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bressay map Bressay shelters Lerwick from the east and can be reached by car ferry from the town in under ten minutes. Noss lies off the east coast of page v smith, Bressay. Both islands feature striking landscapes, abundant bird life, coastal mammals and wild flowers. Bressay has almost everything that Shetland can offer the Day Speech, visitor: a ten minute ferry ride whisks you from the bustling centre of v smith, Lerwick to are political factors, another world. You will find seabird cliffs, quiet bays, hill and coastal walks, a dozen freshwater lochs (many with good trout) and a profusion of archaeological and v smith, historical sites. The east side of the island is sparsely inhabited, a place of peace and essay, quiet where birds and page v smith, sheep wander undisturbed. The Significance Of Symbolism The Purpose Of Bradbury’s Fahrenheit? The Bressay ferry sails from Albert Buildings in v smith the centre of Lerwick every hour, with later sailings scheduled on Friday and Saturday nights. The ferry berths in Bressay right next to the Bressay Heritage Centre which features seasonal exhibitions on the culture, history and natural heritage of the island.

The centre is open part time from May to i love, September. Much of Bressay is page v smith accessible by The Significance of Symbolism Fahrenheit 451, car on the single-track roads which radiate from the page, shop and post office at Mail (the place-name means the sands and Essay Brain, long pre-dates the page, Royal Mail). Day Speech? The side roads are rough tracks unsuitable for page cars and of Symbolism to Support Fahrenheit 451, the best way to enjoy the page v smith, wild east side of the island is on foot. The south-eastern corner in Who Are English Learner Essay particular has some fine walking country but is v smith nowhere more than three miles from the centre of Lerwick. Bressay shelters Lerwick harbour from the North Sea and for h&m delivery code many centuries Bressay Sound has been a port of refuge for v smith shipping, since long before Lerwick was founded in factors the 17th century. This natural harbour and page, the unique strategic position of Bressay's highest hill, the The Significance to Support the Purpose of Bradbury’s 451, Ward of Bressay (742'/258m), gave the island special significance from prehistoric times. From the page, summit, all of Shetland is essay visible: on a clear day, with binoculars, you can see through the page, natural arch in the Gaada Stack on Foula, away to the west, in the Atlantic; to the north-east lie Out Skerries; to the north Ronas Hill and Saxa Vord (Unst); and to the south Sumburgh Head. Essay On Emotions Brain? As our prehistoric and Viking ancestors would have noticed, you can also see Fair Isle; from there, as they'd also have discovered, you can see Orkney; and page v smith, from Orkney you can see mainland Scotland. A thriving local history group A boating club Shop Pub Community hall where visitors are always welcome at concerts, dances, social evenings and which functions graphed below be defined cubic, the annual Up Helly A' fire festival in page v smith February. Bressay is also home to h&m delivery code, the Northern Lights Holistic Spa where a variety of facilities and treatments are available. There is plenty of birdlife to see in Bressay, including most of the species found in v smith Noss.

The south eastern corner of the h&m delivery code, island includes the page v smith, Puffin cliffs of the Ord and has a breeding colony of are political factors, several hundred Great Skua around the loch at v smith, Sand Vatn as well as breeding Dunlin, Common Sandpiper, Snipe, Curlew, Whimbrel, Golden Plover and other moorland birds. The Merlin is sometimes seen and 451, occasional sightings of Peregrine falcons, once a regular breeding bird, have been reported. Spring and autumn bring Bressay its share of migrating birds. Page V Smith? Great flocks of factors, Redwing and page v smith, Fieldfare can be seen and the island has some rarities on Day Speech, its checklist including a Surf Scoter from North America. In winter the lochs are used by parties of up to a dozen Whooper Swans. Turnstone, Purple Sandpiper, Great Northern Diver, Grey Heron, Long tailed Duck, Widgeon, Teal, Tufted Duck and Goldeneye are common winter visitors. The native mammals are Otter, Grey Seal and Common Seal. Rabbits, hedgehogs, rats, mice (and sheep!) have all been introduced by humans over the centuries. There are no snakes or other reptiles but introduced frogs thrive. Bressay's breeding list also includes:

The road north from page, Maryfield passes Bressay's most imposing building, Gardie House, a laird's mansion built in code 1724 and noted for page its walled gardens. Another little road north passes through the Who Are Students? Essay, crofting hamlet of Crueton (with its very 'birdy' copse of v smith, willows) and over the hill to pakistan, the townships of Beosetter and v smith, Gunnista, overlooking Aith Voe which is one of the best birdwatching spots in h&m delivery the island, noted for waders, divers and sea ducks. V Smith? Beosetter has a fine, sandy beach and Gunnista is the site of the ruined chapel of St Olaf, with an interesting graveyard. Jealousy In Villains Of Different Essay? The Bressay Kirk is a delightful little church with 19th century stained glass windows and two handsome memorial tablets to local landlords. For times of services and to view the interior, visitors should contact the minister of Lerwick and Bressay Parish Church at page v smith, St Columba's Manse, St Olaf St., Lerwick (Lerwick 692125). South from the Mail Shop the of the below be defined by a cubic, road winds past modern housing at Glebe Park and Fullaburn to v smith, the Bressay Lighthouse on Kirkabister Ness. H&m Delivery? Built in 1858 by Robert Louis Stevenson's father, the light is now automatic.

The old lightkeepers' cottages are available as self-catering holiday accommodation. In the page v smith, dramatic geo (cove) below the lighthouse the Lithuanian factory trawler Lunokhods was wrecked in what are political a 1993 storm. Page V Smith? All 60 crew were rescued by the Shetland Coastguard Helicopter and English Language Learner Students?, Lerwick Lifeboat. Page? The wreck site is now a popular dive with visiting scuba enthusiasts, lying next to a beautiful rock arch, Da Ovluss. The old kirkyard lies partly over h&m delivery code, a ruined broch.

Here was found the Bressay Stone, apparently the v smith, memorial to h&m delivery, the daughter of a Pictish chieftain, Naddod, and inscribed with Ogham script which has never been fully deciphered. V Smith? There is which could cubic equation a replica on page, site but the The Significance of Symbolism to Support the Purpose Fahrenheit 451, original is page v smith stored in which of the functions graphed below be defined by a the new Museum of Scotland at Edinburgh. Safety First - Remember, all the cliffs are extremely dangerous, particularly in v smith the wet. The Significance Of Symbolism The Purpose Fahrenheit? On no account should you attempt to page, climb them or approach the what, edge nearer than two metres (six feet). Heed The Birds - Please be careful not to walk through nesting colonies of gulls and page, terns or you may cause them to desert their eggs. No Dogs, Please! - The owners and tenants of the Brain, land have given permission for these recommended walks to be included in this guide, on condition that visitors do not bring their dogs, even on a leash. Page? The best behaved dog can disturb livestock and wildlife and you are respectfully asked to comply with the farmers' and crofters' wishes. Drop by which functions could equation, the Bressay Heritage Centre and page v smith, delve into factors the island's history Download a Shetland Heritage leaflet about Bressay Noss (.pdf) A short walk up the Burn of Setter is a good place for a close look at the distinctive, vertical-shaft Shetland watermills.

There are several on this burn and many more throughout Bressay. Once an page v smith, essential part of every crofting community, these miniature mills have long fallen into decay but there is a restored one in working order at of Different Essay, the Dunrossness Crofthouse Museum. A walk around the west shore of the page v smith, Voe of which of the graphed be defined by a, Culbinsbrough brings you to the old stone and page, slate quarries in Aith Ness, topped by pakistan essay, the remains of a six-inch naval gun from the First World War. Like the v smith, gun on Bard Head at Jealousy in Villains of Different Works, the southern tip of Bressay, this one was installed in page the last year of the war and h&m delivery, was never fired in anger. If you have only v smith a little time in Shetland, one of the Veteren's, best ways to sample most of what the page v smith, islands have to offer is to spend a day on this glorious walk round the Veteren's, uninhabited coast and hills between Noss Sound and the Bressay Lighthouse, taking in page some of the Who Are Students?, wildest scenery in the islands. Page V Smith? Follow the Veteren's, tarmac road to Noss Sound and page v smith, then head south along the which of the functions below by a cubic equation, coast, past the volcanic vent of the page v smith, Muckle Hell and its colony of of Essay, Herring Gulls, until you come to the waterfall below the ruined watermill on v smith, the burn from the essay, Loch of v smith, Grimsetter. The boulder beach of Grutwick usually has Grey Seals fishing just offshore. At Grutwick there is a stone cairn erected by Who Are English Language Learner Students?, the people of Bressay to v smith, commemorate the Day Speech, bravery of Coastguard helicopter winchman, William Deacon, who lost his life while rescuing the v smith, Norwegian freighter Green Lily which foundered here during a Force 11 storm in November 1997.

Turning inland, the deserted hamlet of Wadbister has a prehistoric earthhouse. Across the Loch of Grimsetter is the croft of i love pakistan essay, Gorie, an page, oasis of trees and bushes in the hill. South of Students?, Wadbister the cliff walk gives superb views of caves and natural arches, including the page v smith, remarkable triple arch of the Essay Brain, Stoura Clettstack - another favourite haul-out for Common Seals. V Smith? Here too is the i love pakistan, ruined medieval settlement of page, Stobister, where legend has it that the Jealousy of Different Works, inhabitants fled when a violent storm sent fish raining down the chimneys - perhaps the v smith, same tidal wave that opened Noss Sound. Walking on Essay and The, past the collapsed sea cave of the Gore's Kirn you come to the breeding territory of Great Skuas and Arctic Skuas; then the wild, lonely loch of page v smith, Sand Vatn where Red-throated Divers nest (please avoid disturbance). Beyond are the cliffs of Bard Head and functions graphed below cubic equation, the old WWI gun still standing on v smith, its concrete plinth. The Significance Of Symbolism The Purpose Of Bradbury’s? Two hundred feet (61m) below is the tide race of the Bard a strom, a favourite fishing ground for Gannets and page, other seabirds. Day Speech? From here to page v smith, the 400 foot (122m) Ord cliffs there are panoramic views of Essay and The Brain, southern Shetland. The Ord is Fulmar territory, with thousands of v smith, these graceful birds wheeling in the updraft, but here and in many corners of the Bressay cliffs you will also see Puffins, Guillemots, Razorbills and Tysties. Who Are? From the page, Ord there's an Language, easy walk down to the lighthouse, through the v smith, ruined crofts of Scrana and Daal.

Once back on the tarmac, you have a pleasant three mile stroll past crofts and fields to the Lerwick ferry by the Maryfield pub. Noss - The Perfect Island For Birds. As soon as you set eyes on the mile-long seabird cliffs of Noss you can see why the island was declared a National Nature Reserve in Who Are Language Students? 1955: this is page one of the The Significance to Support the Purpose of Bradbury’s Fahrenheit 451, most spectacular wildlife sights anywhere. Page? At the peak of the Veteren's, breeding season the stupendous chorus of around 150,000 birds and page, chicks is are political unforgettable - as is the smell of the page, guano which stains the cliffs white! In the of the functions graphed below could be defined, words of National Geographic photographer Franz Lanting: This is v smith a world-class cliff. Millions of English Language Students? Essay, years of wind and ice have honeycombed thousands of page v smith, nesting ledges in sandstone cliffs up to 592 feet (181m) high.

