust. He asked how much of the close up toothpaste camp is The Extreme of the, alive and well in our time, and how long it will remain in our memories. Levi points out that anti-Semitism was part of German culture, not merely a Nazi invention, and sees a paradoxical analogy between victim and oppressor. In the camp system also the Poverty World Essay oppressed unconsciously strove to identify with their oppressor. Useless violence dehumanises both guards and prisoners. Before dying the victim must be degraded, so that the of the Middle murderer will be less burdened by guilt, he stated.

Elie Wiesel's statement, . to remain silent and Renal Essay, indifferent is the greatest sin of Cruelty of the Middle all. stands as a succinct summary of his views on Renal its Types and Symptoms Essay life and serves as the driving force of his work. Wiesel is the author of The Extreme Passage Essay 36 works dealing with Judaism, the Holocaust, and the moral responsibility of all people to fight hatred, racism and answers politics, genocide. Born September 30, 1928, Eliezer Wiesel led a life representative of many Jewish children. Growing up in a small village in Romania, his world revolved around family, religious study, community and God. Yet his family, community and his innocent faith were destroyed upon the deportation of his village in 1944. Arguably the most powerful and renowned passage in Holocaust literature, his first book, Night , records the inclusive experience of the Jews: Never shall I forget that night, the first night in camp, which has turned my life into one long night, seven times cursed and seven times sealed.

Never shall I forget that smoke. Of The Middle? Never shall I forget the little faces of the children, whose bodies I saw turned into wreaths of smoke beneath a silent blue sky. Never shall I forget those flames which consumed my faith forever. Never shall I forget that nocturnal silence which deprived me, for all eternity, of the desire to live. Never shall I forget those moments which murdered my God and my soul and turned my dreams to dust. Never shall I forget these things, even if I am condemned to live as long as God Himself. Never. And Wiesel has since dedicated his life to ensuring that none of us forget what happened to the Jews. Wiesel survived Auschwitz, Buna, Buchenwald and Gleiwitz. After the liberation of the camps in April 1945, Wiesel spent a few years in a French orphanage and in 1948 began to study in Paris at the Sorbonne.

He became involved in journalistic work with the French newspaper L'arche . He was acquainted with Nobel laureate Francois Mauriac, who eventually influenced Wiesel to break his vowed silence and write of his experience in up toothpaste the concentration camps, thus beginning a lifetime of service. Wiesel has since published over thirty books, earned the Nobel Peace Prize, been appointed to Cruelty chair the President's Commission on the Holocaust, awarded the Congressional Gold Medal of Achievement and more. Due to a fateful car accident in New York in 1956, Wiesel spent a year confined to answers a wheelchair while recovering. It was during this year that he made the decision to become a U.S. citizen and is still today an active figure within our society, as well as fulfilling his role in Cruelty Middle Essay Jewish politics around the world. Wiesel's job as chairman of the President's Commission on Issues Essay the Holocaust was the planning of an of the Middle American memorial to close up toothpaste the victims of the Holocaust. The Report to the President on the President's Commission on the Holocaust focuses on memory. Wiesel writes that the reason for creating the museum must include; denying the Nazi's a posthumous victory, honoring the last wish of victims to tell, and protecting the future of humanity from such evil recurring. Always maintaining his dedicated belief that although all the victims of the Holocaust were not Jewish, all Jews were victims of the Holocaust, Wiesel advocated placing the major emphasis of the memorial on the annihilation of the Jews, while still remembering the murder of other groups. Guided by the unique nature of the Holocaust and the moral obligation to remember, the Commission decided to Cruelty Middle Passage divide and emphasize the good narratives museum into areas of The Extreme Cruelty of the Passage memorial, museum, education, research, commemoration and action to prevent recurrence. In order to come to these decisions, a group of 57 members of the Poverty in the Third Essay Commission and Advisory Board -- including Senators, Rabbis, Christians, professors, judges, Congressmen, Priests, Jews, men and Cruelty of the Passage Essay, women -- traveled to answers Eastern Europe, Denmark and Israel to study Holocaust memorials and of the, cemeteries and to meet with other public officials. The emotional pain and commitment required by such a trip is remarkable, and Wiesel's leadership is undeniably noteworthy.

Elie Wiesel's statement, . to remain silent and indifferent is the greatest sin of all. stands as a succinct summary of his views on life and serves as the driving force of his work. Wiesel is the author of Failure, and Symptoms 36 works dealing with Judaism, the Cruelty Middle Holocaust, and the moral responsibility of all people to fight hatred, racism and genocide. Born September 30, 1928, Eliezer Wiesel led a life representative of good narratives many Jewish children. Growing up in a small village in Romania, his world revolved around family, religious study, community and God. Yet his family, community and of the Middle Essay, his innocent faith were destroyed upon the deportation of close his village in 1944. Arguably the most powerful and The Extreme of the Middle Passage Essay, renowned passage in Holocaust literature, his first book, Night , records the inclusive experience of the and Privacy Jews: Never shall I forget that night, the The Extreme Cruelty of the Middle Passage Essay first night in Renal Failure, its Types Essay camp, which has turned my life into one long night, seven times cursed and seven times sealed. Never shall I forget that smoke. Never shall I forget the The Extreme Cruelty of the Passage little faces of the close children, whose bodies I saw turned into wreaths of smoke beneath a silent blue sky.

Never shall I forget those flames which consumed my faith forever. Never shall I forget that nocturnal silence which deprived me, for The Extreme all eternity, of the yahoo politics desire to live. Never shall I forget those moments which murdered my God and my soul and The Extreme Cruelty of the Essay, turned my dreams to Essay dust. Never shall I forget these things, even if I am condemned to live as long as God Himself. Never. And Wiesel has since dedicated his life to ensuring that none of us forget what happened to the Jews.

Wiesel survived Auschwitz, Buna, Buchenwald and Gleiwitz. After the liberation of the camps in April 1945, Wiesel spent a few years in a French orphanage and in 1948 began to study in The Extreme Cruelty of the Middle Passage Essay Paris at the Sorbonne. He became involved in journalistic work with the French newspaper L'arche . He was acquainted with Nobel laureate Francois Mauriac, who eventually influenced Wiesel to break his vowed silence and write of his experience in the concentration camps, thus beginning a lifetime of service. Wiesel has since published over thirty books, earned the Nobel Peace Prize, been appointed to chair the President's Commission on the Holocaust, awarded the Congressional Gold Medal of Achievement and more. Due to a fateful car accident in New York in 1956, Wiesel spent a year confined to good narratives a wheelchair while recovering. It as during this year that he made the decision to become a U.S. citizen and is still today an active figure within our society, as well as fulfilling his role in Passage Jewish politics around the world. Wiesel's job as chairman of the President's Commission on the Holocaust was the planning of an and Privacy Issues American memorial to the victims of the Holocaust. The Report to the President on the President's Commission on the Holocaust focuses on memory. Wiesel writes that the reason for creating the museum must include; denying the of the Middle Essay Nazi's a posthumous victory, honoring the last wish of yahoo victims to tell, and protecting the future of humanity from The Extreme Cruelty of the Middle such evil recurring. Always maintaining his dedicated belief that although all the victims of the Holocaust were not Jewish, all Jews were victims of the Holocaust, Wiesel advocated placing the major emphasis of the memorial on the annihilation of the Jews, while still remembering the murder of constructivist learning theory vygotsky other groups. Guided by the unique nature of the Holocaust and the moral obligation to Cruelty Passage remember, the Commission decided to divide and emphasize the museum into areas of memorial, museum, education, research, commemoration and action to prevent recurrence.

In order to come to these decisions, a group of 57 members of the Commission and Advisory Board -- including Senators, Rabbis, Christians, professors, judges, Congressmen, Priests, Jews, men and Surveillance and Privacy Essay, women -- traveled to Eastern Europe, Denmark and Israel to study Holocaust memorials and cemeteries and to meet with other public officials. The emotional pain and Cruelty Middle, commitment required by such a trip is remarkable, and Wiesel's leadership is undeniably noteworthy. Wiesel remained chairman of the Committee until 1986. He has aided in good narratives the recognition and of the Middle Essay, remembrance of Soviet Jews, the establishment of Israel and has dedicated the latter part of his life to the witness of the Eradicate Poverty in the Third World second-generation and the vital requirement that memory and action be carried on The Extreme Cruelty Essay after the survivors have all left us. Wiesel's own words are the best explanation: The German Mujahid by Boualem Sansal is also part of this cluster as well as the Islamic one. Good Narratives? It's common knowledge that, at the end of WWII, many German war criminals fled from The Extreme of the Middle Essay justice via ratlines to South American countries. Less notorious, though, are the Surveillance and Privacy Essay Nazis who, like the title character of Cruelty of the Passage Essay Algerian novelist Boualem Sansal's excoriating new novel found permanent refuge in Arab countries such as Egypt, Syria and Algeria. Inspired by close up toothpaste a visit to of the Passage Essay a European-style Algerian village whose mayor was a former SS officer, and by what he views as the Arab world's erasure of the Holocaust, Sansal has written a bracingly unsentimental, ingeniously structured story that not only lays bare past collusions between German fascists and Arab governments, but draws explicit parallels between Nazism and the rise of Islamic fundamentalism, all the while grappling with the emotive question: are we responsible for the crimes of our fathers, of our brothers, of our children? Malrich's own diary with its pitch-perfect voicestreetsmart, bemused, loyal and lovableis interspersed with excerpts from his brother's diary, whose entries are at first measured and reflective, but become increasingly traumatized and desperate as Rachel is good narratives, eaten up by guilt, rage and Cruelty of the, an obsessive need to absorb every last detail of the agonies experienced by prisoners in the camps.

Retracing the steps of his father's ghastly career, Rachel travels back through time, to Germany, Austria, Poland, Turkey, and Egypt. It is while at Auschwitz and Birkenau that he decides he will kill himself, for my father, for his victims, I will pay in full. As Malrich attempts to somehow come to up toothpaste terms with what has happened to him and learn about the Holocaustwhich, he admits, he didn't know anything aboutI'd heard bits and pieces, things the imam said about the Jews and Cruelty of the Middle Essay, other stuff I'd picked up here and therehe resolves that where my father and Rachel had failed, I had to good narratives survive. But both brothers' lives are inescapably determined by their father's actions. Rachel literally turns himself into a concentration camp victim, growing more emaciated and Cruelty Passage, haunted until, head shaved and wearing striped pyjamas, he gasses himself on the anniversary of his father's death, the day Hans Schiller finally eluded the justice of yahoo politics men. Malrich, on the other hand, directs his shame outward to Passage save his beloved Sensitive Urban Area, Category 1 housing project, which has slowly but surely been taken over by Islamists who are creating a concentration camp, with an atmosphere of all conquering Islam. Telling his friends that we're going to live, we're going to fight, Malrich considers it his legacy and his duty to first declare war on the Nazi jihadist fuckers, and then to tell the truth, all over in the Essay the world.

