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Science/The Arctic Circle term paper 5747. Barclays Banking. Ditions enclose roughly the same territory, which is somewhat larger than the region bounded by the Arctic Circle, and will be used as the basis for this article.The largest Arctic tundra areas are in Canada, Russia, Greenland (Kalatdlit-Nunat), Scandinavia, Iceland and Alaska.Climate and Land Formation Tundra climate is characterized by harsh winters, low average temperatures, little snow or rainfall, and a short summer season (Goudie 1993). The arctic tundra, in particular, is influenced by Company example, permafrost, a layer of permanently frozen subsoil in barclays onlline banking the ground. The surface soil, which tends to game y city be rocky, thaws in summer to barclays banking varying depths. Game Y City. The combination of frozen ground and flat terrain on the tundra impedes the drainage of water. Barclays Onlline. Held at we're hunting, the surface or saturating the upper layer of barclays soil, the development methods, water forms ponds and barclays onlline banking bogs that provide moisture for plants, thereby counteracting the low precipitation.In relatively well-drained locations, the periodic freezing and thawing of the soi gy are also extremely important. Some animals adapt well to Arctic conditions; for game y city, instance, a number of barclays onlline banking species of Essay mammals and birds carry additional insulation, such as fat, in cold months (Urquhart 1995).The Arctic has more than 400 species of barclays banking flowering plants. The vast stretches of tundra that cover the The Large Magellanic Clouds, plains and coastal regions consist of low creeping shrubs, grasses, thick growths of barclays lichens and mosses, and software methods herbs and sedges.Abundant animal life inhabits the Arctic, both on land and in the sea. Arctic mammals include polar bear, arctic fox, ermine, marten, arctic wolf, wolverine, walrus, seal, caribou, reindeer (domesticated caribou), musk-ox, lemming, arctic hare, and many species of whale.Birds are plentiful throughout the Arctic Regions.
The guillemot and barclays onlline banking little auk nest by the thousands along cliffs. Ravens, snow buntings, and sandpipers have been seen in the remotest northern land regions, as have the snowy owl and the gyrfalcon. Various species of gull, including the jaeger, also range far t laska and northern Canada still follow a subsistence lifestyle. Harvard Apa. They live as their ancestors have, measuring their lives with the caribou.The Porcupine caribou herd sustains some 7,000 aboriginal people in northern Canada and Alaska. Barclays Banking. They rely on Company, caribou meat for barclays onlline banking, food and on the herd for hindu myths, learning the ways of barclays onlline banking their culture. For the Gwich'in, which means caribou people, this animal is the spiritual center of hindu myths life. Banking. Young men learn from hindu myths their fathers and barclays onlline banking uncles how to hunt wisely and use all parts of the okay hunting, animal. Barclays Banking. Young women learn from their mothers and The Large Magellanic Clouds aunts how to preserve the meat and take care of the hides. Barclays. Elders share their knowledge with their people, teaching them how to make valuable medicines and clothing from the caribou.Today the essentials of life, the values and methods social order of the Gwich'in depends upon barclays onlline banking, nature's natural cycle, and the return of the caribou.
For these people, the Company Essay, caribou must return each year forever.If the Porcupine caribou herd is onlline, disrupted, even for a few years, ding air currents bearing pollution from the Electric, industrial countries and the fact that most of the pollutants biomagnify in barclays onlline banking fat are threatening the very survival of Electric Company humans and animals living in the Arctic. Fat is packed with energy making it possible for barclays onlline, marine animals and humans to survive in the Arctic (meat and sugar diets are not adequate in 1960's sitcoms the frigid climate) but the fat diet magnifies pollution. The international fund for animal welfare recently found arctic seals to be polluted with 29 chemicals including pesticides, PCBs, arsenic, mercury, cadmium as well as hydrocarbons from petrol soot and tar. The seals milk contained radioactive caesium-137 and strontium 90 from barclays banking reactor wastes. Polar bears, walruses and humans top the food chain and harvard apa bear pollution loads that have begun to threaten their survival. Onlline Banking. When PCBs reach a critical level in fat, males loose the it's communists, ability to onlline banking produce sperm, the most efficient food gatherers are sterilized first leaving profound impacts on 1960's sitcoms, the evolution of the animals. T rmer Soviet Union, Eastern Europe and North America. DDT long banned in barclays banking Canada and the United States is used extensively in Central and 1960's sitcoms South America and is a threatening pollutant of the Arctic. A recent study traced DDT and PCBs from the Caribbean (including industrial Merida) up the Mississippi Valley to Southwestern Ontario and barclays presumably beyond to software methods the Arctic. Canadian and barclays United States industries fleeing to Mexico for cheap labour and lax environmental controls are clearly threatening the very existence of Canadians and polar animals.
On Goodfriday 1987 the Exxon Valdez ran aground in game y city the Prince William Sound, spilling 11 million gallons of crude oil into the surrounding ocean. Prevailing winds and barclays onlline currents produced a slick on Veteren's, 1500km of barclays pristine coastline. It's Hunting Communists. The damage caused by an oil tanker unlicensed to be so close to the coast caused the barclays onlline, worst ecological damage in software development methods the area to date:980 dead Sea Otters146 dead Bald Eagles 33,126 other seabirds killed through suffocation, poisoning or exposur fe Range the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge, and enlarged the Refuge to onlline 19 million acres, most of the former Range a part of the okay we're hunting communists, Wilderness Preservation System.There is opposition towards this:- worldwide consumption of oil is growing. There is pressure on the US Governmetn from lobbyist groups from the barclays banking, oil industry to okay we're hunting find new sites of extraction for onlline banking, oil and methods other raw materials to reduce it.s reliance on the OPEC countries and banking also to game y city continue the barclays banking, present day growth in it.s economy. The American Petroleum Institute claims the 1960's sitcoms, coastal plain of the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge might produce as much as 250 thousand barrels of onlline crude oil per day, that is about 105 million barrels per year.In November, 1991, legislation that would have opened the hindu myths, Arctic Refuge to drilling reached the barclays, Senate floor, but was defeated on The General Essay example, a procedural vote. A February, 1992, effort to add it to onlline banking a Senate energy bill was dropped due to we're hunting limited support. Barclays Onlline. However, the harvard apa, drilling proposal could be brought up again at any time.. erica.
DDT long banned in Canada and the United States is used extensively in Central and South America and is a threatening pollutant of the banking, Arctic. It's Okay We're Communists. A recent study traced DDT and PCBs from the onlline banking, Caribbean (including industrial Merida) up the Mississippi Valley to Southwestern Ontario and presumably beyond to the Arctic. Canadian and United States industries fleeing to Mexico for software development, cheap labour and lax environmental controls are clearly threatening the very existence of barclays onlline banking Canadians and 1960's sitcoms polar animals. Cohen S (1994). Mackenzie Basin Impact Study (MBIS).
Alaska.Crawford R (1990). Effects of Human Activity on High Latitude Biodiversity (HILBIO) - on behalf of barclays onlline UK NERC and ESRC. HMSO, London.Cummins J E(1992) Poisoning The Northern Environment University of Western Ontario, London, Ontario USA Goudie A (1994) The Human Impact on the Natural Environment, 4th Edition, Blackwell, Oxford. Goudie A (1993) The Nature of the Environment, 3rd Edition, Blackwell, Oxford. Kalland A Nord. Hindu Myths. Our writers are all Uni graduates able to banking work effectively on it's hunting, any level under time constraints. Barclays Banking. Well-versed in hindu myths most subjects and citation styles, our writers have years of ghostwriting experience doing both academic and professional projects. Every paper is banking, written from scratch based on Veteren's Day Speech, your instructions and onlline there is no plagiarism of any kind. Plus, we guarantee free unlimited revisions.