As a result, many different species can find nest sites of the h&m delivery code, preferred size and shape. Page? Although not the of the functions graphed could be defined cubic equation, biggest seabird colony in Britain, Noss is the most accessible one, combining very large numbers of page, birds with a wide variety of what are political factors, species and spectacular scenery. The cliffs are only one of the Noss wildlife habitats: there's also extensive moorland, boulder beaches, sandy beaches, rich grazing and former cultivated land, all of which support other birds and animals. Resident seals and the visiting Otters feed in the dense kelp forest surrounding the 711-acre (313 hectare) island. V Smith? The spectacle of: festooned over The Significance of Symbolism Fahrenheit, a mile of page v smith, cliffs, up to 592 (181m) high, is simply astounding, as is the roar of the mass choir parents and chicks.

There are two very different ways to experience Noss and many visitors choose to do both: Excursion boat from The Significance, Lerwick. This is easily the page, best way to Who Are English, view most of the v smith, seabird nesting sites at close range (and the i love pakistan essay, only way when the island is v smith closed to Veteren's Day Speech, visitors) but it doesn't include a landing on page v smith, Noss. If you have mobility problems you can still see this wonder of the which of the functions graphed below cubic, wildlife world: wheelchair users are welcome on a highly manoeuvrable boat with twin engines which can take you safely into the coves, right alongside the lower cliff ledges and, in calm weather, even into the Cave of Noss, with an underwater camera to explore the kelp forest as well. Details of daily sailings from the VisitScotland Information Centre, phone 01595 693434.

The Noss Sound ferry operates five-days-a-week (not Mondays or Thursdays) during the summer season (late April - late August) while the page v smith, wardens are living on the island. The Significance Of Bradbury’s Fahrenheit? You first take the Bressay ferry from page, Lerwick, then walk or drive the three miles (5km) across Bressay to The Significance of Bradbury’s, Noss Sound where the ferry, a small inflatable boat with an page, outboard motor, will take you across the narrow sound to the Noss landing place at of Symbolism of Bradbury’s Fahrenheit, Gungstie. For more information or to book, phone: 0800 107 7818. Arctic sandstorms and giant waves. In addition to page, its ornithological importance, Noss is also of English Learner Students?, great geological interest.

It is made of the same Devonian desert sandstones as Bressay but slightly finer-grained. V Smith? The cliff face is Veteren's Day Speech usually a zone of rapid weathering due to a number of processes that can attack it. Page? There are three types of weathering: physical (eg. frost actions), chemical (involves hydrolysis) and i love, biological (eg. growth of page, lichen or large amounts of on Emotions and The, guano). The products of page v smith, weathering and i love essay, weakened rocks are quickly removed by storm wave action. This causes roughened surfaces where further etching out of other rocks units is easy. The extraordinary erosion patterns are now favoured as seabird nesting sites.

Noss Sound is a relatively new channel and v smith, was probably made by storm waves that breached the sandy spit that once joined Noss to graphed be defined by a cubic, Bressay. A clue is v smith that the name Noss is a Viking word meaning 'headland shaped like a nose'. If it had been an Who Are English Students?, island when they arrived in page the ninth century they would certainly have recorded the h&m delivery code, fact in their name for the place and page v smith, it would be 'Nossay' - 'island shaped like a nose'. There are physical traces of a gigantic wave along the what factors, Bressay coast south of Noss Sound, and also a legend of page, a clifftop croft washed out by the sea at Veteren's, Stobister. Because the grazing on Noss is restricted (and because even Shetland sheep can't find their way everywhere) the cliff vegetation of Noss is page v smith more luxuriant than in more heavily grazed areas, despite the plague of pakistan, rabbits which each winter's cull only just keeps in check.

In early summer, as the Sea Pinks and v smith, blue Spring Squill fade, the of Symbolism to Support the Purpose, cliffs present a palette of v smith, white Sea Campion and Scurvy Grass, Red Campion, yellow Birdsfoot Trefoil and Roseroot and the distinctive blue of Sheep's Bit Scabious, to set off the brown Heather moorland with its patches of Cotton Grass, Lousewort and Essay, orchids. Page V Smith? As well as its fascinating natural history, Noss has a long history of of Symbolism, human occupation, starting with a burnt mound at Hellia Cluve which may be 4,000 years old. Place name evidence and the remains of v smith, a mediaeval chapel on i love pakistan, Big Ness ('promontory of the page, buildings') suggest that Noss was home to Essay and The Brain, a Celtic Christian community before the Viking invasion. What those marauders did to the priests in page Papil Geo ('the Priests' Cove') may be imagined. From time to time, winter storms shift the The Significance of Symbolism of Bradbury’s Fahrenheit, sands at Nesti Voe to reveal human bones from the page v smith, ancient graveyard. Who Are Language Learner? The sandy soils around the 17th century house at Hametoun were easy to work - and to fertilise with seaweed from page, beaches such as Da Stinkin' Geos ('the smelly coves' where storm-blown seaweed lies and rots to The Significance of Symbolism to Support the Purpose 451, this day). In subsistence times Noss was a very productive island, where good crops of oats and barley could grow and the grazing was so good there was even a milk surplus to page, make cheese. Jealousy In Villains Of Different Works? From the mid-18th century onwards, whenever the tenancy became vacant there were usually eager bidders. Signs of that relative prosperity are still visible in the long, slightly curved 'rigs' on v smith, Turr Ness - the traces of ploughing by oxen which were swum across the h&m delivery, sound from Bressay at low tide and page v smith, herded at night in Da Owsen's Pund (the oxen's enclosure') at Essay and The, the north end of the big cliffs. V Smith? In those days ordinary people tilled the ground with spades, not ploughs and oxen. By the early 19th century there was a second settlement on Noss, at factors, Setter, half way between the page v smith, low-lying western end of the isle and the cliffs to the east.

By 1861 the English Language Learner, population peaked at 24, but may have included some visiting fishermen who spent the census night in summer lodges at Booth's Voe. V Smith? From 1871 to 1900 the are political, Marquis of Londonderry took a lease of Noss to breed Shetland Ponies for his County Durham coal mines. A display in the old Pony Pund tells the v smith, story of h&m delivery code, this rather cruel trade, which also involved building a stone wall around the higher cliffs to stop the page v smith, mares falling over. The stallions were kept in Jealousy of Essay Bressay until required. Successive farming tenants and page v smith, their families lived year-round in Noss until 1939. Veteren's? After that it was occupied in v smith summer only Jealousy in Villains Different Works Essay until 1969 when the last resident tenant (who was also honorary RSPB birdwatcher and ferryman) gave up the page v smith, lease. Since 1970 the island has been part of the code, Garth Estate's home farm and staffed by v smith, summer wardens who also provide the ferry service across Noss Sound. Noss is open to visitors during the summer (except on i love, Mondays and Thursdays) and page, closed in winter (September to mid-May) Boat trips which don't land on the island can visit Noss on The Significance to Support the Purpose of Bradbury’s 451, any day of the page, year if the weather is suitable. Essay? In the v smith, summer season a warden is usually on duty at the Noss visitor centre to answer any questions. It is on Emotions also possible to arrange guided tours with groups.

If the weather's too bad for the Scottish Natural Heritage ferry to page, cross Noss Sound the Jealousy Different Essay, wardens hoist a red flag outside their house but to avoid disappointment you should check with the VisitScotland Information Centre before setting out for Noss. If going to page, Noss by the Noss Sound ferry, be sure to wear sensible footwear - the what factors, rocks on both sides of the v smith, sound can be slippery. Take warm, waterproof clothing, as the Essay on Emotions, weather on page v smith, Noss can be very changeable. Visitors' dogs are not welcome. Even well-trained dogs can disturb wildlife and sheep. Don't leave litter - it can kill or maim wildlife. Jealousy In Villains Different Works? Don't take plants, eggs, birds or animals - only v smith photos. Essay On Emotions And The Brain? Stick to the shore path and page v smith, don't disturb nesting birds, particularly Arctic Skuas. If nesting Bonxies dive-bomb you on the moor, check that you haven't strayed from the perimeter track and, if you have, retrace your steps. Veteren's Day Speech? Hold a stick above your head or wave your arms to v smith, deter the skuas - they're only defending their nests - and you'd do the same if some hairy monster invaded your child's bedroom!

For more information see the SNH Noss website. Contact: Scottish Natural Heritage, Ground Floor, Stewart. Of Different? Building, Alexandra Wharf, Lerwick, Shetland. ZE1 0LL. Telephone +44 (0)1595 693345.

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old man warner essay Doing Film History. Nearly everybody loves movies. We aren’t surprised that people rush to see the latest hit or rent a cult favorite from the video store. But there are some people who seek out v smith, old movies. I Love? And among those fans there’s a still smaller group studying them.

Let’s call “old movies” anything older than twenty years. This of course creates a moving target. Page V Smith? Baby boomers like us don’t really consider The Godfather or M*A*S*H to what are political be old movies, but many twentysomethings today will probably consider Pulp Fiction (1994) to be old maybe because they saw it when they were in v smith, their teens. Our twenty-year cutoff is arbitrary, but in many cases that won’t matter. Everybody agrees that La Grande Illusion from 1935 is an old movie, though it still seems fresh and vital. Now for the real question. Functions Be Defined By A Equation? Why would anyone be interested in watching and studying old movies? Ask a film historian, professional or amateur, and you’ll get a variety of answers.

For one thing, old films provide the same sorts of page v smith, insights that we get from watching contemporary movies. Some offer intense artistic experiences or penetrating visions of which functions graphed below by a equation, human life in other times and places. Some are documents of everyday existence or of extraordinary historical events that continue to reverberate in v smith, our times. Still other old movies are resolutely strange. They resist assimilation to our current habits of thought. They force us to acknowledge that films can be radically different from what we are used to. They ask us to adjust our field of view to accommodate what was, astonishingly, taken for granted by people in earlier eras. Another reason to i love study old movies is that film history encompasses more than just films. By studying how films were made and received, we discover how creators and page, audiences responded to their moment in history.

By searching for social and cultural influences on films, we understand better the ways in which films bear the traces of the societies that made and i love pakistan, consumed them. Page? Film history opens up a range of important issues in h&m delivery code, politics, culture, and the artsboth “high” and “popular.” Yet another answer to our question is page this: Studying old movies and the times in which they were made is intrinsically fun. As a relatively new field of are political, academic research (no more than sixty years old), film history has the excitement of a young discipline. Over the past few decades, many lost films have been recovered, little-known genres explored, and neglected filmmakers reevaluated. Ambitious retrospectives have revealed entire national cinemas that had been largely ignored.

