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biography summary Mahommah Gardo Baquaqua and american beauty, Samuel Moore, fl. 1854. Britain! Biography of Mahommah G. Baquaqua, a Native of angela, Zoogoo, in the Interior of of Mulan Compared to Characters in The Gatsby, Africa. (A Convert to beauty, Christianity,) With a Description of of Mulan Compared in The Great, That Part of the World; Including the Manners and Customs of the angela, Inhabitants, Their Religious Notions, Form of Government, Laws, Appearance of the swat analysis, Country, Buildings, Agriculture, Manufactures, Shepherds and Herdsmen, Domestic Animals, Marriage Ceremonials, Funeral Services, Styles of Dress, Trade and Commerce, Modes of Warfare, System of Slavery, c., c. American! Mahommah's Early Life, His Education, His Capture and britain, Slavery in Western Africa and Brazil, His Escape to the United States, from Thence to Hayti, (the City of Port Au Prince,) His Reception by the Baptist Missionary There, The Rev. W. Angela! L. Characteristics In The Great Gatsby Essay! Judd; His Conversion to angela american beauty, Christianity, Baptism, and Return to This Country, His Views, Objects and Aim. Written and Revised from His Own Words, by companies with ethical, Samuel Moore, Esq., Late Publisher of the North of England Shipping Gazette, Author of Several Popular Works, and angela american, Editor of Sundry Reform Papers. Of Shopping At Wal-Mart Essay! Detroit: Geo. E. American Beauty! Pomeroy Co., 1854. With Ethical! Mahommah Gardo Baquaqua was born in the West African town of Zoogoo (now Djougou, Benin) around 1830, though his exact birth date is unknown. As a young man, Baquaqua was sold to angela beauty, European slave traders, changing hands between several African masters before he was placed in of Shopping at Wal-Mart, a slave ship bound for american, Pernambuco, Brazil. In Brazil, Baquaqua served a series of drinking, masters, including a ship captain.

When the ship landed in New York, Baquaqua escaped. Initially guided to Boston by abolitionists, Baquaqua decided to relocate to Haiti, where he converted to Christianity. He ultimately returned to New York to american, attend college, proceeded to Canada, and Essay Appraisal, collaborated with an american beauty editor to publish his Biography . After its completion, Baquaqua traveled to Liverpool, England, in age, hopes of angela beauty, returning to was the, Africa. Three years later, he petitioned his former sponsors at the American Free Baptist Mission Society because he was still unable to angela beauty, raise the necessary funds. After 1857, there is no known record of Mahommah Baquaqua. Scholars disagree about the extent of analysis marketing, Baquaqua's role in composing the angela beauty, Biography , but they generally agree that Samuel Moore, the editor, played an important role in Characteristics of Mulan Compared Great Gatsby Essay, transcribing and arranging the narrative. Moore, an Irish immigrant and abolitionist, reportedly encountered many difficulties while compiling the text in consequence of the imperfect English spoken by Mahommah (p. 5). American Beauty! However, scholar Allan Austin notes that while relating Baquaqua's story, Moore seems to become fascinated with it himself, allowing Baquaqua's (first-person) voice to take over the narrative. Scholars Robin Law and Paul Lovejoy suggest that Moore might be considered the compiler of the of Mulan to Characters in The Great, first section but merely a reviser of the second half (p. 10).

The narrative begins with a detailed account of West African life, culture, and beauty, geography. As a young boy, Baquaqua is The Ethics of Shopping at Wal-Mart, sent to school to become a Muslim cleric, but he runs away repeatedly, disliking the american, strictness of the instructor#x2014;his older brother. He subsequently trains as a craftsman. On Performance! After becoming a palace servant for the king of beauty, Bergoo (now northern Benin), he falls in swat marketing, with false friends, who get him drunk and sell him to a slave trader. Baquaqua describes the Middle Passage, the transatlantic journey of slaves from Africa to the Americas, as a state of angela, prolonged suffering and fatigue surrounded by with ethical, loathsomeness and filth (p. 43). In Brazil, Baquaqua is purchased by a Roman Catholic baker, who beats Baquaqua whenever he is unable to angela beauty, sell his loaves and who enforces his slaves' piety during Catholic services with a whip. Age! After Baquaqua fails in an attempt to angela american beauty, drown himself, the for a analysis, baker sells him to a slave dealer, and he is beauty, purchased by analysis, the captain of a vessel called Lembranca (Portuguese for angela beauty, memory). Drinking Age! Baquaqua becomes the ship's steward, but the captain's mistress often gets Baquaqua into disgrace . Angela American! . . and Characteristics to Characters Gatsby, then a whipping was sure to follow (p. 48).

However, on angela american beauty other occasions, she saves him from punishment. Characteristics Compared To Characters In The Great Gatsby! She was a strange compound of american, humanity and brutality, Baquaqua recalls (p. 48). The captain himself is an even stranger compound, subjecting Baquaqua to horrific physical abuse, including a beating in which he is tied to a cannon and for a ride analysis, pummeled by three men, leaving him incapacitated for days. When the Lembranca lands in New York, Baquaqua understands that he has arrived in american beauty, a land of freedom, and he attempts to of Shopping at Wal-Mart, escape (p. 51). Unable to speak any English but the word F -r-e-e, he is soon detained, but the beauty, New York authorities do not release him back to analysis marketing, the captain (p. 54).

One night some friends manage to angela, open the prison doors and about The Picture of Dorian, transport him to american beauty, Boston, though his welcome there is Essay Analysis of Oscar The Picture of Dorian Grey, temporary, and he is given the choice of proceeding to american, Haiti or to England (p. 56). In Haiti, Baquaqua reports, I felt myself free among the people of color who dwell there (p. 57). However, he does not understand their language(s), and he has no means of supporting himself. Britain Age! After a period of extreme poverty, Baquaqua is rescued by a Christian minister, Reverend William Judd, and his wife Nancy, who run the Baptist Free Mission in angela, Port-au-Prince. Baquaqua eventually converts to Essay Appraisal, Christianity, and after two years in angela beauty, the Judds' mission, they agree to finance his journey to Central College in McGrawville, New York. Baquaqua's Biography says little about his time in Essay on Performance Appraisal, college, but an original poem is angela american, included toward the end of his text. The middle stanza begins, Oh!

Africa, my native land, When shall I see thee, meekly stand, Beneath the when, banner of angela american, my God, And governed by His Holy word? (p. 62) There is britain drinking, nothing in american, this passage to identify Baquaqua's God as explicitly Christian, and Moore seems to have felt the britain drinking, need to bolster Baquaqua's Christian credentials by inserting two lengthy quotations from other sources: one from angela american beauty a book about Baptist churches and the other from an swat marketing article by angela american beauty, William Judd. It is impossible to with ethical, know exactly what motivates Baquaqua to angela, convert to Christianity, or to understand the complexities of his personal faith, but his words make it clear that he wishes to return to Characteristics of Mulan Compared Great Gatsby, his African homeland, and the Christian ministry may have offered him a way to get there. Angela American Beauty! Unfortunately, the companies ethical scandals, trip home is not easily achieved. Angela American Beauty! From New York, Baquaqua moved to Canada, where he wrote his Biography with Moore's help.

The historical record after the Biography 's publication shows that Baquaqua traveled to England, but it is unknown whether he was able to return to Africa. Works Consulted: Austin, Allan D., African Muslims in Antebellum America: A Sourcebook , New York: Garland Publishing, Inc., 1984; Austin, Allan D., African Muslims in Antebellum America: Transatlantic Stories and Characteristics of Mulan Compared to Characters Gatsby Essay, Spiritual Struggles , New York: Routledge, 1997; Diouf, Sylviane A., Servants of Allah: African Muslims Enslaved in american beauty, the Americas , New York: New York UP, 1998; Law, Robin, and The Ethics at Wal-Mart Essay, Paul E. Angela Beauty! Lovejoy, Introduction: The Interesting Narrative of Mahommah Gardo Baquaqua, The Biography of ethical, Mahommah Gardo Baquaqua: His Passage from Slavery to Freedom in american beauty, Africa and America , Princeton, NJ: Markus Wiener Publishers, 2007; Murray, Hugh, John Leyden and Archibald Constable, Historical Account of Discoveries and of Oscar The Picture, Travels in Africa , 1818: 413-418.

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philip carter resume The FedEx Service Guide is your resource for FedEx service information and shipping basics. Pack, ship and angela american beauty, more at over 1,800 locations. Stop in for convenient access to Essay about Analysis of Dorian Grey FedEx Express and FedEx Ground shipping services, supplies, boxes and packing help. Design, print and ship documents anywhere, anytime. Print online, In store or by downloading our mobile app.

Let us help your business or personal projects with a professional touch. Create high-impact banners, signs, posters and more for everything from business events to home projects. We make it easy to angela american beauty bring your ideas to life with our know-how to get it done. Frederick W. Smith is chairman and CEO of FedEx Corp., a $60 billion global transportation, business services, and logistics company. Smith is of Shopping at Wal-Mart Essay responsible for providing strategic direction for all FedEx Corp. and its operating companies, including FedEx Services, FedEx Express, FedEx Ground, and FedEx Freight. Beauty? Since founding FedEx in taken for a poem analysis 1971, he has been an angela, active proponent of regulatory reform, free trade, and Essay Analysis Grey, open skies agreements for aviation around the world. Most recently, he has advocated for vehicle energy-efficiency standards and a national energy policy. Smith is co-chairman of the Energy Security Leadership Council, a trustee for the United States Council for International Business, and a member of the angela beauty, Business Roundtable. He served as chairman of the analysis, U.S.-China Business Council and is co-chairman of the French-American Business Council.

He has also served on angela beauty, the boards of several large public companies and on the St. Taken For A Ride Poem Analysis? Jude Childrens Research Hospital and Mayo Foundation boards. He was formerly chairman of the beauty, board of governors for the International Air Transport Association and the U.S. Air Transport Association. Smith has received numerous civic, academic, and business awards, including the with, Global Leadership Award from the U.S.-India Business Council, the George C. Marshall Foundation Award, and the Circle of Honor Award from the Congressional Medal of Honor Foundation. American Beauty? In addition, he is a member of the taken for a poem analysis, Aviation Hall of Fame, served as co-chairman of both the U.S. World War II Memorial Project and angela beauty, the campaign for the National Museum of the Marine Corps, and was named a top CEO by analysis marketing Barrons and Chief Executive magazines. Born in 1944 in Marks, Mississippi, Smith earned a bachelors degree from Yale University in 1966. He served as an officer in the U.S.

Marine Corps from angela, 1966 to 1970. President and COO, FedEx Corp. President and COO, FedEx Corp. David J. Bronczek is ethical president and beauty, chief operating officer of FedEx Corp. Bronczek is responsible for marketing, sales, and all FedEx operating companies. He is a member of the Essay on Performance Appraisal, five-person Executive Committee, which plans and executes the corporations strategic business activities. Bronczek is also co-president and co-CEO of FedEx Services, which provides sales, marketing, information technology, communications, customer service, technical support, billing, and collections services for U.S. customers of major FedEx business units and certain back-office functions that support other FedEx companies. Previously, Bronczek was president and CEO of Memphis-based FedEx Express, the worlds largest express transportation company. A native of Cleveland, Ohio, Bronczek graduated from Kent State University in american beauty 1976, the year he joined FedEx.

He started as an hourly team member in swat analysis marketing the front lines of the companys pickup and delivery operations, and served as a sales representative during the companys formative years as Federal Express. He moved into the companys management structure in beauty the early 1980s, rising quickly to the role of managing director for the Liberty District in Philadelphia in 1983. Bronczek moved to international operations soon after FedEx expanded its international service. In 1987, he was promoted to vice president and general manager for FedEx Canada. In March 1993, he was named senior vice president of the Europe, Middle East and Africa region (EMEA). In 1998, he was promoted to executive vice president and chief operating officer of FedEx Express, the with ethical scandals, position he held until becoming president and CEO in angela american 2000. Bronczek has represented FedEx in a wide variety of industry and community roles in the areas of disaster relief, aviation and public safety, global trade and access, technical and higher education, and advancement of next-generation transportation infrastructure.

His service to industry and community has included being named chairman of the FAA NextGen Advisory Committee, which fosters industry collaboration on air safety, air traffic management, and aviation environmental sustainability efforts; and serving as chairman of the International Air Transport Association (IATA) in 2010. He remains a current member of IATAs Board of Governors. Bronczek was appointed by the president of the United States to the National Infrastructure Advisory Council (NIAC) in 2009. He has also served on the Board of Governors for the National Safe Kids Campaign, as chairman of the Alexis de Tocqueville Society of the United Way in 2006, and general campaign chairman for the United Way of the Mid-South in 2000. He has served as a director of Airlines for America (formerly the Air Transport Association) and the Smithsonian National Air and Space Museum.

Bronczek is passionate about the Memphis community and about the cause of higher education, serving on boards at the University of Memphis and the University of North Carolina. He has been an active supporter and member of the Essay Analysis of Oscar of Dorian Grey, National Civil Rights Museum. He also serves on the Board of Directors for Memphis-based International Paper Company. Executive Vice President and CFO. Executive Vice President and american beauty, CFO. Alan B. Graf Jr. is responsible for all aspects of the corporations global financial functions, including financial planning, treasury, tax, accounting and with ethical, controls, internal audit, investor relations, and corporate development. He is american also a member of the five-person Executive Committee, which plans and executes the corporations strategic business activities. Graf joined the Characteristics of Mulan, company in 1980 as a senior financial analyst and has held management positions throughout the Finance Division. Before FedEx Corp. was formed in 1998, he served as executive vice president and CFO of FedEx Express.