Sansal's own compulsion to tell the truth all over the world is The Extreme of the Middle Passage Essay, hampered, sadly, by the reality that although The German Mujahid has won plaudits in France including the RTL-Lire Prize, has been translated into German and Hebrew, and is being published in separate American and British editions, not only are there no plans to good narratives translate it into Arabic, but Sansal's work is banned in Algeria. The author, who refers to himself as secular in every bone in my body, had published several novels that sold well in Cruelty of the his home country, having turned to writing after retiring from his job as Director of the Algerian Ministry for Surveillance and Privacy Issues Essay Industry. But with the The Extreme Cruelty Middle Essay publication in and Privacy Essay 2006 of Poste restante: Alger. Lettre de colere et d'espoir a mes compatriots an open letter to The Extreme of the Middle Passage his fellow citizens decrying the Nationalist-Islamist regime, which he says is teaching young Algerians an edited version of historyall of his books were removed from shelves. Aue’s story begins with the entry of the German Army into good narratives Ukraine in 1941 and ends with the fall of Berlin in 1945. The intervening stations are among the most horrific the war offered, from the massacre at Babi Yar to Stalingrad to Belzec and Auschwitz. The Extreme Essay? Aue notes early on that what follows is “a bleak story, but an edifying one too, a real morality play.” For it to be edifying, however, Aue must be something other than what’s expected. While he may witness and commit acts few would hesitate to call evil, his evil is far from banal and in no way corresponds to a stereotype. Yahoo? Aue is neither a blinkered lackey nor a bloodthirsty sadist. On the contrary, he is independent-minded, sensitive, and Middle Essay, articulate.

He does not believe Nazi propaganda concerning Jews, gypsies, homosexuals, or foreigners (he is himself bisexual and half-French). Nevertheless, he is at the tip of the spearin the SS. The result for the reader is a thought experiment of a special sort. We are inclined to declare that killers are not my human brothers. It’s much more difficult to see that evil is made up of the same stuff as good. In The Gulag Archipelago , Solzhenitsyn remarked that “the line separating good and evil passes not through states, nor between classes, nor between political parties eitherbut right through every human heart.” Aue makes a similar case, stressing that not only psychopaths made the Holocaust possible. There were indeed such tortured and torturing souls, but they were a tiny minority, just as they were in Rwanda, Bosnia, Chechnya, and the other places Littell has spent time working for aid organizations.

Some surely loved violence and craved blood; some suffered from madnesses we may be unable to understand. But there were also thosethe vast majoritywhose positions we can all too easily imagine. Close? “There are psychopaths everywhere, all the of the Middle Passage time,” Aue says. “Our quiet suburbs are crawling with pedophiles and maniacs, our homeless shelters are packed with raving megalomaniacs; and some of them do indeed become a problem, they kill two, three, ten, even fifty peopleand then the yahoo answers politics very same State that would without batting an eye send them to war crushes them like a blood-swollen mosquito. The Extreme Of The Middle Passage? These sick men are nothing. But the ordinary men that make up the Stateespecially in unstable timesnow there’s the Eradicate in the World Essay real danger. The Extreme Cruelty Middle Passage Essay? The real danger for mankind is good narratives, me, is you. Most of The Extreme Cruelty classical Holocaust literature is written in a graceful, realistic, minimal style. Up Toothpaste? What happens when the language were Gothic, over-the-top, satirical, funny, and exaggerated like Foer's book? What does language do to the tragedy of these events? How do authors like Littell and Sansal capture the voice of the other? What do you think of The Extreme Cruelty of the Passage evil and learning theory, good? Gao Xingjian, born January 4, 1940 in Ganzhou (Jiangxi province) in eastern China, is today a French citizen.

Writer of prose, translator, dramatist, director, critic and artist. Gao Xingjian grew up during the aftermath of the of the Middle Essay Japanese invasion, his father was a bank official and his mother an amateur actress who stimulated the young Gao's interest in Poverty in the Third World the theatre and writing. He received his basic education in the schools of the People's Republic and took a degree in French in Cruelty 1962 at Eradicate Poverty in the Third Essay, the Department of Foreign Languages in Beijing. During the Cultural Revolution (1966-76) he was sent to a re-education camp and felt it necessary to The Extreme Cruelty Middle burn a suitcase full of constructivist theory vygotsky manuscripts. Not until 1979 could he publish his work and travel abroad, to France and Italy. During the period 1980-87 he published short stories, essays and dramas in literary magazines in China and also four books: Premier essai sur les techniques du roman moderne / A Preliminary Discussion of the Art of Modern Fiction (1981) which gave rise to a violent polemic on modernism, the narrative A Pigeon Called Red Beak (1985), Collected Plays (1985) and In Search of a Modern Form of Cruelty Essay Dramatic Representation (1987). Several of his experimental and pioneering plays - inspired in part by Brecht, Artaud and Beckett- were produced at the Theatre of Popular Art in Beijing: his theatrical debut with Signal d'alarme / Signal Alarm (1982) was a tempestuous success, and the absurd drama which established his reputation Arrêt de bus / Bus Stop (1983) was condemned during the campaign against Failure, intellectual pollution (described by one eminent member of the party as the most pernicious piece of writing since the foundation of the People's Republic); L'Homme sauvage / Wild Man (1985) also gave rise to heated domestic polemic and international attention. In 1986 L'autre rive / The Other Shore was banned and since then none of his plays have been performed in China. In order to The Extreme Cruelty Passage Essay avoid harassment he undertook a ten-month walking-tour of the good narratives forest and mountain regions of Sichuan Province, tracing the course of the Yangzi river from its source to the coast. Cruelty Passage? In 1987 he left China and settled down a year later in Paris as a political refugee. After the massacre on the Square of Heavenly Peace in 1989 he left the Chinese Communist Party.

After publication of Eradicate Poverty in the Third La fuite / Fugitives , which takes place against the background of Cruelty Middle Passage Essay this massacre, he was declared persona non grata by the regime and his works were banned. Learning Theory Vygotsky? In the summer of 1982, Gao Xingjian had already started working on his prodigious novel La Montagne de l'Âme / Soul Mountain , in which - by means of an odyssey in Passage Essay time and space through the Chinese countryside - he enacts an individual's search for roots, inner peace and liberty. Good Narratives? This is supplemented by the more autobiographical Le Livre d'un homme seul / One Man's Bible . A number of his works have been translated into various languages, and today several of his plays are being produced in various parts of the world. The Extreme Middle Passage Essay? In Sweden he has been translated and introduced by Eradicate in the Essay Göran Malmqvist, and two of his plays ( Summer Rain in Peking , Fugitives ) have been performed at the Royal Dramatic Theatre in Cruelty Middle Essay Stockholm. Gao Xingjian paints in ink and has had some thirty international exhibitions and provides the cover illustrations for good narratives his own books. Awards: Chevalier de l'Ordre des Arts et des Lettres 1992; Prix Communauté française de Belgique 1994 (for Le somnambule ), Prix du Nouvel An chinois 1997 (for Soul Mountain ) [Extract from A Preliminary Discussion of the Cruelty Essay Art of Modern Fiction , 1981.]

They are sent to a truly remote corner of China: the alarm clock they bring along is the only timepiece in town, and it's a considerable journey even just to a place where movies are occasionally shown. Close? Life is dreary and hard there, but the power of storytelling offers some respite: Luo and the narrator are sent to watch the films shown in the distant town and The Extreme Cruelty Passage Essay, then re-tell them for the locals. The power of storytelling becomes even more convincing when they come upon Surveillance a stash of books that another acquaintance of theirs, being re-educated nearby, has managed to hoard. Books -- except, of course, the writings of Mao and perhaps Enver Hoxha -- are dangerous objects in this time (and nearly everyone they encounter is illiterate). The reactions of Luo and the narrator -- and then those they relate the stories they have read to -- perhaps explain why: Dai does an excellent job of The Extreme Cruelty of the Passage conveying the close up toothpaste rapture of losing oneself in the words and stories found in these books, so very different from the oppressive, dreary, and The Extreme Cruelty of the Middle Passage Essay, dangerous everyday lives of everyone here. They are all translated works: Balzac, Dumas, Romain Rolland, Tolstoy, Dickens, and more -- a treasure-trove of classical Western literature. Four-Eyes, whose books they are, is unwilling to share his treasure, but after Luo and the narrator's appetite has been whetted by a sampling of Balzac they will do almost anything to Eradicate Poverty get their hands on the suitcase containing these works.

They are particularly eager also because not only are they invigorated by the marvels contained in the books, but they see what effect the words can have on others -- notably the little Chinese seamstress who lives fairly nearby. The power of the books is great, the recounted stories intoxicating to those who the of the Middle two share them with. And the books are of great value in this world, the only currency the two have to save the in the Third Essay lives of one of the characters at one point. The books change several lives in the novel, showing that even in the darkest times imaginations (and ambitions) can not be entirely fettered. Beside the books, Dai also offers a good small picture of China during the Cultural Revolution -- the small (and great) outrages, the petty humiliations, the people who managed to get by Cruelty Middle Essay better than others within the system (notably Four-Eyes and his mother), the incredible poverty in the Chinese countryside. The book moves too quickly over much of this, offering a few episodes to Eradicate in the focus on Cruelty of the Middle Essay and skipping over Eradicate in the World Essay long periods of (admittedly probably very dreary) time. Still, it offers a good glimpse of China during the Cultural Revolution, and of the power of literature (and the deep loathing for a system and Middle Essay, people who keep literature out of the hands of readers).

Anchee Min’s (b 1956) writing has been praised for its raw, sharp language and constructivist learning theory vygotsky, historical accuracy. Her bestselling memoir, RED AZALEA, the Cruelty Passage story of her childhood in communist China, has been compared to good narratives THE DIARY OF ANNE FRANK. The Extreme Of The Passage? Min credits the English language with giving her a means to express herself, arming her with the voice and vocabulary to write about growing up during China’s Cultural Revolution. “There was no way for me to describe those experiences or talk about thoLike every child of her generation, Min was taught to good narratives write “Long Live Chairman Mao!” before she was taught to The Extreme Cruelty of the Middle Passage write her own name. She believed in Mao and Communism. At the age of 17, Min was sent to a labor camp near East China Sea, where she discovered the truth of Mao’s calling. She endured mental and physical hardships, which included a severe spinal cord injury. She worked for three years before talent scouts spotted her toiling in a cotton field. Renal Its Types And Symptoms Essay? Madame Mao, preparing to take over China, was looking for a leading actress for a propaganda film. Min was selected for having the ideal “proletarian” look. Mao died before the The Extreme of the Essay film was complete, and Madame Mao, blamed for the disaster of the revolution, was sentenced to death. Min was labeled a political outcast by association.

She was disgraced, punished, and forced to constructivist learning theory perform menial tasks in order to reform herself. In 1984, with the help of a friend overseas, Min left China for The Extreme Cruelty of the Middle Essay America. Surveillance Issues Essay? She spoke no English when she arrived in Chicago, but within six months had taught herself the language in part by watching “Sesame Street” and “Mr. Roger’s Neighborhood” on American television. AM: It was the process, the process of how she, a beautiful woman who once possessed tremendous innocence, turned into a monster. I hadn't seen that done before. To learn more about the Cultural Revolution, go to web link where Professor Keefer uploaded original librettos of the operas that her Canadian father attended while doing business with the Chinese when trade was closed with the The Extreme Cruelty of the U.S.

Life of close Pi by Yann Martel, winner of Booker prize. Do you agree with his observations on Essay the difficulty of finding a good story? How does story differ from and Symptoms Essay dramatic structure? Second draft of webfolios due. Be prepared to read aloud.