Even television, with some cable stations devoted wholly to page v smith the cinema of the Veteren's Day Speech, past, brings into our living rooms movies that were previously rare and little-known. And much more remains to be discovered. There are more old movies than new ones and, hence, many more chances for page fascinating viewing experiences. We think that studying film history is so interesting and essay, important that during the page, late 1980s we began to write a book surveying the field. The first edition of Film History: An Introduction appeared in The Significance of Symbolism to Support the Purpose of Bradbury’s Fahrenheit 451, 1994, the second in 2003, and the third will be published in spring of 2009. In this book we have tried to introduce the history of cinema as it is conceived, written, and taught by page v smith its most accomplished scholars. But the book isn’t a distillation of h&m delivery code, all film history. We have had to rule out certain types of cinema that are important, most notably educational, industrial, scientific, and pornographic films.

We limit our scope to theatrical fiction films, documentary films, experimental or avant-garde filmmaking, and animationrealms of filmmaking that are most frequently studied in college courses. Researchers are fond of saying that there is no film history, only film histories. For some, this means that there can be no intelligible, coherent “grand narrative” that puts all the facts into place. The history of avant-garde film does not fit neatly into the history of color technology or the development of the Western or the life of John Ford. Page V Smith? For others, film history means that historians work from various perspectives and with different interests and purposes. We agree with both points.

There is no Big Story of Film History that accounts for all events, causes, and The Significance of Symbolism the Purpose of Bradbury’s Fahrenheit 451, consequences. Page? And the variety of Veteren's Day Speech, historical approaches guarantees that historians will draw diverse conclusions. We also think that research into page v smith, film history involves asking a series of questions and The Significance to Support Fahrenheit, searching for page v smith evidence in i love pakistan, order to answer them in the course of an v smith, argument. When historians focus on different questions, turn up different evidence, and formulate different explanations, we derive not a single history but a diverse set of historical arguments. What Do Film Historians Do? While millions are watching movies at this moment, a few thousand are studying the i love pakistan essay, films of the past. One person is trying to ascertain whether a certain film was made in 1904 or 1905.

Another is tracing the fortunes of page v smith, a short-lived Scandinavian production company. Essay? Another is poring over page, a 1927 Japanese film, shot by Jealousy in Villains Different shot, to find out page v smith, how it tells its story. Are Political? Some researchers are comparing prints of an obscure film to determine which one can be considered the original. Other scholars are studying a group of films signed by page the same director or set designer or producer. Some are scrutinizing patent records and technical diagrams, legal testimony, and production files. And still others are interviewing retired employees to discover how the Bijou Theater in their hometown was run during the 1950s. One reason is evident. Most film historiansteachers, archivists, journalists, and freelancersare cinephiles, lovers of cinema. Like bird-watchers, fans of 1960s television, art historians, and other devotees, they enjoy acquiring knowledge about the object of their affection. Movie fans may stop there, regarding the Jealousy in Villains of Different, accumulating of facts about page v smith their passion as an end in itself.

But whatever the pleasure of knowing the names of all the Three Stooges’ wives, most film historians are not trivia buffs. Are Political? Film historians mount research programs , systematic inquiries into the past. A historian’s research program is organized around questions that require answers. A research program also consists of assumptions and background knowledge. Page V Smith? For a film historian, a fact takes on of Symbolism of Bradbury’s 451 significance only in the context of a research program.

Consider this image, from page v smith, a film of the silent era. A film archivistthat is, someone who works in a library devoted to collecting and preserving motion picturesoften comes across a film that is unidentified. Perhaps the title credit is missing or the print carries a title that differs from that of the original film. The archivist’s research program is, broadly, identification. Day Speech? The film presents a series of questions: What is the date of production or of release? In what country was it made? What company and personnel made the film?

Who are the actors? Our mysterious film carries only the French title Wanda l’espione (“Wanda the Spy”)most likely a title given to page it by a distributor. It was probably imported rather than made in h&m delivery, Belgium, where the print was discovered. Fortunately there are some clues in the print itself. The lead actress, seated in the foreground, is a famous star, Francesca Bertini. Page V Smith? Identifying her makes it almost certain that the Day Speech, film is page v smith Italian. Which Functions Graphed Below By A Equation? But Bertini was a star from 1907 into the 1930s. How can we narrow the dates further?

The film’s style helps. The camera points straight toward the back wall of the set, and v smith, the actors seldom move closer to the camera than they are seen here. The editing pace is slow, and the action is staged so that performers enter and exit through a rear doorway. All these stylistic features are typical of European filmmaking of the mid-1910s. Such clues can be followed up by referring to a filmography (a list of films) of Bertini’s career. A plot description of a 1915 film in Different Works, which she starred, Diana l’affascinatrice (“Diana the Seductress”), matches the action of the unidentified print. Note that the identification depended on certain assumptions. Page V Smith? For example, the researcher assumed that it’s extremely unlikely for in Villains of Works Essay a modern filmmaker to page create a fake 1915 Italian film, just to baffle archivists. (Film historians need not worry about forgeries, as art historians must.) Note, too, that the researcher needed some background knowledge.

She had reason to believe that films staged and cut a certain way are characteristic of the mid-1910s, and she recognized a star from other films of the period. Most historians go beyond identification and tackle broader subject areas. Consider another common situation. An archive holds many films made by the same production company, and it also has numerous filing cabinets bulging with documents concerning that company’s production process. Of Symbolism Fahrenheit 451? Its collection also includes scripts in various drafts; memos passed among writers, directors, producers, and other staff; and page v smith, sketches for sets and costumes.

This is a rich lode of datatoo rich, in fact, for one researcher to tackle. Code? The historian’s problem is now selecting relevant data and salient facts. What makes a datum relevant or a fact salient is the historian’s research program and its questions. One scholar might be interested in tracing common features of the company’s production process; he might ask something like, “In general, how did this firm typically plan, execute, and market its movies?” Another historian’s research program might concentrate on the films of a certain director who worked for the company. She might ask, “What aspects of visual style distinguish the page, director’s films?”

Some facts would be central to Jealousy in Villains of Different Works Essay one program but peripheral to page v smith another. The historian interested in the company’s business routines might not particularly care about i love pakistan essay a daring visual innovation introduced by the director who is the focus of the page v smith, other historian’s inquiry. In turn, the of the be defined cubic, stylistic historian might be uninterested in how the company’s producers promoted certain stars. Again, assumptions exert pressure on the researcher’s framing of questions and v smith, pursuit of information. The company historian assumes that he can trace general tendencies of production organization, largely because film companies tend to make films by following fairly set routines. The director-centered researcher assumes that her director’s films do have a distinct style. And both historians would mobilize background knowledge, about code how companies work and how directors direct, to guide their research. Historians in page, any discipline do more than accumulate facts. No facts speak for themselves.

Facts are interesting and important only as part of research programs. Facts also help us ask and answer questions. Film History as Description and Explanation. Inevitably, a historian needs at least a little information, along with background knowledge and assumptions, to prod her to ask questions. But the historian does not necessarily sift through mountains of The Significance of Bradbury’s Fahrenheit, facts and then judiciously ask a question. A historian may begin with a question, and sometimes that question might be better described as a hunch or an intuition or even just an itch. For example, one young historian saw a few of the “anarchic” American comedies of the 1930s and noticed that their vulgar gags and absurd situations were very different from the page, more sophisticated comedy of the period. Suspecting that stage comedy might have been a source, he framed a question: “Might vaudeville and its performance style have shaped these particular comedies of the early 1930s?” He began to functions graphed below could by a equation gather information, examining films, reading coverage of the comedians in page, the Hollywood trade press, and studying shifts in American taste in humor.

The process of i love, research led him to refine his question and to mount a detailed account of how comedians introduced a vaudeville aesthetic into sound films but then muted it in accord with Hollywood’s standards of taste. 1. Nonhistorians often visualize the historical researcher as a cousin to Indiana Jones, braving library stacks and crawling through attics in quest of the treasure-lode of documents that overturn popular opinion. Certainly new documentation has a key role to play in historical research. One scholar gained entry to page v smith the long-inaccessible files of Hollywood’s self-censorship agency, the Hays Office, and she was able to put forth a new account of the office’s procedures and Jealousy of, functions. 2 Similarly, the increasing availability of v smith, films from cinema’s earliest era has created an entire subfield of cinema history. 3. Still, many research programs rely more on asking new questions than on h&m delivery code unearthing new data. Sometimes the research question seems to have been answered by previous historians, but another researcher comes along and suggests a more complete or complex answer.

For example, no historian disputes the fact that Warner Bros. was quick to invest in talking pictures in the mid-1920s. For a long time most historians believed that Warners took this risky step because it was on the verge of bankruptcy and was desperate to v smith save itself. But another historian with economic training concluded that the evidencewhich had long been publicly available to researcherspointed to a quite different conclusion. What Are Political? Far from facing bankruptcy, Warners was quickly expanding and investing in sound films was part of a carefully planned strategy for breaking into the ranks of the major studios. 4.

Our examples all indicate that the page v smith, historian’s research program aims to do at Jealousy in Villains Works least two things. First, the v smith, historian tries to describe a process or state of affairs. She asks What and who and where and when. What is i love pakistan this film, and who made it, and where and when? In what ways does this director’s work differ from that of others? What was the vaudeville comedic style? What evidence is there that a studio was nearly bankrupt? Who is the actor in this shot?

Who was responsible for page v smith scripts at h&m delivery code this company? Where was this film shown, and who might have seen it? Here the historian’s problem is v smith largely one of finding information that will answer such questions. Accurate description is indispensable for all historical research. Scholars have spent countless hours identifying films, collating versions, compiling filmographies, establishing timelines, and in Villains of Different Essay, creating reference works that supply names, dates, and the like. The more sophisticated and long-lived a historical discipline is, the richer and more complete its battery of descriptive reference material will be. Second, the historian tries to explain a process or state of affairs. He asks, How does this work? and Why did this happen?

How did this company assign tasks, lay out responsibilities, carry a project to completion? How did this director’s work influence other films from the company? Why did Warners pursue talkies when larger companies were reluctant to page do so? Why did some sound comedians adopt the vaudeville comedic style while others did not? The film historian, like a historian of art or politics, proposes an explanatory argument . Having asked how or why, she puts forward an answer, based on an examination of evidence in light of assumptions and background knowledge.

In reading historical writings, we need to could be defined cubic equation recognize that the page v smith, essay or book is not just a mass of facts but an argument. The historian’s argument consists of evidence marshalled to create a plausible explanation for an event or state of affairs. That is, the argument aims to i love pakistan essay answer some historical question. Most arguments about film history rely on page evidence. Evidence consists of Jealousy in Villains of Essay, information that gives grounds for page v smith believing that the argument is sound. Of The Functions Below Could Be Defined Cubic Equation? Evidence helps us judge whether the historian has presented a plausible answer to the original question. Film historians work with evidence of many sorts. Page? For many historians, copies of the code, films they study are central pieces of evidence. But this data set is partial. Although the cinema is a relatively young medium, invented only a little over v smith, a century ago, many films have already been lost or destroyed. For decades, movies were seen as products with temporary commercial value, and Jealousy in Villains Different Works Essay, companies did little to ensure their preservation.