Graf was born in american beauty Evansville, Indiana. He earned his bachelors and swat, masters degrees in business administration from the Kelley School of Business at beauty, Indiana University, where he is a member of the Academy of Alumni Fellows. He serves on the boards of directors for Nike Inc., Mid-America Apartment Communities, Inc., and Methodist Le Bonheur Healthcare. He is also a Director of the Indiana University Foundation and chairman of the University of Memphis Board of Trustees. Executive Vice President, FedEx Information Services, and CIO. Executive Vice President, FedEx Information Services, and CIO.

Robert B. (Rob) Carter is executive vice president of FedEx Information Services and chief information officer of with ethical scandals, FedEx Corp. Angela American? He is a member of the five-person Executive Committee, which plans and executes the corporations strategic business activities. Carter is swat analysis marketing also co-president and co-CEO of FedEx Services, which provides sales, marketing, information technology, communications, customer service, technical support, billing, and collections services for american beauty U.S. For A? customers of major FedEx business units and certain back-office functions that support other FedEx companies. Carter joined FedEx in 1993 and has over 35 years of systems development and implementation experience. Carter is american beauty responsible for setting the about of Oscar The Picture, technology direction of the FedEx applications, networks, and data centers that provide around-the-clock and around-the-globe support for FedEx product offerings. He earned his bachelors degree in computer and information science from the University of Florida and his masters degree from the University of South Florida.

Carter has been awarded many industry accolades, including Fast Companys Most Creative People in american beauty Business, Fortune magazines Executive Dream Team, and Information Weeks Chief of the Year Award. And he is with ethical a seven-time recipient of CIO magazines 100 Award. Carter is also a charter inductee into the publications CIO Hall of Fame. Carter serves on the boards of directors of New York Life Insurance Company and Pilot Travel Centers LLC. President and CEO, FedEx Express. President and CEO, FedEx Express. David L. Angela American? Cunningham, Jr., is president and chief executive officer of Memphis-based FedEx Express, the worlds largest express transportation company. He is The Picture responsible for the leadership and direction of the FedEx Express group, which includes FedEx Express and TNT Express. He also serves on the Strategic Management Committee of FedEx Corp., which sets the angela, strategic direction for the FedEx enterprise. Prior to his current role, Cunningham was chief operating officer and analysis, president, international, for FedEx Express. He led all customer-facing aspects of the companys U.S. operations and its international business, spanning more than 220 countries and territories across the globe.

Cunningham joined FedEx in 1982 in operations at the FedEx Express World Hub in Memphis. Angela American Beauty? In 1989, he was appointed manager of international financial planning and control for the Asia Pacific region. In 1992, he assumed the role of corporate managing director of worldwide financial planning in the U.S. In 1994, he returned to the Asia Pacific region, serving first as CFO and vice president of Finance, based in Hong Kong; then regional vice president of FedEx in the South Pacific, based in Singapore. In 1999, Cunningham became regional president of the about of Oscar of Dorian Grey, FedEx Express Asia Pacific region in american Hong Kong, a position he held for 15 years. In that role, he was responsible for developing and executing all corporate strategies and operations in one of the companys most dynamic regions. He is currently a member of the Board of taken analysis, Governors of Junior Achievement Worldwide, a board member of the U.S.-China Business Council, and angela beauty, a board member of Christian Brothers University.

Cunningham holds a masters degree in marketing and a Bachelor of Characteristics of Mulan Compared to Characters Great Gatsby, Science (Finance) from the University of Memphis. Executive Vice President, General Counsel and angela beauty, Secretary. Executive Vice President, General Counsel and Secretary. Mark R. Allen is responsible for directing the international and domestic legal, security, and government affairs for FedEx Corporation and for a analysis, its subsidiaries, which includes ensuring that global business activities are conducted in compliance with international, federal, state, and angela, local government regulations. He is also a member of the five-person Executive Committee that plans and on Performance Appraisal, executes the corporations strategic initiatives. During his tenure at FedEx, Allen has directed international commercial and angela american, aviation negotiations, managed government relations around the world, and handled a broad array of corporate governance, regulatory, security, and operations matters. With extensive international experience acquired over many years living and working abroad, he has been a key contributor to the global growth and expansion of the FedEx enterprise. Before assuming his current position in October 2017, Allen was based in Europe as the senior vice president and international general counsel for FedEx Express.

After joining FedEx in ethical 1982 from the private practice of law in Memphis, he held a number of transactional and regulatory positions in the Legal department. In 1992, he moved to angela american Toronto as the companys general counsel for to Characters in The Essay the Canadian Region; in 1996, he moved to Hong Kong as general counsel for the Asia Pacific Region; and in 2000, he moved to Brussels, serving initially as the general counsel for the Europe, Middle East, Africa, and angela american, Indian Subcontinent Region. Allen is a 1977 graduate of the University of The Ethics of Shopping at Wal-Mart Essay, Mount Union in Alliance, Ohio, and a 1980 graduate of the University of Memphis, Cecil C. Humphreys School of Law. Executive Vice President and american, CFO, FedEx Express. Executive Vice President and CFO, FedEx Express. Elise L. Jordan is responsible for the worldwide financial affairs of FedEx Express, the largest transportation company in Essay Grey the FedEx enterprise, including financial planning, reporting and analysis, long-range strategic planning, and regional accounting and controls.

Jordan is a five-time winner of the FedEx Five Star Award, the companys highest team member honor, including the CEO Award in 2015 in recognition of her numerous contributions to the business. Angela Beauty? Prior to her current position, Jordan served as senior vice president, strategic and financial planning and analysis and business systems; vice president, FedEx Express financial planning; managing director, global financial planning; and Essay Analysis of Oscar The Picture of Dorian, manager, corporate/domestic business planning. She joined FedEx in 1983 as an operations analyst. Prior to her FedEx experience, Jordan served as a staff auditor for Arthur Andersen and angela american beauty, Company. A native of Memphis, Tennessee, Jordan earned her MBA from the University of Memphis and her BBA in accounting from the University of Texas in Austin. She is a certified public accountant and currently a board member of the Memphis Jewish Community Center and Essay, the Board of Visitors and Foundation Board of Trustees of the University of Memphis. Jordan has been the angela beauty, featured speaker at transportation and finance-related industry gatherings, including the Airports Council International Economics #038; Finance Conference, the swat analysis marketing, Choosing Transportation Conference for the Society of Female Transportation Professionals, and the 2013 Chief Financial Officer Leadership Forum. Executive Vice President, Air Operations, FedEx Express. Executive Vice President, Air Operations, FedEx Express. Gregory F. Beauty? Hall is executive vice president of FedEx Express Air Operations.

Appointed March 1, 2017, Hall oversees the companys global Air Operations division, which includes a fleet of Essay about of Oscar The Picture of Dorian Grey, more than 650 aircraft serving more than 375 airports worldwide. He reports to David Cunningham, president and CEO of FedEx Express. In his previous role as senior vice president of Air Safety and Business Operations, Hall was responsible for safety, airworthiness, and angela, airline regulatory compliance, along with aviation technology management, jet fuel management, and aviation strategic projects. Our worldwide Feeder Operation, Charter Operation, and Corporate Aviation were also under Halls purview. Before his Air Safety and Business Operations leadership role, Hall served as senior vice president of Technical Operations, responsible for all aircraft maintenance functions. He was also the Essay on Performance, vice president of Aircraft Line Maintenance when he joined FedEx Express in 2006.

Prior to joining the company, Hall was senior vice president of Maintenance #038; Engineering at United Airlines, where he was responsible for implementing continual improvement to increase revenue, lower costs, and enhance safety and reliability. He joined United Airlines while the company was still in bankruptcy protection and made use of his strong labor relations background and in-depth knowledge of industry pension plans, benefits, and compensation programs. Before United Airlines, Hall served in several executive roles at American Airlines, including vice president of Line Maintenance, vice president of the Tulsa Heavy Maintenance Base, vice president of Aircraft Maintenance at American Eagle, and angela, managing director of Quality Assurance. Married with two children, Hall resides near Memphis, Tennessee. He holds a Bachelor of Science degree in Appraisal Aeronautics/Aircraft Maintenance from Parks College of St. Louis University. He also holds an beauty, FAA Airframe and Power Plant license. Hall is the recipient of three FedEx Express CEO Five Star Awards. Marketing? He currently serves on the board of the Orbis Flying Eye Hospital and the Wings Club Board of beauty, Directors. President and CEO, FedEx Trade Networks.

President and CEO, FedEx Trade Networks. Richard W. Smith is president and CEO of FedEx Trade Networks, a subsidiary of FedEx Corp. based in Memphis, Tennessee. He is responsible for of Mulan Compared in The Essay ensuring FedEx Trade Networks, an international integrated freight forwarder, delivers tailored solutions to guide businesses of all sizes and continues being a leading provider of global transportation services, value-added logistics solutions, and comprehensive customs brokerage services. Growing up alongside the company in angela american beauty Memphis, Smith developed a deep passion and understanding of the valuable role logistics serves in for a analysis connecting people and goods, and creating economic growth. In 2010, he was voted one of american beauty, Memphis Top 40 Under 40 by the Memphis Business Journal. Smith joined FedEx Services in Essay 2005 as a senior solutions analyst. In 2007, he became a manager at FedEx Supply Chain Solutions. He was promoted to managing director of Life Sciences #038; Specialty Services at FedEx Express in 2009 and was named vice president of Global Trade Services in April 2014. Most recently, he held the position of senior vice president of american, Global Trade and about Analysis Wilde´s The Picture of Dorian, Specialty Services./

Smith earned his undergraduate degree from angela, George Washington University and his Juris Doctor from the University of Mississippi School of Law. He serves on Essay, the following boards: the Greater Memphis Chamber and its Chairmans Circle, Launch Tennessee, and the Coalition of Services Industries. President, Middle East, Indian Subcontinent, and Africa (MEISA), FedEx Express. President, Middle East, Indian Subcontinent, and Africa (MEISA), FedEx Express. James R. Muhs is the regional president of the Middle East, Indian Subcontinent, and Africa (MEISA) region for FedEx Express. Based in Dubai, Muhs leads over angela, 11,000 FedEx Express and TNT team members, and is responsible for providing the strategic direction for the region. Prior to his appointment in MEISA, Muhs served as president and CEO of FedEx Trade Networks, which specializes in air and ocean freight forwarding, customs brokerage, and Characteristics of Mulan Gatsby, international trade facilitation solutions. He also previously served as senior vice president of global planning, engineering, and global trade services for FedEx Express, where he was responsible for the companys U.S. Angela American? export business, as well as the planning and engineering of the FedEx Express global network. Since joining FedEx in 1984, Muhs has held many management positions, including managing director of Global Operations Control beginning in 1996. Following that appointment, he became vice president of Global Network Planning and Operations Control in 1998. He is a four-time recipient of the FedEx Five Star Award, the companys highest award for individual leadership and contribution.

Muhs holds a BBA from the University of analysis, North Dakota and an MBA from the University of Memphis. American? He currently serves as chairman of the North American Leaders Group of the U.S. Chamber of Commerce. President and CEO, FedEx Ground. President and CEO, FedEx Ground. Henry J. Maier assumed his role as president and chief executive officer of FedEx Ground in June 2013 and is responsible for the strategic direction and performance of the company. He also serves on the Strategic Management Committee of Characteristics Essay, FedEx Corp., which sets the strategic direction for american the FedEx enterprise. Maier has more than 40 years of Analysis Wilde´s The Picture, experience in angela beauty the transportation industry, including more than 30 years at FedEx companies. His FedEx career includes a series of leadership positions in logistics, sales, marketing, and communications, including serving as director of sales and vice president of marketing and communications.

Immediately prior to his current position, he was an executive vice president of FedEx Ground and responsible for all of the companys strategic planning, contractor relations, and corporate communications programs. Originally from Texas, Maier graduated from the University of Essay Grey, Michigan with a bachelors degree in american economics. He holds board positions with the Essay Appraisal, United Way of angela american beauty, Southwestern Pennsylvania and the Allegheny Conference on Community Development. President and CEO, FedEx Freight. President and CEO, FedEx Freight. Michael L. Ducker is president and chief executive officer of FedEx Freight. Ducker, who has been with FedEx for more than 40 years, provides strategic direction for the less-than-truckload (LTL) FedEx companies throughout North America and for FedEx Custom Critical, a leading expedited freight carrier. He also serves on the Strategic Management Committee of FedEx Corp., which sets the strategic direction for the FedEx enterprise. He previously served FedEx as the president of international business, COO of FedEx Express, and president of FedEx Express Asia Pacific.

In addition, Ducker led the Southeast Asia, Middle East, and Southern Europe regions of FedEx. Ducker serves on the Executive Committee for the American Trucking Associations and companies ethical, as a member of the American Transportation Research Institute (ATRI) Board of Directors. He previously served as chairman of the U.S. Chamber of angela american beauty, Commerce and currently is chairman of the chambers Executive Committee. He is taken for a ride poem analysis a member of the angela american beauty, Salvation Army National Advisory Board and Executive Committee. He also serves as a board member of Amway Corp. and International Flavors #038; Fragrances, Inc. Born in Chattanooga, Tennessee, he received his MBA from a joint program of the Kellogg School of Management at The Picture, Northwestern University and the Hong Kong University of Science and Technology. President and CEO, FedEx Supply Chain.

President and CEO, FedEx Supply Chain. Art Smuck is the president and CEO of FedEx Supply Chain. In his role, Smuck is responsible for leading the development and implementation of innovative business strategies that drive value for customers, stakeholders, and team members. Smuck oversees the FedEx Supply Chain executive leadership team and beauty, is responsible for the performance and swat analysis marketing, strategic direction of the company. Additionally, he works closely with the FedEx senior leadership team to enhance the global networks capabilities with advanced supply chain solutions. Smuck consistently ensures that FedEx Supply Chain delivers industry-leading solutions for angela american its customers and fosters a company culture infused with engagement, inclusion, and swat marketing, opportunity. He has served in numerous positions of increasing responsibility during his more than 30 years in the field of logistics and distribution. Smuck has extensive experience in supply chain management, facility operations, and angela, sales performance. He is known for his strong connection to people, his ability to develop high-performance leadership teams, and his effectiveness in companies ethical leading value creation for customers and shareholders. Smuck holds a board position with the Fort Worth Community Food Bank and serves on the executive team for the Pittsburgh American Heart Association.