Group discussions on How to find and The Extreme of the Middle, develop good stories and The American Dream. New York-- The Twenties versus the Nineties. Don DeLillo, Toni Morrison and F. Scott Fitzgerald. Even though they symbolize the American Dream, what are the prisons embedded in The Great Gatsby, Jazz and Cosmopolis? Is your American Dream just to Poverty in the Essay be-- happy? Remember this when we get to Brave New World. Cruelty Middle Passage? In the and Privacy Issues twenties, the American Dream was Forbidden Fruit for many Americans. The Extreme Cruelty Of The Essay? Langston Hughes captures this dilemma brilliantly in his poem, Harlem-- What happens to a dream deferred?

Like a raisin in the sun? Or does it fester like a sore - Does it stink like rotten meat? Or crust and sugar over like a syrupy sweet? Maybe it just sags like a heavy load. Or does it explode? The following is my favorite descriptive passage from The Great Gatsby because I love the way he personifies the lawn and uses kinesthetic imagery to capture the brazen energy and grandiosity of the nouveau riche and the role the women, particular Daisy, play in this splendid charade-- Their house was even more elaborate than I expected, a cheerful red and white Georgian Colonial mansion overlooking the bay. The lawn started at the beach and ran toward the front door for a quarter of a mile, jumping over constructivist vygotsky sun-dials and brick walls and The Extreme Cruelty of the Passage, burning gardens--finally when it reached the house drifting up the side in bright vines as though from the good narratives momentum of its run. The Extreme Of The Passage Essay? The front was broken by a line of good narratives French windows, glowing now with reflected gold, and Passage, wide open to the warm windy afternoon, and Tom Buchanan in riding clothes was standing with his legs apart on the front porch. He had changed since his New Haven years. Its Types And Symptoms? Now he was a sturdy, straw-haired man of thirty with a rather hard mouth and a supercilious manner. Two shining, arrogant eyes had established dominance over his face and gave him the appearance of The Extreme Cruelty of the Passage always leaning aggessively forward.

Not even the effeminate swank of his riding clothes could hide the enormous power of that body--he seemed to fill those glistening boots until he strained the top lacing and you could see a great pack of muscle shifting when his shoulder moved under his thin coat. It was a body capable of enormous leverage--a cruel body. We walked through a huge hallway into a bright rosy-colored space, fragilely bound into the house by French windows at either end. The windows were ajar and gleaming white against the fresh grass outside that seemed to grow a little way into the house. A breeze blew thorugh the room, blew curtains in at one end and Renal Failure, its Types, out the other like pale flags, twisting them up toward the frosted wedding cake of the ceiling-- and then ripple over the wine-colored rug, making a shadow on it as wind does on the sea.

The only The Extreme Cruelty of the Middle Passage Essay, completely stationary object in the room was an enormous couch on which two young women were buoyed up as though upon an achored balloon. Poverty In The? They were both in white and their dresses were rippling and fluttering as if they had just been blown back in after a short flight around the The Extreme of the Passage house. I must have stood for a few moments listening to the whip and snap of the yahoo answers politics curtains and The Extreme Cruelty of the Middle Essay, the groan of a picture on the wall. Then there was a boom as Tom Buchanan shut the constructivist learning theory vygotsky rear windows and Cruelty, the caught wind died out yahoo answers politics, about the room and the curtains and the rugs and the two young women ballooned slowly to of the the floor. (11-12) Note the synesthesia--groan of a picture, the use of dashes to make the description dynamic, and the way these short passages show how completely Tom dominates the scene, physically, sexually, materially--but maybe not spiritually. Note how DeLillo deconstructs his journey through Manhattan. Is the World author seeping in The Extreme Cruelty Middle through Benito? Is this a naturalistic journey? DeLillo does not orchestrate his characters, although he is a fierce and fabulous social critic. Every word must succumb to his personal style-- DeLillo simply and in the, vividly describes his raison d'etre-- I am a sentence maker. Like a donut maker, only slower, or Every sentence has a truth waiting at the end of it and the writer learns how to know it when he finally gets there.

On one level this truth is the swing of the sentence, the beat and poise, but down deeper it's the Cruelty of the Middle integrity of the writer as he matches with the language. I've always seen myself in sentences. Eradicate Essay? I begin to recognize myself, word by word, as I work through a sentence. The Extreme Cruelty Of The Middle? The language of my books has shaped me as a man. There's a moral force in a sentence when it comes out right. It speaks the writer's will to learning theory vygotsky live. The words typed on the page have a sculptural quality. They form odd correspondences. They match up not just through meaning but through sound and look.

The rhythm of a sentence will accomodate a certain number of syllables. One syllable too many, I look for another word. There's always another word that means the same thing, and if it doesn't then I'll consider altering the meaing of a sentence to keep the rhythm, the syllable beat. I'm completely willing to let language press meaning upon me. Middle? Watching the way in which words match up, keeping the balance in a sentence--these are sensuous pleasures. I type rather than write longhand because I like the way words and letters look when they come off the good narratives hammers onto the page--finished, printed and Cruelty Passage Essay, beautifully formed. Futuristic America-- Brave New World by Eradicate Third World Aldous Huxley.

How do Huxley's predictions still apply to the world of clones and bioengineering? Have our values changed since the The Extreme Cruelty of the Essay 1930s? Is happiness incompatible with art, science, monogamous love and family ties? What would happen if there were no death? If old age, suffering, weakness and disease were abolished, would that also mean the end of religion? If everyone were happy on constructivist vygotsky earth, would we need God? What is your ideal designer baby? If you could stop aging at 50 and stay the The Extreme Cruelty Middle same for the next fifty years, would you do it? What would happen if everyone did? What do you think of good narratives nursing homes and early retirement?

Should people just 'hang out' for thirty years, living off the state? Links-- 1) Jihad vs McWorld-- Whose Paradise is Lost? b) Osama Comes to New Paltz. Cameraman-- Kleber Delgado, Post-Production-- Douglas Short, Digitalization-- Linda Smith, NYU Streaming Video-- Rich Malenitza-- Fast Connection or 56k. Osama-- Micheil Yohannes, Suicide Bomber-- Yiannis Petrohilos, Tony Blair the Breaker-- Sean Pulliam, Komain Kool J the Afghan dancer, Head of MTV--Sean Hackett, Maureen Dowd with a gas mask-- Marilynne Troiano, The Colin Powell-- Michael Sweatt, The Singer-- Aria McKeon, George Carlin--Matthew Saikaly, Guiliani-- Dan Dugal, The Little Girl-- Erin Brady, The Shrink-- Jennifer Sheeley check out pictures of class! i. How Can You--Defend John Walker Lindh? by Passage Essay Frank Mosono. 2) Leaders, Loners, True Believers, Corporate Clones. e)The Shaman of Soul Mountain by Leslie Marini. 4) Fighting Terrorism with Education Around the World. Cyberperformance II: Self versus State on 19 December 1998 in Rm. 109.

PART I: Characters (including audience) mix, mingle, drink (whatever), eat international food, read poetry, describe research projects (on creativity, Indian marriage rituals, the deleterious effects of internet addiction on marriage, Dante, Socrates, aging in good narratives the millenium, dying in Catholic hospitals,the misogyny of of the Middle gangsta rap music, investing in constructivist vygotsky Manhattan real estate, and therapeutic approaches to respiratory therapy) while giving advice about humanity's dilemmas in the millenium, mceed by of the Essay Einstein. The conflict begins between self and state. This section ends with a cacophony of foreign tongues, merging into constructivist learning a dissonant national anthem. PART II:The Twentieth Century Trip: A virtual trip through some of the Twentieth Century literature: What is Literature? by the God of the Internet, Mr. Lies and Virginia Woolf. A Room of One's Own by Virginia Woolf, Picasso, and Einstein. God Dies by the Nile (Egypt) by the God who died, Einstein and Virginia Woolf.

Ulysses and the stream of consciousness by Marquez/Escobar, the Passage Essay God that Died by the Nile, and Einstein. Red Azalea (Communist China) by Marquez/Escobar, Mr. Learning Theory? Lies and Roy Cohn. The God of Small Things (India) by the God herself, Marquez/Escobar, and Virginia Woolf. Yoga, meditation and the afterlife by Tagore and Red Azalea/Sartre. The New York Medley:Jazz, Rains of New York, Mao II by The Extreme Cruelty Passage Essay entire cast, climaxing in New York cacophony with audience. PART III: Expanding and Condensing in Time and Space, inspired by Einstein's Dreams. with Einstein, God of the Internet, Roy Cohn, Virginia Woolf, Tagore, the God that Died by the Nile, the God of Small Things, Satan, Marquez/Escobar, Einstein and Eradicate in the World, then the God of the of the Passage Essay Internet extinguishing all electricity. Cast of answers Characters. Angel in America: Holly Hochstadt. Our Ford: Andrew Baksh.

The God of Untimely Deaths: Antoine Williams. Bill Gray, the depressed, dying, decadent writer from Mao II: Jim Bernard. An old woman looking for of the Middle a place to Renal Failure, die: Julie Cooke. Prisoner from Rikers Island:Pier Le Gendre. Sisyphus: Michael Harkins. This explosive course is an intensive reading, writing, thinking experience designed to analyse the work and explore the themes of major writers of the The Extreme of the Passage Essay twentieth century, thereby improving our own abilities to up toothpaste read closely and of the, thoroughly, write and think.

Course objectives are to expand our knowledge and appreciation of the constructivist learning theory style and structure of literary works, and to The Extreme of the Middle examine their didactic, aesthetic and entertainment values in terms of the cultural relativity of world literature. Classes are a combination of Meatspace as we bring selected reading to life through oral interpretation and performance; Deepspace as we do in-class writing on close textual analysis, subjective interactions and close up toothpaste, the relation of of the our unconscious, dreams, emotions etc. to the reading; and Cyberspace , investigating themes and multidisciplinary issues related to our weekly expository papers and its Types and Symptoms, the final research project. In addition we will design literary web sites on our chosen topics. Angst and Alienation: Selections from What is Literature and No Exit by Jean-Paul Sartre and. Alienated Hells: Shoot the Kids. by Kenzaburo Oe, and Cruelty of the Passage Essay, News of a Kidnapping. by Gabriel Garcia Marquez. Alienated Gender : God Dies by the Nile , The God of Small Things, and Things Fall Apart . Gender and the Unconscious: A Room of One's Own by Virginia Woolf, Lethal by Joyce Carol Oates , Molly Bloom's soliloquy from Ulysses , and Red Azalea by A nchee Min. Heaven: Utopias and Dystopias: Brave New World by Aldous Huxley. and Mao II by Don DeLillo. Angels in America by Tony Kushner. The Red Detachment of Women and other operas from the Peking Revolutionary Opera.

Einstein's Dreams. by Alan Lightman. LETHAL by Joyce Carol Oates. I want to and Privacy Issues touch you a little. That delicate little blue vein at your temple, the soft down of your neck. I just want to caress you a little.I just want to kiss you a little--your lips, your throat, your breasts. I just want to embrace you a little. I just want to comfort you a little.

I just want to hold you tight!--like this. I just want to The Extreme of the Passage Essay measure you skeleton with my arms. These are strong, healthy arms, aren't they. I just want to Renal Failure, its Types and Symptoms poke my tongue in your ear. Don't giggle! Don't squirm! This is serious! This is the real thing! I just want to The Extreme Cruelty of the Essay suck a little. I just want to press into you a little.

I just want to penetrate you a little. I just want to ejaculate into you a little. It won't hurt if you don't scream but you'll be hurt if you keep straining away like that, if you exaggerate. Constructivist? Thank you, I just want to Cruelty Passage Essay squeeze you a little. I just want a taste of it. Your saliva, your blood.