Even when film archives began to be founded in the 1930s, they faced the daunting task of collecting and sheltering the thousands of films that had already been made. Archivists had to choose what they could afford to retain. Moreover, the page v smith, nitrate film stock, upon which most films up to the early 1950s were shot and i love pakistan essay, printed, was highly flammable and deteriorated over time. Deliberate destruction of films, warehouse fires, and the gradual decomposition of page v smith, nitrate stored in bad conditions have led to the loss of many titles. Are Political? In the page, frame below, from Willy Reilly and His Colleen Bawn , an code, Irish film from 1918, severe nitrate deterioration has obliterated the most important figures. According to rough estimates, only about 20 percent of silent films are known to survive. Many of these are still sitting in vaults, unidentified or unpreserved due to lack of funds. More recent films may be inaccessible to the researcher as well. Films made in some small countries, particularly in Third World nations, were not made in many copies and did not circulate widely. Small archives may not have the facilities to preserve films or show them to researchers.

In some cases, political regimes may choose to suppress certain films and promote others. Finding reliable copies to v smith study is a major challenge for the historian whose questions center on the films. Historians also rely on print sources. These may be published sources, such as books, magazines, trade journals, and newspapers, or unpublished ones, like memoirs, letters, notes, production files, scripts, and court testimony. Historians of Day Speech, film technology scrutinize cameras, sound recorders, and other equipment. A film studio or an important location might also serve as a source of evidence. Usually historians must verify their evidence. Often this depends on using the sort of page, descriptive research we have already mentioned, such as combing primary documents, checking filmographies and reference works, and the like. The problem of verification is particularly acute with film prints.

Films have always circulated in differing versions. In the Veteren's, 1920s, Hollywood films were shot in two versions, one for v smith the United States and one for Jealousy of Essay export. These could differ considerably in length, content, and even visual style. To this day, many Hollywood films are released in Europe in more erotic or violent versions than are screened in the United States. In addition, many old films have deteriorated and been subject to cutting and revision. Even modern restorations do not always reproduce the original release version. Often, then, the historian doesn’t know whether the print she is seeing represents anything like an original, if indeed there can be said to be a single original version. Historians try to page be aware of the differences among the are political factors, versions of the films they are studying. The fact that there are different versions can itself be a source of questions. Historians generally distinguish between primary and secondary sources. As applied to film, primary usually refers to sources the people directly involved in whatever is being studied.

For example, if you were studying Japanese cinema of the page v smith, 1920s, the surviving films, interviews with filmmakers or audience members, and contemporary trade journals would count as primary material. Later discussions concerning the period, usually by another historian, would be considered secondary. Often, though, one scholar’s secondary source is another’s primary source, because the researchers are asking different questions. A critic’s 1966 essay about a 1925 film would be a secondary source if your question centered on are political factors the 1925 film. Page? If, however, you were writing a history of film criticism during the 1960s, the critic’s essay would be a primary source. Explaining the Past: Basic Approaches. There are distinct types of explanation in film history. A standard list would include: Biographical history: focusing on an individual’s life history. Industrial or economic history: focusing on business practices. Aesthetic history: focusing on film art (form, style, genre)

Technological history: focusing on the materials and i love pakistan essay, machines of film. Social/cultural/political history: focusing on the role of cinema in the larger society. This sort of inventory helps us understand that there is v smith not one history of film but many possible histories, each adopting a different perspective. Typically, the researcher begins with an interest in one of these areas, which helps him to formulate his initial question. Nevertheless, such a typology shouldn’t be taken too rigidly. Not all questions the historian may ask will fall neatly into only one of these pigeonholes. If you want to know why a film looks the way it does, the question may not be purely aesthetic; it might be linked to the biography of the filmmaker or to the technological resources available when the in Villains of Works, film was made. A study of film genres might involve both aesthetic and cultural factors.

A person’s life cannot easily be separated from his or her working conditions within a film industry or from the contemporary political context. We propose that the student of film history think chiefly in terms of page v smith, questions, keeping in mind that some interesting questions are likely to cut across categorical boundaries. Explaining the Past: Organizing the Evidence. Finding an answer to a historical question may involve both description and explanation, in different mixtures. The techniques of descriptive research are specialized and require a wide range of background knowledge. For example, some experts on early silent cinema can determine when a film copy was made by what are political examining the stock on which it is printed.

The number and shape of the sprocket holes, along with the manner in which a manufacturer’s name is page v smith printed along the edge of the film strip, can help date the print. Knowing the age of the stock can in turn help narrow down the film’s date of production and country of origin. Historical explanation also involves concepts that organize the evidence produced by factors specialized knowledge. Here are some of them. Chronology Chronology is essential to historical explanation, and descriptive research is an indispensable aid to establishing the sequence of events. The historian needs to know that this film was made before that one or that event B took place after event A. Page? But history is not mere chronology. A chronology stops short of explanation, just as a record of high and Day Speech, low tides gives no hint as to why tides change. History, as we have already seen, centrally involves explanation.

Causality Much historical explanation involves cause and effect. Historians work with conceptions of various kinds of causes. Individual Causes People have beliefs and page v smith, desires that affect how they act. In acting, they make things happen. It is often reasonable to explain a historical change or a past state of which graphed could be defined by a equation, affairs in light of the attitudes or behavior of individuals.

This is not to say that individuals make everything happen or that things always happen as people originally intended or that people always understand just why they did what they did. It is simply to say that historians may justifiably appeal to page v smith what people think and what factors, feel and do as part of an explanation. Some historians believe that all historical explanation must appeal to person-based causes sooner or later. This position is usually called methodological individualism. A different, and even more sweeping, assumption is that only individuals, and exceptional individuals at page that, have the power to create historical change.

This view is sometimes labeled the which functions below be defined by a equation, Great Man theory of history, even though it is applied to women as well. V Smith? Earlier generations of film historians, for example, were inclined to treat D.W. Griffith as the most important figure in the U.S. silent cinema because it seemed that he invented a number of editing techniques that became widespread. More recent historians have developed a counterargument, thanks to the greater availability of films by other directors and a more comparison-based method. These scholars claim that Griffith developed certain tendencies that were already present, pushing them to a new level of expression. Moreover, his most original techniques were not picked up by others, so in some respects other directors had more influence on standard editing practice.

As an individual Griffith remains important, but he is probably not the Great Innovator that people once considered him. Group Causes People often act in groups, and at times we speak of the group as having a kind of existence over and above the of Different Works, individuals who compose it. Groups have rules and roles, structures and routines, and often these factors make things happen. We speak of page v smith, a government’s declaring war, yet this act may not be reducible to more detailed statements about what all the individuals involved believed and code, did. When we say that Warner Bros. decided to adopt sound, we are making a meaningful claim, even if we have no information about the page v smith, beliefs and desires of the essay, individual decision makers at the company; we may not even fully know who they were. Some historians assert that any historical explanation must, sooner or later, ground itself in group-based causes. This position is usually called holism, or methodological collectivism, as opposed to methodological individualism. Several sorts of groups are important to the history of cinema.

Throughout our book we talk about institutions government agencies, film studios, distribution firms, and other fairly formal, organized groups. We also talk about more informal affiliations of page v smith, filmmakers. These are usually called movements or schools, small assemblies of filmmakers and critics who share the Veteren's, same interests, beliefs about v smith cinema, conceptions of film form and The Significance to Support of Bradbury’s Fahrenheit 451, style, and the like. The Soviet filmmakers of the page v smith, 1920sLev Kuleshov, Sergei Eisenstein, V.I. Are Political? Pudovkin, and many othersare a classic instance of a movement.

Despite their individual differences, these men held in common a commitment to page v smith editing, often disjunctive editing, as central to a movie’s effects on a viewer. Less well-defined cases of a movement would be German Expressionist film of the 1920s, Italian neorealism after World War II, and French New Wave filmmaking during the 1960s. In these instances, the filmmakers often insisted that they shared no consciousness of belonging to a movement. Still, historians often find common trends in the films, in the production circumstances, and in the local film culture, and these factors justify treating the filmmakers as a group, even if not a full-fledged movement. Influence Most historians use some notion of influence to explain change. Influence describes the i love pakistan, inspiration that an individual, a group, or a film can provide for others. Members of a movement can deliberately influence a director to make a film a certain way, but a chance viewing of v smith, a movie can also influence a director. Influence does not mean simple copying. You may have been influenced by a parent or a teacher, but you have not necessarily mimicked his or her behavior. Factors? In the arts, influence is often a matter of one artist’s getting ideas from other artists’ work but then pursuing those ideas in a personal way.

The result may be quite different from the v smith, initial work that stimulated it. The contemporary director Jean-Luc Godard was influenced by Jean Renoir, although their films are markedly different. Sometimes we can detect the influence by examining the films; sometimes we rely on the testimony of the filmmaker. A body of work by Jealousy of Different a group of page v smith, directors may also influence later films. Pakistan Essay? Soviet cinema of the page v smith, 1920s influenced the documentary director John Grierson. The Hollywood cinema, as a set of films, has been enormously influential throughout film history, although all the directors influenced by i love pakistan essay it certainly did not see exactly the same films. Influences are particular kinds of causes, so it is not surprising that influences may involve both individual activity and group activity.

Trends and Generalizations Any historical question opens up a body of data for investigation. Once the historian starts to look closely at the datato go through a studio’s records, examine the v smith, films, page through the trade pressshe discovers that there is much more to explore than the i love essay, initial question touches on. It’s like looking into a microscope and discovering that a drop of water teems with organisms of v smith, confounding variety, all going about very different business. Every historian omits certain material. For one thing, the historical record is already incomplete.

Many events go unrecorded, and many documents are lost forever. Further, historians inevitably select. They unweave the tangles of history and create a more coherent pattern. A historian simplifies and streamlines according to the question he is pursuing. One principal way historians go about of Symbolism the Purpose of Bradbury’s 451 such simplification is by postulating trends. Lots of things are going on, they admit, but “by and large” or “on the page, whole” or “for the The Significance to Support the Purpose of Bradbury’s, most part,” we can identify a general tendency. Page? Most Hollywood films of the 1940s were made in The Significance of Symbolism the Purpose of Bradbury’s Fahrenheit 451, black and white, but most Hollywood films today are in color. On the whole, there has been a change, and we can see a trend toward the increasing use of color film stock between the page v smith, 1940s and the 1960s. Our task is to explain how and why this trend occurred. By positing trends, historians generalize.

They necessarily set aside interesting exceptions and aberrations. But this is no sin, because the answer to a question is necessarily pitched at a certain level of generality. All historical explanations pull back from the throbbing messiness of reality. By recognizing that tendencies are “for-the-most-part” generalizations, the scholar can acknowledge that there is more going on than she is trying to explain. Periods Historical chronology and causation are without beginning or end.

The child who incessantly asks what came before that or what made that happen soon discovers that we can trace out what factors, a sequence of events indefinitely. Page V Smith? Historians necessarily limit the stretch of to Support the Purpose, time they will explore, and v smith, they go on to divide that stretch into meaningful phases or segments. For example, the historian studying American silent cinema already assumes that this period within film history ran from about 1894 to around 1929. The historian will probably further segment this stretch of time. She might break it down by decade, treating the 1900s, the 1910s, and the 1920s. Instead, she might divide it with respect to changes external to filmsay, preWorld War I, World War I, and postWorld War I. Another possibility is creating periods that mark phases in of the cubic equation, the development of storytelling style, such as 18941907, 19081917, and 19181929.

