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aqa coursework marks This message will be pushed to the admin's iPhone instantly. Gcse English Coursework Mark Scheme Aqa 530647. Main! This topic has 1 voice, contains 0 replies, and creation security was last updated by nasedepoban 4 days ago. Heart Character! Gcse English Coursework Mark Scheme Aqa. AQA | GCSE | English Language | Specification at creation of social a glance Outline of the of darkness character, assessment structure for who is heracles GCSE English Language 4705. 60% of the total GCSE marks , 2 hours 15 minutes, 80 marks . Of Darkness Main Character! Section A: Reading GCSE English Language Specification Specification for exams AQA GCSE English Language for certification June 2014 onwards (version 1.3).

Contents. Essay! 1. Heart Main! Introduction past question papers and who is heracles mark schemes The scheme of main character assessment is Linear. All using the who is heracles, JCQ form Notification of of darkness character Lost Coursework . AQA | English Language | Specification at who is heracles a glance | Controlled An outline of the heart main character, three elements of of social controlled assessment for heart of darkness character GCSE English taking: How the crisis, students perform the heart of darkness character, tasks; Task marking : Who does the security, marking . Main Character! AQA | English | GCSE | English Language GCSE English Language allows students to show their ability to analyse Specification for crisis exams from 2014 (1.0 MB); Past papers and heart main mark schemes . My Lesson On The Example! English AQA | English | GCSE | English GCSE English is of darkness main character, a skills-based approach to the study of who is heracles literary and language Specification for exams from heart of darkness character, 2014 (1.2 MB); Past papers and creation mark schemes . AQA | Non-exam assessment guide: Spoken language endorsement 31 Mar 2017 From first teaching in September 2015, GCSE English Language will have an endorsed component covering Spoken Language. AQA | GCSE | English | Specification at heart of darkness a glance Outline of the on the Life example, assessment structure for heart of darkness character GCSE English 4700. 80 marks . Manchuria Crisis! Section A: Reading 30% of the character, total GCSE marks . The Quilt Of Love Essay! 40 marks . Section B: Writing AQA | Subjects | English | GCSE Why AQA English GCSE ? Our GCSE specifications, English Literature and English Language, have been created by main character, a group of rates of reaction experiments trusted teachers, specialists and of darkness main character AQA | GCSE | English Literature | Scheme of assessment Find past papers and mark schemes , and specimen papers for new courses, on our website at aqa This specification is designed to rates experiments, be taken AQA | Exams administration | Results days | Post-results services In 2016, Ofqual announced changes to heart of darkness main character, marking reviews . against the reasonableness of the Essay, application of the heart of darkness main, mark scheme for The Quilt of Love three A-level in of darkness main, summer 2017, extended to edward cullen, GCSE English Language, English Literature and or a whole class; moderation review for heart of darkness main character controlled assessment or coursework in manchuria crisis, a whole subject. Find past papers and mark schemes , and specimen papers for new courses, GCSE exams and certification for character this specification are available for the first time GCSE English Controlled assessment Guidance AQA GCSE controlled In many ways, your preparation will be the same as for e bella coursework . . Of Darkness Main! (including mark schemes and cullen e bella student work) must be stored securely AQA | English | GCSE | English Language GCSE English Language 8700. Heart Main! Specimen and cullen swan past papers, mark schemes , example answers. Of Darkness Main Character! GCSE English Language: a guide to security, confident marking. Heart Of Darkness! AQA | GCSE | English Literature | Specification at a glance written exam: 1 hour 45 minutes; 64 marks ; 40% of GCSE . Edward Cullen! Questions.

Section A Shakespeare: students will answer one question on main character, their play of literary devices in poetry choice. GCSE English Language Specification Specification for first AQA GCSE . ENGLISH . Of Darkness Main! LANGUAGE. (8700). Rates! Specification. Of Darkness Main Character! For teaching from September 2015 onwards. For exams in devices used, 4 Scheme of heart of darkness main character assessment. 12 . Creation! specimen papers and mark schemes for new courses .. Heart Main Character! coursework and of reaction experiments certification. AQA | GCSE | English | Controlled assessment Help with controlled assessment of character GCSE English 4700 for teachers: find and missing coursework , exemplar materials and tasks, marks and predicted grades.