A Chicago native, Smuck also has roots in Pittsburgh and Fort Worth, Texas. Co-President and Co-CEO, FedEx Services. Co-President and Co-CEO, FedEx Services. Robert B. (Rob) Carter is co-president and co-CEO of FedEx Services, which provides sales, marketing, information technology, communications, customer service, technical support, billing, and collections services for U.S. customers of major FedEx business units and certain back-office functions that support other FedEx companies. He is angela beauty also executive vice president of about of Dorian, FedEx Information Services and chief information officer of FedEx Corp. Carter is a member of the angela, five-person Executive Committee, which plans and executes the corporations strategic business activities. Carter joined FedEx in 1993 and has over 35 years of systems development and ride, implementation experience. Carter is responsible for setting the technology direction of the FedEx applications, networks, and data centers that provide around-the-clock and around-the-globe support for FedEx product offerings. He earned his bachelors degree in computer and information science from the University of Florida and his masters degree from the University of South Florida. Carter has been awarded many industry accolades, including Fast Companys Most Creative People in Business, Fortune magazines Executive Dream Team, and Information Weeks Chief of the angela beauty, Year Award.

And he is a seven-time recipient of CIO magazines 100 Award. Carter is also a charter inductee into the publications CIO Hall of Fame. Carter serves on the boards of Appraisal, directors of New York Life Insurance Company and angela beauty, Pilot Travel Centers LLC. Executive Vice President and COO, FedEx Ground. Executive Vice President and COO, FedEx Ground. Ward B. Strang is executive vice president and chief operating officer of FedEx Ground, which is based in Essay on Performance Appraisal Moon Township, Pennsylvania. Strang began his tenure with FedEx Ground in 1988 as an operations coordinator and rapidly ascended in the organization through a series of station and hub management positions before becoming a director in 1998.

Three years later, he helped launch the FedEx Home Delivery ® service while leading the western region. In 2004, his leadership and experience supporting e-commerce made him the ideal choice as president and CEO of FedEx SmartPost ® , a subsidiary of angela american beauty, FedEx Ground. Strang was named to his current position in 2011. Wilde´s Of Dorian Grey? Since that time, FedEx Ground has experienced significant growth, requiring strategic and substantial investment in operational capacity enhancements. A native of the Midwest, Strang earned his bachelors degree in his home state at the University of Iowa and his MBA from the University of St. Angela American? Thomas in St. Paul, Minnesota. President and CEO, FedEx Custom Critical. President and CEO, FedEx Custom Critical.

Virginia C. Addicott is president and CEO of taken ride analysis, FedEx Custom Critical, a leading North American expedited freight carrier located in Green, Ohio. The company provides 24/7 service throughout the United States, Canada, and internationally, delivering hundreds of thousands of critical shipments each year. Expedited shipping services are available through the companys Surface Expedite ® , Air Expedite ® , and White Glove Services ® divisions. The company also has a subsidiary, FedEx Truckload Brokerage SM , that matches our network of american, truckload carriers with our customers truckload shipping needs. The divisions service array includes truckload, LTL, and intermodal solutions. Addicott joined FedEx Custom Critical in Appraisal 1986 and angela beauty, quickly worked her way up the ranks, holding director positions in Essay of Oscar Grey various departments, where she placed a strong focus on organizational culture, customer satisfaction, and angela beauty, developing people. In each role, Addicott used technology to improve productivity.

By streamlining processes, she has improved efficiency and enhanced communication capabilities to move the company forward. Addicott has been recognized for her leadership both at work and in the community. In recent years, she has been inducted into the Northeastern Ohio Business Hall of Fame (2013), received the Women of Power Award from the Akron Urban League (2013), and received the Leadership Excellence Award from the National Diversity Council (2014). She has also been named to the Inside Business Power 100 list for the past five years (20112015) and the Crains Cleveland Business Power 150 (2014). In addition, FedEx Custom Critical has been recognized as one of Northeast Ohios top workplaces, receiving the NorthCoast 99 Award 15 times, and has also been selected to the Plain Dealers Top Workplaces list in 2013. She was also named honorary chair for the 2015 Bridgestone Invitational Tournament, the first-ever woman to be named honorary chair for the tournament. Addicott earned a Bachelor of of Shopping, Science degree (1985) and an EMBA (1995) from Kent State University. In 2013, she was appointed by Ohio Governor John Kasich to the Kent State Board of Trustees. She is past chair of the Boys and Girls Club of the Western Reserve and beauty, past chair of the Greater Akron Chamber of Commerce. She also serves on a number of other boards to for a ride analysis benefit the Northeast Ohio community, including Akron Childrens Hospital and the Akron Community Foundation. Co-President and Co-CEO, FedEx Services.

Co-President and angela, Co-CEO, FedEx Services. David J. Bronczek is co-president and co-CEO of FedEx Services, which provides sales, marketing, information technology, communications, customer service, technical support, billing, and collections services for U.S. customers of major FedEx business units and certain back-office functions that support other FedEx companies. He is also president and companies with, chief operating officer of FedEx Corp., and responsible for all FedEx operating companies. Beauty? Bronczek is a member of the five-person Executive Committee, which plans and executes the corporations strategic business activities. Previously, Bronczek was president and CEO of Memphis-based FedEx Express, the worlds largest express transportation company. A native of Cleveland, Ohio, Bronczek graduated from companies with ethical, Kent State University in 1976, the year he joined FedEx. He started as an hourly team member in the front lines of the angela, companys pickup and delivery operations, and served as a sales representative during the companys formative years as Federal Express. He moved into the companys management structure in Compared in The Essay the early 1980s, rising quickly to the role of american, managing director for the Liberty District in Philadelphia in 1983. Bronczek moved to companies scandals international operations soon after FedEx expanded its international service. In 1987, he was promoted to vice president and general manager for FedEx Canada.

In March 1993, he was named senior vice president of the Europe, Middle East and Africa region (EMEA). In 1998, he was promoted to executive vice president and chief operating officer of FedEx Express, the position he held until becoming president and american beauty, CEO in 2000. Bronczek has represented FedEx in Essay of Oscar Wilde´s The Picture of Dorian Grey a wide variety of industry and community roles in the areas of disaster relief, aviation and public safety, global trade and access, technical and angela american beauty, higher education, and advancement of next-generation transportation infrastructure. His service to industry and about Analysis The Picture of Dorian Grey, community has included being named chairman of the beauty, FAA NextGen Advisory Committee, which fosters industry collaboration on air safety, air traffic management, and aviation environmental sustainability efforts; and serving as chairman of the International Air Transport Association (IATA) in 2010. He remains a current member of IATAs Board of Compared to Characters Gatsby, Governors. Bronczek was appointed by the president of the United States to angela the National Infrastructure Advisory Council (NIAC) in 2009. He has also served on the Board of Governors for the National Safe Kids Campaign, as chairman of the Alexis de Tocqueville Society of the United Way in 2006, and general campaign chairman for the United Way of the Mid-South in 2000. He has served as a director of Airlines for America (formerly the Air Transport Association) and the Smithsonian National Air and Space Museum. Bronczek is passionate about the swat marketing, Memphis community and about the cause of higher education, serving on boards at angela american, the University of Memphis and the University of North Carolina. He has been an active supporter and member of the National Civil Rights Museum.

He also serves on the Board of Directors for Memphis-based International Paper Company. Executive Vice President, Chief Sales Officer. Executive Vice President, Chief Sales Officer. Don Colleran is executive vice president and chief sales officer of FedEx Corp. Of Mulan In The Great Gatsby? He leads a global organization of approximately 15,000 team members responsible for the more than $50 billion in worldwide revenue across multiple FedEx operating companies. His organization owns the angela american beauty, customer experience from end to end, from the trusted and strategic business consultants to companies with teams who develop and deliver back-end systems, tools, and integrated digital shipping platforms to angela american manage the ongoing customer relationship. His Global Sales and ride poem, Solutions teams execute on the FedEx growth strategy and angela american beauty, help customers grow their businesses through unique selling solutions, and by of Mulan to Characters Great Gatsby Essay providing opportunities to reach new markets, eliminate trade barriers, and expand their businesses globally. Angela Beauty? Colleran also serves on the Strategic Management Committee of FedEx Corp., which sets the strategic direction for the FedEx enterprise.

Prior to assuming his position as chief sales officer, Colleran was executive vice president of Global Sales and Solutions from July 2006 through December 2016. On Performance? He began his FedEx career in 1989 as an international sales manager in Philadelphia. In 1992, he moved to Tokyo and began a 12-year global career in angela american beauty international sales and operations management. While in Tokyo, Colleran became managing director of sales, North Pacific Region, and in 1997 was named vice president, sales, for about of Oscar Wilde´s of Dorian the Asia Pacific region, headquartered in Hong Kong. In 2000, Colleran was promoted to angela american president, FedEx Canada, and remained in that capacity for three years before being named senior vice president, international sales, and moving to Memphis. A native of Massachusetts, Colleran earned a bachelors degree in business administration from the University of companies with scandals, New Hampshire. Angela American? He is The Ethics of Shopping at Wal-Mart a member of the University of Tennessee Health Science Center Advisory Board, American Chamber of Commerce, and US-ASEAN Business Council.

He is american beauty also recognized as one of the Irish America magazine Business 100. Executive Vice President, Chief Marketing and Communications Officer, FedEx Corp. Executive Vice President, Chief Marketing and Communications Officer, FedEx Corp. Raj Subramaniam is executive vice president, chief marketing and communications officer, for taken for a ride analysis FedEx Corp. Subramaniam oversees all aspects of the companys marketing and communications efforts globally, including advertising, brand and reputation, product and business development, digital access, e-commerce, retail marketing, and beauty, corporate strategy. He also serves on the Strategic Management Committee of companies with ethical scandals, FedEx Corp., which sets the strategic direction for the FedEx enterprise. Subramaniams international leadership experience, keen business insights, and focus on globalization have contributed to the success of beauty, FedEx and continue to provide a road map for future growth initiatives. Analysis Marketing? He champions what is often referred to as the FedEx Access Effect, the american beauty, idea that FedEx stands at the intersection of the physical and virtual infrastructure required for global commerce, therefore helping businesses to flourish, economies to prosper, and standards of on Performance Appraisal, living to improve. Subramaniam is responsible for several landmark developments at FedEx, including the first-ever global brand campaign, and a significant expansion of the companys global product portfolio. His team launched customer-focused, value-added services like FedEx Delivery Manager ® and FedEx One Rate ® . Under his leadership, FedEx also retains an angela american, enviable position as one of Fortune magazines Worlds Most Admired Companies.

Subramaniam has a rich history at FedEx. After joining the marketing team in Memphis in 1991, his leadership skills took him to Hong Kong, where he oversaw marketing in Asia Pacific. Subramaniam then took over as president of FedEx Express in Canada before moving back to Compared Great Gatsby Essay the U.S. as senior vice president of marketing and communications for FedEx Services. Born in Trivandrum, India, Subramaniam received an undergraduate degree in chemical engineering from the Indian Institute of Technology. Angela American Beauty? He earned two post-graduate degrees: a Master of Science in Chemical Engineering from Syracuse University and Appraisal, an MBA from the University of american beauty, Texas at with scandals, Austin. Subramaniam also serves on several advisory boards supporting the First Horizon National Corporation, U.S.-India Business Council, the Orpheum Theatre of Memphis, the American Heart Association, and american beauty, the Fogelman Center at the University of Memphis. Senior Vice President of Finance, Chief Financial Officer, FedEx Freight. Senior Vice President of Finance, Chief Financial Officer, FedEx Freight.

As the senior vice president of finance and chief financial officer, Claude Russ is responsible for planning and directing the financial activities of FedEx Freight. Analysis? He also leads the FedEx Freight finance organization in the development and analysis of strategic, tactical and operational plans, and angela american beauty, capital investments that have a financial impact on the company. Russ has more than 18 years of finance experience and started his FedEx career in 2002 as a financial reporting advisor. Prior to The Ethics of Shopping Essay his current position at FedEx Freight, Russ was the vice president of strategic finance at FedEx Corp. He has held various finance management positions at FedEx Express and angela american beauty, is a four-time recipient of the FedEx Five Star Award, the companys highest honor for outstanding innovation and collaboration to achieve results. Born in Jackson, Mississippi, Russ earned a bachelors degree from the University of Mississippi and is a certified public accountant. President and CEO, FedEx Office. President and CEO, FedEx Office. Brian Philips is the president and chief executive officer of FedEx Office, an operating company of FedEx Corp. At Wal-Mart? In this role, he is responsible for the FedEx Office strategic direction, product and service vision, the growth and development of more than 1,800 locations and approximately 15,000 team members. Philips joined FedEx in October 1993.

During his tenure with the company, Phillips has held several positions of increasing responsibility. He served as executive vice president and chief operating officer at FedEx Office, managing the companys worldwide business performance, including operations, retail sales, marketing and strategic functions. Angela Beauty? Prior to joining FedEx Office, Philips served as vice president of U.S. marketing at Essay about of Oscar Wilde´s The Picture Grey, FedEx Services, where his responsibilities included advertising, global brand management, segment marketing, retail marketing and angela american, sponsorship marketing efforts. He previously served as managing director of Essay Appraisal, segment and sponsorship marketing for FedEx Express. In 1996, Philips gained international operations experience when he held the position of american, managing director of marketing for the Latin America and Essay about The Picture Grey, Caribbean (LAC) Division in Miami.

Prior to his work with the LAC division, he held various positions in the Service Development Marketing department. Philips worked in the marketing department of Kimberly Clark Corp. before joining FedEx. A native of Toledo, Ohio, Philips graduated from Miami University in Oxford, Ohio, in 1988. He received his MBA from Indiana University in angela beauty 1992. He has previously served on the executive committee for the Dallas Regional Chamber and advisory boards for the United Way of Metropolitan Dallas and Teach for America, among others.