Every historian marks out periods according to the research program he adopts and the question he asks. Historians recognize that periodization can’t be rigid: trends do not follow in neat order. It is illuminating to think of the American “structural” film of the early 1970s as a response to the “lyrical” film of the 1960s, but lyrical films were still being made well in the 1970s and afterward. Histories of genres often mark off periods by innovative films, but this is not to deny that more ordinary movies display a great deal of page v smith, continuity across periods. Rosemary’s Baby (1968) brought Satanic horror into the A-picture realm, but in essay, the years that followed, most horror films continued to page v smith be low-budget product. Similarly, we ought not to expect that the history of technology or styles or genres will march in step with political or social history.

The period after World War II was indeed distinctive, because this global conflict had major effects on film industries and Day Speech, filmmakers in most countries; but not all political events demarcate distinct periods in v smith, relation to changes in film form or the film market. The assassination of President Kennedy was a wrenching event, but it had little effect on activities in the film world. Here, as ever, the historian’s research program and central question will shape her sense of the relevant periods and parallel events. Are Political Factors? This is, again, one reason that scholars often speak of film histories rather than a single film history. Significance In mounting explanations, historians of all arts make assumptions about the significance of the artworks they discuss. We might treat a work as a “monument,” studying it because it is a highly valued accomplishment.

Alternatively, we might study a work as a “document” because it records some noteworthy historical activity, such as the v smith, state of a society at are political factors a given moment or a trend within the art form itself. Most historians assume that the films they discuss have significance on any or all of the following three criteria: Intrinsic excellence: Some films are, simply, outstanding by artistic criteria. Page V Smith? They are rich, moving, complex, thought-provoking, intricate, meaningful, or the h&m delivery, like. At least partly because of their quality, such films have played a key role in the history of cinema. Influence: A film may be historically significant by page v smith virtue of its influence on i love essay other films.

It may create or change a genre, inspire filmmakers to try something new, or gain such a wide popularity that it spawns imitations and tributes. Since influence is an important part of page v smith, historical explanations, this sort of film plays a prominent role in most histories. Typicality: Some films are significant because they vividly represent instances or trends. They stand in for many other films of the Veteren's, same type. The three criteria don’t have to combine. An influential film doesn’t have to be excellent or typical, and an excellent film may never exert much influence. The films of Robert Bresson are usually considered exceptionally good, but for a long time they influenced no other filmmaking.

But of v smith, course in some cases the criteria can combine. A highly accomplished genre film, such as Singin’ in the Rain or Rio Bravo , is often considered both excellent and highly typical. Many acclaimed masterworks, such as The Birth of a Nation or Citizen Kane, were also very influential, and some also typify broader tendencies. The preface to Film History: An Introduction , third edition, outlines the questions we focus on, but it’s probably worth mentioning them here as well. Although the book surveys the history of world cinema, we could hardly start with the question What is the history of world cinema? That would give us no help in setting about our research and organizing the material we find.

Instead, we have highlighted three major questions. 1. How have uses of the film medium changed or become normalized over time? Within “uses of the medium” we include matters of film form: the part/whole organization of the film. Are Political? Often this involves telling a story, but a film’s overall form might also be based on an argument or an abstract pattern. The term “uses of the page v smith, medium” also includes matters of film style, the patterned uses of h&m delivery code, film techniques ( mise-en-scène, or staging, lighting, setting, and costume; camerawork; editing; and sound). In addition, any balanced conception of page v smith, how the medium has been used must also consider film modes (documentary, avant-garde, fiction, animation) and genres (for example, the Western, the thriller, or the Day Speech, musical).

So we also examine these phenomena. V Smith? All such matters are central to Veteren's Day Speech most college and v smith, university survey courses in film history. A central purpose of factors, our book is to page survey the uses of the medium in different times and places. Sometimes we dwell on the creation of stable norms of form and style, as when we examine how Hollywood standardized certain editing options in the first two decades of filmmaking. At other times, we examine how filmmakers have proposed innovative ways of structuring form or using film technique. 2. How have the conditions of the film industryproduction, distribution, and Different Works Essay, exhibitionaffected the uses of the medium? Films are made within modes of production, habitual ways of organizing the labor and materials involved in page, creating a movie. Some modes of production are industrial; that’s when companies make films as a business. The classic instance of industrial production is the studio system, in which firms are organized in order to make films for large audiences through a fairly detailed division of labor. Code? Hollywood’s studio system is the most famous, but there have been studio systems of production in many countries. Another sort of industrial production might be called the artisanal, or one-off, approach, in which a production company makes one film at page v smith a time (perhaps only one film, period).

Still other modes of production are less highly organized, involving small groups or individuals who make films for specific purposes. In all these instances, the ways in which films are made have had particular effects on the look and sound of the finished products. An avant-garde films, made on a low budget by what factors an individual filmmaker, is v smith more likely to of Bradbury’s 451 be a personal expression than a big-budget Hollywood blockbuster. The ways in page, which films are exhibited have also affected film history. For example, the major technological innovations associated with the early 1950s wide-screen picture, stereophonic sound, increased use of color were actually available decades earlier. Each could have been developed before the 1950s, but the U.S. film industry had no pressing need to do so since film attendance was so high that spending money on new attractions would not have significantly increased profits. Only when attendance dropped precipitously in what, the late 1940s were producers and exhibitors pushed to introduce new technologies to lure audiences back into v smith, theaters. 3. How have international trends emerged in the uses of the film medium and in the film market? In Film History we try to The Significance of Symbolism to Support the Purpose of Bradbury’s Fahrenheit balance the consideration of important national contributions with a sense of page v smith, how international and cross-cultural influences were operating. What Are Political? Many nations’ audiences and film industries have been influenced by page directors and films that have migrated across their borders.

Genres are vagabond as well. Pakistan? The Hollywood Western influenced the Japanese samurai film and the Italian Western, genres that in turn influenced the Hong Kong kung-fu films of the v smith, 1970s. Interestingly, Hollywood films then began incorporating elements of the martial arts movie. Just as important, the i love pakistan essay, film industry itself is significantly transnational. At certain periods, circumstances closed off countries from the page v smith, flow of films, but most often there has been a global film market, and we understand it best by tracing trends across cultures and regions. We have paid particular attention to conditions that allowed people to see films made outside their own country. Each of these how questions accompanies a great many why questions. For any part of the processes we focus on, we can ask what conditions caused them to operate as they did. In Villains? Why, for instance, did Soviet filmmakers undertake their experiments in disturbing, aggressive narrative? Why did Hollywood’s studio system begin to v smith fragment in the late 1940s?

Why did “new waves” and “young cinemas” arise in Europe, the Soviet Union, and Japan around 1960? Why are more films produced now with international investment than in the 1930s or 1940s? Historians are keen to in Villains Different Essay know what factors made a change occur, and our general questions include a host of subquestions about causes and page, effects. Recall our five general explanatory approaches: biographical, industrial, aesthetic, technological, and social. If we had to squeeze our book into one or more of these pigeonholes, we could say that its approach is predominantly aesthetic and Jealousy Different Essay, industrial. It examines how types of films, film styles, and film forms have changed in relation to page v smith the conditions of film production, distribution, and exhibition within certain countries and The Significance of Bradbury’s Fahrenheit 451, within the international flow of films. Page? But this summary of pakistan essay, our approach is too confining, as even a cursory look at what follows will indicate. V Smith? Sometimes we invoke an pakistan, individual a powerful producer, an innovative filmmaker, an imaginative critic.

Sometimes we consider technology. And we often frame our account with discussions of the page, political, social, and cultural context of a period. Take, for example, our central question: How have uses of the Veteren's Day Speech, film medium changed or become normalized over time? This is a question about aesthetic matters, but it also impinges on factors of v smith, technology. For instance, conceptions of “realistic” filmmaking changed with the h&m delivery code, introduction of portable cameras and sound equipment in page v smith, the late 1950s. Of Different? Similarly, our second question How have the conditions of the film industry affected the uses of the page v smith, medium? is at once economic, technological, and aesthetic. Finally, asking how international trends have emerged in Jealousy Different Works Essay, the uses of the film medium and in the film market concerns both economic and social/cultural/political factors. In the early era of cinema, films circulated freely among countries, and viewers often did not know the nationality of a film they were seeing. In the 1910s, however, war and nationalism blocked certain films from circulating. At the same time, the growth of particular film industries, notably Hollywood, depended on access to page other markets, so the degree to Different which films could circulate boosted some nations’ output and hindered that of page v smith, others.

In addition, the circulation of Veteren's Day Speech, U.S. films abroad served to page v smith spread American cultural values, which in turn created both admiration and hostility. In sum, we have been guided, as we think most historians are, by research questions rather than rigid conceptions of the type of history we are writing. Veteren's? And what we take to be the most plausible answer to a given question will depend on the strength of the evidence and the argument we can make for it not on a prior commitment to writing only a certain kind of history. Our answers to historical questions are, however, not simply given in a list or summary. Like most historical arguments, ours takes a narrative form.

Historians use language to page communicate their arguments and evidence to others. Descriptive research programs can do this through a summary of findings: this film is Diana l’affascinatrice, made in Italy by Caesar-Film in 1915, directed by Gustavo Serena, and so on. But historical explanations require a more complicated crafting. Sometimes historians frame their explanations as persuasive arguments. In Villains Of Works Essay? To take an example already cited, a historian investigating the development of sound by Warner Bros. V Smith? might start by considering the various explanations already offered and taken for granted. Then he might set forth the reasons for believing his alternative interpretation.

This is in Villains Different a familiar form of page v smith, rhetorical argument, eliminating unsatisfactory beliefs before settling on a more plausible one. More often, historians’ explanations take the form of stories. Narrative history, as it is called, seeks to answer how and why questions by tracing the relevant circumstances and conditions over time. It produces a chain of of Symbolism of Bradbury’s Fahrenheit, causes and effects, or it shows how a process works, by telling a story. For instance, if we are trying to answer the question How did the Hays Office negotiate with firms to v smith arrive at an agreement about an acceptable film? we can frame a step-by-step narrative of the censorship process. Or, if we are seeking to what factors explain what led the Hays Office to be created, we might lay out the page, causal factors as a story. As these examples indicate, the story’s “characters” might be individuals or groups, institutions or even films; the “plot” consists of the situations in which the players operate and the changes they initiate and undergo. Narrative is one of the basic ways in which humans make sense of the world, and so it’s not surprising that historians use stories to make the past intelligible. Film History: An Introduction follows tradition in creating a large-scale narrative, one that includes several stories within it. We divide film history into six large periods early cinema (to about 1919), the late silent era (19191929), the development of sound cinema (19261945), the period after World War II (19461960s), the period running from the Different, 1960s to the 1980s, and the contemporary era (1980s-the present). These divisions reflect developments in (1) film form and style; (2) major changes in film production, distribution, and exhibition; and (3) significant international trends.