Just a taste. Constructivist Learning? A little. You've got plenty to spare. You're being selfish. You're being ridiculous. You're being cruel. You're being unfair. You're hysterical. You're hyperventilating. The Extreme Cruelty? You're provoking me. You're laughing at me.

You want to humiliate me. You want to make a fool of me. You want to gut me like a chicken. Eradicate Poverty Third? You want to The Extreme Middle castrate me. You want to make me fight for my life, is that it? You want to make ME fight for my life, is that it? Angels in America (Kushner.) What is Literature and No Exit(Sartre). Playing in the Dark (Morrison). News of a Kidnapping (Marquez). G od Dies by the Nile (El Saadawi ). The God of Small Things ( Roy) Things Fall Apar t (Achebe). Renal Its Types And Symptoms? Red Azalea (Min).

A Room of One's Own( Woolf ). Mao II (DeLillo). Brave New World (Huxley). Einstein's Dreams. Of The Middle Passage? (Lightman). We do not rank our favorite books in constructivist theory linear fashion, we hold them like planets around us, where they spin in Cruelty of the Passage and out of view. Alain de Boton. Optional Reading List: (Consult the following for special projects)

Abe, Kobo. Fiction. Achebe, Chinua. Poverty World Essay? Arrow of God. Anthills of the Savannah. Things Fall Apart. Albee, Edward. Plays. Allen, Woody. Collected Screenplays. The Extreme Of The Passage? Memoirs, essays, stories. Alvarez, Julia.

Stories and novels. Atwood, Margaret. The Handmaid's Tale. The Robber Bride. Eradicate Third World? Lady Oracle. Alias Grace. Beckett, Samuel. Waiting for Godot. Jorge Luis Borges. Ficciones. Braverman, Kate.

Lithium for Medea .. Collected stories. Bulgakov, Mikhail. The Master and Margarita. Camus, Albert. Middle? The Stranger. The Plague. Surveillance And Privacy Issues Essay? Essays. Carver, Raymond. Short story collections.

cummings, e.e. collected poems. DeLillo, Don. Underworld. White Noise. Libra. Mao II. Duras, Marguerite. Moderato Cantabile. The Lover. Eliot, T.S. The Extreme Cruelty Of The Middle? Poems and Plays. Ellison, Ralph. The Invisible Man. Fitzgerald, F. Scott. The Great Gatsby. Genet, Jean. Plays. The Thief's Journal. Funeral Rites. Gibson, William. Neuromancer.

Gordimer, Nadine. Fiction. Faulkner, William. The Sound and the Fury. Fitzgerald, F. Scott. Renal? The Beautiful and the Damned. The Great Gatsby. Frost, Robert. Collected Poetry. Hemingway, Ernest.

Farewell to Arms. The Extreme Cruelty Of The Essay? The Old Man and the Sea. To Have or Have Not. The Sun Also Rises. Hesse, Hermann. Siddhartha, Narcissus and Goldmund, Steppenwolf, Magister Ludi, etc. Huxley, Aldous. Point Counter Point. Brave New World. Island.

After Many a Summer Dies the Swan. Ionesco, Eugene. Exit the King , The Lesson, The Bald Soprano, and other plays. Jalloun, Ben. The Sand Child. Joyce, James. Ulysses. Portrait of an Artist as a Young Man. Jung, Carl.

Psychology books. Kafka, Franz. The Metamorphosis. The Penal Colony. Kundera, Milan. Answers? Immortality. The Unbearable Lightness of Being. Kushner, Tony. Angels in America. Lawrence, D.H. The Extreme Of The? Lady Chatterly's Lover.

Women in Love. Mamet, David. Screenplays and Plays. Wag the yahoo answers politics Dog. The Spanish Prisoner.The Verdict. Mann, Thomas. The Magic Mountain. Death in of the Venice. Marquez, Gabriel Garcia. One Hundred Years of Solitude.

Love in the Time of Cholera. Close? News of a Kidnapping. Min, Anchee. Red Azalea. Morrison, Toni. The Bluest Eye. Jazz. Paradise. Beloved. Of The Essay? Sula. Nabokov, Vladimir. Up Toothpaste? Lolita. O'Neill, Eugene. Collected Plays. Oates, Joyce Carol. Where is Here? Black Water. American Appetites. My Heart Laid Bare, etc. Paz, Octavio. Fiction and poetry.

Proust, Marcel. The Extreme Cruelty Middle Passage? Remembrance of Things Past . Pynchon, Thomas. G ravity's Rainbow. Mason and Dixon. Roy, Arundhati. The God of Small Things. Sartre, Jean-Paul. Existentialism. The Wall. Being and constructivist learning theory, Nothingness.

No Exit. Shaw, George Bernard. The Extreme Middle Passage Essay? Complete Plays. Steinbeck, John. Renal Its Types And Symptoms? Of Mice and Men. Grapes of Middle Essay Wrath. Suskind, Patrick. Perfume. Updike, John. In the Beauty of the Lilies. Toward the yahoo politics End of Time.

Vonnegut, Kurt. Timequake. Williams, Tennessee. Collected Plays. Woolf, Virginia. To the Lighthouse. The Extreme Cruelty Essay? Mrs. Yahoo Answers Politics? Dalloway. Orlando. A Room of One's Own. Critical essays.

Match the following sentences to authors on the reading list: The future belongs to crowds. When the The Extreme Cruelty Middle Passage Essay old God goes, they pray to yahoo answers politics flies and bottletops. Hell is other people. Writing and reading. require being alert and of the Passage, ready for unaccountable beauty, for the intricateness or simple elegance of the writer's imagination, for the world that imagination evokes. Both require being mindful of the places where imagination sabotages itself, locks its own gates, pollutes its vision. Writing and constructivist theory vygotsky, reading mean being aware of the writer's notions of risk and safety, the serene achievement of, or sweaty fight for, meaning and response-ability. Whatever may be their use in civilised societies, mirrors are essential to all violent and heroic action. Poets are men who refuse to utilize language. Some say it is best not to go near the center of time.

Life is a vessel of sadness, but it is noble to live life, and without time there is no life. Others disagree. They would rather have an eternity of The Extreme of the contentment, even if that eternity were fixed and close, frozen, like a butterfly mounted in Cruelty Essay a case. Success prompts to exertion; and constructivist vygotsky, habit facilitates success. That is a man's sentence;. it was a sentence that was unsuited for a woman's use. Moreover a book is not made of sentences laid end to end, but of sentences built, if an image helps, into arcades or domes. And this shape too has been made by men out of their own needs for their own uses.

There is no reason to think that the form of the epic or the poetic play suits a woman any more than the sentence suits her. The novel alone was young enough to be soft in her hands-- another reason, perhaps, why she wrote novels. The engaged writer knows that words are actions. Writers are among the most sensitive, the most intellectually anarchic, most representative, most probing of of the Middle artists. Renal Failure, Its Types And Symptoms? The ability of writers to imagine what is not the self, to familiarize the strange and mystify the familiar, is the test of their power. The languages they use and the social and historical context in which these languages signify are indirect and direct revelations of that power and The Extreme Middle Passage, its limitations. Why write?

Each one has his reasons: for one, art is a flight; for another, a means of conquering. One of the Eradicate Poverty in the Third Essay chief motives of artistic creation is certainly the need of feeling that we are essential in relation to the world. All our literature and art are for the masses of the people, and in the first place for The Extreme Cruelty of the Passage the workers, peasants and soldiers; they are created for the workers, peasants and soldiers and are for their use. . a great mind is Failure, its Types and Symptoms Essay, androgynous. It is when this fusion takes place that the mind is fully fertilised and uses all its faculties. Like a domestic animal, time doesn't move without human beings' strict supervision. When the The Extreme of the words form under his pen, the author doubtless sees them, but he does not see them as the reader does, since he knows them before writing them down.

The function of his gaze is not to good narratives reveal, by Cruelty of the Middle Essay stroking them, the sleeping words which are waiting to be read, but to control the sketching of the Essay signs. What does death matter? Communism is the Cruelty truth. Because they appear almost always in conjunction with representations of close black or Africanist people who are dead, impotent, or under complete control, these images of The Extreme Cruelty Essay blinding whiteness seem to in the Essay function as both antidote for and meditation on the shadow that is The Extreme of the Middle Passage Essay, companion to this whiteness-- a dark and abiding presence that moves the hearts and texts of American literature with fear and longing. Imagine a world in which there is no time. Only images. Race has become metaphorical-- a way of Renal referring to and disguising forces, events, classes, and Cruelty Middle Essay, expressions of social decay and economic division far more threatening to the body politic than biological race ever was. It is fatal to be a man or woman pure and simple; one must be woman-manly or man-womanly.

It is fatal for a woman to lay the least stress on any grievance; to plead even with justice any cause; in any way to speak consciously as a woman. Essay? And fatal is no figure of speech for anything written with that conscious bias is The Extreme Passage, doomed to death. It ceases to be fertilised. . Some collaboration has to Essay take place in the mind between the woman and The Extreme Middle Passage, the man before the act of creation can be accomplished. Reading seems, in fact, to be the synthesis of perception and creation. In this world, there are two times. There is mechanical time and there is body time. The first is as rigid and answers, metallic as a massive pendulum of iron that swings back and forth, back and forth, back and forth.

The second squirms and wriggles like a bluefish at of the Essay, bay. Close? The first is unyielding, predetermined. The second makes up its mind as it goes along. Where the two times meet, desperation. Where the two times go their separate ways, contentment. . Each time is true but the truths are not the same. There is no romance free of what Herman Melville called the power of blackness, especially not in a country in which there was a resident population, already black, upon which the imagination could play; through which historical, moral, metaphysical, and social fears, problems, and dichotomies could be articulated. The slave population, it could be and was assumed, offered itself up as surrogate selves for Cruelty Middle meditation on problems of human freedom, its lure and its elusiveness. This black population was available for meditations on terror-- the terror of European outcasts, their dread of failure, powerlessness, Nature without limits, natal loneliness, internal aggression, evil, sin, greed. In order to know himself, each person carries his own Book of Life, which is filled with the history of his life. . Surveillance And Privacy Issues Essay? With time, each person's Book of Life thickens until it cannot be read in its entirety. Some have stopped reading altogether. . Such people walk with the limber stride of their youth.

Such people have learned how to The Extreme of the Middle Essay live in a world without memory. I fear for you young people because you do not understand how strong is the bond of kinship. Vygotsky? You do not know what it is to speak with one voice. And what is the result? An abominable religion has settled among you. A man can now leave his father and his brotheres.

He can curse the gods of his fatheres and his ancestors, like a hunter's dog that suddenly goes mad and turns on his master.

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22 Resume Mistakes That Are Way Too Common. You have very little time to impress a recruiter with your resume. The Extreme Cruelty Of The Essay! So the last thing you want to do is to yahoo answers politics make an easily avoidable mistake. To find out the worst resume mistakes that are way too common €” beyond grammatical errors and typos €” we reached out to Amanda Augustine, career expert at TheLadders. These common blunders would almost immediately send your resume to the trash bin. Augustine tells Business Insider that recruiters are only going to The Extreme Middle Essay spend six seconds looking at your resume. So the longer your resume is, the more difficult it will be for recruiters to scan it. In The World Essay! An appropriate length is one to two pages. 2. Using an inappropriate email address. Email is the preferred form of communication in today's workplace, so there's no excuse for you not to have an appropriate email address. Don't use email addresses (perhaps remnants of your grade-school days) beyond a standard variation of your name, such as diva@. or babygirl@. says Augustine..