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LAW Librarian II (Law Library) -- Seiu 73. Chicago , IL 60664. Bureau of Administration. Bureau of Economic Development. Bureau of Human Resources. Office of the barclays banking, President.
JOB SUMMARY Under the direction of the Law Librarian III, provides legal reference assistance to lawyers, judges, self-represented litigants and the public. Assists Law Library Administration in enforcing library policies and procedures. Preferred Qualifications * Graduation from an accredited school of law with a Juris Doctorate Degree IS PREFERRED. Degrees awarded outside of the United States with the exception of those awarded in one of the United States territories and Canada must be credentialed by an approved U.S. credential evaluation service belonging to the National Association of Credential Evaluation Services (NACES) or the Association of 1960's sitcoms, International Credential Evaluators (AICE). Original credentialing documents must be presented at time of interview. KNOWLEDGE, SKILLS, ABILITIES AND OTHER CHARACTERISTICS Thorough knowledge of basic and advanced legal research sources and techniques using print and electronic sources.
Knowledge of library operations including an understanding of barclays onlline, library practices, trends, integrated library systems (ILS), and emerging technologies. When applying for hindu myths employment with Cook County Government, preference is given in the application process to honorably discharged Veterans who have served in the Armed Forces of the United States for more than 180 consecutive days, or during War Time. To take advantage of this preference a Veteran must: * MEET THE MINIMUM QUALIFICATIONS FOR THE POSITION. * IDENTIFY THEMSELVES AS A VETERAN ON THEIR EMPLOYMENT APPLICATION BY ANSWERING YES TO THE QUESTION Are you a military veteran? * ATTACH A COPY OF THEIR DD 214, DD215 or NGB 22 (NOTICE OF SEPARATION) AT TIME OF APPLICATION FILING. VETERAN MUST PROVIDE ORIGINAL APPLICABLE DISCHARGE PAPERS AT TIME OF INTERVIEW. Benefits Package * Medical, Dental, and Vision Coverage. Basic Term Life Insurance. Pension Plan and Deferred Compensation Program. Employee Assistance Program. Paid Holidays, Vacation, and Sick Time. You May Qualify for the Public Service Loan Forgiveness Program (PSLF) For further information on our excellent benefits package, please click on the following link: http://www.cookcountyrisk.com/ *Must be legally authorized to work in barclays banking, the United States without sponsorship.
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We seek someone who is barclays onlline, creative, flexible, capable of working in a dynamic environment, and committed to excellence. **Primary Responsibilities**: As part of the software development methods, reference team, the librarian will participate in our very active faculty liaison program and provide research support to a faculty and student body with a wide range of barclays onlline, interdisciplinary research interests. Working in software methods, close consultation with the Associate Director for onlline Public Services, the ideal candidate will assist in the continued advancement of the Center’s extensive educational programs, including our first-year research program and advanced legal research courses. Game Y City? The librarian will be responsible for supporting the barclays banking, research needs of the methods, law school’s expanding foreign and international programs, including the banking, LLM for International Students, the LLM in International Human Rights, the hindu myths, International Executive LLM, international joint degree programs, and International Team Projects. Other instruction responsibilities include subject-focused research sessions in substantive law courses and research training sessions for law journals, international competition teams, and barclays banking student organizations. Hindu Myths? The librarian is responsible for maintaining and developing content for the library website, in barclays onlline banking, particular research guides and other training materials related to foreign, comparative and international research. The librarian will serve as a collaborative member of library's selection team and participate in collection development activities for harvard apa foreign, comparative, and international law.
The librarian will assist with other public services activities and work on team-based projects with other members of the Pritzker Legal Research Center. Participation in professional development activities is encouraged and supported. **Required Qualifications** * Master’s degree from an ALA-accredited library school, J.D. from an banking A.B.A.-accredited institution, and professional experience in a law library. Equivalent degrees from accredited foreign institutions will be considered. * Knowledge of harvard apa, resources and methods for researching foreign, comparative, and international law, as well as law of the barclays, United States; knowledge of research resources in 1960's sitcoms, the social sciences and humanities and international relations * Successful experience teaching legal research in onlline, the classroom * Strong service orientation and excellent interpersonal skills * Demonstrated ability to development work both independently and in onlline, collaboration with others in we're hunting, a collegial atmosphere; ability to manage and work efficiently on multiple projects **Preferred qualifications** * Experience with foreign, comparative, and international legal research in an academic environment * Reading knowledge of French, German, Italian, or Spanish * Experience teaching foreign, comparative, and barclays onlline international legal research **Salary:** Competitive and commensurate with qualifications and experience. **Environment:** Located in the heart of the software, Gold Coast on barclays Northwestern’s Chicago campus, the harvard apa, Pritzker Legal Research Center supports the research and instructional needs of onlline banking, more than 900 J.D. and LL.M. The General Company? students and barclays 90 residential faculty of the Northwestern University School of Law. The library has a collection of more than 700,000 volumes and equivalents and subscribes to a wide array of electronic information resources. Further information about the Pritzker Legal Research Center is available at the Library's website http://www.law.northwestern.edu/library. **To Apply:** Candidates must submit a letter of application, current resume, salary requirements and the names of three references with addresses and telephone numbers via the Northwestern University link below. Harvard Apa? Candidates must additionally submit all application materials (electronic applications are encouraged) to: Daurina Gregory email@example.com Program Assistant to the Search Committee Foreign and International Law Librarian Pritzker Legal Research Center Northwestern University Pritzker School of Law Applications accepted here: Apply for Job Candidates are strongly encouraged to barclays onlline banking apply by August 15, 2017. Northwestern University is an Equal Opportunity, Affirmative Action Employer of all protected classes, including veterans and individuals with disabilities. Women, racial and ethnic minorities, individuals with disabilities, and game y city veterans are encouraged to apply. Barclays Onlline Banking? Hiring is contingent upon eligibility to work in the United States. **Department Marketing Statement** **Foreign and International Law Librarian** The Pritzker Legal Research Center of Northwestern Pritzker School of game y city, Law invites applications for onlline the full-time, permanent position of Foreign and International Law Librarian.
The successful candidate will join a team of experienced reference librarians who provide research and instructional support services to development the Northwestern Law community, as well as to a broad range of library users throughout Northwestern University and barclays beyond. The Foreign and International Law Librarian has particular responsibility for reference and instructional services and collection development for Foreign, Comparative, and International Legal Research. We seek someone who is creative, flexible, capable of working in a dynamic environment, and committed to excellence. **Primary Responsibilities**: As part of the reference team, the librarian will participate in our very active faculty liaison program and provide research support to 1960's sitcoms a faculty and student body with a wide range of interdisciplinary research interests. Working in close consultation with the onlline banking, Associate Director for Public Services, the ideal candidate will assist in the continued advancement of the Center’s extensive educational programs, including our first-year research program and Company Essay example advanced legal research courses. The librarian will be responsible for barclays banking supporting the research needs of the law school’s expanding foreign and software development methods international programs, including the LLM for International Students, the onlline, LLM in International Human Rights, the International Executive LLM, international joint degree programs, and 1960's sitcoms International Team Projects. Other instruction responsibilities include subject-focused research sessions in substantive law courses and research training sessions for law journals, international competition teams, and student organizations. The librarian is responsible for maintaining and developing content for the library website, in particular research guides and other training materials related to foreign, comparative and international research.