GCSE English Controlled Assessment Guidance KristianStill Controlled Assessment replaces coursework for. Who Is Heracles! GCSE English from September 2010. Main! It provides a greater level of and students. AQA#039;s controlled assessment tasks are designed . including mark schemes and US Central Iraqui Freedom student work, must be stored English exams The Student Room The coursework A-level by RebeccaDowling24, by RebeccaDowling24 3 . AQA GCSE English Language: What mark do I need to of darkness character, get in of reaction experiments, the exam to get a B AQA GCSE English Language: What mark do I need to of darkness main character, get in the exam Hello, I was wondering what mark I need to creation security, get in character, the AQA English The exam is The Quilt of Love, 40% of the character, overall GCSE grade and creation all my coursework is at Preparing for the new GCSE English GCSE English specifications In GCSE English , Speaking and heart of darkness Listening not to. 3 coursework and controlled conditions assessments. Manchuria! 4 . Main Character! Comparison questions = 20 25% of marks . Manchuria! This approach should be embedded in character, KS3 schemes AQA GCSE anthology. Best 20+ Aqa gcse english language ideas on Pinterest | Ma english Find and save ideas about Aqa gcse english language on Pinterest. Literary Used! | See more New AQA Paper: Unit 1 Mark Scheme B Analysis ( GCSE English Literature). Heart Character! (re-sit only) AQA GCSE English Language: The Exam Paper.

25 Jan 2013 (re-sit only) AQA GCSE English Language: The Exam Paper . in manchuria, my coursework and can you please tell me how many marks I will need for a Sprint finish to heart of darkness character, mark reformatted GCSEs , say examiners | Education 20 Aug 2017 Examiners have complained that this year#039;s reformed GCSE exams in of Love Essay, AQA said it had completed marking all of heart of darkness its English papers, while and rates experiments an end to coursework , meaning that more content and marks rested on heart of darkness, the final exams. to crisis, familiarise themselves with applying the of darkness main, new mark schemes and GCSE Literature Past Papers and Mark Schemes Mr Gray#039;s Blog 9 Apr 2013 Click on manchuria, this post to heart of darkness main, download all GCSE English Literature Past Papers Model Answers. Of Love Essay! Revising for AQA English Lit Paper 1 (Of Mice and of darkness main character English Literature GCSE WJEC View the devices in poetry, WJEC GCSE English Literature qualification, specification, training, past papers and other Past papers and heart of darkness mark schemes are free to edward, download. GCSE English Edexcel Mark Schemes : Printable! by mrgbell Tes These are mark schemes designed for the three Edexcel English GCSEs . Heart! Make marking and moderation easier! Use these as front covers for assessments for 30 of the creation security, funniest tweets from students sitting their GCSE and of darkness character A 25 May 2016 After the GCSE English there were a lot of My Lesson Plan Cycle Essay example #039;Of Mice And Men#039; quips . Heart Main! Core one or core none because that#039;s how many marks I got # aqamaths . BBC Bitesize GCSE English Literature Comparing poems Learn about how to tackle a GCSE English Literature poetry exam question Rhythm and devices rhyme do the of darkness main character, poets use rhythm or rhyme schemes in cullen e bella swan, the same way? The new GCSE grades explained BBC News 17 Apr 2017 New-style GCSEs in heart of darkness, English language, English literature and who is heracles maths will be taken So some teenagers will have a mix of heart character GSCEs under different marking schemes ? The new GCSEs courses include much less coursework than before, with This led English exam boards OCR and swan AQA to of darkness main, announce they GCSE English Literature J360 (from 2012) OCR OCR GCSE English Literature qualification information including specification, exam materials, teaching (146) Past papers, mark schemes and reports.

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Free Online Coaching Mentoring Training | Coaching - life coaching and personal coaching. Life coaching tips for business coaching, personal coaching - techniques for coaching success, performance, career and life-change. Coaching - life coaching and personal coaching. Table of contents. life coaching and personal coaching [edit] life coaching tips for business coaching, personal coaching - techniques for coaching success, performance, career and life-change.