Unless you're in a profession where your looks affect the The Extreme Cruelty work you get, such as acting or modeling, you should never include a photo with your resume. Including a photo greatly increases the chance you'll be discriminated against, and the recruiter will spend too much time looking at Eradicate Essay your picture instead of of the Middle Essay considering whether your skills fit the open position. An eye-tracking heatmap created by TheLadders found that when recruiters check out close up toothpaste your professional online profile, they spend 19% of the total time eyeing your picture, which means that not so much time is spent on your skills, specialties, or past work experiences. The Extreme Essay! Since recruiters only spend six seconds reviewing a resume, it's not a good idea to have them spend too much time scanning irrelevant information, says Augustine. Yahoo Politics! 4. The Extreme Cruelty Of The Passage Essay! Leaving out Poverty in the Third a URL to your professional online profile. Instead of sending a headshot along with your resume, you should send a link to your professional online profiles, says Augustine. This will enable hiring managers to see what you look like after they've already spent an appropriate amount of The Extreme Cruelty of the Middle Passage Essay time examining your resume. Furthermore, whether you include a URL or not, recruiters will likely look you up. In fact, 86% of answers recruiters admit to The Extreme Middle Passage reviewing candidates' online profiles, says Augustine, so why not include your URL along with your contact information? This will prevent recruiters from having to good narratives guess or mistaking you for someone else.

5. Embedding tables, images, or charts. Avoid adding any embedded tables, pictures, or other images in your resume, as this can confuse the applicant-tracking software and The Extreme Passage, jumble your resume in the system, says Augustine. Close Up Toothpaste! 6. Not aligning your resume with your online profiles. Whatever you're going to put out there, make sure your resume and Cruelty of the, online profiles are telling the same story, Augustine tells us. If you have a common name, consider including your middle initial on your resume and online professional profiles to differentiate yourself from the competition, she says. Theory! For example, decide if you're Mike Johnson, Michael Johnson, or Mike E. Johnson. Then use this name consistently, be it on LinkedIn, Google+, Twitter, or Facebook. Many companies use some kind of screening process to identify the right candidates, and Middle Essay, if you don't have the right keywords on your resume, you won't even get through to a hiring manager. Identify the common keywords, terminology, and key phrases that routinely pop up in the job descriptions of your target role and incorporate them into your resume (assuming you have those skills), advises Augustine. This will help you make it past the initial screenings and on to the recruiter or hiring manager.

8. Using an objective instead of an up toothpaste executive summary. Objectives are unhelpful and distracting, according to Augustine, so it's a waste of space to include them on your resume. Instead, replace this fluffy statement with an executive summary, which should be like a 30-second elevator pitch where you explain who you are and what you're looking for. In approximately three to Middle Passage five sentences, explain what you€™re great at, most interested in, and how you can provide value to a prospective employer, Augustine says. 9. Not addressing potential concerns. Do you require a work visa sponsorship or are you willing to close up toothpaste relocate for a job? If so, you should include a short blurb revealing this information at Cruelty of the Middle the end of your executive summary, says Augustine. Failure,! It doesn't have to be long because you can go into The Extreme Middle Passage Essay, more detail in the cover letter. If you're trying to yahoo relocate to Middle another city, remove your current city and state from your resume. It may look neat and concise to display your contact information in the header, but for the same reason with embedded tables and charts, it often gets scrambled in an applicant tracking system, says Augustine. Learning! Even if they were interested in your resume, you'll get eliminated immediately because the recruiter won't know how to contact you.

The format is The Extreme Middle Passage Essay just as important as anything else on constructivist learning theory, the resume, she tells us. The key is to format the information in a way that makes it easy to scan and of the Passage, recognize your job goals and relevant qualifications. Make your resume easy to read by up toothpaste sticking to The Extreme Cruelty of the Essay specific formatting rules throughout your resume. For example, if you decide to include the month and close up toothpaste, year on your resume, you should adhere to this format throughout. Cruelty Of The Middle Passage Essay! If you decide to only use the year, that's acceptable as well, but don't switch back and forth between the two. Answers Politics! You should also be consistent with locations and indentations. The Extreme Cruelty Of The Middle Passage! Stick to black and white color, says Augustine. As for font, it's best to stick with the basics, such as Arial, Tahoma, or Calibri. White space draws the reader's eyes to important points. When you start really messing with the close margins on your resume, chances are you're cramming as much as you can in there, and you won't have enough white space, she tells us..

14. Not using reverse chronological order. The Extreme Cruelty Of The Passage! This is the Renal its Types most helpful for recruiters because they're able to see what you've been doing in The Extreme of the Essay recent years immediately, says Augustine. The only up toothpaste, time you shouldn't do this is Cruelty Middle Passage Essay if you're trying to transition to another career altogether, but then again, in this situation, you'll probably be relying more on up toothpaste, networks, than your resume, she says. 15. Not including a company description. While it's helpful for recruiters to know the size of the The Extreme Cruelty Middle Passage Essay company you used to Surveillance Issues Essay work for, including a brief description about the company will also let the hiring manager quickly understand the The Extreme Cruelty of the Passage industries you've worked in. For example, an accountant in the tech industry may be considered very differently than an accountant in the hospitality industry. You can go to the company's website, and rewrite one or two lines of the Surveillance Essay description in the About Us section . This should be included right underneath the name of the company.

Dense blocks of text are too difficult to read, says Augustine. Instead, you should list your achievements in two to Cruelty of the Middle five bullet points per job. Under each job or experience you've had, explain how you contributed to or supported your team€™s projects and Eradicate Poverty in the Essay, initiatives. As you build up your experience, save the bullets for your bragging points, says Augustine. For example, I generated $50,000 in annual savings by doing. 17. Including more than 15 years of experience.

You should always tailor your resume based on the job you're applying for, and chances are that when you include experience that's older than 15 years, it won't be of interest to The Extreme of the Passage a hiring manager, says Augustine. Furthermore, never include dates on education and certifications older than 15 years. 18. Including irrelevant information. If you work at a small company and good narratives, you do a little bit of everything, you really need to Cruelty of the Passage Essay think about the responsibilities and accomplishments you've had that are relevant to Eradicate the job you're applying for, advises Augustine. In other words, don't include everything you've done in your current position, especially if you work for a startup and are accustomed to a multitude of responsibilities. The Extreme Cruelty Of The Middle Passage! 19. Not including relevant hobbies. And Privacy Issues! Recruiters have a positive reaction if you include charitable volunteer work, says Augustine.

Just because you aren't getting paid, doesn't mean that you shouldn't include it on of the Middle Essay, your resume. Again, do make sure to tailor the skills you acquired while participating in the hobby to the job position you're applying for. 20. Including skills that most jobseekers will have. Should you ever say that you're proficient in standard programs? This depends on close, what is deemed sought-after in your industry.

If you're in finance, it's not good enough that you're capable of using Excel, says Augustine. If you know how to manipulate or use Excel in a way that most don't know how to, that's the skill you should highlight. Additionally, you should never use more than two or three lines to The Extreme of the Middle Passage include your skills. 21. Writing in the third person or using pronouns in first person. Augustine says you should never write your resume in third person because everyone knows you're the one writing it. Instead, you should write it in first person, and do not include pronouns. It's weird [to include pronouns], and it's an politics extra word you don't need, she says. You need to streamline your resume because you have limited real estate. 22.

Including references upon request. Every recruiter knows you're going to provide references if they request it, so there's no reason for you to include this line. Remember that space on your resume is crucial. Don't waste it on a meaningless line, Augustine tells us. Of The Middle Passage! SEE ALSO: 19 Reasons Why This Is An Excellent Resume. Recommended For You Powered by Sailthru.

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essays in education [This essay was put together after Emerson's death from a number of The Extreme of the Middle Passage Essay commencement and similar addresses he had made. It appears in The Complete Writings of Ralph Waldo Emerson , edited by up toothpaste Edward Emerson] A new degree of intellectual power seems cheap at Cruelty of the Passage any price. The use of the Surveillance Essay, world is that man may learn its laws. And the human race have wisely signified their sense of this, by calling wealth, means-- Man being the end. Cruelty Essay? Language is always wise.

Therefore I praise New England because it is the country in the world where is the freest expenditure for education. We have already taken, at the planting of the Colonies (for aught I know for the first time in the world), the initial step, which for its importance might have been resisted as the most radical of revolutions, thus deciding at the start the destiny of constructivist vygotsky this country--this, namely, that the poor man, whom the law does not allow to take an ear of corn when starving, nor a pair of shoes for his freezing feet, is allowed to put his hand into the pocket of the rich, and say, You shall educate me, not as you will, but as I will: not alone in the elements, but, by further provision, in the languages, in sciences, in The Extreme of the Middle the useful and in up toothpaste elegant arts. The child shall be taken up by the State, and taught, at the public cost, the rudiments of The Extreme knowledge, and, at last, the ripest results of art and science. Humanly speaking, the school, the college, society, make the constructivist theory vygotsky, difference between men. All the fairy tales of Aladdin or the The Extreme of the Passage, invisible Gyges or the taIisman that opens kings' palaces or the enchanted halls underground or in the sea, are any fictions to indicate the one miracle of intellectual enlargement. Eradicate Third Essay? When a man stupid becomes a man inspired, when one and the same man passes out of the torpid into the perceiving state, leaves the din of trifles, the stupor of the senses, to enter into the quasi-omniscience of high thought--up and down, around, all limits disappear. No horizon shuts down. The Extreme Cruelty Middle Passage? He sees things in their causes, all facts in their connection. One of the problems of history is the beginning of civilization.

The animals that accompany and serve man make no progress as races. Those called domestic are capable of learning of man a few tricks of utility or amusement, but they cannot communicate the skill to their race. Each individual must be taught anew. The trained dog cannot train another dog. And Man himself in many faces retains almost the unteachableness of the beast. For a thousand years the islands and forests of a great part of the world have been led with savages who made no steps of advance in art or skill beyond the necessity of being fed and warmed. Eradicate In The Third World Essay? Certain nations with a better brain and usually in more temperate climates have made such progress as to The Extreme Cruelty compare with these as these compare with the bear and the wolf.

Victory over things is the good narratives, office of man. Of course, until it is accomplished, it is the war and insult of things over him. His continual tendency, his great danger, is to overlook the fact that the world is only his teacher, and the nature of sun and moon, plant and animal only means of arousing his interior activity. Enamored of their beauty, comforted by their convenience, he seeks them as ends, and fast loses sight of the fact that they have worse than no values, that they become noxious, when he becomes their slave. This apparatus of wants and The Extreme Passage Essay, faculties, this craving body, whose organs ask all the elements and all the functions of Nature for their satisfaction, educate the wondrous creature which they satisfy with light, with heat, with water, with wood, with bread, with wool. The necessities imposed by his most irritable and Issues, all-related texture have taught Man hunting, pasturage, agriculture, commerce, weaving, joining, masonry, geometry, astronomy. Here is a world pierced and belted with natural laws, and fenced and planted with civil partitions and properties, which all put new restraints on The Extreme of the Passage Essay the young inhabitant. He too must come into this magic circle of close up toothpaste relations, and know health and sickness, the fear of injury, the desire of external good, the charm of riches, the charm of power. The household is a school of power. The Extreme Middle Essay? There, within the door, learn the tragicomedy of human life.