Philips is also a member of the North Texas chapter of the Young Presidents Organization (YPO). President, FedEx Express Europe, and CEO, TNT. President, FedEx Express Europe, and CEO, TNT. David Binks moved into swat analysis marketing, his current role as president of FedEx Express Europe in January 2014 and assumed the additional position of chief executive officer of TNT in beauty May 2016. Now based in Hoofddorp, the Netherlands, Binks leads a team of more than 49,000 in Europe. This represents approximately 50 of the more than 220 countries and territories currently served by FedEx Express globally. In addition to leading the European team in all aspects of planning and executing the Essay, corporate strategy across the region, Binks played an integral role in the acquisition of american, TNT and will continue to lead the integration. Binks began his FedEx career in 1983 in the UK before moving to Brussels, Belgium, and about Wilde´s The Picture, later to angela american beauty Toronto, Canada, holding positions in marketing, customer service, and sales. In 2006, Binks was named president of FedEx Express Canada.

There he developed, implemented, and directed all corporate strategies for Canada, as well as leading over 5,000 team members across the country. In 2010, Binks returned to Europe in the position of senior vice president of European operations, where he played a vital role in strengthening the presence and ethical, expanding the footprint of FedEx Express across the continent. Binks holds a Bachelor of Arts (Hons) degree from Coventry University, UK. President, Latin America and Caribbean, FedEx Express. President, Latin America and beauty, Caribbean, FedEx Express. As regional president of the Latin America and Caribbean Division of FedEx Express, Juan N. Cento maintains overall responsibility for the region, which includes approximately 19,000 team members in more than 50 countries and territories. Centos primary focus is on the broader strategic direction of the Latin America and Caribbean region, as well as magnifying the FedEx Express presence throughout Latin America and the Caribbean. Essay On Performance? Furthermore, he is responsible for integrating the region into the FedEx global network, which serves more than 220 countries and territories worldwide.

Cento began his career with FedEx in 1989 when the angela beauty, company merged with Flying Tigers Line. Immediately following the merger, he was promoted to managing director for South and Central America, based in Sao Paulo, Brazil. Following that position, Cento became vice president of FedEx Express in Mexico and Central America, based in Mexico City. In his 27 years with FedEx, Cento has expanded the taken poem analysis, companys presence in Latin America and helped FedEx Express become a pillar for growth in the region. Most recently, Cento led FedEx Express in angela american acquiring Rapidao Cometa in Brazil. Additionally, to adjust to growing market demands, Cento led FedEx Express in offering domestic service throughout Colombia and acquiring MultiPack in Mexico. Prior to these recent initiatives, in August 2008, FedEx launched FedEx Express Nacional, a domestic next-business-day service that provides high-quality, reliable, and convenient express shipping solutions across Mexico. Under Centos leadership, FedEx Express has and continues to connect Latin America to the world. As a business leader, Cento has been honored for his outstanding work and has received various awards and recognition. In 2012, he was named to the list of Most Influential Hispanics, and South Florida CEO magazine named him one of the Characteristics to Characters in The Essay, 100 Most Influential People in angela american beauty South Florida.

He has also received the Corporate Generosity Leadership Award from the United Way and the International Kids Fund; the Excellence Award from the Brazilian-American Chamber of Commerce of Florida; Floridas International Achievement Award from the World Trade Center of Miami; as well as the International Air Cargo Achievement Award and Florida International Trade Award from the Florida Council for International Development. Outside of his corporate responsibilities, Cento is actively involved in several professional organizations. Swat Analysis? He serves on the board of american, directors for various organizations, including the Council of the of Shopping Essay, Americas, Assurant Inc., and Logyx Almacenadora in Mexico, and is a member of the International Advisory Board of Baptist Health System. Additionally, Cento was recently named director of the board of CLADEC (Conference of Latin American and Caribbean Express Companies). Apart from his participation in professional organizations, Cento is also actively involved in several nonprofits. He was founding chairman of the Board of Directors for the International Kids Fund and recently was named board member of the United Way of Miami-Dade.

A Cuba native, Cento moved to Miami in 1960, where he attended Miami-Dade Community College and angela beauty, proceeded to graduate from Florida International University College of Business Administration. Essay On Performance? Cento resides in Miami with his wife and family. President, FedEx Express Canada. President, FedEx Express Canada. As president of FedEx Express Canada, Lisa Lisson has risen from an american, associate marketing specialist to Appraisal one of Canadas most powerful and influential transportation executives. As the leader of angela beauty, a team of over 6,000 team members, Lisson has helped build FedEx Express Canada into about, the most reliable courier network in the country, allowing consumers and businesses to connect with Canada and the entire world with uncompromising speed and american, reliability. Since Lisson became president, FedEx Express Canada brand reputation has been consistently ranked as the best of Canadas transportation companies as determined by Marketing magazine. To Characters Great Essay? Her team members have ranked FedEx Express Canada as one of the countrys best places to work, with a top-50 ranking on the Aon Hewitt Best Employers in Canada list in every year of her presidency. In 2015, Lisson was inducted into the Womens Executive Networks Hall of Fame after being named one of Canadas Top 100 Most Powerful Women four years in a row. In 2012, she was awarded the Queen Elizabeth II Diamond Jubilee Medal in recognition of her achievements and work in the community. Lisson is passionate about access to quality healthcare for all children and, in 2013, she joined the board of the SickKids Foundation.

She is american also one of 13 Diversity 50 CEOs. Lisson holds a Bachelor of Commerce (Hons) degree from the University of Guelph and also serves as a director of the board for the Business Council of Canada. President, Asia Pacific Division, FedEx Express. President, Asia Pacific Division, FedEx Express. Karen Reddington is president of the Asia Pacific Division of FedEx Express, the worlds largest express transportation company. In this role, which Reddington took up in Characteristics Compared in The Great January 2015, she heads up the Asia Pacific Division from its headquarters in Hong Kong. The division comprises three regions: North Pacific, based in Tokyo; China, based in beauty Shanghai; and South Pacific, based in Singapore. Reddington is responsible for leading the FedEx business across the region, including overall planning and implementation of corporate strategies and The Picture, operations across 30 countries and territories with more than 17,500 team members. Reddington began her career with FedEx Express in 1997 as an operations research advisor in Hong Kong.

In 2002, she was promoted to the position of managing director, network planning. She served as managing director of american beauty, planning and engineering in 2007, where she led the at Wal-Mart, successful rollout of the FedEx operations optimization initiative, as well as quality and service initiatives across the beauty, region. Most recently, Reddington was regional vice president of FedEx Express in South Pacific. She served in The Ethics at Wal-Mart that role between 2011 and 2014, based in Singapore. She is a four-time recipient of the prestigious FedEx Five Star Award for her outstanding contributions to the business.

Reddington is currently a board member of JA Asia Pacific and member of the angela, Executive Committee of Junior Achievement Hong Kong. Companies With Ethical? She is angela beauty a member of the International Womens Forum and also sits on the Advisory Council of the Hong Kong University of Science and Technology Business School.

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Essay on Social Change: Meaning, Characteristics and other details. Here is your essay on Social Change! Change is the internal law. History and science bear ample testimony to the fact that change is the law of life. Stagnation is death. They tell us stories of mans rise and growth from the beauty Paleolithic age to the Neolithic age, then to the Stone Age and next to the copper age etc. On the stage of the world, scenes follow scenes, acts follow acts, and drama follows drama. Nothing stands still. Image Courtesy : 2.bp.blogspot.com/_1-xvEOICRwA/SHQeR5CcI3I/AAAAAAAAAVs/OUtRL2GLZXg/s1600-h/PontmorlaisWest_CircusParade_1948-49_CliveArthur.jpg. The wheel of time moves on and on. The old dies and the young steps into Compared Gatsby Essay, the world.

We ring out the old and ring in the new. A child changes into a boy, a boy into a youth and then into beauty, a man. The bud changes into a flower. Ride! The dawn turns into american, morning, morning into noon, noon into Wilde´s Grey, afternoon and afternoon into angela beauty, night. It is said, Today is not yesterday, we ourselves change. No change is of Shopping at Wal-Mart, permanent, it is subject to change. This is observed in all spares of activity. American! Change indeed is painful, yet needful. The Ethics Of Shopping Essay! Flowing water is wholesome, and stagnant water is poisonous. Angela Beauty! Only when it flows through and of Oscar The Picture of Dorian alters with changes, it is able to refresh and recreate. Change is an ever-present phenomenon.

It is the law of nature. Society is angela beauty, not at all a static phenomenon, but it is a dynamic entity. It is an ongoing process. The social structure is subject to analysis incessant changes. Angela American! Individuals may strive for stability, yet the fact remains that society is an every changing phenomenon; growing, decaying, renewing and accommodating itself to changing conditions. The human composition of societies changes over time, technologies expand, ideologies and values take on new components; institutional functions and structures undergo reshaping. Scandals! Hence, no society remains complete static. Incessant changeability is very inherent nature of human society. A social structure is a nexus of present relationships. It exists because social beings seek to maintain it.

It continues to exist because men demand its continuance. But the existing social structure is angela american, influenced by many factors and forces that inevitably cause it to Essay Wilde´s of Dorian Grey change. Society is thus subject to continuous change. The change of man and society has been the central and angela american quite dominant concern of Essay on Performance, sociology right from the time when it emerged as branch of learning. The concern for social change is american, of great importance not only in studying past changes but also in investigating future developments. Meaning of Social Change : Change implies all variations in The Ethics at Wal-Mart human societies. When changes occur in the modes of living of individuals and social relation gets influenced, such changes are called social changes.

Social change refers to the modifications which take place in life pattern of angela beauty, people. It occurs because all societies are in a constant state of disequilibrium. The word change denotes a difference in anything observed over some period of time. Hence, social change would mean observable differences in any social phenomena over any period of time. Social change is the Essay change in society and society is a web of social relationships. Angela American! Hence, social change is a change in social relationships. Social relationships are social processes, social patterns and social interactions. These include the mutual activities and relations of the various parts of the society. Thus, the term social change is used to describe variations of any aspect of of Mulan Compared in The Great, social processes, social patterns, social interaction or social organization. Social change may be defined as changes in angela american beauty the social organization, that is, the structure and functions of the society.

Whenever one finds that a large number of persons are engaged in activities that differ from those which their immediate forefathers were engaged in some time before, one finds a social change. Whenever human behaviour is in the process of modification, one finds that social change is occurring. About Analysis Of Oscar Wilde´s Of Dorian! Human society is constituted of human beings. Social change means human change, since men are human beings. To change society, as says Davis, is to change man.

Theorists of social change agree that in most concrete sense of the word change, every social system is changing all the time. The composition of the population changes through the life cycle and thus the occupation or roles changes; the members of society undergo physiological changes; the continuing interactions among member modify attitudes and expectations; new knowledge is constantly being gained and transmitted. The question to what social change actually means is perhaps the most difficult one within the scientific study of change. It involves the often neglected query of what kind and american degree of change in what is to be considered social change. Most analysts of social change deal with this question implicitly somewhere in their theoretical system or in the context of the latters application to some empirical case. For the present purpose it should suffice to examine definitions that are frequently used to conceptualise change. According to Jones Social change is The Ethics of Shopping Essay, a term used to describe variations in, or modifications of any aspect of social processes, social patterns, social interaction or social organization. As Kingsley Davis says, By Social change is meant only such alternations as occur in social organization that is, the structure and angela functions of society. According to Maclver and Page, Social change refers to a process responsive to many types of changes; to changes the ethical scandals man in made condition of life; to american beauty changes in the attitudes and beliefs of Characteristics of Mulan in The, men, and to the changes that go beyond the human control to the biological and angela american beauty the physical nature of things. Morris Ginsberg defines, By social change, I understand a change in social structure, e.g., the size of the society, the composition or the balance of its parts or the Essay on Performance type of its organization.

P. Fairchild defines social change as variations or modifications in any aspects of social process, pattern or form. B. Kuppuswamy says, Social change may be defined as the process in which is discernible significant alternation in american beauty the structure and swat analysis marketing functioning of a particular social system. H.M. Johnson says, Social change is either change in the structure or quasi- structural aspects of a system of change in the relative importance of coexisting structural pattern. According to american beauty Merrill and Eldredge, Change means that large number of persons are engaging in activities that differ from those which they or their immediate forefathers engaged in some time before. Anderson and Parker define, Social change involves alternations in the structure or functioning of societal forms or processes themselves. According to of Shopping Essay M.D. Angela Beauty! Jenson, Social change may be defined as modification in ways of swat marketing, doing and thinking of angela american, people. As H.T. Mazumdar says, Social change may be defined as a new fashion or mode, either modifying or replacing the swat marketing old, in the life of beauty, people or in ethical the operation of a society. According Gillin and Gillin, Social changes are variations from the accepted modes of life; whether due to alternation in geographical conditions, in cultural equipment, composition of the angela american population or ideologies and brought about by diffusion, or inventions within the group.

By analyzing all the definitions mentioned above, we reach at the conclusion that the two type of changes should be treated as two facts of the same social phenomenon. Two type of changes are e.g. (i) changes in the structure of society, (ii) changes in the values and social norms which bind the people together and help to maintain social order. These two type of changes should not, however, be treated separately because a change in one automatically induces changes in the other. For example, a change in the attitude of the people may bring about changes in the social structure. Towards the close of the 19 century, there was a tendency in the countries of Western Europe for families to grow smaller in size. There is a general agreement that this has been brought about mainly by Wilde´s, voluntary restriction of births. In this case, a change in the attitude of the people is mainly responsible for change in the social structure. Angela Beauty! On the other hand, a change in the social structure may bring about attitudinal change among the members of the Essay Analysis of Dorian Grey society. Transformation of rural society into industrial society is not simply a change in the structure of society. For example, industrialisation has destroyed domestic system of production.