The periodization can’t be exactly synchronized for all three areas, but it does indicate approximate boundaries for the changes we try to v smith trace. An alternative organizational pattern is h&m delivery that of the topical history . Page? Topical history treats an idea or theme rather than a story. If you were writing a book-length history of Manhattan, for instance, you might devote one chapter to geography, another to Day Speech political dynamics, another to social changes, another to the events of 9/11, and so on. Page? The chapters themselves might be organized as narratives (though maybe not), but the overall structure would give a portrait of a city’s history from several angles. The historian must decide, at various levels, between narrative organization and Day Speech, topical organization. Suppose your question was How did America ’s postwar occupation of v smith, Germany affect the local film industry and what, culture? Once you’ve done your research and come to some conclusions, you could organize your presentation narratively or topically. That is, your chapters could proceed in chronological order to trace the changes in the industry between 1945 and the early 1950s. Page? Or each chapter could deal with events occurring across the entire period, but in i love, different spheres production, censorship, journalism, exhibition, and the like. In another topical layout, you could organize the book around key films or film policies that had an impact on page different spheres of German life. 5.

To suggest the flavor of doing historical research, we offer one of our own experiences. Here Kristin explains the process of researching a book-length study of Ernst Lubitsch’s films. Of the directors widely considered to be among the greatest, Ernst Lubitsch has had relatively little of substance written about him. The other directors of Germany’s “golden age” of the silent cinema, F. W. Murnau and what, especially Fritz Lang, have received more attention. Perhaps this has been the case because Lubitsch has no one thematic concern underlying his work. Murnau and Lang also are linked to the German Expressionist movement, while Lubitsch worked outside it. V Smith? His habit of moving between vast historical epics and broad comedies for his German films makes him hard to pin down. But why is he important? Filmmakers and cinema buffs love Lubitsch, partly for the sheer quality of his work, from the hilarious silent comedies of the late 1910s, like I Don’t Want to Be a Man and The Doll to the masterpieces of the Veteren's Day Speech, sound period, most notably Trouble in Paradise (1932) and The Shop around the Corner (1940).

Apart from his being a great director, though, why is Lubitsch significant? There are many things a historian could say about Lubitsch. I had been struck by how, after World War I, Germans acknowledged Lubitsch as their greatest director. After he moved to Hollywood, he quickly came to be considered the v smith, greatest director there as well. Yet Lubitsch’s style in his German films differed considerably from that we find in his American output. What are these differences, and how could he achieve such stature in i love pakistan essay, both countries?

A study of Lubitsch could also highlight how American and German national films styles differed during these crucial years in page v smith, the development of the cinema as an art. According to traditional historical accounts, during the 1920s, imaginative German techniques like Expressionist set design and the freely moving camera quickly influenced Hollywood films. Historians had not considered the which functions graphed below equation, influence might move in page v smith, the opposite direction, from Hollywood to Germany. A study of how Lubitsch adapted so quickly to the American way of factors, filmmaking could test that standard account. How long a period should the book cover? Lubitsch had begun as a silent-film comedian, directing some of his own shorts and page v smith, short features during the war. He moved into of Symbolism to Support the Purpose of Bradbury’s 451, features in 1918.

I decided to limit my focus to the ten-year period from 1918 to 1927, the year of page v smith, Lubitsch’s last surviving silent film. Veteren's Day Speech? During this period Lubitsch made a remarkable 28 features and one short. Page V Smith? Of these titles, seven are not known to which functions graphed could cubic equation survive. V Smith? In addition, three of the surviving films are lacking significant amounts of footage. In Villains Different Essay? The 21 available films became the core body of evidence for my study. Before World War I, the international cinema was dominated by French and Italian cinema. American cinema was expanding domestically, but it had yet to make major inroads in most overseas markets. During the war, however, production declined in France and page v smith, Italy, and the American firms quickly stepped in to supply theaters in many territories.

Once hostilities ended, Hollywood films were firmly entrenched, and other producing countries found themselves struggling to keep a substantial share of their domestic markets, let alone to compete with America internationally. The war had, ironically, strengthened the German industry. Day Speech? In 1916, the government banned the import of all but Danish films. This ban was kept in place until December 31, 1920. Thus for page v smith nearly five years, German film production was free to Veteren's expand, and the industry emerged from the war second in size and strength only to Hollywood. It was during that period of isolation that Lubitsch came into his own as a director. Institutional circumstances played a role in page, making him the finest proponent of the German approach to which of the below by a cubic filmmaking (a style which was largely the same as that used in most European producing countries). During the page, mid-1910s, however, Hollywood film style was changing enormously.

What has been termed the “classical” style emerged, the underlying principle of which was to tailor film technique to tell a story as comprehensibly and unobtrusively as possible. Scenes were broken up into closer shots through analytical editing, shifting the Veteren's, spectator’s eye to the most salient part of the action at each moment. V Smith? Filming in diffused light in the open air or in Jealousy of Different Essay, glass-sided studios was abandoned in favor of page, “dark” studios illuminated entirely by artificial lighting. Pakistan Essay? This multi-directional lighting was designed to pick characters out against muted backgrounds and to model their bodies more three-dimensionally. Page? The technique became codified as three-point lighting. In Villains Different Works? 6 Acting styles became less broad, depending more on glances and v smith, small gestures than on pantomime. Set design evolved to make the space containing the below be defined by a, action simpler and hence less distracting. In sum, a new trend had begun, led by American filmmaking.

Once Hollywood films began screening in Germany in 1921, a new set of causes came into play. German filmmakers started absorbing the American style, and Lubitsch was in the forefront of this change. His German films of 1921 and 1922 reflect his new knowledge of classical technique, and page v smith, he was clearly ready to make the leap into Hollywood filmmaking even before he went there. Once in America, he rapidly honed his application of classical principles, and factors, soon he was in page v smith, turn influencing the filmmakers there with a string of masterpieces, including The Marriage Circle (1924) and Lady Windermere’s Fan (1925). For example, we can see the The Significance of Symbolism to Support of Bradbury’s, change in Lubitsch’s approach to page lighting in three frames. The first, from Carmen (1918), shows lighting coming entirely from the front; there’s no backlighting to pakistan essay pick out the gray uniform against the gray background. By 1921, after Lubitsch had seen Hollywood films, he used light from the front, side, and rear in v smith, Das Weib des Pharao . In Hollywood, Lubitsch routinely used back lighting to h&m delivery code make his actors stand out against the sets, as in this frame from Three Women (1923). In setting out on my project, I asked a small number of v smith, questions. How did Lubitsch’s German features reflect a more general national filmmaking style at the end of the war? How did Lubitsch’s style change over this decade and to what extent was the change a reaction to Hollywood films? What impact did the new classical Hollywood style have more generally on German filmmaking in the 1920s?

I was already familiar with American films of this period, having collaborated on The Classical Hollywood Cinema (1985, Columbia University Press) with David and with Janet Staiger. I had examined many films and gathered illustrations that I could use for which of the graphed below cubic equation the new book. Page V Smith? To learn about the very different German style of the same era, I went to h&m delivery film archives in page v smith, the U.S. and abroad to study Lubitsch’s films in Jealousy Works Essay, detail, watching them on an editing table and making frame reproductions for page v smith use as illustrations. I examined Lubitsch’s context by in Villains of Works watching about 75 films by other directors, also collecting images for illustrations. Page? (I did not include Expressionist and of the functions graphed be defined cubic equation, Neue Sachlichkeit films, as these were avant-garde alternatives to classical Hollywood style.) I wasn’t looking at acknowledged masterpieces, for page I wanted to track typical trends in German film style. In libraries I went through film-industry publications, primarily the in Villains of Essay, Lichtbildbühne and Film-Kurier , and the two main technical journals of the 1920s, Die Kinotechnik and Die Filmtechnik . Cinematography manuals and the memoirs of people who had worked with Lubitsch filled in page, details of the director’s working methods. Legal papers in of the below be defined by a, the United Artists collection of the Wisconsin Center for Film and Theater Research shed light on page Mary Pickford’s dealings with Lubitsch during and after their work on Rosita (1923) dealings about which some widely believed myths had persisted. Reviews of Lubitsch’s films in the German and American press revealed how Lubitsch’s films were viewed and what expert viewers noticed about their look. All this evidence allowed me to answer my initial questions. I could identify the point in code, Lubitsch’s career when his films began to reflect the page v smith, influence of Hollywood style. I was able to do the same with more ordinary German films of the Day Speech, post-war era. I showed that, contrary to the standard view of this era, Hollywood films had considerably more impact on German films than the other way round.

In writing the page v smith, book, I didn’t organize the chapters to give a chronological account of pakistan, Lubitsch’s career during this ten-year period. Instead, because this was to be a stylistic analysis, I broke it down topically. An introductory chapter laid out Lubitsch’s German career briefly and discussed the v smith, industrial and social conditions in Germany that discouraged or fostered the movement of influences. The next four chapters centered on four areas of film technique: lighting, set design, editing, and acting. These sharply revealed the differences between Hollywood and German style in the crucial years. For each technique, I discussed Hollywood norms and contrasted these with German norms.

I laid out what, numerous examples from ordinary German films and from Lubitsch’s. Each chapter ended with a section on page v smith Lubitsch’s Hollywood films and how closely each adhered to Veteren's classical filmmaking norms. The final chapter dealt with the influences of v smith, Hollywood film on The Significance to Support the Purpose 451 mainstream commercial German cinema of the era after Lubitsch had left his native country. Page V Smith? These influences, I tried to show, were far more widespread and significant than any German techniques that might be detected in Hollywood films of the same years. Within chapters the discussion was organized narratively, tracing Lubitsch’s work chronologically for each area of film technique. The overall argument moved from specific to general. While the opening chapter dealt largely with Lubitsch’s career and essay, work, the last one left Lubitsch and concentrated almost entirely on German cinema of the 1920s. When Herr Lubitsch Goes to v smith Hollywood was published, few of Veteren's Day Speech, Lubitsch’s silent features were widely known. Since then, DVD releases have made it possible for a broad audience to see some of the classic films he made in each country.

The Eyes of the Mummy (1918) is page available. Which? The “Lubitsch in Berlin” set contains several German features: The Doll, The Oyster Princess, I Don’t Want to Be a Man, Sumurun, Anna Boleyn, and The Wildcat plus a documentary on Lubitsch’s early career. V Smith? (Each is available separately as well.) Lubitsch’s two most important Hollywood films are also on pakistan essay DVD: His romantic comedy The Marriage Circle (1924) is page available, and a restored print of what is functions graphed equation arguably his masterpiece of the silent period, Lady Windermere’s Fan (1925), is part of the “More Treasures from American Film Archives” set. Perhaps now readers can evaluate my answers to page the questions my book seeks to answer, and I hope that other historians will ask new ones of their own. We hope we’ve shown that film historians, professional or amateur, work with both ideas and information. They mount projects within research programs. They don’t simply state facts; they try to ask questions. They don’t just pile up data; they make arguments. The facts and questions, data and arguments combine to make doing film history a fascinating pursuit.

Historical writing about films will probably never be as common as film criticism; most people prefer to comment about films by analyzing, interpreting, and evaluating them. Writing an pakistan, essay on film history takes a lot more time and effort than writing a review of a current film. Nonetheless, historical study offers unique pleasures. If you want to understand the context of a film that you admire, you would enjoy reading film history. Just as important, a deeper understanding of film history introduces you to a range of new films to enjoy. Page? Finally, if we have any curiosity about the films that captivate us now, we can start to satisfy it by thinking historically. In Villains Of Works? What happens today springs from page, what happened yesterday. By trying to understand film history, we better understand the movies of our moment. Pakistan? 7.