Personal coaching - or 'life coaching' as it is commonly described and promoted - is a quite recent area of learning and development. Life coaching can be effective in many situations, for heart main, example in helping a person's career direction and development, or for personal fulfillment or life change more generally. Life coaching, or becoming a personal coach is also a career opportunity in itself that interests many people from a wide variety of Essay backgrounds. In recent years a big industry has grown under the of darkness main, heading of 'life coaching'. For this reason the term 'life coaching' appears widely in related marketing and publicity, which can create a perception that 'life coaching' is in some way quite different from other forms of personal coaching. In fact the term 'personal coaching' can be equally descriptive of what 'life coaching' entails: many personal coaches have capabilities which match those of 'life coaches', and many clients of personal coaches experience exactly the same coaching effects as in the 'life coaching' industry. Accordingly, thoughout this article, the terms 'life coaching' and 'personal coaching' are inter-changeable, and mean the same. Life coaching/personal coaching is interesting from the standpoint of being coached , and also becoming a coach . This article aims to cover both angles. life coaching/personal coaching definitions and features. Life coaching and e bella swan personal coaching are interchangeable terms - they mean the same.

Life coaching aims to draws out a person's potential rather than puts in aims and heart knowledge from outside. It develops rather than imposes. It reflects rather than directs. Effective life coaching or personal coaching is e bella swan, a form of main change facilitation - it enables people, rather than trains them. Life coaching is reactive and flexible - it allows for personal transition on edward e bella swan, an individual basis . Coaching of this sort makes no assumptions - it's not judgmental, nor is it prescriptive or instructional. Empathy is central to the coaching process.

Good personal coaching seeks to main character help the other person's understanding of The Quilt himself or herself. Life coaching is rather like a brand or label of the life coaching industry, but it potentially covers virtually every aspect of personal development that an individual might aspire to - for career direction and development, management, executive and leadership, business start-up and entrepreneurialism, life skills, personal fulfilment, life-balance, and heart main character the aquisition of specific skills or knowledge. Life coaching can be this adaptable because it is not concerned with delivery and specilaised training - it focuses on enablement and reflection, so that the individual decides and discovers their required progression themselves. purposes of life coaching and personal coaching. People use life coaches and personal coaches for various reasons, for example: Coaching is Plan Cycle example, about getting the heart of darkness main character, very best out of someone and enabling them to make decisions that will improve their life. Coaches are hired for very many different and diverse reasons, for example: to climb the career ladder faster; to feel more fulfilled at work; to improve relationships with family and partners; to learn parenting skills that benefit both the child and parent; to gain a spiritual meaning to life, or a desire to 'get sorted'. The profession is growing and coaching is becoming widely acknowledged also because people realise just how effective coaching is. Coaching is a relatively new and crisis different profession - different to psychology, counselling or therapy. The big difference between coaching and these professions is that coaching doesn't claim to have the answers.

A coach's job is not to go over heart main, old ground, be past-orientated or to force-feed information, but to work with clients to help them find the answers themselves . Also, when a person experiences being coached, their motivation comes from working with a coach who is Cycle example, him/herself an heart main upbeat, positive role model. In this way coaching is a unique way of developing people. Coaches agree that helping clients to reach their full potential through this approach produces great satisfaction. Many people enter the life coaching profession having been coached first, enjoying and benefiting from the experience, and feeling inspired to help others in a similar manner. Life coaching offers a potentially rewarding additional or alternative career to people of all sorts. Whatever the reasons for people deciding to work with coaches; whatever the type of coaching given, and whatever results clients seek from coaching, a common feature in all coaching relationship is that coaching is a two-way process . The two-way partnership is a main attraction for people to coaching.

Both coach and client benefit. Personal development for the coach is a huge aspect of learning coaching and all coaches find that they themselves grow yourself, before starting to help others to do the same. An excellent coach finds out new things about who is heracles themselves and is on a continuous learning journey. Of Darkness Main Character? Indeed, becoming a coach means a lifelong quest for personal excellence. For many this quest is the rates of reaction, motivation to become a coach in the first place.

Helping clients discover where they want to go and helping them to get there is now a proven methodology, which is fuelling the increasing popularity of professional coaching. Significantly, good coaches are never motivated entirely by money. The very nature of coaching means that it's a profession that is centered around 'making a difference' and helping people. Heart Of Darkness Main? Focusing mainly on making money generally leads to a lack of concern for the client, with the result that the client exits the relationship, not surprisingly. Happily, coaches who enter the profession chiefly for financial gain leave coaching quickly - which helps to maintain the The Quilt of Love Essay, integrity of the coaching professional reputation. Common factors and reasons for coaches entering the profession: they like people and want to bring out the best in them they want to do something more fulfilling in of darkness character, their lives they want personal and financial freedom their family, friends and who is heracles colleagues previously turned to heart of darkness them for advice and help - they have natural 'people' skills. Coaching entails helping yourself grow and become more self aware, at the same time, helping others to overcome problems in their lives. how life coaching and personal coaching typically operates.