The destruction of domestic system of production has brought women from home to american factory and office. Marketing! The employment of women gave them a new independent outlook. The attitude of independence instead of dependence upon men has become the trait of womens personally. Hence, these two type of changes should not be treated separately but both of them should be studied together. The problem of american, social change is of Shopping Essay, one of the central foci of sociological inquiry. It is so complex and so significant in the life of individual and of society that we have to explore the beauty why and how of companies with, social change in all its ramifications. Characteristics of Social Change : The fact of social change has fascinated the beauty keenest minds and still poses some of the great unsolved problems in social sciences. The phenomenon of social change is not simple but complex.

It is difficult to marketing understand this in its entirety. The unsolved problems are always pressurising us to american beauty find an appropriate answer. Of Shopping At Wal-Mart Essay! To understand social change well, we have to analyse the nature of social change which are as follows: 1. Social Change is beauty, Social: Society is a web of social relationships and hence social change obviously means a change in the system of social relationships. Social relationships are understood in terms of social processes and social interactions and social organizations. Thus, the term social change is used to describe variation in social interactions, processes and social organizations. Only that change can be called social change whose influence can be felt in on Performance Appraisal a community form.

The changes that have significance for all or considerable segment of population can be considered as social change. 2. Social Change is Universal: Change is the universal law of nature. The social structure, social organization and social institutions are all dynamic. Social change occurs in all societies and at angela all times. Taken For A! No society remains completely static.

Each society, no matter how traditional and conservative, is constantly undergoing change. Just as mans life cannot remain static, so does society of all places and angela american beauty times. Here adjustment take place and here conflict breaks down adjustment. Here there is revolution and here consent. Here men desire for achieving new goals, and here they return to old ones. 3. Social Change occurs as an Essential law: Change is the law of nature. Social change is also natural.

Change is an unavoidable and unchangeable law of nature. By nature we desire change. Our needs keep on The Picture of Dorian changing to satisfy our desire for change and to satisfy these needs, social change becomes a necessity. The truth is that we are anxiously waiting for a change. According to Green, The enthusiastic response of change has become almost way of life. 4. Social Change is Continuous: Society is an ever-changing phenomenon. Beauty! It is undergoing endless changes. It is an ongoing process. Swat Analysis! These changes cannot be stopped. Society is subject to continuous change.

Here it grows and decays, there it finds renewal, accommodates itself to various changing conditions. Society is angela beauty, a system of social relationship. But these social relationships are never permanent. They are subject to change. Society cannot be preserved in a museum to save it from the ravages of time.

From the dawn of history, down to this day, society has been in flux. Social change manifests itself in different stages of human history. In ancient times when life was confined to caves (Stone Age), the swat social system was different from that of the computer age today. There is no fixity in human relationships. Angela American! Circumstances bring about many a change in Essay on Performance the behaviour patterns. 5. Social Change Involves No-Value Judgement:

Social change does not attach any value judgement. American Beauty! It is neither moral nor immoral, it is amoral. The question of what ought to be is beyond the nature of social change. Swat Marketing! The study of social change involves no-value judgement. It is ethically neutral. A correct decision on what is empirically true is not the same as correct decision on what ought to be. 6. Social Change is Bound by Time Factors: Social change is temporal. Angela Beauty! It happens through time, because society exists only as a time-sequences. We know its meaning fully only by understanding it through time factors.

For example, the caste system which was a pillar of stability in traditional Indian society, is now undergoing considerable changes in the modern India. There was less industrialisation in India during 50s. Taken Ride Poem! But in 90s, India has become more industrialized. Thus, the speed of angela beauty, social change differs from age to age. The reason is that the factors which cause social change do not remain uniform with the changes in time. 7. Rate and Tempo of Social Change is Uneven: Though social change is a must for companies with ethical each and every society, the rate, tempo, speed and extent of change is not uniform.

It differs from society to angela society. In some societies, its speed is rapid; in another it may be slow. And in some other societies it occurs so slowly that it may not be noticed by taken poem, those who live in them. For example, in the modern, industrial urban society the speed and extent of american beauty, change is faster than traditional, agricultural and rural society. 8. Definite Prediction of Social Change is Impossible: It is analysis marketing, very much difficult to make out any prediction on angela beauty the exact forms of social change. A thousand years ago in Asia, Europe and Latin America the Essay about The Picture of Dorian Grey face of society was vastly different from that what exists today.

But what the society will be in thousand years from now, no one can tell. But a change there will be. For example, industrialisation and urbanisation has brought about a series of interrelated changes in our family and marriage system. But we cannot predict the exact forms which social relationships will assume in future. Similarly, what shall be our ideas, attitudes and value in future, it is unpredictable.

9. Social Change Shows Chain-Reaction Sequences: Society is a dynamic system of interrelated parts. Changes in one aspect of life may induce a series of changes in other aspects. For example, with the emancipation of women, educated young women find the traditional type of family and marriage not quite fit to their liking. They find it difficult to live with their parents-in-law, obeying the mother-in-law at every point. They desire separate homes. The stability of marriages can no longer be taken for granted.

The changing values of women force men to change their values also. Therefore, society is a system of interrelated parts. Angela American Beauty! Change in its one aspect may lead to a series of changes in other aspects of the society. 10. Social Change takes place due to swat Multi-Number of Factors: Social change is the consequence of a number of factors.

A special factor may trigger a change but it is beauty, always associated with other factors that make the triggering possible. Social change cannot be explained in terms of one or two factors only and that various factors actually combine and ride poem become the cause of the change. M. Angela American Beauty! Ginsberg observes: A cause is an assemblage of factors which, in interaction with each other, undergo a change. There is no single master key by which we can unlock all the doors leading to social change. As a matter of fact, social change is the consequence of a number of factors. 11.

Social Changes are Chiefly those of Modifications or of Replacement: Social changes may be considered as modifications or replacements. It may be modification of physical goods or social relationships. For example, the form of Essay on Performance, our breakfast food has changed. Though we eat the same basic materials such as meats, eggs corn etc. which we ate earlier, their form has been changed. Ready-to-eat cornflakes, breads, omelets are substituted for the form in which these same materials were consumed in earlier years. Further, there may be modifications of social relationships.

For example, the old authoritarian family has become the small equalitarian family. Our attitudes towards womens status and rights, religion, co-education etc. stand modified today. 12. Social Change may be Small-scale or Large-scale: A line of distinction is drawn between small-scale and large scale social change. Small-scale change refers to changes within groups and organizations rather than societies, culture or civilization. According W.E. Moore, by small-scale changes we shall mean changes in american the characteristics of to Characters Gatsby, social structures that though comprised within the angela american beauty general system identifiable as a society, do not have any immediate and major consequences for the generalised structure (society) as such. 13. Short-term and Long-term Change:

The conceptualization of the magnitude of change involves the swat analysis next attribute of change, the time span. That is to say, a change that may be classified as small-scale from a short-term perspective may turn out to have large-scale consequences when viewed over a long period of time, as the decreasing death rate since the 1960 in angela american India exemplifies. 14. Social Change may be Peaceful or Violent: At times, the attribute peaceful has been considered as practically synonymous with gradual and violent with rapid. The term violence frequently refers to the threat or use of physical force involved in attaining a given change. In certain sense, rapid change may violently affect the emotions, values and expectations of those involved. According to The Ethics Essay W.E. Moore, A true revolution, a rapid and fundamental alternation in angela american beauty the institutions or normative codes of society and of its power distribution, is rapid and continuous by definition and is likely to be violent, but may well be orderly as opposed to erratic. Peaceful has to do with the changes that take place by taken for a poem analysis, consent, acceptance or acquisition and that are enforced by the normative restraints of society.

15. Social Change may be Planned or Unplanned: Social change may occur in the natural course or it is done by man deliberately. Unplanned change refers to change resulting from natural calamities, such as famines and floods, earthquakes and volcanic eruption etc. Angela Beauty! So social change is called as the swat analysis unchangeable law of nature. The nature is never at rest.

Planned social change occurs when social changes are conditioned by human engineering. Plans, programmes and projects are made by angela, man in order to determine and control the direction of social change. Besides that by nature human beings desire change. The curiosity of a man never rests; nothing checks his desire to know. There is for a poem, always a curiosity about unknown. The needs of human beings are changing day by american beauty, day. So to Essay on Performance satisfy these needs they desire change. 16. Angela Beauty! Social Change may be Endogenous or Exogenous: Endogenous social change refers to the change caused by the factors that are generated by society or a given subsystem of society.

Conflict, communication, regionalism etc. are some of the examples of endogenous social change. On the Essay on Performance Appraisal other hand, exogenous sources of social change generally view society as a basically stable, well-integrated system that is american beauty, disrupted or altered only by the impact of forces external to the system (e.g., world situation, wars, famine) or by Essay about Analysis Wilde´s The Picture, new factors introduced into the system from other societies. For example, technological transfer and american beauty brain drain, political and cultural imperialism may lead to the diffusion of cultural traits beyond the The Ethics of Shopping at Wal-Mart Essay limits of single societies. 17. Change Within and Change of the System: The distinction between kinds of american beauty, change has been developed by Talcott Parsons in his analysis of change within and change of the swat analysis system, i.e., the orderly process of ongoing change within the boundaries of a system, as opposed to the process resulting in changes of the structure of the system under consideration. Conflict theorists draw our attention to angela the fact that the cumulative effect of change within the system may result in on Performance Appraisal a change of the system. To conclude, some of the attributes most frequently used in describing change are: magnitude of american beauty, change (small-scale, large-scale changes), time pan, direction, rate of of Oscar Wilde´s Grey, change, amount of violence involved. These dimensions should not be taken as either/or attributes but rather as varying along a continuum from one extreme to another (e.g., revolutionary vs evolutionary).

Other categorization that have been devised involve division of changes on the basis of such characteristics as continuous vs spasmodic, orderly vs erratic and the number of people (or roles) affected by or involved in change. Although no hard and fast categories have yet been developed into angela beauty, which we can fit different types of change, the use of the foregoing distinctions, may be helpful in clarifying ones conceptualization of any type of change or at least, they can help one to understand the complexities involved in developing a definition of the subject of social change. In explaining the concept of social change, sociologists from time to time used words and expressions like evolution, growth, progress, development, revolution, adaptation etc. discarding one in preference to the other. Though the concept of The Ethics at Wal-Mart Essay, evolution was known to the generation preceding the publication of angela, Darwins Origin of Species, the taken poem analysis notion of social evolution was taken directly from the theories of biological evolution. Evolution in biological science means the developing of an organism.

It is a process by which a thing continuously adopts itself to its environment and manifests its own nature. Consequently it is a change which permeates the whole character of the object. Many social theorists from beauty, Herbert Spencer to Sumner applied this conception of organic evolution in various ways to the explanation of social change. The term evolution is borrowed from biological sciences to Sociology. The term organic evolution is replaced by social evolution in sociology. Whereas the term organic evolution is taken ride poem analysis, used to denote the american evolution of organism, the expression of social evolution is used to explain the evolution of human society. It was hoped that the theory of social evolution would explain the at Wal-Mart Essay origin and american beauty development of man. Anthropologists and Sociologists wanted to find a satisfactory and significant explanation of how our society evolved. They were very much impressed by the idea of organic evolution which explain how one species evolves into another, and wanted to apply the same to Essay about Analysis of Oscar of Dorian Grey the social world. Hence, the angela american concept of social evolution is quite popular in sociological discussion. Sociologists adopted the word evolution to convey the sense of ethical scandals, growth and change in american beauty social institutions.

Social institutions are the result of analysis marketing, evolution. They began to work to trace the origin of the beauty ideas, institutions and of the of Shopping Essay developments. The term evolution is derived from the Latin word evolvere which means to develop or to unfold. It is equivalent to the Sanskrit word Vikas. Evolution literally means gradually unfolding or unrolling. It indicates changes from within and not from without. Angela! The concept of evolution applies more precisely to the internal growth of an organism.

Evolution means more than growth. The word growth connotes a direction of change but only of quantitative character e.g., we say population grows, town grows etc. But evolution involves something more intrinsic; change not merely in size but also in structure. According to Maclver and Page, Evolution involves something more intrinsic, a change not merely in size but at least in structure also. Ogburn and Nimkoff write, Evolution is merely a change in a given direction.

Ginsberg says, Evolution is defined as a process of change which results in the production of something new but revealing an orderly continuity in transition. That is to say, we have evolution when the series of companies with ethical, changes that occur during a period of time appear to be, not a mere succession of changes, but a continuous process, through which a clear thread of identity runs. Evolution describes a series of interrelated changes in a system of some kind. It is a process in which hidden or latent characters of a thing reveal themselves. It is a principle of internal growth. It shows not merely what happens to a thing but also what happens within it. What is latent becomes manifest in it and what is potential is made actual. Evolution is an order to change which unfolds the variety of aspects belonging to the nature of changing object. Angela American! We cannot speak of companies with, evolution when an object or system is american, changed by forces acting upon it from marketing, without. The change must occur within the changing unity. Characteristics of angela american beauty, Social Evolution : According to Spencer, Evolution is the integration of matter and concomitant dissipation of on Performance Appraisal, motion during which matter passes from an indefinite, incoherent homogeneity to a definite, coherent heterogeneity. Society, according to his view, is also subject to a similar process of angela, evolution; that is, changing from a state of analysis marketing, incoherent homogeneity to a state of coherent heterogeneity.

Evolution is, thus, a gradual growth or development from simple to complex existence. The laws of evolution which were initially fashioned after the findings of charters. Darwin, came to be known as social Darwinism during the american beauty nineteenth century. Spencers point of view can best be illustrated by an example. The Ethics Of Shopping! In the beginning, the most primitive stage, every individual lived an individualistic life, trying to know and do things about himself alone. Every man was more or less similar, in so far as his ignorance about organized social life was concerned.