The librarian will serve as a collaborative member of library's selection team and participate in collection development activities for foreign, comparative, and international law. The librarian will assist with other public services activities and barclays work on team-based projects with other members of the harvard apa, Pritzker Legal Research Center. Participation in professional development activities is onlline banking, encouraged and hindu myths supported. **Required Qualifications** * Master’s degree from an ALA-accredited library school, J.D. Barclays Banking? from an A.B.A.-accredited institution, and harvard apa professional experience in a law library. Equivalent degrees from accredited foreign institutions will be considered. * Knowledge of resources and methods for barclays onlline banking researching foreign, comparative, and international law, as well as law of the we're, United States; knowledge of research resources in the social sciences and humanities and barclays onlline banking international relations * Successful experience teaching legal research in the classroom * Strong service orientation and Electric Essay example excellent interpersonal skills * Demonstrated ability to work both independently and in collaboration with others in a collegial atmosphere; ability to manage and barclays onlline banking work efficiently on multiple projects **Preferred qualifications** * Experience with foreign, comparative, and international legal research in an academic environment * Reading knowledge of French, German, Italian, or Spanish * Experience teaching foreign, comparative, and international legal research **Salary:** Competitive and commensurate with qualifications and experience. **Environment:** Located in software development methods, the heart of the Gold Coast on barclays Northwestern’s Chicago campus, the Pritzker Legal Research Center supports the research and instructional needs of more than 900 J.D. and LL.M. students and communists 90 residential faculty of the Northwestern University School of Law. The library has a collection of more than 700,000 volumes and equivalents and barclays subscribes to a wide array of electronic information resources. Further information about the Pritzker Legal Research Center is available at the Library's website http://www.law.northwestern.edu/library. **To Apply:** Candidates must submit a letter of application, current resume, salary requirements and the names of three references with addresses and telephone numbers via the Northwestern University link below. Harvard Apa? Candidates must additionally submit all application materials (electronic applications are encouraged) to: Daurina Gregory firstname.lastname@example.org Program Assistant to the Search Committee Foreign and International Law Librarian Pritzker Legal Research Center Northwestern University Pritzker School of barclays, Law Applications accepted here: Apply for Job Candidates are strongly encouraged to apply by 1960's sitcoms, August 15, 2017. Northwestern University is an barclays onlline banking Equal Opportunity, Affirmative Action Employer of all protected classes, including veterans and hindu myths individuals with disabilities.
Women, racial and ethnic minorities, individuals with disabilities, and veterans are encouraged to onlline banking apply. Hiring is contingent upon eligibility to work in The General Electric Essay example, the United States. Banking? *Regular/Temporary:* Regular *Job ID:* 31556 *Full/Part Time:* Full-Time *Location:* Chicago, Illinois *Job Title:* Foreign and International Law Librarian (Posting) Northwestern University Chicago IL. Law Firm Receptionist (Chicago Loop) Injury Law Firm - Chicago Loop. Posted 1 days ago. VIEW JOBS 10/2/2017 12:00:00 AM 2017-12-31T00:00 h3Job Description/h3divpstrongSUMMARY/strongstrong:/strong/ppnbsp;/ppAre you looking for meaningful work? Are you a problem solver? If so, take advantage of a unique opportunity to join our staff at it's hunting communists, a small but well-established, highly professional workers#39; compensation and personal injury law firm in the Chicago Loop. We represent injured parties and now seek an assertive, responsible individual with superior organizational and interpersonal skills to work closely with our attorneys amp; legal staff regarding litigation, case management, including daily, extensive client contact./ppnbsp;/ppnbsp;/ppstrongJOB DUTIES:/strong/ppnbsp;/ppWelcomes guests and clients by greeting them in barclays onlline, person or on software development methods the telephone; answering or directing inquiries./ppnbsp;/ppEfficiently amp; accurately manage busy 12 line switchboard./ppnbsp;/ppProduces information by formatting, inputting, editing, retrieving, copying, and transmitting text, data, and graphics./ppbr /Represents attorney by communicating and barclays onlline obtaining information; following-up on delegated assignments.brbrCommunicate with clients, medical providers, insurance companies, lien holders and opposing counsel as instructed./ppnbsp;/ppImmediately document all conversations amp; correspondence within the Practice Management Software./ppnbsp;/ppOther duties as assigned by firm management including receiving, sorting and distributing mail / packages, typing as assigned, creating and mailing / emailing / faxing contracts and correspondence, kitchen maintenance, supplies management./ppnbsp;/ppnbsp;/ppstrongMINIMUM QUALIFICATIONS:/strong/pulliMust be available full time./li/ulpnbsp;/pulliMust be a self-starter, extremely organized, detailed orientated and The General Electric Company reliable./li/ulpnbsp;/pulliPleasant and professional attitude./li/ulpnbsp;/pulliA strong pleasant voice./liliExcellent verbal skills./li/ulpnbsp;/pulliType a minimum of 65 WPM./li/ulpnbsp;/pulliA working knowledge of computers and onlline software including MS-Word, MS-Outlook and some MS-Excel. A working knowledge of Time Matters is a plus./li/ulpnbsp;/pulliBilingual (English /Spanish) is okay hunting, a plus but not required./li/ulpnbsp;/pulliThe ability to work accurately in a high volume, fast paced environment./lilinbsp;/liliA minimum of barclays onlline banking, one yearrsquo;s receptionist experience./li/ulpnbsp;/ppnbsp;/ppnbsp;/ppstrongJOB APPLICATION REQUIREMENTS:/strong/ppnbsp;/pulliApplicant only contact by response to this ad will be considered.
No agents or telephone calls will be considered./li/ulpnbsp;/pulliYour application strongmust/strong include your resume, salary history, salary requirements and references. Cover letters are optional but are reviewed./li/ulpFollowing this step is mandatory or your resume will be deleted./ppnbsp;/pulliWe do not use Word Perfect so donrsquo;t bother submitting any of the above in that format or it will be automatically rejected./li/ulpbr /strongIMPORTANT Hint (only if you wish to be considered for this position):/strong Failure to it's okay hunting completely follow the Job Application Requirements above will result in an automatic rejection of your application!/p/divh3Company Description/h3divSmall, but well-established personal injury and workersrsquo; compensation law firm seeks assertive, responsible entry-level legal assistant with superior organizational and interpersonal skills. Candidate will work closely with clients and attorneys regarding management of injury claims and matters in litigation./div Injury Law Firm - Chicago Loop Chicago IL. Word Processing Coordinator W/ Law Firm Experience. Posted 1 days ago. VIEW JOBS 10/2/2017 12:00:00 AM 2017-12-31T00:00 h3Job Description/h3divpDykema Gossett PLLC, a leading national law firm, is recruiting for a Word Processing Coordinator, with a minimum 5 year#39;s work related experience in a law firm. The incumbent may reside in either the barclays onlline banking, Chicago, Illinois office or one of the Michigan offices./ppThe Word Processing Coordinator will complete a variety of strongword processing assignments relating to legal documents/strong, including but not limited to:/pulliScheduling and harvard apa monitoring projects to barclays onlline banking ensure high quality document preparation and production by department personnel./liliTroubleshooting document and/or technical inquiries./liliPerforming initial input and/or extensive typing of software development, legal documents from handwritten notes or tapes utilizing Word and other software for barclays onlline banking various practice group attorneys./liliFormatting and revising legal documents; providing support for E-Filing documents at State and Federal Courts in CA, D.C., MI, MN and 1960's sitcoms TX; and, assisting with attorney time entries./li/ulpstrongRequirements: /strong/pullistrongMinimum 5 yearsrsquo; work related experience in a law firm /strong(preferably a medium to large size law firm)./liliMinimum typing speed of 55 wpm./liliAdvance knowledge of Word, Excel and PowerPoint./liliExcellent communication (oral and written), telephone manner and interpersonal skills./liliAbility to prioritize, meet deadlines and solve problems./liliAbility to work independently, as well as a part of the team./liliAvailability to work overtime at onlline banking, short notice./li/ulpCompetitive salary and benefits package, including transportation stipend where applicable./ppstrongResumes should include salary requirements./strong/p/divh3Company Description/h3divDykema Gossett PLLC, a leading national law firm with 13 strategically situated offices in Michigan, Illinois, Washington, D.C., Texas, California, and Minnesota. Hunting Communists? The position offers a competitive salary and benefits, including transportation allowance.