4 : Douglas Gomery, “The Coming of Sound: Technological Change in the American Film Industry,” in Tino Balio, ed., The American Film Industry, rev. ed. (Madison: University of Wisconsin Press, 1985), pp. V Smith? 22951. 6 : See David Bordwell and Kristin Thompson, Film Art: An Introduction , eighth ed. (New York: McGraw-Hill, 2008), 128-130. 7 : In our weblog, we often try to put recent films into various historical contexts. See www.davidbordwell.net/blog.

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Sigmund's Gourmet Pasta restaurant specializes in unique and innovative pasta dishes. The signature line of innovative, premium, pasta dishes include pesto with smoked salmon, pancetta and peas linguini in an alfredo sauce, and fresh mussels and clams in v smith, a marinara sauce. Sigmund's Gourmet Pasta also serves distinctive salads, desserts, and beverages. Are Political Factors? Learn more about this plan. Take Five Sports Bar and Grill has established a successful presence in the food and v smith beverage service industry. The flagship location in suburban Anytown (Medlock Bridge) will gross in excess of $2 million in sales in its first year of operation, ending July 1996. First year operations will produce a net profit of $433,000. Learn more about this plan. Java Culture coffee bar will become a daily necessity for Veteren's Day Speech, local coffee addicts. With the v smith, growing demand for high-quality gourmet coffee and in Villains of great service, Java Culture will capitalize on v smith, its proximity to the university to build a core group of repeat customers.

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Convenience Store Cafe Business Plan. Luna's will offer a range of fresh, organic produce, staples, packaged foods, drinks (alcoholic and non alcoholic), prepackaged fresh meals and pastries, newspapers, pet foods, medicines, health and beauty items, etc. What Are Political Factors? In addition, Luna's will rent a small section of the store to a cafe with seating for approximately 20, serving breakfast, lunch and snacks. Learn more about this plan. Wasatch Family Fun Center, owned by page IB Investments, will provide customers with a wholesome environment of amusement, entertainment, competition, year-round activities, and Jealousy in Villains Different great food at affordable prices. In addition to other funding and capitalization efforts detailed in this plan, the Company will seek funds from the Government Redevelopment Agency. V Smith? Learn more about this plan. Convenience Store Soda Fountain Business Plan. The Coffee Break, a start-up convenience store, will provide its' customers basic goods needed for code, daily functions at school and the workplace as well as offering a variety of quick nutritious foods, a deluxe coffee bar, soda fountain and ice cream parlor. Our main targeted markets are students, business people, neighborhood senior residents, and tourists.

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Meal preparation happens in a party-like atmosphere, trying new recipes, ingredients, and The Significance to Support the Purpose Fahrenheit techniques. Learn more about this plan. Bowl Weevil will bring the fun of bowling back to page, Anytown, Kentucky, along with great food and funky shoes in Day Speech, a historic location. By targeting the v smith, munchy after-school crowd, as well as seniors, young families, and h&m delivery bowling league members, Bowl Weevil will reinvent bowling for a new generation. V Smith? Learn more about this plan. We make shopping. Copyright 2017 Palo Alto Software. All rights reserved.

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documentary essays Introduction to Literature: Creative Writing and v smith, Literature. ENG 273 001 (CRN: 74989) Class Meets: MWF, 1230-1320, in Veteren's Day Speech, KUY 302. Professor Susan M. Schultz Ms. No`u Revilla, Ph.D. apprentice. 214 Kuykendall Hall 314 Kuykendall: nrevilla@hawaii.edu. Office hours: M,W, 1:30-2:45 by appointment.

English 273: Introduction to Literature; CW Lit. Required Texts: available at Revolution Books. Kamau Brathwaite, Trench Town Rock. R. Zamora Linmark, Leche. Kaia Sand, Remember to Wave. W.G. Sebald, The Emigrants. Eleni Sikelianos, The Book of page Jon. Other materials will be available on-line, including the Veteren's, all-important Purdue Owl site: http://owl.english.purdue.edu/owl/ (Answers all questions having to do with grammar, citation form, works cited, and much more!) --To make you aware ofand well versed ina cutting edge literary form that brings together public and private concerns, literary and journalistic writing, poetry and prose, writing and collage. --To make you better thinkers and writers about literary texts. To show you how to read analytically and as a creative writer.

--To make you better creative writers, using the format of documentary writing. --To have some serious fun. --You are responsible for v smith, knowing what's on the syllabus. Bookmark this page and that of our blog. Check often, as there will be additions and emendations along the way. --Attendance is required. You may miss three classes without a valid excuse.

Beyond that, your grade will suffer. You must complete all the i love pakistan essay, work for page, the course in order to of Symbolism to Support of Bradbury’s Fahrenheit 451, pass. --Participation is crucial. Do the reading for the day before class. Write 300 words or so on the class blog by Friday of every week.

Look up words, place names, historical facts before class. Page? Google is Veteren's, your friend. Come to class with something to say, or a question to ask, about the reading. You will be rewarded for good preparation. --Our blog is at http://documentarywriting.blogspot.com/. Say yes to the invitation to join, then go directly to the blog to post (under new post at the top). It helps to have a non-UH gmail account for blogging purposes. We will keep track of your postings, but not alert you if you are behind, so stay on v smith, track! Be good citizens on the blog.

Treat each other with respect. Read each others' posts, because you will learn from each other, as well as from h&m delivery code, your instructors. --Every Friday there will be an in-class exercise. You are welcome to use these exercises to generate your poems and page, essays for the class, but you will need to elaborate on the exercises, and intensively revise what you write in class. Ms. Revilla and I are available to code, talk you through the process.

--Write two short essays and four documentary pieces (poems 1 2; proses 1 2). Page V Smith? You will make a final chapbook (explanation to Jealousy of Works Essay, come) out of your documentary pieces as a final project. V Smith? You may revise and resubmit your essays for two weeks after you get your grades and comments. If the revision is The Significance the Purpose Fahrenheit, successful, your grade will go up. If it isn't, your grade will remain the same. --Meet with our Ph.D. graduate student apprentice, No`u Revilla, for conferences at page v smith, least three times this semester to talk about your work. Meet with me at least once. You are responsible for keeping your appointments.

If you can't make it on time, let us know beforehand. --If you have any disabilities, I'm happy to work with KOKUA. Please visit their website to find out be defined by a cubic equation, what services they offer. Page? Here: http://www.hawaii.edu/kokua/services.htm. --Do not plagiarize. Plagiarism will result in Veteren's, an F for the course. (This issue gets a bit tricky with documentary writing, and v smith, we'll talk about of Symbolism to Support the Purpose Fahrenheit 451, that when we get to it.) --I will let you know when to use electronics, such as laptops or iPads, in class. Otherwise, turn off your phones and other electronics. Page? Absolutely no texting or facebooking or other use of Veteren's Day Speech your devices! Ms. Revilla will be our fact checker. I will confiscate electronics until the end of the class if you start texting, etc..

--25% second essay. --25% final project. --5% instructor's discretion (based on effort, improvement, etc.) Page numbers will be provided when we start reading each text. Monday, August 20: Introductions, expectations, a question or two. Pay special attention to the ways in which Brainard's private memories meld with more public concerns (history, culture, sexuality, advertising and so on). Friday, August 24: In-class exercise. Collages. Read the poems he writes about; there are links in v smith, the headings to his discussions of the poems. Veteren's? We will talk about a couple of these poems in class, so bring your laptops or iPads with you.

Wednesday, August 29: Read Sikelianos, The Book of Jon, Introduction and 1-33 ; Listen to her interview with Leonard Schwartz on page v smith, Cross-Cultural Poetics here: http://writing.upenn.edu/pennsound/x/Sikelianos.php. Friday, August 31: In-class exercise. Wednesday, September 5: Sikelianos: keep reading! (at least to Veteren's, 59) Friday, September 7: In-class exercise. Monday, September 10: Sikelianos: finish the page v smith, book.

Poem #1 is due. Wednesday, September 12: Start Sand , Remember to Wave; Take a careful look at Sand's website and figure out what's important to her and her work: http://kaiasand.net/ Read her introduction. Friday, September 14: In-class exercise. Monday, September 17: Sand; Listen to which functions graphed could be defined by a cubic, Sand's voice here: http://poetryproject.org/tag/kaia-sand; read the title poem. Wednesday, September 19: Sand: Spend 15 minutes or so on this site about internment of Japanese-Americanst: http://www.digitalhistory.uh.edu/learning_history/japanese_internment/internment_menu.cfm Read the afterword to the title poem. Friday, September 21: In-class exercise. Monday, September 24: First Essay is page, due. Wednesday, September 26: Sand: read the rest of her book.

Friday, September 28: In-class exercise. Monday, October 1: Kamau Brathwaite; Listen to Leonard Schwartz's interview of Brathwaite here: http://writing.upenn.edu/pennsound/x/Brathwaite.php Poem #2 is due. Wednesday, October 3: Brathwaite. Friday, October 5: In-class exercise. Monday, October 8: Brathwaite. Wednesday, October 10: Brathwaite.

Friday, October 12: In-class exercise. Monday, October 15: Topics for your second essay. Finish Brathwaite. Friday, October 19: In-class exercise; Read Linmark, 45-85. Monday, October 22: Linmark: find a good on-line source or timeline for Philippine history and read it.

Get a cursory sense of the culture, the religion, the linguistic complexities, and the economy of the Philippines. Read 86-136. Wednesday, October 24: Linmark ; read 139-174. Friday, October 26: In-class exercise. Read Linmark 175-202/

Monday, October 29: Linmark Prose piece #1 is due ; Read Linmark 203-241. Wednesday, October 31: Linmark Read 242-268. Friday, November 2: Second essay is due. Discuss in class. Wednesday, November 7: Linmark; Finish the book!

Friday, November 9: In-class exercise. Monday, November 12: No classes: Veterans' Day Observed. Wednesday, November 14: W.G. Sebald; read the HIstory Channel material on the Holocaust: http://www.history.com/topics/the-holocaust. Friday, November 16: In-class exercise. Monday, November 19: Sebald: listen to this interview with Sebald, done eight days before his death in a car accident: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=pSFcTWIg-Pg Prose piece #2 is due. Wednesday, November 21: Sebald. Friday, November 23: No classes: Thanksgiving break. Monday, November 26: Workshop your creative pieces. Wednesday, November 28: Workshop.

Friday, November 30: Workshop. Monday, December 3: Workshop. Wednesday, December 5: Last day of class. English 273: CW Literature. 14 September 2012. Prof. In Villains Of Different? Susan M. Schultz.

Paper Topics: Essay #1. I want you to use this first essay to go back to some ideas we covered, but also to investigate them more closely and more expansively. You will need to write 3-5 pages, double-spaced, of reasonable font (12 point), and to use MLA style. (Put pages quoted in parentheses.) There should be an argument, which is page, clear from the beginning of the essay. You will need to use quotations. Your ideas should come from the poems, not be imposed upon them. Of Symbolism The Purpose Of Bradbury’s Fahrenheit 451? You need to page, put a title on your essaynot Essay #1, but a title that tells your reader what youre writing about (poem idea about the poem). --Write an essay in which you do a close-reading of i love pakistan a section of The Book of v smith Jon that we have not read together in class.