In this sense, the people were homogenous. At that stage, neither they were able to organize their social life, nor could they work together. There was no system; nothing definite, expect their incoherent or loose-group-formations. Thus, they formed an indefinite, incoherent homogeneity, But gradually, their experiences, realizations and knowledge increased. They learnt to live and to work together. The task of beauty, social organisation was taken on, division of labour was elaborated; and each found a particular type of work which he could do best. All worked in an organized and definite way towards a definite goal. On Performance! Thus, a state of angela, definite, coherent heterogeneity was reached. Herbert Spencer has prescribed four important principles of with ethical scandals, evolution. These principles are:

1. Social evolution is on cultural or human aspect of the law of change of cosmic evolution. 2. Angela American Beauty! Hence, social evolution take place in the same way at The Ethics of Shopping Essay all places and progress through some definite and inevitable stages. 3. Social evolution is gradual. 4. Social evolution is beauty, progressive. In addition to this characteristics, other features of social evolution are clearly evident which are discussed below. Evolution is a Process of Differentiation and Integration: The concept of evolution as a process of differentiation cum-integration was first developed by the German Sociologists Von Baer and subsequently by Spencer and many others.

(i) In order to understand this statement, i.e. evolution takes place through differentiation and with Integration; we have to study the history of a society over a long, period of time. Then we shall find that its associations, institutions, etc are constantly evolving or developing. In social evolution, new and ever newer circumstances and problems are constantly appearing. In order to cope with them, new associations and institutions are evolved. For example, a community in a town previously. When the town had been a small community, its management was the responsibility of a Panchayat or a town area committee. Now that the angela town has become a big commercial centre, its management is in the hands of a dozer different committees. One of them looks after the educational facilities, another looks after the sanitation, a third is deputed to look after the octroi, while a fourth manages the markets and so on. In this way, this differentiation increases with the evolution of the town. (ii) But without Integration, this differentiation cannot take one anywhere.

Hence, synthesis along with differentiation is necessary. In urban areas one can find various sectarian associations such as Khandayat Kshatriya Mahasabha, Kayastha society, Brahman Samiti, Napita associations etc. At the same time, one also can find institutions: Arya Samaj, etc. which synthesize and compromise associations based on various caste and class distinctions. Today, while new nations are coming into being in taken analysis the human society, equally strong efforts are being made to create a world society by compromising these nations. (iii) By virtue of this double processes of differentiation and integration, the efficiency of the society is being constantly increased. Division of labour is the angela american beauty magic word of modern economic evolution. By an increase in the number of associations and institutions in society, work in various spheres is performed more successfully. And because of the process of synthesis, various spheres take advantage of each others efficiency also. Maclver points it out in a very systematic manner. According to him, evolution or differentiation manifests itself in society by (a) a greater division of society by labour, so that thereby a more elaborate system of cooperation, because the The Ethics of Shopping energy of more individuals is concentrated on more specific tasks, a more intricate nexus of functional relationships, is beauty, sustained within the group; (b) an increase in the number and the variety of functional associations and institutions, so that each is more defined or more limited in Essay about Analysis The Picture of Dorian the range or character of its service; and (c) a greater diversity and refinement in the instruments of angela american beauty, social communication, perhaps above all in the medium of language.

Various sociologists have laid stress on one or another of these aspect of evolution. Thus, Emile Durkheim has insisted on Appraisal the preeminent importance of the social division of american, labour as a criterion of social development. Other writers have taken the various aspects together and sought to show that society passes through a definite series of evolutionary stages. Social Evolution does not always proceed by Differentiation: Morris Ginsberg writes, The notion that evolution is a movement from the simple to the complex can be and Essay Analysis of Oscar The Picture has been seriously disputed. In every field where we find the forces of differentiation at work, there the opposite trends are also manifested. For example in the development of languages, where the process of differentiation has been stressed, we have many disconnecting facts. The modern languages derived from Sanskrit Like Bengali, Gujarati, Telugu and Tamil cannot be compared in their structure with the richness and diversity of their origin. Here the process is not towards differentiation but towards simplification. In the development of religion too, the american beauty transition from fusion to differentiation is difficult to see. On the ethical whole we find that social evolution does not always proceed by differentiation.

However in spite of the various difficulties, the concept of evolution still retains its usefulness. Maclver has strongly supported the principle of social evolution. He has criticised the practice of believing social evolution to be imaginary. Social evolution is a reality. Maclver has given some arguments in american favour of the reality of social evolution. He emphasizes, if we open the pages of History, we find that in the beginning there was no differentiation of institutions within human society or the performance of diverse functions. Characteristics Great! But latter on, as culture and civilization progressed, differentiation increased and it is even now increasing. This historical fact is an evidence of the angela extent and The Ethics of Shopping element of reality in the principle of american beauty, social evolution. Social Evolution and Organic Evolution : Though social evolution is borrowed from the about Analysis of Oscar The Picture Grey biological concept of organic evolution, still then these two terms are not one and the same. There are some basic differences between the two which are as follows: Firstly, organic evolution implies the differentiation in the bodily structure, which is generally in the form of new organs to use for different purpose.

But social evolution does not imply this. Man is the centre of social evolution. He need not have to develop new organ to adjust himself with changed conditions of life. Because man has the capacity of beauty, inventing tools, making instruments and devising techniques to control the forces of taken poem, nature and to adjust himself with the natural conditions. He can look before and angela american beauty after. Secondly, in Characteristics of Mulan Compared Great Essay organic evolution, the transmission of qualities takes place through biological heredity, i.e. through genes. But social evolution takes place through ideas, discoveries, inventions and experiences.

Here the changes are transmitted mostly through the mental ability and genius of man. Thirdly, in case of organic evolution only the descending generation is affected by the structural modification, alterations. But in angela american social evolution even the old as well as the new generations are affected by it. For example, invention of new techniques and devices is influencing the present as well as the future generations. Lastly, the organic evolution is continuous. There can be no break in it. It is continuous because of the irresistible pressure within the organisation and of environment or natural forces. Essay On Performance Appraisal! But such a continuity may not be observed in the case of social evolution.

It is subject to angela beauty disruption. It is an intermittent. It lacks continuity. Social Change and Social Evolution : Social change is an swat, ever-present phenomenon everywhere. When we speak of social change, we suggest so far no law, no theory, no direction, even no continuity. Social change occurs in all societies and at all times. No society remains completely static.

The term social change itself is beauty, wholly neutral, implying nothing but differences that take place in human interactions and interrelations. In explaining this concept of social change, modern sociologists from time to time used different words and expressions. Marketing! Evolution is american, one of them. Taken Poem! Many social theorists form Herbert Spencer to Sumner applied this conception of evolution in angela american beauty various ways to the interpretation of social change. Analysis Of Oscar Wilde´s The Picture Of Dorian Grey! But many modern theorists, particularly American, have abandoned the idea that social change takes place by evolutionary stages. Evolution describes a series of interrelated changes in angela american beauty a system of some kind. It is a process in which hidden or latent characters of at Wal-Mart, a thing reveal themselves. Angela Beauty! It shows not merely what happens to a thing but also what happens within it.

Evolution is an order of companies ethical scandals, change which unfolds the variety of aspects belonging to the nature of changing object. We cannot speak of evolution when an american beauty, object or system is changed by forces acting upon Essay about of Oscar Wilde´s The Picture of Dorian Grey, it from without. The change must occur within the changing unity. Evolution is a process involving a changing adaptation of the american object to its environment and a further manifestation of its own nature. Consequently, it is a change permeating the whole character of the object, a sequence in which the equilibrium of its entire structure undergoes modification. According to The Ethics Essay Maclver, evolution is not mere change. It is an immanent process resulting in increased complexity and differentiation. He writes, the Kernel of organic evolution is differentiation, a process in which latent or rudimentary characters take a distinct and variable form within the unity of the organism. Maclver further says, evolution or differentiation manifests itself in society by (a) a greater division of labour resulting in great specialization (b) an increase in the number and variety of functional associations, (c) a greater diversity and refinement in the means of social communication. American Beauty! When these changes are proceeding, society is The Ethics, evolving, concludes Maclver. The concept of progress found notable expression in the writings of the angela beauty French Philosophers such as Turgot, Condorcent and Fancis Bacon of the 18th century and has been a dynamic agent in the social activity of modern man. Sociologists such as Saint Simon, Auguste Comte and Herbert Spencer were the earlier exponents of the idea of Essay Appraisal, progress.

According Comte, it was the intellectual elite who could bring about an era of progress. Etymologically, the word progress means moving forward. But moving forward or backward, progress or regress are relative terms. If it be remarked that such and angela beauty such country has progressed, no meaningful information can be extracted from such a statement unless the direction towards which progress has been made be known. In this way, progress is not mere change. It is a change in particular direction. Swat Analysis Marketing! The word progress cannot be appended to change in every direction. For example, if the condition of angela beauty, agriculture in a particular country worsens and a famine results, it is undeniably a change, but it will not be called progress. Progress means moving forward in the direction of achievement of some aim. Different thinkers have defined progress in different ways.

The important definitions are as follows: Maclver writes, By progress we imply not merely direction, but direction towards some final goal, some destination determined ideally not simply by the objective consideration at work. Lumely defines, Progress is a change, but it is a change in a desired or approved direction, not in any direction. Ginsberg defines progress as A development or evolution in a direction which satisfies rational criterion of value. According to Ogburn, Progress is a movement towards an objective thought to be desirable by with scandals, the general group for the visible future. Burgess writes, Any change or adoption to an existent environment that makes it easier for beauty a person or group of persons or other organized from of life to live may be said to represent progress. Progress means an advance towards some ideally desirable end.

Since progress means change for the better it definitely implies a value judgement of highly subjective character. For value, like taste, has no measuring rod. A particular social change may seem to be progressive to one person to another it may seem retrogression, because they have different values. The concept of social progress is, therefore, subjective but it has reference to an objective condition. It is difficult to explain the criteria of progress which are relative to their temporal context. Social values determine progress. Whether any change will be considered as progress or not depends upon the social values. Social values change with time and place.

The criteria of progress change with the change of social values. Hence, it is difficult to formulate a universally acceptable criterion of progress. However, the Essay on Performance Appraisal following can be tentatively suggested. Health and Longevity of Life: Average length of life is one index of progress whether the world is american beauty, growing better. About Analysis The Picture Of Dorian! But it does not necessarily follow from this that a longer life must be more pleasurable and better. In the opinion of some persons, wealth or economic progress is a criterion of angela american, progress. Some people are of the view that an increase in population is a sign of progress. But over-population cannot be a sign of progress. According to some thinkers, moral conduct is the criterion of progress. Since life has many facets, it is not possible to taken ride poem analysis formulate any one criterion of progress.

But is angela, stated that the with ethical integrated development of society is the criterion of progress. Integrated development comprehends all mental, physical and american beauty spiritual aspects including above criteria. By analysing above definitions, we find that progress is Essay about Analysis The Picture of Dorian, a change, a change for the better. When we speak of progress, we simply not merely direction, but direction towards some final goal. The nature of the progress depends upon two factors, the nature of the beauty end and the distance of which we are from it. The modern writers today speak of social progress though they do not have a single satisfactory explanation of the concept. Essay On Performance Appraisal! In order to have a better understanding of the meaning of angela american, progress, we have to analyse the following attributes. 1. Progress is Dependent upon Social Values:

Progress dependent upon and is determined by social values. It means that progress does not have precisely the same meaning at all times and places, because values change from time to time. There is no object which can uniformly or eternally be considered valuable irrespective of time and place. Due to this reason, Maclver and Page have written, The concept of progress is a chameleon that take on the colour of the environment when we feel adjusted to that environment, and Essay on Performance some contrasting colour when we feel maladjusted. 2. There is a Change in Progress:

Change is one of its essential attributes. The concept of progress presupposes the presence of change. Without change, there can be no progress. 3. In Progress the Desired End is american beauty, Achieved: The progress is not mere change. Characteristics To Characters In The Essay! It is a change in a particular direction.

Broadly speaking, progress means an advance towards some ideally desirable end. It always refers to the changes that leads to human happiness. Not all changes imply progress. Progress from its ethical point of view, may be personal but from the sociological point of view, is communal since sociology is that science of society. In it, the individual is taken into consideration only as a part of american beauty, society. Only that change, whose influence can be felt on entire community or society for Essay on Performance Appraisal its betterment or welfare, can be called social progress.

5. Progress is american beauty, Volitional: Progress does not come about through inactivity. Desire and at Wal-Mart Essay volition are needed for progress. Efforts have to be made and when these efforts are successful it is called progress. It is an uphill task. It must be remembered that every effort is not progressive. The concept of progress varies from society to beauty society, place to place and from time to time.

It does not remain constant in all times and of all places. Taken Ride Analysis! That which is angela american, today considered as the symbol or progress may tomorrow be considered and treated as a sign of regress. With! For example, in India, free mixing of young boys and girls may be interpreted as an indication of regress, whereas the same may symbolise progress in the Western Countries. 7. Criteria of Progress are Variable: As stated earlier criteria of progress are relative to their temporal context.

Social values determine progress. Angela! But social values change with time and place. Therefore, criteria of progress vary from place to place. Further, different scholars have prescribed different criteria of progress. For example, health and longevity have been considered as criteria of Essay on Performance, progress by some, while other have taken economic security, moral conduct as the criteria of progress. 8. Progress does not have a Measuring Rod:

The term progress is very much subjective and value-loaded. It is not demonstrable with a degree of angela, certainty. We cannot show it to others unless they first accept our evaluations. We may or may not agree that there is The Ethics of Shopping at Wal-Mart Essay, progress, but we cannot prove it. Progress is a reality which is immeasurable and undemonstrable. Anything that cannot be demonstrated and measured scientifically cannot be rejected socially. It is especially true in the case of progress.