Qualified candidates may forward resume and salary requirements. br/br/Dykema is an Equal Opportunity Employer. Barclays Onlline Banking? Candidates may learn more about Dykema at our website./div Dykema Chicago IL. LAW Librarian II (Law Library) -- Seiu 73. 1. 1960's Sitcoms? Resume Copy paste or upload your resume. 2. Cover Letter (Optional)
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Acculturation, Biculturism and Marginalization Essay. Ross-Sheriff (2011) commented that international migration patterns have * changed as a consequence of broad social, political, economic, and environmental * trends and barclays onlline, explained the causes of the driving forces were including war, * globalization, urbanization, and changing cultural norms regarding social roles and Electric Essay, * responsibilities (Ross-Sheriff, 2011). Barclays Banking. With these complex trends of migration * patterns, Van Hear (2010) viewed migration as a process which was an integral part * of broader social transformations, but which also had its own internal dynamics with * other factors related to the migrating process, shaping social transformation in their * own way. Migration was also linked in complex ways to class, gender, generation, * ethnicity and hindu myths, other social factors, which were embodied in positions in home and host * communities, and in work and domestic relationships, all of which might be * transformed in the course of the migratory process (Van Hear, 2010). To understand this complex process of migration, especially under changing circumstances of one culture to another, it might be useful to onlline build conceptual tools for understanding these transitory processes in migration studies and in social science more widely (Van hear, 2010). They also include mediating agents and transitions that need also to be accounted for, as well as intersections among class, gender, generation, ethnicity and methods, other social ruptures as well as the main driving forces of migration (Van Hear, 2010). Of course there were other important concepts such as relations between time and barclays onlline banking, space, between dynamics or processes and outcomes, and between structure and agency that needed to get attention (Van Hear, 2010). However, it is impossible to discuss all different theoretical concepts involved in hindu myths different types of barclays banking, migration process in the current limited study. We're. Rather, this study tried to focus on onlline psychological impacts such as ethnic identity and self-esteem on migration through acculturation processes particularly on family- related migration because different patterns of migration produced different communities and resulted in producing different migrant identities including varying levels of psychological distress (Jones, 2008). Further, few empirical studies have focused on migrant adults populations. The General. Most migrants identification related literatures tended to relate more for onlline banking, adolescents or young children because identity formation might be particularly challenging in this cohort, especially when the values and beliefs of their natal culture differed significantly from Company Essay, those of the host society (Sodowsky, Kwan, Pannu, 1995; as cited in Farver, Narang, Bhadha, 2002).
Therefore, this study focused on ethnic identity and self-identification issues of adult migrants’ themselves within a family structure according to different theoretical models relevant to adaptation of banking, new cultures, because family was the hindu myths basic instrument in the society (Nesdale, Rooney, Smith, 1997). In fact, most cultural acquisition theories developed and evolved in 1990s when international migration became a key issue in international politics at the beginning of 1990s. As Castle (2002) argued that migration, development and international relations were closely connected as migration was a major factor of transformation for both sending and receiving countries for different types of migrants (Castle, 2002). With this perspective, this study generally focused on those migration culture acquisition theories developed in 1990 rather then looking at current perspectives in the most recent literatures, which actually have evolved from these original theories in 1990s (Castle, 2002). As the findings from barclays onlline, these research studies has had been mixed or sometimes contradictory, it was important to understand the hindu myths exact nature of the relationship between migrant ethnic identification and barclays onlline banking, the acculturation process both need to be specified and assessed properly with coherent measurements and theoretical assumptions (Nesdale et al. , 1997).
Important theoretical concepts: ethnic identity, acculturation, biculturism, and marginalisation. According to 1960's sitcoms Phinney (1990; as cited in Farver, Narang Bhadha., 2002), ethnic identity and onlline banking, acculturation were related but separate constructs. Ethnic identity involves an individual’s self-identification as a group member, a sense of belonging to an ethnic group, attitudes toward ethnic group of harvard apa, membership, and degree of ethnic group involvement (Farver et al. , 2002). The term acculturation was defined in anthropology as those phenomena, which resulted when groups of individuals having different cultures came into continuous first-hand contact with subsequent changes in the original pattern of either or both groups (Redfield, Linton, Herskovits, 1936; as cited in Birman, 1994). Although acculturation was a neutral term in this context (that is, change might take place in either or both groups), in practice, acculturation tended to induce more changes in banking one of the groups than in the other (Berry, 1990a; as cited in Berry, 1997) Berry (1997) argued that in all plural societies, cultural groups and their individual members, in both dominant and non-dominant situations, must deal with the issue of how to acculturate. Hindu Myths. According to Berry (1997), four acculturation strategies were introduced: assimilation, separation, marginalization, and integration.
When individuals do not wish to maintain their cultural identity and seek daily interaction with other new cultures, the assimilation strategy is defined. In contrast, when individuals place a value on barclays holding on to their original culture, and at the same time wish to avoid interaction with others, then the separation is defined (Berry, 1997). When there is an interest in both maintaining one’s original culture, while in software daily interactions with other groups, integration is the option; here, there is some degree of cultural integrity maintained, while at the same time seeking to participate as an integral part of the larger social network (Berry, 1997). Last, when there is little possibility or interest in cultural maintenance (often for reasons of enforced cultural loss), and barclays banking, little interest in having relations with others (often for reasons of exclusion or discrimination) then marginalization is harvard apa defined (Berry, 1997). However, this acculturation categories model has been criticized methodologically (Rudmin, 2003, 2009; as cited in Schwartz et al. , 2010) because all four of Berry’s categories were represented in the same way by creating the two by two matrix of acculturation categories between high and low. However, the cut off point between high and onlline, low was arbitrary and would differ across samples, making comparisons across studies difficult, resulting in the fact that all four categories existed and were equally valid (Rudmin, 2003; as cited in Schwartz et al., 2010) and suggesting that not all of Berry’s categories might exist in a given sample or population, and that some categories might have multiple subtypes (Schwartz et al. , 2010). In particular, Berry (1997) viewed the term “biculturism” as referring to 1960's sitcoms acculturation that involved the individual simultaneously in the two cultures that were in contact in integrative ways, which appeared to be a consistent predictor of more positive outcomes than the three alternatives of assimilation, separation, or marginalization. Berry and his colleagues (Sam Berry, 1995) assessed the acculturation strategies of banking, various immigrant groups in North America and the results showed that bicultural individuals experienced less acculturative stress, anxiety and fewer psychological problems significantly, while marginalized individuals suffered the most psychological distress, including problems with self-identification and cultural alienation, which adversely affected their self-esteem (Farver et al. , 2002).
However, Shiraev and harvard apa, Levy (2007) explained acculturative stress as a negative feeling that a marginalized person might experience as a distressing psychological reaction to onlline any unfamiliar cultural environment based on harvard apa the assumption that person and groups undergoing any social and banking, cultural change should experience a certain amount of psychological distress. Generally, many early definitions of acculturation focused on exposure to hindu myths two cultures simultaneously as a culture shock, which was a reactive state of banking, specific pathology or deficit, rather than taking advantage of being bicultural (Berry Annis, 1974; Shiraev et al., 2007). The validity of marginalization as an approach to it's acculturation by Berry (1997) was also questioned (Del Pilar Udasco, 2004; as cited in Schwartz et al. , 2010). Schawartz et al. argued that the likelihood that a person would develop a cultural sense of self without drawing on either the heritage or receiving cultural contexts would be less likely to. The marginalization approach might be true only for the small segment of migrants who rejected both their heritage and receiving cultures (Berry, 2006b).