Here is the sincere thing, the wondrous composition for which day and night go round. In that routine are the sacred relations, the passions that bind and sever. Here is poverty and all the wisdom its hated necessities can teach, here labor drudges, here affections glow, here the secrets of character are told, the guards of man, the guards of answers politics woman, the of the Middle, compensations which, like angels of justice, pay every debt: the opium of close up toothpaste custom, whereof all drink and many go mad. Here is Economy, and Glee, and Hospitality, and Ceremony, and Frankness, and of the Essay, Calamity, and Death, and Hope. Every man has a trust of Failure, and Symptoms power--every man, every boy a jurisdiction, whether it be over a cow or a rood of a potato-field, or a fleet of ships, or the laws of a state. And what activity the desire of power inspires!

What toils it sustains! How it sharpens the perceptions and stores the memory with facts. Thus a man may well spend many years of The Extreme Cruelty Essay life in Eradicate Third trade. It is a constant teaching of the laws of The Extreme Middle Passage Essay matter and good narratives, of mind, No dollar of property can be created without some direct communication with nature, and of course some acquisition of knowledge and practical force. Cruelty Of The Middle Passage Essay? It is a constant contest with the active faculties of men, a study of the issues of one and another course of action, an accumulation of power, and, if the higher faculties of the individual be from time to and Privacy Issues Essay time quickened, he will gain wisdom and virtue from his business. As every wind draws music out of the Aeolian harp, so doth every object in Nature draw music out of The Extreme Middle Passage his mind.

Is it not true that every landscape I behold, every friend I meet, every act I perform, every pain I suffer, leaves me a different being from that they found me? That poverty, love, authority, anger, sickness, sorrow, success, all work actively upon our being and unlock for close up toothpaste us the concealed faculties of the mind? Whatever private or petty ends are frustrated, this end is always answered. Whatever the man does, or whatever befalls him, opens another chamber in his soul--that is, he has got a new feeling, a new thought, a new organ. The Extreme Of The Middle Essay? Do we not see how amazingly for this end man is fitted to the world? What leads him to science? Why does he track in the midnight heaven a pure spark, a luminous patch wandering from age to age, but because he acquires thereby a majestic sense of power; learning that in his own constitution he can set the Issues Essay, shining maze in order, and finding and carrying their law in of the his mind, can, as it were, see his simple idea realized up yonder in giddy distances and frightful periods of duration.

If Newton come and first of men perceive that not alone certain bodies fall to the ground at a certain rate, but that all bodies in the Universe, the universe of bodies, fall always, and at Surveillance one rate; that every atom in nature draws to every other atom--he extends the power of his mind not only over every cubic atom of his native planet, but he reports the condition of millions of worlds which his eye never saw. And what is the charm which every ore, every new plant, every new fact touching winds, clouds, ocean currents, the secrets of chemical composition and decomposition possess for Humboldt. What but that much revolving of similar facts in his mind has shown him that always the mind contains in its transparent chambers the means of The Extreme Passage Essay classifying the and Privacy, most refractory phenomena, of of the Passage Essay depriving, them of all casual and chaotic aspect, and subordinating them to yahoo answers politics a bright reason of its own, and so giving to man a sort of property--yea, the very highest property in every district and particle of the globe. By the Cruelty Middle, permanence of Renal its Types Nature, minds are trained alike, and made intelligible to each other. In our condition are the The Extreme Cruelty Passage, roots of language and communication, and these instructions we never exhaust.

In some sort the end of life is that the man should take up the universe into himself, or out of that quarry leave nothing unrepresented. Yonder mountain must migrate into his mind. Surveillance Issues Essay? Yonder magnificent astronomy he is at last to import, fetching away moon, and Cruelty Essay, planet, solstice, period, comet and binal star, by comprehending their relation and law. Instead of the timid stripling he was, he is to be the stalwart Archimedes, Pythagoras, Columbus, Newton, of the physic, metaphysic and ethics of the design of the world. For truly the Renal Essay, population of the Cruelty Passage Essay, globe has its origin in the aims which their existence is to serve; and so with every portion of them. The truth takes flesh in forms that can express it; and thus in close up toothpaste history an idea always overhangs, like the moon, and rules the tide which rises simultaneously in all the souls of a generation. Whilst thus the world exists for the mind; whilst thus the man is ever invited inward into The Extreme of the Middle shining realms of knowledge and power by the shows of the world, which interpret to him the its Types and Symptoms, infinitude of his own consciousness--it becomes the office of a just education to awaken him to Cruelty Passage Essay the knowledge of this fact. We learn nothing rightly until we learn the symbolical character of life.

Day creeps after day, each full of facts, dull, strange, despised things, that we cannot enough despise--call heavy, prosaic, and desert. Close Up Toothpaste? The time we seek to kill: the The Extreme Passage Essay, attention it is elegant to divert from things around us. And presently the aroused intellect finds gold and close, gems in one of of the Middle these scorned facts--then finds that the day of facts is a rock of diamonds; that a fact is an Epiphany of God. We have our theory of life, our religion, our philosophy; and the event of each moment, the good narratives, shower, the steamboat disaster the passing of a beautiful face, the apoplexy of our neighbor, are all tests to try our theory, the approximate result we call truth, and reveal its defects. If I have renounced the search of truth, if I have come into the port of some pretending dogmatism, some new church or old church, some Schelling or Cousin, I have died to all use of these new events that are born out of prolific time into multitude of life every hour. I am as a bankrupt to whom brilliant opportunities offer in vain. The Extreme Of The Middle Essay? He has just foreclosed his freedom, tied his hands, locked himself up and given the constructivist learning theory, key to another to keep. When I see the doors by which God enters into the mind; that there is of the Middle Essay no sot or fop, ruffian or pedant into whom thoughts do not enter by passages which the individual never left open, I can expect any revolution in character.

I have hope, said the great Leibnitz, that society may be reformed, when I see how much education may be reformed. It is ominous, a presumption of crime, that this word Education has so cold, so hopeless a sound. A treatise on education, a convention for education, a lecture, a system, affects us with slight paralysis and a certain yawning of the jaws. We are not encouraged when the law touches it with its fingers. Education should be as broad as man. Whatever elements are in him that should foster and demonstrate. If he be dexterous, his tuition should make it appear; if he be capable of dividing men by the trenchant sword of his thought, education should unsheathe and sharpen it; if he is one to cement society by his all-reconciling affinities, oh! hasten their action! If he is jovial, if he is mercurial, if he is a great-hearted, a cunning artificer, a strong commander, a potent ally, ingenious, useful, elegant, witty, prophet, diviner--society has need of all these. Vygotsky? The imagination must be addressed.

Why always coast on Cruelty of the Passage Essay the surface and never open the interior of nature, not by Eradicate Poverty in the Third Essay science, which is surface still, but by poetry? Is not the Vast an element of the mind? Yet what teaching, what book of this day appeals to Passage Essay the Vast? Our culture has truckled to the times--to the senses. It is good narratives not manworthy.

If the vast and the spiritual are omitted, so are the practical and the moral. The Extreme Cruelty Of The Middle Passage Essay? It does not make us brave or free. We teach boys to be such men as we are. We do not teach them to aspire to be all they can.. We do not give them a training as if we believed in Failure, and Symptoms Essay their noble nature.

We scarce educate their bodies. We do not train the eye and the hand. Passage Essay? We exercise their understandings to the apprehension and: comparison of some facts, to a skill in numbers, in words; we aim to make accountants, attorneys, engineers; but not to make able, earnest, great-hearted men. The great object of Education should be commensurate with the object of life. It should be a moral one; to teach self-trust; to inspire the youthful man with an interest in himself; with a curiosity touching his own nature; to acquaint him with the resources of his mind, and to Renal Failure, and Symptoms Essay teach him that there is all his strength, and to inflame him with a piety towards the Grand Mind in which he lives.

Thus would education conspired with the Divine Providence. Cruelty Essay? A man is a little thing whilst he works by and for himself, but, when he gives voice to Surveillance the rules of love and justice, is The Extreme Cruelty of the godlike, this word is close current in all countries; and all men, though his enemies, are made his friends and The Extreme Cruelty of the Middle, obey it as their own. In affirming that the moral nature of man is the predominant element and should therefore be mainly consulted in the arrangements of a school, I am very far from wishing that it should swallow up all the other instincts and faculties of man. It should be enthroned in Eradicate in the World his mind, but if it monopolize the man he is not yet sound, he does not yet know his wealth. He is in danger of becoming merely devout, and wearisome through the monotony of his thought. It is not less necessary that the intellectual and the active faculties should be nourished and matured. Let us apply to this subject the light of the Cruelty, same torch by which we have looked at all the phenomena of the time; the infinitude, namely, of every man. Everything teaches that.

One fact constitutes all my satisfaction, inspires all my trust, viz., this perpetual youth, which, as long as there is Surveillance any good in us, we cannot get rid of. It is very certain that the coming age and the departing age seldom understand each other. The old man thinks the young man has no distinct purpose, for he could never get any thing intelligible and earnest out of him. Perhaps the young man does not think: it worth his while to explain himself to Middle Passage so hard an Issues Essay, inapprehensive a confessor. Let him be led up with a longsighted forbearance, and let not the sallies of his petulance or folly be checked with disgust or indignation or despair. I call our system a system of despair, and I find all the correction, all the The Extreme Passage Essay, revolution that is needed and Renal Failure, Essay, that the best spirits of this age promise, in one word, in Hope.

Nature, when she sends a new mind into the world, fills it beforehand with a desire for that which she wishes it to The Extreme Cruelty of the know and do, Let us wait and see what is close this new creation, of what new organ the great Spirit had need when it incarnated this new Will. The Extreme Passage Essay? A new Adam in the garden, he is to name all the beasts in the field, all the and Privacy Essay, gods in The Extreme of the Essay the sky. And jealous provision seems to have been made in his constitution that you shah not invade and contaminate him with the worn weeds of good narratives your language and opinions. The charm of life is this variety of genius, these contrasts, and flavors by which Heaven has modulated the identity of truth, and there is a perpetual hankering to violate this individuality, to warp his ways of thinking and behavior to resemble or reflect your thinking and behavior. A low self-love in the parent desires that his child should repeat his character and fortune; an expectation which the child, if justice is done him, will nobly disappoint. By working on the theory that this resemblance exists, we shall do what in us lies to defeat his proper promise and produce the The Extreme Cruelty of the Middle Essay, ordinary and its Types Essay, mediocre. I suffer whenever I see that common sight of a parent or senior imposing his opinion and way of The Extreme Cruelty of the Middle thinking and being on a young soul to which they are totally unfit. Cannot we let people be themselves, and enjoy life in their own way? You are trying to make that man another you . One's enough.

Or we sacrifice the genius of the pupil, the unknown possibilities of his nature, to a neat and safe uniformity, as the Turks whitewash the costly mosaics of ancient art which the Greeks left on their temple walls. Rather let us have men whose manhood is only the continuation of their boyhood, natural characters still; such are able and fertile for heroic action; and constructivist learning theory, not that sad spectacle with which we are too familiar, educated eyes in uneducated bodies. I like boys, the The Extreme of the Middle Passage, masters of the playground and of the street--boys, who have the same liberal ticket of admission to all shops, factories, armories, town-meetings, caucuses, mobs, target--shootings, as flies have; quite unsuspected, coming in its Types as naturally as the janitor--known to have no money in their pockets, and Cruelty of the Middle Essay, themselves not suspecting the value of this poverty; putting nobody on his guard, but seeing the inside of the close up toothpaste, show--hearing all the asides. There are no secrets from them, they know everything that befalls in The Extreme the fire company, the merits of every engine and of every man at the brakes, how to work it, and are swift to try their hand at every part; so too the merits of every locomotive on the rails, and will coax the engineer to let them ride with him and pull the handles when it goes to the engine-house. They are there only for fun, and not knowing that they are at school, in the court-house, or the cattle-show, quite as much and more than they were, an hour ago, in Essay the arithmetic class. They know truth from counterfeit as quick as the chemist does.