To conclude, progress conveys the sense of something better and improved. The advancement in technology was opposed to angela american beauty contribute to progress. But, these developments did not carry the companies sense of progress. It was advancement only in a particular direction. The comprehensiveness of progress was missing. The extremes of poverty and health, of ignorance and enlightenment had continued to coexist as ever before. Progress as conceived over the ages past, is now considered to be illusive. The end of progress, it has come to be accepted, cannot be determined. The progress in angela american the West did not meet all its ends. It did not bring the fulfillment, that was taken to be its true aim.

For this, the use of the term progress was considered inappropriate. The application of the term fell into disfavour. More so, the growing belief that sociology should be value-free also discouraged the taken for a ride use of this expression. Social Change and angela Social Progress : Change is the basic content of both evolution and progress. But the term change is wholly neutral, only suggesting variation in on Performance Appraisal a phenomena over, a period of time. The moment the specifications like direction, desirability, and value-judgement are added to angela american change, another terminology progress becomes necessary to describe the process of about of Oscar Wilde´s The Picture of Dorian Grey, change. Progress is not mere change. It is a change in particular direction. It cannot be appended to angela american change in every direction. The word progress means moving forward in the direction and achievement of some desired goal.

It is certainly a change, a change for the better not for The Ethics at Wal-Mart Essay the worse. The concept of progress always involves and implies value judgement. It is not possible to speak of angela american, progress without reference to standards. Not all changes imply progress. But social change is a generic term, an objective term describing one of the fundamental processes. There is no value-judgement attached to it. It is true that some changes are beneficial to mankind and some are harmful.

But social change is neither moral nor immoral, but amoral. The study of social change involves no value-judgement, while the concept of social progress implies values judgement. Social progress means improvement, betterment, moving to a higher level from a lower level. Social Evolution and Social Progress : In the earlier theories of ethical scandals, biological evolution, the concept of social evolution was intimately connected with social progress. For the social evolutionists of the nineteenth century from Auguste Comte to Herbert Spencer and Lester F. Ward, social evolution was, in effect, social progress. Modern sociologists, particularly Americans, do not hold this proposition. They point out that evolution does not mean progress, because when a society is more evolved it does not necessarily follow that it is more progressive.

If it would have been progressive, Maclver and Page remark that people in the more evolved society are better or better fitted to beauty survive or more moral or more healthy than those we call primitive. Even if the opposite were true, it would not refute the fact that their society is more evolved. Social evolution should also be distinguished from social progress. Firstly L.T. Hobhouse says, evolution means a sort of growth while .social progress means the growth of taken ride, social life in respect of those qualities to which human beings attach or can rationally attach value. The relation between the two is thus a genus-species relation. Social progress is american, only one among many possibilities of social evolution; any or every form of social evolution is not a form of social progress. For example, caste system in taken for a poem India is a product of social evolution. But it does not signify progress. Hobhouse concludes, that it is good, the fact that society has evolved is no proof that it progressed. Secondly, evolution is merely change in a given direction.

It describes a series of angela american, interrelated changes in a system of some kind. It refers to an objective condition which is not evaluated as good or bad. The Ethics At Wal-Mart Essay! On the contrary, progress means change in a direction determined ideally. American Beauty! In other words, it can be said, progress means change for the better not for Essay on Performance the worse. It implies a value-judgement.

The evolutionary process may move in accordance with our notion of angela american beauty, desirable change, but there is no logical necessity that it should. The concept of progress necessarily involves a concept of end. And the concept of end varies with the mentality and experience of the individual and Characteristics Compared to Characters the group. The affirmation of evolution depends on american beauty our perception of objective evidences, whereas the affirmation or denial of progress depends on our ideals. It follows that evolution is a scientific concept and progress is an ethical concept. Evolution is a demonstrable reality; out the term progress is very much subjective and value-loaded and is not demonstrable with a degree of certainty.

While social evolution is clearly distinguished from social progress, we must not loose sight of their relationships. Ethical valuations or ideas (Progress) are socially determined and hence determine the objective phenomena (Evolution) of society. They have always been powerful in shaping and moving the world. In some manner they are active in every process of social change. All social change has this double character. From the above analysis we find, though the ride above three concepts, social change, social evolution and social progress share many common reference points, they have different intellectual framework. They all articulate same consequential effects. In all the three processes, one cause produces a number of effects, the effect and american beauty cause get intermixed to produce other new effects, again new connections between cause and effect are established and so on goes the of Mulan in The Great Gatsby process. Factors of Social Change : A sociological explanation of change refers not only to the structure that changes but also the factors that effect such a change. Social change has occurred in all societies and in all periods of time.

We should, therefore, know what the factors are that produce change. Of course there is little consensus among the representatives of theoretical proposition on the sources. Besides, the angela linear as well as the cyclical theorists paid little attention to the determinations of factors involved in social change. Morris Ginsberg has made a systematic analysis of the factors which have been invoked by different writers to explain social change. Here, our analysis is confined to companies with sociological implantation of the origins and causes of change. Cause will be defined here as set of related factors which, taken together, are both sufficient and necessary for the production of angela american beauty, a certain effect. Attempt has been made to take up each factors of social change by itself and find out the way in which it effects social change.

These factors are treated independently, purely for Characteristics of Mulan Compared to Characters in The Great Gatsby purpose of understanding and we are not of the view that they can influence social change independent of other factors. Technological factor constitute one important source of social change. Technology, an angela american beauty, invention, is a great agent of social change. It either initiates or encourages social change. Technology alone holds the key to change. When the scientific knowledge is applied to the problems of life, it becomes technology. In order to satisfy his desires, to fulfill his needs and to make his life more comfortable, man builds civilisation. The dawn of this new civilization is the single most explosive fact of our lifetimes. It is the central event, the key to the understanding of the years immediately ahead. We have already crossed the first wave (agricultural revolution). We are now the children of the next transformation i.e. the third wave.

We go forward to describe the full power and reach of this extraordinary change. Some speak of a Looming Space Age, Information Age, Electronic Era, or Global Village. Brezezinski has told us, we face a Technetronic Age. Sociologist Daniel Bell describes the coming of a Post-Industrial Society. For A Ride Poem Analysis! Soviet futurists speak of the STR-The Scientific-Technological Revolution. American! Alvin Toffler has written extensively about the arrival of a Super Industrial Society. Technology is fast growing. Every technological advance makes it possible for us to attain certain results with less effort, at at Wal-Mart less cost and at less time. It also provides new opportunities and establishes new conditions of angela beauty, life. The social effects of taken analysis, technology are far-reaching. In the american words of W.F.

Ogburn, technology changes society by changing our environment to which we in about Analysis of Oscar Wilde´s turn adapt. This change is usually in beauty the material environment and the adjustment that we make with these changes often modifies our customs and social institutions. Ogburn and Nimkoff have pointed that a single invention may have innumerable social effects. According to them, radio, for example, has influenced our entertainment, education, politics, sports, literature, knowledge, business, occupation and our modes of organisation. They have given a list consisting of 150 effects of radio in U.S.A. The pace of change in the modern era is The Picture, easily demonstrated by reference to rates of technological development.

The technological revolution enabled human kind to shift from hunting and gathering to american beauty sedentary agriculture and later to develop civilizations. Technological revolutions enabled societies to industrialize urbanize, specialize, bureaucratize, and take on characteristics that are considered central aspects of modern society. Modern technology, remarks the economic historian David Landes, produces not only more, faster; it turns out objects that could not have been produced under any circumstances by the craft methods of yesterday. Most important, modern technology has created things that could scarcely have been conceived in the pre-industrial era the camera, the companies ethical motor car, the aeroplane, the whole array of american, electronic devices from the radio to The Ethics the high speed computer, the nuclear power plant, and so on almost adinfinitum. The result has been an angela american, enormous increase in the output and variety of goods and services, and this alone has changed mans way of life more than anything since the for a ride poem discovery of fire Every technological revolution has brought about increase in the world population. Development and advancement of agriculture resulted in the increase of population in the agricultural communities; rise of commerce gave birth to the populous towns, international trade and international contact and angela beauty the industrial revolution set the in The Great Essay human society on the new pedestal. Technological changes have influenced attitudes, beliefs and traditions. The factory system and industrialization, urbanization and the rise of working class, fast transport and communication have demolished old prejudices, dispelled superstitions, weakened casteism, and has given rise to the class based society. Ogborn even goes to the extent of suggesting that the starter in motor car had something to do with the emancipation of women in beauty the America and Western Europe. Of Mulan In The Essay! Development in transport and communication has changed the outlook of the people. Railways in India have played tremendous role in bringing about social mixing of the american people.

It has helped people to move out of their local environments and take up jobs in distant corners of the Wilde´s of Dorian country. Movement of people from East to beauty West and for a ride poem analysis North to South has broken social and regional barriers. There have come into existence new vocations and trades. People have begun to give up their traditional occupations and are taking to work in american the factories and in the offices-commercial as well as Government. This has also made possible the vertical mobility. A person can now aspire to take up an occupation with higher status than he could have ever thought of in the pre-technological days.

Technology has brought about Green Revolution with abundance and variety for the rich. The rapid changes of every modern society are inextricably interwoven or connected with and somehow dependent upon the development of new techniques, new inventions, new modes of production and new standards of Appraisal, living. Technology thus is a great bliss. It has made living worthwhile for the conveniences and comfort it provides, and has created numerous vocations, trades and professions. While, giving individual his rightful place, it has made the collectivity supreme. Technologies are changing and their social consequences are profound. Fundamental changes brought by technology in social structure are discussed as under: 1. Birth of Factory System: The introduction of machines in the industry has replaced the system of individual production by the factory or mill system. It has led to the creation of huge factories which employ thousands of people and where most of the work is performed automatically.

The birth of angela american beauty, gigantic factories led to urbanisation and big cities came into existence. Many labourers, who were out of employment in rural areas migrated to the sites to work and settled around it. As the cities grew, so did the community of labourers and with it was felt the swat analysis marketing need for all civic amenities which are essential for society. Their needs were fulfilled by establishing market centers, schools, colleges, hospitals, and recreation clubs. The area further developed when new business came to it with the american formation of large business houses. 3. Development of New Agricultural Techniques: The introduction of machinery into the industry led to the development of Essay on Performance Appraisal, new techniques in agriculture. Agricultural production was increased due to the use of new chemical manure. The quality was also improved by the use of superior seeds.

All these factors resulted in increase of production. In India, the effect of technology is beauty, most apparent in this direction because India is preeminently an agricultural country. 4. Development of Means of Transportation and Communication: With the development of Essay on Performance, technology, means of transportation and communication progressed at a surprising rate. These means led to angela the mutual exchanges between the various cultures. Newspapers, radios, televisions etc. The Ethics Essay! helped to bring news from every corner of the world right into angela american, the household. The development of the car, rail, ship and aeroplane made transportation of commodities much easier.

As a result national and international trade made unprecedented progress. 5. Evolution of New Classes: Industrialisation and urbanisation gave birth to the emergence of new classes in modern society. Class struggle arises due to division of society into classes having opposite-interests. 6. New Conceptions and Movements: The invention of mechanism has also culminated in the generation of Analysis of Oscar Wilde´s, new currents in the prevalent thinking. Trade Union movements, Lockouts, Strikes, Hartals, Processions, Pen down became the stocks-in-trade of angela american, those who want to promote class interest. These concepts and movements become regular features of economic activity. The effects of technology on major social institution may be summed up in the following manner: Technology has radically changed the family organisation and relation in several ways.

Firstly, small equalitarian nuclear family system based on companies love, equality, liberty and angela american freedom is replacing the Essay on Performance Appraisal old, authoritarian joint family system. Due to invention of birth, control method, the size of family reduced. Secondly, Industrialisation destroying the domestic system of production has brought women from home to the factories and office. Beauty! The employment of women meant their independence from the bondage of man. If brought a change in of Shopping at Wal-Mart their attitudes and ideas. It meant a new social life for american women. It consequently affected every part of the on Performance Appraisal family life. Thirdly due to technology, marriage has lost its sanctity.

It is beauty, now regarded as civil contract rather than a religious sacrament. Romantic marriage, inter-caste marriage and late marriages are the effects of technology. Instances of divorce, desertion, separation and broken families are increasing. Lastly, though technology has elevated the status of swat analysis, women, it has also contributed to the stresses and strains in the relations between men and women at home. It has lessened the importance of family in the process of socialisation of its members. Technology has effected wide range of changes in our religious life. Many religious practices and ceremonies which once marked the individual and social life, have now been abandoned by them. Beauty! With the growth of Characteristics Compared Great Gatsby Essay, scientific knowledge and modern education, the faith of the people in several old religious beliefs and activities have shaken.

The most striking change due to technological advance, is the change in economic organisation. Industry has been taken away from the household and new types of economic organisation like factories, stores, banks, joint stock companies, stock-exchanges, and corporation have been setup. It has given birth to capitalism with all its attendant evils. Division of labour, specialization of function, differentiation and integration all the products of technology. Though it has brought in higher standard of living, still then by angela american, creating much more middle classes, it has caused economic depression, unemployment, poverty, industrial disputes and infectious diseases. Effects on State: Technology has affected the State in companies with several ways. The functions of the State has been widened.

A large number of functions of family, such as educative, recreation, health functions have been transferred to the State. The idea of social welfare State is an offshoot of angela american beauty, technology. Transportation and communication are leading to a shift of functions from local Government to the Central Government. Appraisal! The modern Government which rule through the bureaucracy have further impersonalised the angela american beauty human relations. Technological innovations have changed the whole gamut of social and cultural life. The technological conditions of the companies with ethical scandals modern factory system tend to weaken the rigidity of the caste system and strengthen industrializations. It has changed the basis of social stratification from birth to wealth. American Beauty! Urbanization, a consequence of technological advance, produces greater emotional tension and mental strain, instability and The Ethics of Shopping Essay economic insecurity. There is masking of ones true feelings. Socially, the urbanites are poor in the midst of american, plenty. They feel lonely in the crowd. On all sides, one is confronted with human machines which possess motion but not sincerity, life but not emotion, heart but not feelings.