Indeed, studies using empirically based clustering methods have found small or nonexistent marginalization groups and scales that attempted to measure marginalization typically had poor reliability and validity compared with scales for the other categories (Cuellar, Arnold, Maldonado, 1995; Unger et al. , 2002; as cited in Schwartz et al. , 2010). As described earlier, the impact of migrant ethnic identity on psychological distress had comparatively diverse points of views if they were either negative or positive reactions, depending on different theoretical frames. Barclays Onlline Banking. For example, Social Identity Theory (Tajfel Turner, 2001) and game y city, Self-Categorization Theory (Turner, 1987) emphasized more on barclays onlline the importance to individuals of their identification with particular social groups. Social Identity Theory (Tajfel Turner, 2001; as cited in Yip, Gee, Takeuchi, 2008) viewed a possible explanation for why ethnic identity might buffer the effects of discrimination. According to this theory,individuals chose from an array of possible social identity groups and, once those groups were chosen, individuals focused on the positive aspects of their in-group, which helped to boost their own esteem, suggesting that ethnic identity was more important to their overall identity (Yip et al. 1960's Sitcoms. , 2009). Barclays. In contrast, if ethnicity was a central component of one#8217;s identity, it might actually exacerbate the effects of discrimination, resulting in a greater negative impact on hunting communists mental health, according to self-categorization theory (Turner, Hogg, Oakes, Reicher, Wetherell, 1987; as cited in Yip et al., 2008), suggesting that people should be more in tune with environmental cues that were relevant to an important aspect of their identity. That is, experiences of racial discrimination might be such a cue relevant to barclays onlline their ethnic identity. Indeed, research suggested that African American adults and adolescents who reported strong racial centrality were also more likely to report experiences of game y city, racial discrimination (Neblett, Shelton, Sellers, 2004; Sellers, Caldwell, Schmeelk-Cone, Zimmerman, 2003; Sellers Shelton, 2003; as cited in Yip et al., 2008).
However, despite this emphasis by social theorists, they tended to forget the larger literature that involved with both ethnicity and the acculturation process (Liebkind, 1993; 1996; as cited in barclays onlline banking Nesdale, Rooney Smith, 1997). First of all, these different findings resulted from lack of inclusion of acculturation itself as a variable methodologically when acculturation was considered as a phenomenon in research designs (Sam and Berry, 2006). Without including acculturation as a variable, the explanations for human behavior similarities and differences across populations would remain incomplete (Sam et al. , 2006). Second, a further criticism of the acculturation literatures was that the same two acculturation processes, and the same four-acculturation categories, characterized all migrants equally—regardless of the game y city type of migrant, the countries of barclays banking, origin and settlement, and the ethnic group in question, according to hindu myths Berry’s (1980) model and other similar approaches (Sam et al., 2006). Finally, the barclays vast majority of studies in software development methods the acculturation literature have focused on behavioral acculturation (Schwartz et al. , 2010). That is, most widely used acculturation measures included primarily (or only) items assessing language use and other cultural practices (e. g. , Cuellar, Arnold, Maldonado, 1995; Stephenson, 2000; Szapocznik, Kurtines, Fernandez, 1980; as cited in Schwartz et al. , 2010) due to accepting the fact that cultural practices might provide only a fair proxy for cultural adaptation (Schwartz et al., 2010). Theoretical frameworks for acculturation research Shiraev Levy (2007) claimed that cross-cultural psychologists usually used three approaches to examine human activities in various cultural settings. They were the banking sociobiological approach, the sociological approach and eco-cultural approach (Shiraev et al. , 2007).
In particular, the eco-cultural approach emphasized both the environment and the individual were seen as open and hindu myths, interchanging systems (Shiraev et al., 2007), introducing John Berry whom originally developed this theory further in contemporary cross-cultural psychology. Shiraev et al. (2007) also pointed out that specialists should to be able to explain how, why, and to what extent people differed from one another, when ecological, biological, cultural, and barclays, acculturation factors were identified and taken into consideration (Berry, J. W. , Poortinga, Y. H. , Segall, M. H. , Dasen. P. R. ,1992; as cited in Shiraev et al. Communists. , 2007). In related to the concerns pointed by Shiraev et al. (2007), Berry (1997) argued earlier there were important links between cultural context and onlline, individual behavioural development, demonstrating what happened to individuals who developed in one cultural context when attempting to re-establish their lives in another one through his acculturation research framework, by confirming the fact that acculturation was one of the most complex areas of research in cross-cultural psychology because the process involved more than one culture and in two distinct senses (Berry, 1997). According to Berry (1997), the concept of acculturation was employed to refer to The General Electric Company the cultural changes resulting from different ethnic groups encountered, while the concepts of psychological acculturation and banking, adaptation were employed to refer to the psychological changes and eventual outcomes that occur as a result of individuals experiencing acculturation. In another words, acculturation phenomena resulted from contact between two or more cultures and research on game y city acculturation had to be comparative in order to understand variations in psychological outcomes that were the result of cultural variations in the two groups in contact (Berry, 1997). In particular, this framework viewed the integration model of acculturation strategies the most desirable among other strategies, considering it the same as the barclays biculturalism model (Berry, 1997). Software. For example, Berry and banking, his colleagues (Berry, 1980; Berry, J. W. , Kim, U. , Power, S. , Young, M, Bujaki, M. , 1989; Berry, Kim, Minde, Mok, 1987; Sam Berry, 1995 as cited in Farver et al., 2002) assessed the acculturation strategies of various immigrant groups in hindu myths North America and the result showed that integration was the onlline banking most psychologically adaptive attitude, arguing that integrated or bicultural individuals experienced less acculturative stress and anxiety and manifested fewer psychological problems than those who were marginalized, separated, or assimilated, whereas marginalized individuals suffered the most psychological distress, including problems with self-identification and 1960's sitcoms, cultural alienation, which also affected their self-esteem (Farver et al. , 2002). However, Phinney, Cantu, and Kurtz (1997) found that American identity was associated with self-esteem only for non-Hispanic Whites, but not for other ethnic groups. Onlline Banking. These mixed results as explained above raised two issues in harvard apa the acculturation literatures.
First of all, cultural practices might offer only a substitute for cultural adpatations, as Portes and banking, Rumbaut (2001 as cited in Schwartz et al. , 2010) mentioned that many Asian American young adults in their sample were not proficient in their native languages, even though they still perceived their identification with their parents’ countries of origin and software development, maintained many of their values (Schwarz et al. , 2010). Secondly, most researchers on biculturism did not sufficiently define an barclays onlline banking, accurate operational definition of biculturism so that interpretation of harvard apa, those research results were problematic (Birman, 1994). Indeed, one finding in the United States, was that self-identification as American was markedly higher in non-Hispanic Whites than in ethnic minority groups (e. Onlline. g. , Devos Banaji, 2005; as cited in harvard apa Schwartz et al. , 2010) and many White Americans did not perceived themselves as members of an ethnic group (Schildkraut, 2007; as cited in Schwartz et al. , 2010). In brief, different operational definition problems of acculturation arose from different theoretical models of acculturation regarding to barclays banking their assumptions (LaFromboise, Coleman, Gerton, 1993). The General Electric Company. LaFromboise et al. (1993) assumed acculturation as one of substitutes among the biculturism models. Onlline Banking. Biculturism as defined in harvard apa this theory was viewed as the alternation model, which implied an onlline banking, individual in two culture contacts could be competent in both cultures without losing one of the cultures’ competencies in distinct cultural contexts as alternation model, whereas, fusion model meant a blended cultural identity, consisting of a synthesis of aspects of both cultures (LaFromboise et al., 1993). However, Berry’s (1997) integrating approach of biculturism differed from the Electric example bicultural model (LaFromboise et al. , 1993; as cited in Birman, 1994) and barclays banking, it emphasized more on the relationship between the two cultural groups based on its implicit assumption that one of 1960's sitcoms, two cultures were higher than the other within a single social structure (LaFromboise et al. , 1993).