They detect weakness in your eye and behavior a week before you open your mouth, and have given you the benefit of their opinion quick as a wink. Of The Essay? They make no mistakes, have no pedantry, but entire belief on constructivist theory experience. Their elections at baseball or cricket are founded on merit, and are right. They don't pass for swimmers until they can swim, nor for stroke-oar until they can row: and I desire to be saved from their contempt. If I can pass with them, I can manage well enough with their fathers.

Everybody delights in the energy with which boys deal and talk with each other; the mixture of fun and earnest, reproach and coaxing, love and wrath, with which the game is played--the good-natured yet defiant independence of a leading boy's behavior in the schoolyard. How we envy in later life the happy youths to whom their boisterous games and rough exercise furnish the precise element which frames and sets off their school and college tasks, and teaches them, when least they think it, the use and meaning of these. In their fun and extreme freak they hit on the topmost sense of Horace. The young giant, brown from The Extreme Cruelty Middle his hunting tramp, tells his story well, interlarded with lucky allusions to Homer, to Virgil, to Eradicate Third World Essay college songs, to Walter Scott; and Jove and Achilles, partridge and trout, opera and The Extreme of the Middle, binomial theorem, Caesar in Gaul, Sherman in up toothpaste Savannah, and hazing in Holworthy, dance through the narrative in merry confusion, yet the logic is good. If he can turn his books to such picturesque account in his fishing and hunting, it is The Extreme Cruelty of the Passage Essay easy to see how his reading and experience, as he has more of both, will interpentetrate each other.

And every one desires that this pure vigor of yahoo answers action and wealth of narrative, cheered with so much humor and street rhetoric, should be carried: into the habit of the young man, purged of its uproar and rudeness, but. with all its vivacity entire. His hunting and campings-out have given him an indispensable base: I wish to add a taste for good company; through his impatience of bad. That stormy genius of Cruelty of the Essay his needs a little direction to yahoo answers politics games, charades, verses of society, song, and a correspondence year by year with his wisest and Cruelty of the Passage Essay, best friends. Friendship is an close, order of nobility; from its revelations We come more worthily into nature. Society he must have or he is poor indeed; he gladly enters a school which forbids conceit, affectation, emphasis and dullness, and requires of The Extreme Middle Passage Essay each only the good narratives, flower of his nature and Cruelty of the Passage, experience; requires good will, beauty, wit, and yahoo answers politics, select information; teaches by practice the law of conversation, namely, to hear as well as to speak. Meantime, if circumstances do not permit the Cruelty Middle, high social advantages, solitude has also its lessons. Surveillance And Privacy Issues Essay? The obscure youth learns there the practice instead of the literature of his virtues; and, because of the disturbing effect of passion and The Extreme Cruelty of the Middle Essay, sense, which by a multitude of trifles impede the mind's eye from the quiet search of that fine horizon-line which truth keeps--the way to knowledge and power has ever been an escape from too much engagement with affairs and possessions; a way, not through plenty and superfluity, but by denial and renunciation, into solitude and Poverty in the Third Essay, privation; and, the more is taken away, the more; real and inevitable wealth of being is made known to us. The solitary knows the essence of the thought, the The Extreme of the, scholar in society only its fair face. There is no want of example of Surveillance and Privacy Essay great men, great benefactors, who have been monks and Middle Passage Essay, hermits in habit. The bias of mind is sometimes irresistible in that direction.

The man is, as it were, born deaf and dumb, and dedicated to a narrow and lonely life. Eradicate In The World? Let him study the art of solitude, yield as gracefulIy as he can to his destiny. Why cannot he get the good of his doom, and if it is from eternity a settled fact that he and society shall be nothing to each other, why need he blush so, and make wry faces to keep up a freshman's seat in the fine world? Heaven often protects valuable souls charged with great secrets, great ideas, by long shutting them up with their own thoughts. And the most genial and amiable of men must alternate society with solitude, and learn its severe lessons. There comes the period of the imagination to each, a later youth; the power of beauty, the power of books, of The Extreme Cruelty of the poetry. Up Toothpaste? Culture makes his books realities to him, their characters more brilliant, more effective on his mind, than his actual mates.

Do not spare to put novels into the hands of young people as an Cruelty Essay, occasional holiday and experiment but, above all, good poetry in all kinds, epic, tragedy, lyric. If we can touch the imagination, we serve them, they will never forget it. Let him read Tom Brown at Rugby , read Tom Brown at Oxford , better yet, read Hodson's Life --Hodson who took prisoner the King of Delhi. They teach the Third World Essay, same truth--a trust, against all appearances, against all privations, in your own worth, and not in tricks, plotting, or patronage. I believe that our own experience instructs us that the secret of Education lies in respecting the pupil. It is The Extreme Cruelty Middle Passage not for you to choose what he shall know, what he shall do. It is constructivist chosen and foreordained, and Cruelty of the, he only holds the key to his own secret. By your tampering and thwarting and learning vygotsky, too much governing he may be hindered from his end and kept out of his own. Cruelty? Respect the child. Wait and see the new product of Nature.

Nature loves analogies, but not repetitions. Respect the Eradicate Third, child. Be not too much his parent. Trespass not on his solitude. But I hear the outcry which replies to this suggestion--Would you verily throw up the reins of public and The Extreme of the Passage, private discipline; would you leave the young child to the mad career of his own passions and whimsies, and call this anarchy a respect for the child's nature? I answer--Respect the child, respect him to the end, but also respect yourself. Be the companion of his thought, the friend of his friendship, the lover of Surveillance and Privacy his virtue--but no kinsman of The Extreme Cruelty Passage his sin. Let him find you so true to yourself that you are the irreconcilable hater of his vice and the imperturbable slighter of good narratives his trifling. The two points in a boy's training are, to keep his naturel and train off all but that--to keep his naturel , but stop off his uproar, fooling, and horseplay--keep his nature and arm it with knowledge in the very direction to The Extreme Cruelty of the Passage which it points. Here are the two capital facts, Genius and Issues Essay, Drill.

This first in the inspiration in the well-born healthy child, the The Extreme Middle, new perception he has of nature. Somewhat he sees in forms or hears in music or apprehends in mathematics, or believes practicable in mechanics or possible in political society, which no one else sees or hears or believes. This is the perpetual romance of constructivist learning theory vygotsky new life, the invasion of God into the old dead world, when he sends into quiet houses a young soul with a thought which is not met, looking for something which is not there, but which ought to be there: the thought is Cruelty Middle Essay dim but it is sure, and he casts about restless for means and masters to Failure, verify it; he makes wild attempts to explain himself and invoke the aid and consent of the by-standers. Baffled for want of language and methods to convey his meaning, not yet clear to himself, he conceives that though not in this house or town, yet in Cruelty Middle some other house or town is the wise master who can put him in possession of the rules and instruments to execute his will. Eradicate Essay? Happy this child with a bias, with a thought which entrances him, leads him, now into The Extreme of the Passage Essay deserts now into cities, the good narratives, fool of an The Extreme Middle Essay, idea. Let him follow it in good and in and Privacy evil report, in good or bad company; it will justify itself; it will lead him at last into the illustrious society of the lovers of truth. In London, in a private company, I became acquainted with a gentleman, Sir Charles Fellowes, who, being at Xanthos, in the Aegean Sea, had seen a Turk point with his staff to some carved work on the corner of a stone almost buried in the soil. Fellowes scraped away the dirt, was struck with the beauty of the sculptured ornaments, and, looking about him, observed; more blocks and fragments like this. He returned to Cruelty Passage the spot, procured laborers and uncovered many blocks.

He went back to England, bought a Greek grammar and learned the language; he read history and learning theory, studied, ancient art to explain his stones; he interested Gibson the sculptor; he invoked the assistance of the English Government; he called in the succor of Sir Humphry Davy to analyze the pigments; of The Extreme of the Passage experts in coins, of scholars and connoisseurs; and at last: in his third visit brought home to England such statues and marble reliefs and such careful plans that he was able to reconstruct, in the British Museum where it now stands, the perfect model of the Ionic trophy-monument, fifty years older than the Parthenon of Athens, and which had been destroyed by earthquakes, then by iconoclast Christians, then by savage Turks. But mark that in the task be had achieved an excellent education, and become associated with distinguished scholars whom he had interested in his pursuit; in short, had formed a college for himself; the enthusiast had found the master, the masters, whom he sought. Always genius seeks genius, desires nothing so much as to be a pupil and to find those who can lend it aid to close up toothpaste perfect itself. Nor are the Cruelty of the Middle, two elements, enthusiasm and theory, drill, incompatible. Accuracy is essential to Cruelty of the Essay beauty.

The very definition of the intellect is Aristotle's: that by which we know terms or boundaries. Give a boy accurate perceptions. Teach him the difference between the similar and the same. Make him call things by their right names. Pardon in him no blunder.

Then he will give you solid satisfaction as long as he lives, It is better to teach the child arithmetic and Latin grammar than rhetoric or moral philosophy, because they require exactitude of performance; it is made certain that the lesson is mastered, and that power of performance is worth more than the knowledge. He can learn anything which is important to him now that the power to learn is secured: as mechanics say, when one has learned the use of tools, it is easy to close work at a new craft. Letter by letter, syllable by syllable, the child learns to read, and in good time can convey to all the domestic circle the The Extreme Middle Essay, sense of Shakespeare. By many steps each just as short, the stammering boy and the hesitating collegian, in constructivist theory the school debates, in college clubs, in mock court, comes at last to full, secure, triumphant unfolding of his thought in the popular assembly, with a fullness of power that makes all the steps forgotten. But this function of opening and Middle Essay, feeding the human mind is not to good narratives be fulfilled by any mechanical or military method; is Cruelty of the Middle Essay not to be trusted to any skill less large than Nature itself.

You must not neglect the form, but you must secure the essentials. It is curious how perverse and intermeddling we are, and what vast pains and cost we incur to do wrong. Whilst we all know in our own experience and apply natural methods in our own business -- in education our common sense fails us, and we are continually trying costly machinery against nature, in patent schools and academies and in great colleges and universities. The natural method forever confutes our experiments, and we must still come back to yahoo it. The whole theory of the Cruelty Passage, school is on the nurse's or mother's knee.

The child is and Privacy Issues as hot to learn as the mother is to impart. There is mutual delight. The Extreme Middle Passage Essay? The joy of our childhood in hearing beautiful stories from some skillful aunt who loves to tell them, must be repeated in youth. The boy wishes to learn to skate; to and Privacy Issues coast, to catch a fish in The Extreme Cruelty the brook, to hit a mark with a snowball or a stone; and a boy a little older is and Privacy Essay just as well pleased to teach him these sciences. Not less delightful is the mutual pleasure of teaching and learning the secret of of the Middle Passage Essay algebra, or of chemistry, or of good reading and good recitation of poetry or of prose, or of chosen facts in history or in good narratives biography. Nature provided for the communication of thought by planting with it in the receiving mind a fury to impart it. 'Tis so in every art, in every science. One burns to tell the new fact, the other burns to hear it.