Technology has grown the sense of individualism. It has substituted the handi work with head work. It is clear from the above explanation that technology has profoundly altered our modes of taken ride poem analysis, life and also thought. It is capable of bringing about vast changes in society. But is should not be considered as a sole factor of social change. Man is the master as well as a servant of the machine. He has the ability to american beauty alter the circumstances which have been the The Ethics creation of his own inventions or technology. Cultural Factor of Social Change : Among all the angela beauty factors, cultural factor is the most important which works as a major cause of social change. Culture is not something static. It is always in flux.

Culture is not merely responsive to changing techniques, but also it itself is analysis marketing, a force directing social change. Culture is the internal life forces of society. It creates itself and develops by itself. American Beauty! It is men who plan, strive and act. The social heritage is never a script that is followed slavishly by people. A culture gives cues and direction to social behaviour. Technology and material inventions may influence social change but direction and degree of this depends upon the cultural situation as a whole. Culture is the realm of final valuation. Men interpret the whole world. He is the master as well as the servant of his own inventions or technology. To employ Maclvers simile, technological means may be represented by marketing, a ship which can set sail to various ports. The port we sail to remains a cultural choice.

Without the ship we could not sail at all. According to the character of the angela beauty ship we sail fast of Characteristics of Mulan Compared Essay, slow, take longer or shorter voyages. Our lives are also accommodated to the conditions on angela ship board and of Mulan Compared Great Gatsby our experiences vary accordingly. But the angela direction in which we travel is not predestinated by the design of the ship. The port to which we sail, the direction in which we travel, remains totally of a cultural choice. It should be noted that technology alone cannot bring vast changes in society.

In order to be effective The technology must have favourable cultural support. When the cultural factor responds to technological change, it also reacts on it so as to influence the direction and character of social change. It may be noted that culture not only influences our relationship and values but also influences the direction and character of swat marketing, technological change. Beauty! For example, different countries like Great Britain, Soviet Union, U.S.A. and India may adopt the same technology, but in so far as their prevalent outlook on life differs, they will apply it in different directions and to different ends. The atomic energy can be used for munition of war and for production purposes. The industrial plant can turn out armaments or necessaries of life. Analysis! Steel and american beauty iron can be used for building purposes and for warships. Fire can be used for constructive and with destructive purposes. For a better understanding of the relationship between culture and technology, let us analyse here the concept of cultural lag. The concept of cultural lag, has become a favourite one with sociologists, it is an expression that has a particular appeal in an age in which inventions discoveries and innovations of american, many kinds are constantly disturbing and threatening older ways of about Analysis The Picture, living. In this context, it will serve also to introduce the principle that cultural conditions are themselves important agencies in american beauty the process of The Ethics of Shopping Essay, social change.

The concept of angela, cultural lag was first explicitly formulated by W.F. Ogburn in his treaties entitled Social Change. Lag means crippled movement. Hence, cultural lag means the phases of culture which fall behind other phases that keep on moving ahead. Ogburns idea of cultural lag is perhaps one of the most important concept influencing the fact of discussion regarding technology and social change. Ogburn distinguishes between material and non-material culture. By material culture he means things which are tangible, visible, seen or touched like goods, tools, utensils, furniture, machine. But the non-material culture includes things which cannot be touched or tangible such as family, religion, skill, talent.

Government and education etc. According to Ogburn, when changes occur in material culture, those in turn stimulate changes in non-material culture, particularly in what he terms the adaptive culture. According to Ogburn, material culture changes by a process which is different in pace from changes in non-material culture. The larger the technological knowledge of analysis, a society, the greater the angela american possibility of a new combinations and innovations. Thus, material culture tends to grow exponentially. Because society cannot develop methods of controlling and utilizing new technology before the technology is accepted and used.

There exists a cultural lag in creating controls and Essay about of Oscar The Picture altering social relationship related to angela beauty new conditions brought about by new technology. Cultural lag is due to about Analysis of Oscar Grey mans psychological dogmatism. He is wedded to certain ideologies regarding sex, education and religion. On account of his dogmatic beliefs and ideologies, he is not prepared to change his social institutions. The failure to adopt social institutions to the changes in the material culture leads to cultural lag. But Maclver points out that unfortunately it is often adopted without adequate analysis and consequently it has not been developed in a clear and effective manner. Beauty! According to him, the distinction is not a workable one. Nor again should be assumed that, it is always the material or that the main problem is Essay on Performance, one of adapting the non-material to the material culture. Maclver also observes that the term lag is not properly applicable to relations between technological factors and the cultural patterns or between the various components of the cultural pattern itself. He has used different words like, technological lag, technological restraint, for the resulting imbalance in beauty the different parts of culture. Kingsley Davis, in his Human Society holds that the aspect of culture cannot be divided into material and non-material and that this distinction in no way helps us to Appraisal understand the nature of technology.

Other sociologists, Sutherland, Wood Ward and Maxwell, in their book Introductory Sociology point out that Ogburn is guilty of over simplifying the processes of social change. Social change is a complex phenomenon. The rate, speed and direction of social change is not the same everywhere. So it cannot be explained by simply saying that change first takes place in material culture and thereafter in non-material culture. Ogburn has taken an over simple materialistic view of society. In spite of angela american, various shortcomings, Ogburns theory of of Mulan Compared Great Gatsby, cultural lag has been proved to be beneficial for the understanding of the cultural factor in bringing about american beauty social change. It has been acknowledged by all that there is an intimate connections between the technological advance and our cultural values. Hence, we may note here that our culture, our thoughts, values, habits are the consequences of technological changes; the latter also is the consequences of changes of the former.

Both technology and cultural factors are the The Ethics of Shopping at Wal-Mart Essay two important sources of social change. The two are not only interdependent but also interactive. Man does not simply want a thing but he wants a thing which may also be beautiful and appealing to his senses. Dowson and Gettys, in introduction to Sociology, rightly remark, Culture tends to give direction and momentum to social change to set limits beyond which social change cannot occur. It is the angela american culture which has kept the social relationship intact.

It makes people think not of their own but also of the others. Any change in cultural valuation will have wider repercussion on the personality of the individual and of Shopping at Wal-Mart the structure of the group. Angela American! Every technological invention, innovation, new industrial civilization or new factor disturbs an old adjustment. The disturbance created by mechanism was so great that it seemed to be the enemy of culture, as indeed all revolutions seem. The wealth-bringing machine brought also, ugliness, shoddiness, haste, standardization.

It brought new hazards, new diseases, and ride poem analysis industrial fatigue. That was not the fault of the machines and power plants. It was due to angela the ruthlessness and greed of those who controlled these great inventions. But human values or cultural values reasserted themselves against economic exploitation. Culture began, at first very slowly, to redirect the new civilization. It made the new means of living at length more tractable to the uses of personality and new arts blossomed on the ruins of the ethical old. To conclude, social systems are directly or indirectly the creation of cultural values.

So eminent sociologist Robert Bierstedt has rightly remarked, What people think, in angela short, determines in every measure what they do and what they want. Thus, there a definite relation is a definite relation between changing beliefs and attitudes and changing social institutions. So Hobhouse says, there is a broad correlation between the system of institutions and mentally behind them. Demographic Factor of Social Change: The demographic factor plays the most decisive role in causing social change. The quantitative view of Essay, demography takes into account the factors that determine the population: its size, numbers, composition, density and the local distribution etc. The population of every community is always changing both in numbers and in composition.

The changes in population have a far-reaching effect on american society. During the Essay on Performance 19th century, the population of most countries of Western Europe fell down. During the same time also, the death rate of these countries declined. This double phenomenon is unprecedented in the history of man. Population changes have occurred all through human history. It is due to various reasons such as migration, invasion, and war, pestilence, changing food supply and changing mores.

There was depopulation and overpopulation in times past. The swift and steady decline of both the birth rate and death in the past 70 years or so witnesses to a great social transformation. In a society where the size or number of female children is greater than the number of angela american beauty, male children, we will find a different system of courtship, marriage and Characteristics Compared to Characters Great Gatsby family disorganisation from that where the case is reverse. Women command less respect in that community where their numbers are more. It has always been recognised that there exists a reciprocal relation between population and social structure. The social structure influences population changes and is affected by angela, them. It is Compared to Characters, beyond doubt that economic conditions and population rates are interdependent. Increasing 254 Social Change interaction results from an increase in the size and density of population. Increase in population also leads to an increase of angela american beauty, social differentiation and a division of scandals, labour.

With the changes in american beauty size, number and density of population, changes take place in composition. The most important reasons for the contemporary population explosion are the tremendous technological changes on the one hand and a most spectacular advance in controlling the diseases by science and preventive medicines on the other hand. Advancement in science and technology is indirectly boosting the world population by delaying the death rate. For example, take the case of Malaria. This disease was responsible for ethical scandals the death of million of people in american India and other countries. But it has now been completely eliminated by destroying the malaria carrying mosquitoes with the use of pesticides. Surgery too has advanced so much today. The vital organs of human body such as kidney and heart can be transplanted or replaced when worn out. The growth of population has given birth to a great variety of social problems such as unemployment, child labour, wars, competition and production of synthetic goods. It has led to urbanization with all its attendant evils. Countries with growing population and relatively limited resources have an incentive to imperialism and to militarism.

These attitudes in turn, encourage a further increase of population. Increase in population threatens the standards of living and swat analysis marketing thus inspires a change of attitude. Due to unprecedented growth of population in the 19th century, the angela practice of ride poem analysis, birth control took a new development. This practice (use of contraceptive), in turn, had many repercussions on family relationships and even on attitudes towards marriage. With a change in population, there is also a change in american a pattern of consumption. Societies having large number of children are required to for a poem analysis spend relatively large amounts of money on food and education. On the other hand, societies with large proportions of elderly people have to spend relatively more amount on medical care. In some cases, population changes may initiate pressures to angela change political institutions. For example, changes in the age, sex or ethnic composition of a people of then complicates the political process of country.

Besides, there is a close relationship between the growth of population and the level of physical health and vitality of the people. Because there are many mouths to feed, none gets enough nutritious food to eat, as a result chronic malnutrition and associated diseases become prevalent. These, induce physical incompetence, apathy and lack of enterprise. Due to these peoples low level of physical well-being, they are socially backward and The Ethics of Shopping unprogressive. They show their indifference to improve their material welfare. An underfed, disease-ridden people are lethargic people. Moreover, if the growth of population is checked, it would mean a higher standard of living, the emancipation of women from child-bearing drudgery, better care for the young and consequently a better society. Demographers have shown that variation in the density of population also affects nature of our social relationship. In a low population density area, the people are said to exhibit a greater degree of primary relationship whereas in the area of high density of angela, population, the companies relationship between people is said to angela beauty superficial and secondary. In the opinion of Worth, high density areas witness the growth of mental stress and loneliness of life. The importance of demography as a factor of social change has been realised by Essay, various sociologists and economists.

An eminent French sociologist, Emile Durkheim, went on to the extent of developing a new branch of sociology dealing with population which he called Social Morphology which not only analyses the size and angela quality of population but also examine how population affects the Essay about Analysis Wilde´s The Picture of Dorian Grey quality of social relationships and social groups. Durkheim has pointed out angela american beauty that our modern societies are not only characterised by increasing division of labour but also specialisation of The Ethics at Wal-Mart Essay, function. The increasing division of labour and specialization of function have a direct correlation with the american beauty increasing density of population. He stresses on the fact that in a simple society with comparatively lesser number of people, the necessity of complex division of labour is less felt. This society, according to Durkheim, is based on mechanical solidarity. But as the groups grow in size and complexity with the for a ride increase in population, the angela beauty services of the experts are more required. Marketing! The society, according to him, moves towards organic solidarity.

There is, so to say, a drift from mechanical to organic solidarity. M. David Heer, in his book Society and Population, has developed a theory of demographic transition. The theory was popularised just after the angela beauty end of World War-II. It has provided a comprehensive explanation of the in The effects of economic development both on fertility and mortality decline. Schneidar and Dornbusch, in their book Popular Religion, have pointed that decline in mortality rate evokes several changes in angela american beauty social structure. They have stressed on the point that due to decline in mortality rate in USA since 1875, negative attitude towards religious beliefs have been cultivated by the people. They also point out that in a society wherein children die before reaching the age of five, parents may not develop a strong emotional attachment to their children and also in a high mortality society, arranged marriages are common, but in a low mortality society love marriages become the for a ride poem analysis dominant feature.

Again when mortality rate is high, individual tends to have a weaker orientation towards the future and angela american beauty stronger orientation towards the present. Thomas Robert Malthus, an English cleargyman, mathematician and economist, was one of the on Performance Appraisal earliest demographers. In his work, An Essay on the Principles of Population, published in 1978, he mentioned that under normal conditions, population would grow by geometrical progression, whereas the angela american beauty means of subsistence would grow by arithmetical progression. Taken Analysis! The imbalance or lag or gap between the two would create a lot of problems for society. That is why, Malthus has pleaded for two types of checks which can keep the population down. He spoke of hunger and disease as positive check, and late marriage and enforced celibacy as the angela american beauty preventive check. From the above analysis, we find that demographic factor has been contributing to the great transformations in societys socioeconomic and political structure throughout human history. For example, most countries in Asia where more than half world population is now living, is characterised by high birth rate.

These countries in general and Indian society in particular, are passing through a critical period of great poverty, unemployment and swat analysis marketing moral degeneration. The gap between the living standards of general masses of these countries and that of the developed countries is widening. The gap is cruelly frustrating the angela american third world countrys hopes for on Performance Appraisal development. With the current rate of population increase, it is expected that the angela total requirements for future health, education, housing and many other welfare needs are bound to increase. This will certainly bring the drastic changes not only in the microstructures, but also in macrostructures of Indian society. Leave a Reply Click here to cancel reply.

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