Benet-Martinez and colleagues found that “blended” bicultural individuals tended to report higher self-esteem and lower psychological distress than a marginal population (Chen et al. , 2008 as cited in Schwartz et al. , 2010) because the consistent availability of barclays banking, both cultural flows within the person’s everyday life increased the game y city ease of activating the correct cultural schema in accordance with their environmental situations (Schwartz et al. , 2010). In contrast, Tadmor, Tetlock, and Peng (2009) argued that the bicultural model considered those marginal individuals in positive ways, when there was little interest in cultural maintenance and little interest in having relations with others, suggesting positive aspects of barclays banking, being a marginal person might be (1) sharing his or her condition with others of the harvard apa same original culture; (2) engaging in institutional practices that were shared by other marginal people; (3) experiencing no major frustration from social expectations; and (4) still perceiving himself or herself to be a member of a group (LaFromboise et al., 1993). According to Sam and Berry (2006), many studies of how migrants coped with intercultural contacts had discrepancies in the ways in which they were operationalized and banking, measured. Hindu Myths. As no standardized or widely accepted acculturation measures existed, it was necessary to design a clear and explicit formulation of acculturation instrument in order to assess acculturation adequately (Sam et al. Onlline. , 2006). Further Sam and Berry (2006) pointed out that most empirical studies widely used a self-report type of The General Electric, questionnaires that had been recognized limitations such as social desirability, emphasizing obtaining divergent validation by source of information other than the respondents’ reports.
Therefore, it is vital to understand each theory within its specific assumptions and not to barclays banking generalize across all situations regardless of their similar findings (LaFromboise et al. , 1993). Hindu Myths. As this study discovered migrants’ acculturation processes so far within specific theoretical frameworks, literature findings in barclays banking different research were mixed as to whether individuals could be highly acculturated and at the same time be strongly identified with their ethnic group (Farver, Narang, Bhadha. , 2002). These confusing problems initially evolved because of the context in which migration arrangements and their acculturation processes were fundamentally transformed and increasingly uncertain due to globalization (Landolt Da, 2005). Shiraev Levy (2007) suggested a new approach to cross-cultural psychology in hindu myths the twenty-first century, which was linked to the concept of globalization. Globalization was defined as a proliferation of cross-border flow and transnational networks due to new technologies of communication and transport that allowed frequent and multi-directional streams of people, ideas and cultural symbols (Castle, 2010). Castle also argued that globalization leads to major changes in the character of international migration.
In other words, the context for migrant incorporation has already changed radically and will continue to do so. Barclays. The rise of multiculturalism itself rather than assimilation or biculturism is one sign of this, but is not the end of the story: new forms of identity and belonging go beyond multiculturalism (Castle, 2010). Even though there is limited empirical evidence for clear statements for globalization, there probably are highly cosmopolitan groups who feel at home everywhere such as global business and professional elites might correspond with this image. But most members of transnational communities fall between these extremes, and probably have contradictory and game y city, fluctuating identities (Castle, 2002). Conclusions This study explored that a special case of cultural psychology was the study of how individuals respond to barclays onlline banking situations where they were in transition between their original culture and another that differed from it in some respects in terms of acculturation, especially within a specific theoretical frame that could apply to hindu myths the specific situation (Adler Gielen, 1994). There was no single theory widely accepted by all social scientists to agree with the emergence and perpetuation of international migration patterns in the world under globalization (Van Hear, 2010),suggesting that the contemporary migrating context in which such migrating arrangements were realized fundamentally kept transforming so that it became increasingly uncertain (Landolt and Da, 2005) Although the topic of cultural contact and individual’ change has attracted considerable attention in contemporary cross-cultural psychology, the field has been characterized by a lack of onlline banking, theoretical coherence, definitional problems with key constructs, and single sample studies that limit the The General Company Essay example external validity of empirical cross-cultural research (Ward and Kenney, 1994). As acculturation is a process which takes place over barclays onlline banking time, and which results in hindu myths changes both in the culture and in the individual culture changes, it would be ideal o compare two sets of data are compared over banking time using the hunting same people. However, in practice, it is impossible in most acculturation research settings (Sam et al. , 2006).
Instead, a common alternative to longitudinal research is cross-sectional research in which a time-related variable, such as length of residence or generational status can be used for the generalizability of acculturation theories (Sam et al., 2006). Onlline. In general, researchers of migrating studies need to be aware that it is the selective nature of the sample that happens across all migrating research. That is, individuals who chose to migrate would be different from those who do not (Sodowsky, G. , Kwan, K. , Pannu, R. Example. , 1995; as cited in Farver et al. , 1997). Finally, acculturation research generally focused on immigrants assumed to be permanently settled in their new host countries. As a result, the barclays banking terms “migrants” or “international migrants” referred to the same type of migrants collectively. Moreover, many countries were both sending and receiving countries for different types of migrants, or in the process of transition from one type to the other (Castel, 2002). Therefore, where applicable, it is viable to design acculturation research studies classifying different types of migrants. References Adler, L. Harvard Apa. L. , Gielen, U. P. (Eds. ). (1994). Onlline Banking. Cross-cultural topics in psychology. Westport: Praeger Publishers. Berry, J. The General Company Essay. W. (1980).
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The Foreign Corrupt Practices Act: An Overview of the Law and Coverage-Related Issues. By Stacey L. McGraw and Stacey E. Barclays Banking! Rufe  March 21, 2014. The Foreign Corrupt Practices Act (FCPA) was enacted in 1977 in response to revelations of widespread bribery of foreign officials by U.S. companies in order to win business.  FCPA enforcement actions by The General the Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC) and the Department of barclays banking Justice (DOJ), which share enforcement authority for the FCPA, have increased in recent years. For example, while the SEC’s website lists a total of 15 enforcement actions between 1978 and okay hunting, 2000, it lists 15 enforcement actions in 2011 alone.  The DOJ lists four enforcement actions in all of 2002; four DOJ enforcement actions were announced or filed in January 2014 alone. Ongoing investigations have been reported or disclosed by large companies from banking across the game y city spectrum, including large drug manufacturers, computer companies, media firms, and retailers, among others. FCPA investigations and the investigative costs, defense costs, penalties, and fines associated with those investigations can be significant. For example, since 2008, Avon Products, Inc. has spent about $340 million in legal and related costs in barclays connection with an investigation alleging that Avon violated the FCPA by paying or giving improper gifts to government officials in China and other countries.  In January 2014, Alcoa World Alumina LLC announced that it had agreed to plead guilty and pay $223 million in criminal fines and forfeitures to resolve charges that it paid bribes to a government official in the Kingdom of Bahrain. Alcoa also settled a parallel action by the SEC in which it paid an additional $161 million in disgorgement.  Given the increased enforcement of the FCPA and the duration and 1960's sitcoms, cost of investigations and related litigation, it is important that counsel for insurers and insureds are familiar with the law and the insurance coverage issues that may be implicated by barclays onlline FCPA investigations and related litigation. The FCPA contains two main components: the anti-bribery provisions, which prohibit payments to foreign officials to obtain or retain business, and the accounting provisions that require issuers to make and keep accurate books and 1960's sitcoms, records and to maintain an adequate system of internal accounting controls. The accounting provisions also prohibit individuals and businesses from knowingly falsifying books and records or knowingly failing to implement internal controls.
Persons and entities subject to the FCPA include “domestic concerns,” which are U.S. persons and businesses.  “Issuers,” which are U.S. and onlline, foreign public companies listed on U.S. stock exchanges or which are required to file periodic reports with the The General Electric Company Essay example SEC, also are subject to the FCPA.  In addition, certain foreign persons and businesses acting while in the territory of the United States may be subject to the FCPA.  As noted above, enforcement authority for the FCPA is shared by the SEC and barclays onlline banking, the DOJ. The DOJ has an Essay example, FCPPA unit within the barclays Criminal Division’s Fraud Section. It has criminal enforcement authority over issuers as well as criminal and civil enforcement authority over domestic concerns for Electric Company, the FCPA’s anti-bribery provisions. The DOJ maintains a website dedicated to the FCPA and enforcement issues and questions. Barclays Onlline! 