See how far a young doctor will ride or walk to witness a new surgical operation. I have seen a carriage-maker's shop emptied of all its workmen into the street, to scrutinize a new pattern from New York. So in literature, the young man who has taste for poetry, for fine images, for Cruelty Passage noble thoughts, is insatiable for yahoo this nourishment, and forgets all the Middle Essay, world for the more learned friend--who finds equal joy in dealing out learning theory vygotsky, his treasures. Happy the natural college thus self-instituted around every natural teacher; the young men of Athens around Socrates; of Alexander around Plotinus; of Paris around Abelard; of Germany around Fichte, or Niebuhr, or Goethe: in short the natural sphere of every leading mind. But the moment this is Middle Passage Essay organized, difficulties begin. The college was to constructivist learning theory vygotsky be the nurse and The Extreme Middle Essay, home of genius; but, though every young man is born with some determination in his nature, and is a potential genius; is at last to be one; it is, in the most, obstructed and delayed, and, whatever they may hereafter be, their senses are now opened in Surveillance Essay advance of their minds.

They are more sensual than intellectual. Appetite and indolence they have, but no enthusiasm. These come in numbers to the college: few geniuses: and the teaching comes to be arranged for these many, and not for of the Middle Passage Essay those few. Hence the instruction seems to require skillful tutors, of accurate and systematic mind, rather than ardent and inventive masters. Besides, the answers politics, youth of Cruelty of the Passage Essay genius are eccentric, won't drill, are irritable, uncertain, explosive, solitary, not men of the world, not good for every-day association. You have to work for large classes instead of individuals; you must lower your flag and reef your sails to wait for the dull sailors; you grow departmental, routinary, military almost with your discipline and college police. Good Narratives? But what doth such a school to form a great and of the Middle Passage Essay, heroic character? What abiding Hope can it inspire? What Reformer will it nurse?

What poet will it breed to sing to the human race? What discoverer of Nature's laws will it prompt to enrich us by disclosing in the mind the statute which all matter must obey? What fiery soul will it send out to warm a nation with his charity? What tranquil mind will it have fortified to walk with meekness in private and politics, obscure duties, to wait and to suffer? Is it not manifest that our academic institutions should have a wider scope; that they should not be timid and keep the ruts of the last generation, but that wise men thinking for themselves and heartily seeking the good of mankind, and counting the cost of innovation, should dare to The Extreme Cruelty of the Passage arouse the young to a just and heroic life; that the moral nature should be addressed in the school-room, and children should be treated as the high-born candidates of truth and virtue? So to regard the young child, the young man, requires, no doubt, rare patience: a patience that nothing but faith in good narratives the medial forces of the soul can give. You see his sensualism; you see his want of those tastes and perceptions which make the power and safety of your character. Very likely, But he has something else. If he has his own vice, he has its correlative virtue. Every mind should be allowed to make its own statement in action, and its balance will appear. In these judgments one needs that foresight which was attributed to an eminent reformer, of whom it was said his patience could see in the bud of the aloe the blossom at the end of a hundred years.

Alas for The Extreme Cruelty of the Middle the cripple Practice when it seeks to come up with the bird Theory, which flies before it. Try your design on the best school. The scholars are of all ages and temperaments and capacities. It is difficult to class them, some are too young, some are slow, some perverse. Each requires so much consideration, that the morning hope of the Eradicate Third World Essay, teacher, of a day of love and progress, is often closed at evening by despair. Each single case, the more it is considered, shows more to Cruelty of the Middle be done; and the strict conditions of the hours, on: one side, and good narratives, the number of tasks, on the other.

Whatever becomes of our method, the conditions stand fast--six hours, and thirty, fifty, or a hundred and fifty pupils. Something must be done, and The Extreme of the, done speedily, and in this distress the good narratives, wisest are tempted to adopt violent means, to proclaim martial law, corporal punishment, mechanical arrangement, bribes, spies, wrath, main strength and ignorance, in lieu of that wise genial providential influence they had hoped, and Middle Passage, yet hope at some future day to adopt. Of course the devotion to details reacts injuriously on the teacher. He cannot indulge his genius, he cannot delight in in the Third Essay personal relations with young friends, when his eye is The Extreme Cruelty Passage always on the clock, and twenty classes are to good narratives be dealt with before the day is done. Besides, how can he please himself with genius, and foster modest virtue?

A sure proportion of rogue and of the, dunce finds its way into every school and requires a cruel share of time, and the gentle teacher, who wished to be a Providence to youth, is grown a martinet, sore with suspicions; knows as much vice as the judge of a police court, and his love of learning is lost in the routine of grammars and books of yahoo answers politics elements. A rule is so easy that it does not need a man to apply it; an automaton, a machine, can be made to keep a school so. It facilitates labor and Passage, thought so much that there is Renal Failure, Essay always the temptation in large schools to omit the endless task of meeting the wants of each single mind, and to govern by The Extreme Cruelty of the Middle steam. But it is at yahoo politics frightful cost. Our modes of Education aim to expedite, to save labor; to do for masses what cannot be done for masses, what must be done reverently, one by one: say rather, the whole world is needed for the tuition of each pupil. The advantages of The Extreme of the Passage this system of emulation and display are so prompt and constructivist learning theory vygotsky, obvious, it is such a time-saver, it is so energetic on slow and on bad natures, and is of so easy application, needing no sage or poet, but any tutor or schoolmaster in his first term can apply it--that it is not strange that this calomel of culture should be a popular medicine. On the other hand, total abstinence from this drug, and The Extreme Cruelty Passage, the adoption of simple discipline and the following of nature involves at once immense claims on the time, the thoughts, on the Life of the teacher. Eradicate Poverty In The Essay? It requires time, use, insight, event, all the great lessons and assistances of of the God; and only to think of up toothpaste using it implies character and The Extreme Passage, profoundness; to enter on this course of discipline is to be good and politics, great.

It is precisely analogous to the difference between the use of corporal punishment and the methods of love. It is so easy to bestow on a bad boy a blow, overpower him, and get obedience without words, that in this world of hurry and distraction, who can wait for the returns of reason and the conquest of self; in Cruelty Middle Essay the uncertainty too whether that will ever come? And yet the familiar observation of the universal compensations might suggest the close, fear that so summary a stop of a bad humor was more jeopardous than its continuance. Now the correction of this quack practice is to import into Education the wisdom of life. Leave this military hurry and adopt the pace of Nature. Her secret is Cruelty Middle Passage patience. Do you know how the naturalist learns all the secrets of the forest, of plants, of birds, of beasts, of reptiles, of fishes, of the rivers and the sea? When he goes into the woods the birds fly before him and he finds none; when he goes to yahoo the river bank, the fish and the reptile swim away and leave him alone. His secret is patience; he sits down, and Cruelty of the Middle, sits still; he is a statue; he is a log.

These creatures have no value for their time, and he must put as low a rate on his. Close? By dint of obstinate sitting still, reptile, fish, bird and beast, which all wish to return to their haunts, begin to return. He sits still; if they approach, he remains passive as the stone he sits upon. They lose their fear. They have curiosity too about The Extreme of the, him. By and by the curiosity masters the fear, and they come swimming, creeping and dying towards him; and as he is still immovable, they not only Surveillance and Privacy Issues Essay, resume their haunts and their ordinary labors and manners, show themselves to him in their work-day trim, but also volunteer some degree of advances towards fellowship and good understanding with a biped who behaves so civilly and The Extreme Cruelty of the Essay, well. Can you not baffle the good narratives, impatience and passion of the child by your tranquility? Can you not wait for The Extreme Passage Essay him, as Nature and Providence do? Can you not keep for his mind and ways, for his secret, the same curiosity you give to the squirrel, snake, rabbit, and the sheldrake and Eradicate Poverty in the World, the deer?

He has a secret; wonderful methods in him; he is--every child--a new style of man; give him time and opportunity. Talk of Columbus and The Extreme, Newtonl. I tell you the child just born in yonder hovel is the beginning of a revolution as great as theirs. But you must have the believing and prophetic eye. Have the self-command you wish to good narratives inspire. Your teaching and The Extreme Cruelty of the Middle, discipIine must have the reserve and taciturnity of Nature. Teach them to hold their tongues by holding your own. Say little; do not snarl; do not chide; but govern by the eye. See what they need, and its Types and Symptoms, that the right thing is done. I confess myself utterly at a loss in The Extreme Cruelty of the Middle Essay suggesting particular reforms in our ways of teaching.

No discretion that can be lodged with a school-committee, with the overseers or visitors of an academy, of a college, can at all avail to reach these difficulties and perplexities, but they solve themselves when we leave institutions and address individuals. The will, the male power, organizes, imposes its own thought and wish on others, and makes that military eye which controls boys as it controls men; admirable in its results, a fortune to him who has it, and only dangerous when it leads the workman to yahoo answers overvalue and overuse it and of the Essay, precludes him from finer means. Sympathy, the female force--which they must use who have not the first--deficient in instant control and the breaking down of resistance, is more subtle and lasting and creative. I advise teachers to in the cherish mother-wit. I assume that you will keep the grammar, reading, writing and arithmetic in order; 'tis easy and of course you will. But smuggle in Cruelty a Iittle contraband wit, fancy, imagination, thought. If you have a taste which you have suppressed because it is not shared by those about you, tell them that. Set this law up, whatever becomes of the rules of the schooI: they must not whisper, much less talk; but if one of the young people says a wise thing, greet it, and let all the children clap their hands. Constructivist? They shall have no book but school-books in the room; but if one has brought in a Plutarch or Shakespeare or Don Quixote or Goldsmith or any other good book, and understands what be reads, put him at The Extreme Cruelty Middle once at the head of the class. Nobody shall be disorderly, or leave his desk without permission, but if a boy runs from his bench, or a girl, because the close, fire falls, or to check some injury that a little dastard is indicting behind his desk on some helpless sufferer, take away the medal from the head of the class and The Extreme Passage, give it on the instant to the brave rescuer.

If a child happens to show that he knows any fact about astronomy, or plants, or birds, or rocks, or history, that interests him and you, hush all the good narratives, classes and encourage him to of the Middle Passage ten it so that all may hear. Then you have made your school-room like the world. Failure, Its Types And Symptoms Essay? Of course you will insist on modesty in the children, and respect to their teachers, but if the boy stops you in your speech, cries out that you are wrong and sets you right, hug him! To whatsoever upright mind, to whatsoever beating heart I speak, to you it is committed to educate men. By simple living, by an illimitable soul, you inspire, you correct, you instruct, you raise, you embellish all. By your own act you teach the behold how to do the practicable. According to the depth from which you draw your life, such is the depth not only of your strenuous effort, but of your manners and presence. The beautiful nature of the world has here blended your happiness with your power. Cruelty Essay? Work straight on in absolute duty, and you lend an arm and an encouragement to all the youth of the universe. And Privacy? Consent yourself to be an organ of your highest thought, and lo! suddenly you put all men in Cruelty of the Middle Passage Essay your debt, and are the fountain of an energy that goes pulsing on with waves of learning vygotsky benefit to the borders of society, to the circumference of things.

See also the following article: Morton M. Sealts, Jr. Emerson as Teacher. In Emerson Centenary Essays. The Extreme Cruelty Of The Passage Essay? , pp. 180-190.