Consider some or all of the following questions as you think about Veteren's Day Speech, your essay: why is the section written in this form (whether letter or paragraph or story or list or poem, etc.)? What are the significant details and what are their effects? What pronouns does the poet use and v smith, why? In what order does she tell a story, and why? (Your questions here: _______________________?) --Like other documentary writers, Sikelianos is Day Speech, interested both in the private world of her family and in her fathers public world. The first world offers us memories; the second gets written as history. Write an essay in v smith, which you show how she balances the Veteren's Day Speech, personal with the public in her book. What are the influences of the public on Jons private world? Dont restrict yourself to one section of the book; instead, look through the whole book for page v smith, relevant passages and quotations.

--Documentary writing often sounds quite flat. Charles Reznikoff is nowhere obvious to be found in his poems, which convey no emotion of their own. Often, the writing sounds more like journalism than like poetry. Same goes for Muriel Rukeyser in her poems on the Gauley Bridge disaster, and for Carolyn Forche in Veteren's, her poem about the central American colonel. Perform an experiment in which you rewrite one of these poems, using a highly emotive language. Then write an page v smith, essay in which you talk about what happened when you changed the objective surface of the documentary poem into the subjective voice of h&m delivery code your rendition.

Is the second poem as effective as the first? Why or why not? Why do you suppose that documentary writers use such a neutral tone much of the time? --Sikelianos often gestures at stories she never tells us. She makes lists of stories to be told, sketches out page, a film that contains no images, leaves information out (like the name of the song she put on in Villains of Different Essay, the jukebox at the bar). Find places in the book where important details, stories are left out. Why? What is the effect on the reader of this lack of information? --Im auditing a course on Modern American Poetry out of the University of Pennsylvania (its on-line).

One of the statements made by page v smith, the head TA is that poetry does not include information. Clearly, documentary poetry does include information, and this student has written to Works, tell her so! Write an essay in which you discuss what happens to information when it enters a poem, and v smith, what happens to the poem when it includes information. Lest you wander too far astray, choose one poem or section of a book (Sikelianoss or Sands) as a focus for your argument. --Use MLA form. Double-space your essays and in Villains Different Works, put them in a reasonable font size (12). You can find MLA guidelines on Purdue's Owl website, here: https://owl.english.purdue.edu/owl/resource/747/01/ --Have a main point, an argument, and state it toward the beginning of the essay (in the v smith, first paragraph, say). You may feel that your main point is Veteren's Day Speech, obvious and not want to come out with it, but I can't read your minds. Page V Smith? So tell me what you're about to show me before you show it. Then you can elaborate and complicate your argument with the what are political, help of v smith quotations from the source text. --Do not generate your argument out of thin air.

Instead, spend time getting to know the poem or poems you're working on. What Are Political Factors? Look carefully at word choice, meter, rhyme, line endings, enjambment, and the rest of your arsenal. Allow the page, argument to come to you, rather than imposing it on the poem. You may feel that this is h&m delivery, a less ambitious approach, but paradoxically, it leads to page v smith, more ambitious work. --Use quotations from the text, but be sure to integrate them into i love pakistan, your prose. Don't just plunk them down, unattended, rather use them to guide the reader to v smith, an awareness that your interpretations are persuasive. --Do NOT write a five paragraph essay for the sake of what are political factors five paragraphs. You're in college now, and five paragraphs tends not to get the page v smith, work done. Use your paragraphs to develop your ideas, and launch each paragraph with a crisp topic sentence or an equally crisp transition.

--Your introduction sets up a problem and proposes to solve it. Your conclusion is a different sort of beast. Your conclusion is of Symbolism to Support of Bradbury’s 451, not a summary (I just wrote this, and here it is again), but an ending to your essay that explores some of the implications of your argument. Page V Smith? (If, for example, you've written about how Emily Dickinson fails to maintain her rhyme scheme in a poem, you might write a conclusion that steps away from what, her specific poem and talks about the way in which the page v smith, breaking of forms affects our reading of poems.) --You must have a title on i love pakistan, your essay, one that does (a lot) more than announce that it's Essay #1. The title should let the reader know what poem is being discussed and what your main point is. Good titles are hard to page v smith, write, so save some time to compose yours. --Proof-read your work, or ask a friend to look it over before you turn it in. Get rid of pesky errors, typos, mis-spellings, and so on. By A? They do affect the page, way your paper gets read, because they (can) reflect on the amount of care you've put into your work. Topics for i love pakistan essay, the first prose piece and the second essay. 15 October 2012. Prof.

Susan M. V Smith? Schultz. Topics for your first prose piece your second essay. Monday, October 29 (prose piece) Friday, November 9 (essay) First prose piece : two typed pages (can be double-spaced). These are all based on our reading of R. Zamora (Zack) Linmark's Leche. --Pick a term and write a definition for it.

Then write a story that goes with the word. --Write a series of The Significance to Support of Bradbury’s Fahrenheit tips. They do not have to be for tourists. Then write a brief story that relates to v smith, one or more of the tips. --Write a very short story based on pakistan, something that happened in v smith, your family. Include historical background.

--Write a series of five postcards that tell a story. Jealousy Different Works? Make sure to pick good postcards. --Write a story about page, a word with more than one meaning or write about a misunderstood word (because of accent or deafness). --Write a very short story about factors, a moment of cultural confusion. --Tell a very long story in a very few words, perhaps in one paragraph, or two. Second essay topics: 4-5 pages, double-spaced. --Discuss the way in which Kamau Brathwaite's uses of page font sizes, shapes, and spelling determines the way in which a reader performs and interprets one section of his book. Use several very specific examples, but create a story around them that includes them all. Of The Below Could Cubic? Each example may be unique, yet all of them should work toward an idea or message you find in the book. --Discuss Kaia Sand/Bao Ngygen's uses of lay-out and page v smith, space in Remember to the Purpose Fahrenheit 451, Wave . How do non-verbal sections of the book contribute to the work's meaning?

You may write on Uptick, if you choose. Page? Remember that that poem is based on i love pakistan essay, a movie. -- Show how Linmark uses documents in LECHE to develop characters (choose one). Page? Consider documentation that has to do with national, sexual, age-related identities. How do we get to pakistan, know a character by way of the documentation s/he carries? --Analyze Book II or Book III of LECHE for the way in which Linmark tells his story.

What happens first, second, third? What are the effects of his discourse in telling the story (remember our discussion of the difference between story (what actually happened, in the order it happened) and discourse (how the story is told). Think about how switching the order of page v smith some elements of the book would change the story. --Linmark's book was written for i love pakistan essay, several very different audiences at once. Page V Smith? There's the inside audience of Filipino readers from Hawai`i who immigrated as children (as some of you did); there's the audience of people from Hawai`i who did not come from the Philippines; there's the audience of Americans who don't know Hawai`i or the Philippines, and pakistan essay, so on. Show your reader how Linmark manages, in one section of the page v smith, book, to address all of these audiences without losing any of them (through too much information, or too little). 8 November 2012. Prof. H&m Delivery Code? Susan M. V Smith? Schultz.

Final Project Prompts. Choose one, and in Villains of Different, enjoy yourselves! --Make a chapbook out of your creative work for v smith, this class. Here is h&m delivery, a description of the chapbook: And here is where to find images of page chapbooks (professional ones): And here are directions on Works, how to make a chapbook: Consider binding your chapbook with recycled materials. Make between 2 and v smith, 22, either one for me and one for you, or one for every member of the class. Feel free to to Support the Purpose of Bradbury’s 451, be adventurous with materials, shapes, everything about your little book. --Make a video of one of the poems or pieces of prose we've read (or written) this semester.

Then write a 3-4 page essay on the process of making it (why you chose the text you chose, where you set the video, what background your chose, what music, if relevant, and so on). You may make your video by yourself or with others, but each of page you must then write a separate short essay. Here are some poetry videos off the internet: This is Yamanaka reading the h&m delivery code, poem Bob Holman mentioned in class. This was a project initiated by a poet laureate, Robert Pinsky, which shows people reading their favorite poem and talking about it. 16 November 2012. Prof. Susan M. Schultz.

Your prose piece should be two pages long, double-spaced, and will be due before Thanksgiving. There will be a free pass on page, email submissions this time, just be sure to send as attachments to smspoetryprof@gmail.com and to send again, if your piece gets lost amid the tens of thousands of other emails. And have a wonderful Thanksgiving! This is a class I wouldnt mind sharing my turkey with . . . All of these prompts are based on our reading of W.G. Sebalds novel/memoir. Code? Feel free to mix fact and fiction in what you write. If fact doesnt work, make something up; if fiction doesnt work, fact is often stranger. Here are prompts.

Choose one, or mix and match: --Take a walk, either in reality or in your mind (sans devices!) to a place you do not know well. Describe that place in precise detail. Then allow your mind to v smith, wander to another place you remember, one that reminds you of the place youre visiting in the present. Write a digression of several sentences on that place, and h&m delivery, then return to v smith, the place youre visiting now. Are Political? Your memories can be personal, historical andas this is a documentary writing classthey can be both at once. In fact, youre encouraged to mix personal and page, historical in this piece. --Write a non-fiction or fictional piece about a personal/historical event. Veteren's Day Speech? Incorporate two photographs into page v smith, your piece. These photographs do not need to be directly related to the event, but should complement your writing about it.

--Write a piece of non-fiction or fiction in which you relate a coincidence. No cheesy coincidences allowed, just the i love pakistan, really surprising ones like the hiker found in the ice and v smith, then found decades later on a newspaper headline, or the interesting people who come your way after a death in what are political, the family, who may or may not seem to v smith, be messengers from the of the graphed could by a cubic, deceased person. Friday, November 23: No classes: Thanksgiving break. Monday, November 26: Finish Sebald (extra day on page, him) Wednesday, November 28: Workshop. Friday, November 30: Workshop. Monday, December 3: Workshop.

Wednesday, December 5: Last day of class; present projects. Do either of the following two projects: --Make a chapbook (google it!) out of your creative work for this semester. You may make your book out of are political factors any material, recycled or new. I would prefer that you make enough copies for the entire class, but if your wallet is thin, please make at least two of them, one for me and one for you. Think about size, shape, covers, illustrations, title, and write a short bio of yourself to put at the back of the book.

You can find instructions for how to make chapbooks on-line. V Smith? Start early, and Day Speech, enjoy! --Make a video of up to five minutes based on a poem or a prose piece we read this semester. Then write a three to four page essay on how you made your video. Why did you set it in page v smith, the place you set it? Did you use music and, if so, why? What did you try to draw out of the text? Was there anything you left out, and why? If you choose to make your video with another student, you must each write separate essays on the project. You can have a friend be camera-person or extra, but you're the point person here! Sign up for workshop days, when we'll form groups and talk about your work.

Be sure to bring a full draft of your project, not just some stray ideas.