The SEC has authority for civil enforcement of the FCPA over issuers and their officers, directors, employees, agents, and stockholders acting on it's we're hunting communists, the issuer’s behalf. The SEC has a specialized FCPA unit with attorneys in Washington, D.C., and in regional offices. The SEC’s FCPA Unit also maintains a website, which contains links to all SEC enforcement actions involving the FCPA, organized by year.  Other organizations involved in enforcement include the Internal Revenue Service, the Department of Homeland Security, and the Federal Bureau of onlline banking Investigation, which has its own dedicated FCPA unit. Generally, the anti-bribery provisions make it unlawful to offer, pay, promise to pay, or authorize payment of money, or to software methods offer, give, or promise to give anything of value to a foreign official in order to obtain or retain business or secure an improper business advantage.  Jurisdiction. The anti-bribery provisions can apply to conduct both inside and onlline banking, outside the United States. When the FCPA originally was enacted, its anti-bribery provisions applied only to U.S. nationals and to U.S. firms and hindu myths, issuers, which can be U.S. or foreign companies. Congress amended the FCPA in 1998 to expand its scope. The anti-bribery provisions now prohibit any acts taken in furtherance of a foreign bribery scheme that occurs in the United States or uses any means of interstate communication, even if the actual communication takes place intrastate.  Under the alternative jurisdiction provisions of the onlline banking FCPA enacted in 1998, U.S. companies or persons are subject to the anti-bribery provisions even if they act outside the United States and even if no means of interstate commerce is used. Essay!  Business purpose test.
The FCPA applies only to payments intended to influence a foreign official to use his or her position “in order to assist . . . in obtaining or retaining business for or with, or directing business to, any person.”  This “business purpose” test has been broadly interpreted to include bribes made in the course of barclays banking business or to gain a business advantage. For example, in United States v. Hindu Myths! Kay , the Fifth Circuit held that. Congress intended for the FCPA to apply broadly to payments intended to assist the barclays onlline payor, either directly or indirectly, in obtaining or retaining business for some person, and game y city, that bribes paid to foreign officials to secure illegally reduced customs and tax liability constitute a type of payment that can fall within this broad coverage.  To constitute a violation of the FCPA, a payment must be made “corruptly,”  which means that there must be intent to wrongfully influence the recipient. Thus, a violation may be found even if no bribe is onlline ultimately paid, if the identity of the recipient is not known, or even if the company does not ultimately receive a benefit as a result of the payment. The intent to influence corruptly is sufficient. To establish criminal liability of an it's okay communists, individual under the anti-bribery provisions, he or she must have acted willfully.  “Willfully” generally means that the person must act with a “bad purpose” or knowledge that the conduct is unlawful.  The person need not necessarily know that his or her conduct violates the FCPA specifically.  Proof of willfulness is relevant only to violations by individuals; willfulness is not required to establish corporate criminal or civil liability. An improper payment may be anything of value. Barclays!  This includes not only cash payments; it may also include travel expenses, entertainment expenses, or expensive gifts. Gifts may also be prohibited, particularly if they are lavish or excessive. Likewise, foreign charitable contributions are not prohibited under the FCPA unless made for the purpose of improperly influencing a foreign official or made without a proper vetting of the foreign charity.
Further, an improper payment need not be made directly to a foreign official; payments to friends or family members of an official may also violate the FCPA, if made in order to influence the official.  Who is a foreign official? Under the FCPA, “foreign official” means. any officer or employee of a foreign government or any department, agency, or instrumentality thereof, or of a public international organization, or any person acting in okay hunting communists an official capacity for or on behalf of any such government or department, agency, or instrumentality thereof, or of barclays banking a public international organization, or any person acting in an official capacity for software, or on behalf of any such government or department, agency or instrumentality, or for onlline, or on behalf of any such public international organization.  The term “instrumentality” has been construed broadly and may include state-owned companies or other state-controlled entities.  The ownership, control, status, and function will be examined to determine whether an entity is an hindu myths, agency or instrumentality of barclays onlline banking a foreign government. “Foreign official” includes employees and representatives of “public international organizations.”  These are organizations that are specifically designated by harvard apa executive order under the International Organizations Immunities Act, 22 U.S.C. § 288.  Currently, this includes organizations such as the onlline banking World Bank, the International Monetary Fund, the World Trade Organization, and the Organization of American States. Payments to third parties.
The FCPA specifically prohibits improper payments to foreign officials made through third parties or intermediaries. It prohibits payments to “any person, while knowing that all or a portion of such money or thing of value will be offered, given, or promised, directly or indirectly” to a foreign official.  Accordingly, liability may not be avoided simply by outsourcing the payment of the bribe to a third party. Conduct is considered “knowing” if the person is aware that there is a high probability that an illegal payment is going to The General Electric occur. Barclays Banking!  Congress intended to impose liability not only on those with actual knowledge but also on The General Company Essay example, those who purposefully avoid actual knowledge“head in the sand” conduct. Onlline!  Willful blindness to FCPA violations does not protect a company or individual from The General Essay example liability under the statute. Affirmative defenses. There are two possible affirmative defenses under the anti-bribery provisions: the “local law” defense and barclays, the “reasonable and bona fide business expenditure” defense.  The local law defense is applicable when the company can show that a payment was lawful under the written laws of the foreign country at issue.  The “reasonable and bona fide business expenditure” defense applies if the company can show that the money spent was reasonable, bona fide, and directly related to the performance of a contract, or marketing, promotion, or product demonstration.  In addition to these affirmative defenses, the anti-bribery provisions of the FCPA also contain a narrow exception for “facilitating or expediting payments” made in furtherance of routine governmental action that involves nondiscretionary acts.  Payments made under imminent threat of physical harm do not violate the FCPA because there is no corrupt purpose, but economic coercion is not sufficient to excuse an otherwise improper payment.  This exception, however, is in conflict with many local anticorruption laws.
Statute of limitations. No specific statute of limitations is hindu myths provided for in the anti-bribery provisions of the barclays banking FCPA; therefore, the general five-year limitations period applies to substantive criminal violations of the act.  In cases involving conspiracies, the government may be able to reach conduct occurring before the five-year limitations period because generally the government need only prove that a single act in furtherance of the The General Electric conspiracy occurred within the limitations period. The limitations period also may be extended by a tolling agreement, or the government may apply for an extension of up to three years in barclays onlline banking order to obtain evidence from foreign countries.  The five-year limitations period also applies to civil actions for penalties.  However, the SEC may bring actions for equitable relief or disgorgement of ill-gotten gains outside the five-year limitations period. Harvard Apa! Again, the limitations period may be extended by a tolling agreement, and in barclays onlline cases involving foreign individuals, the limitations period is tolled for any period during which the individuals are not found within the United States.  The FCPA’s accounting provisions contain two main components. First, the books and records provisions require issuers to make and keep records that accurately and hindu myths, fairly reflect an issuer’s transactions and dispositions of banking assets.  Books and software methods, records provisions are intended to prevent the mischaracterization or concealment of bribes. Second, the FCPA contains provisions regulating internal controls, which require that issuers devise and maintain a system of banking internal accounting controls sufficient to ensure management’s control, authority, and responsibility over the firm’s assets.  There can be civil liability under the accounting provisions for both companies and individuals. Company Essay! In addition, both individuals and companies can be criminally liable for knowingly failing to comply with the FCPA’s accounting provisions.  However, the onlline banking FCPA’s accounting provisions apply only to communists issuers; the accounting provisions do not apply to private companies.  Penalties, Sanctions, and Remedies.
Corporations and onlline banking, other business entities are subject to fines of up to $2 million for each knowing violation of the anti-bribery provisions.  Individuals are subject to 1960's sitcoms a fine of up to $100,000 and imprisonment for up to five years for willful violations.  For each willful violation of the accounting provisions, business entities are subject to a fine of up to $25 million. Individuals are subject to barclays banking a fine of up to $5 million and imprisonment for up to 20 years for criminal violations.  Additional fines may be imposed by the courts under the hindu myths Alternative Fines Act, 18 U.S.C. § 3571 (d). The DOJ may pursue civil actions for anti-bribery violations by barclays onlline domestic concerns and game y city, their affiliated persons and by foreign nationals and companies for violations while in the United States. Barclays Banking! The SEC may pursue civil actions against issuers and their affiliated persons for game y city, violations of the barclays banking accounting provisions. A civil penalty of up to hindu myths $10,000 per violation is available for barclays, violations of the anti-bribery provisions (for both entities and game y city, individuals).  For violations of the accounting provisions, the SEC may obtain a civil penalty of up to a certain specified dollar amount dependent on the egregiousness of the onlline banking violation, or the gross amount of the pecuniary gain to game y city the defendantwhichever is greater.  There also may be collateral consequences resulting from FCPA violations, including suspension or debarment from contracting with the onlline federal government, cross-debarment by multilateral development banks (such as the game y city World Bank), and suspension or revocation of certain export privileges. Insurance Coverage Issues.
Notice. Many, if not most, FCPA investigations originate as internal investigations by banking the companies. After an internal investigation is software methods completed, a company may determine that it should “self-report” to the SEC or DOJ, at banking, which point the SEC or DOJ may commence its own investigation. A company conducting an internal investigation should consider when it is game y city appropriate or necessary to give notice to its insurer of a claim or potential claim. Different policies contain different notice requirements, so it is important for insureds and insurers to be familiar with the notice language and requirements of their policies and to proceed accordingly. Claim. Whether a government investigation constitutes a claim and when a claim arises depends on the language in the specific insurance policy. Some policies define “claim” to include government investigations, but often only if such investigation is commenced by a formal order of investigation, subpoena, or other such formal document.
Because many FCPA investigations begin informally or possibly with self-reporting after an internal investigation, a claim may not arise until long after a company first becomes aware of possible FCPA violations. Moreover, a company may choose to agree to cooperate with the SEC or DOJ, thus delaying or avoiding a subpoena or other formal compulsory process or procedure that would constitute a claim under the company’s insurance policy. Under some policies, an FCPA or other government investigation may not constitute a claim under any circumstances. As always, it’s important to be familiar with the particular policy language. Worldwide coverage. FCPA investigations may be followed by or proceed concurrently with investigations in other countries, such as bribery investigations under the onlline banking United Kingdom’s Bribery Act 2010, which took effect in July 2011. Harvard Apa! Coverage for such foreign investigations may be available under policies that provide worldwide coverage, if the matter is otherwise covered based on the language of the particular policy. Selection of defense counsel. Insurance policies that do not contain a duty to defend typically provide that the insured must obtain the insurer’s consent to barclays banking its selection of defense counsel.
Because, as noted above, defense counsel may have been retained long before a claim arises and is tendered to the insurance carrier, there may be issues for insurers and insureds to negotiate with respect to the choice of defense counsel, the rates charged, and possible coverage of pre-notice or pre-tender defense expenses. Fines and penalties. The amounts payable for violations of the FCPA are fines and penalties, which typically are not covered by professional liability insurance. However, there may be policies or endorsements available that provide limited coverage for certain FCPA fines or penalties. In addition, some policies may provide limited coverage for FCPA-related defense costs, even in the absence of coverage for it's we're hunting, the fines and penalties themselves. Follow-on litigation. As in barclays onlline banking other governmental investigations, an FCPA enforcement action often will trigger follow-on actions, such as class actions by hindu myths shareholders alleging securities fraud, derivative actions alleging breach of barclays onlline fiduciary duty and based on the same conduct alleged in the FCPA investigation, or congressional investigations. These types of 1960's sitcoms lawsuits typically are covered by onlline directors’ and harvard apa, officers’ liability policies. Barclays Onlline Banking! Even if these actions ultimately are unsuccessful, they add to the overall costs of defending an FCPA investigation. Exclusion for intentional acts and imputation. The General Company Example! Exclusions barring coverage for intentional, willful, or fraudulent acts may apply to FCPA matters.
Many times, these exclusions require a final adjudication of banking intentional or fraudulent conduct. However, if such a final adjudication occurs, the insured may be required to it's we're communists reimburse the insurer for any defense costs advanced on barclays, its behalf. However, with respect to harvard apa the application of exclusions, such as the exclusions for intentional acts, insurance policies may contain non-imputation clauses providing that the knowledge or conduct of one insured cannot be imputed to other insureds for purposes of determining whether the exclusion applies. A policy also may provide that only barclays onlline banking, certain persons’ knowledge can be imputed to an insured entity. For example, some policies provide that only the 1960's sitcoms chief executive officer’s or chief financial officer’s knowledge may be imputed to the company. FCPA investigations and banking, enforcement actions are on the rise and, along with parallel shareholder litigation, may lead to increased exposure for both insureds and insurers. Counsel for insureds and game y city, insurers should be aware of the related insurance coverage issues as they apply in the context of FCPA enforcement actions and related litigation. Keywords: litigation, insurance, coverage, Foreign Corrupt Practices Act, FCPA, anti-bribery, fines and penalties, exclusions.  Stacey L. Barclays Banking! McGraw is a partner in software the Washington, D.C., office and onlline banking, Stacey E. Rufe is an associate in the Richmond, Virginia, office of Troutman Sanders, LLP, where they both represent insurers in complex coverage disputes and software, litigation. The views stated in banking this article are the views of the it's okay authors and onlline banking, do not necessarily represent the views of Troutman Sanders, LLP, or its clients.
 The 2012 Resource Guide to the U.S. Foreign Corrupt Practices Act published by the Criminal Division of the game y city U.S. DOJ and barclays, the Enforcement Division of the SEC is the best source for additional information about the FCPA. Game Y City! See also Mike Koehler, “The Story of the FCPA,” 73(5) Ohio St. L.J. Barclays Onlline! 93238 (2012) (providing history of the hindu myths drafting and barclays onlline banking, passage of the FCPA).  Serena Ng Anna Prior, “SEC Warning Sinks Avon,” Wall St. Software Development! J. Onlline Banking! , Nov. 1, 2013.  “Alcoa to Pay $384 Million to Settle Bribery Charges,” N.Y. Times , Jan.
9, 2014.  See United States v. Kay , 513 F.3d 432, 44748 (5th Cir. 2007) (discussing common-law definitions of hindu myths “willfully” and banking, level of knowledge required to establish willful violation of the FCPA).  See Kay , 513 F.3d at 448 (holding that defendant need not know the terms of harvard apa statute and know that he was violating statute in order to have “willfully” violated the FCPA).  See, e.g. , United States v. Liebo , 923 F.2d 1308, 131112 (8th Cir. 1991) (sufficient evidence existed for jury to conclude that gifts given to official’s cousin were given “corruptly” to “obtain or retain business” in violation of banking FCPA).  See, e.g. , United States v. Aguilar , 783 F. Supp.
2d 1108 (C.D. Cal. 1960's Sitcoms! 2011) (motion to dismiss denied because electric utility wholly owned by Mexican government may be considered an “instrumentality” of a foreign government within the meaning of FCPA). Copyright 2017, American Bar Association. All rights reserved. This information or any portion thereof may not be copied or disseminated in any form or by any means or downloaded or stored in an electronic database or retrieval system without the express written consent of the American Bar Association. The views expressed in banking this article are those of the author(s) and do not necessarily reflect the positions or policies of the American Bar Association, the Section of Litigation, this committee, or the employer(s) of the author(s).
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