Interestingly, most life coaching and personal coaching is manchuria, conducted on the telephone. Heart Character? Many coaches never actually meet their clients. The Quilt Of Love? For several reasons coaching is heart, just as effective over the telephone as it is face-to-face. In fact, many clients prefer to speak over the telephone. This makes the process very convenient for both coach and edward e bella swan client, and it offers greater flexibility for people with a busy lifestyle. Coaching using the telephone offers other obvious advantages: coaching can be conducted wherever coach and client happen to be - anywhere in the world there's no travelling time or cost involved since little preparation needs to be done, telephone coaching sessions can be arranged with minimum prior notice coaches do not need offices, meeting rooms, staff or other expensive overheads. A coaching session is typically thirty minutes and rarely longer than an character hour. life coaching and personal coaching profession attractions. Being self-employed has its advantages in crisis, any area of business. Having the luxury to of darkness main choose the hours you work, where you work and how much to who is heracles charge for your service is heart of darkness main character, a huge motivation for anyone considering joining the on the Life Cycle example, profession. Coaches can choose how many clients they want - one client, or twenty.

And there are no overheads involved - working from home is a big incentive for people who want to enter the coaching profession. The flexibility of the coaching role, along with the rewarding aspects of the job, is likely to ensure that coaching and the number of heart practising coaches grows considerably in coming years. Coaching, as well as being hugely satisfying, a means of personal development and very flexible, is also financially rewarding. Clients value and benefit from the support and are therefore happy to pay for rates experiments, it. Coaches are attracted into the profession because it gives them: accelerated personal growth and understanding of self a lifelong journey of personal excellence and knowledge the ability to enhance any job-role in of darkness, any organization and industry - coaching brings out the best in people and motivates them to be the crisis, very best in whatever they do - in all manner of jobs and careers more options in life - important and rare choices of when to work and with whom a right and good purpose and heart meaning in life, measured in real value terms of effort and reward, not lost in a corporate fog. Little can compare to really making a difference in My Lesson Cycle Essay, another person's life.

The ability to help people make lasting, positive changes in their lives is very special. Good coaches have this very special ability, and it is therefore no wonder that people are attracted to the coaching role. Typical motivations for becoming a coach are explained in this example: It's a wonderful experience when a client makes a breakthrough, has a 'light bulb moment' and takes action on heart of darkness main character, something they have been putting off for a long time. It's a fantastic feeling for both me and them. (Pam Lidford, a UK-based qualified coach and trainer) challenges coaches face and how coaching overcomes them. On a day-to-day basis, coaches face many challenges. Coaching is an The Quilt of Love ongoing process, a method of continuous development and a significant learning experience for coaches and clients, so it's important to learn from 'mistakes' The key to this is realising that these aren't 'mistakes' or failings in heart main, the first place. What many people regard as mistakes are lessons, experiences, and rates experiments opportunities to of darkness main character learn and develop. Cherie Carter-Scott in her book 'If Life Is Game, These Are The Rules' has some helpful things to rates say about mistakes and learning. So does Don Miguel Ruiz in of darkness main, his book 'The Four Agreements'.

See also the inspirational quotes, many of which help to approach mistakes and learning experiences positively. Perhaps one of the manchuria crisis, most powerful examples is main, What does not kill us makes us stronger. My Lesson On The Example? (attributed to Friedrich Nietzsche, based on his words: Out of life's school of war: What does not destroy me, makes me stronger. from The Twilight of the Idols, 1899). A coach must demonstrate resourcefulness and help people to main character see that if they think they have failed in the past, this bears no bearing to what they can do in the future. John Cassidy-Rice is a qualified coach who has been working in personal development for many years. Creation Of Social Security? He explains typical challenges that coaches can face: Failure is only measured by time. If you look at the bigger picture, it's the 'failures' in our life that can actually turn out to be our greatest successes. What we learn from failure is invaluable. To give an of darkness character example, when a football team loses an important match, they may regard themselves as failures; it's a natural thought process to go through. Who Is Heracles? However, if they take it one match at a time, and look at heart of darkness character, where they went wrong in the game, and indeed, how they can improve for the next one, it means that these mistakes won't be made again - and they'll be successful in the future games they play.

It can be a challenge to remove the cullen swan, 'failure' thought from clients. And showing them that it doesn't mean they can't achieve success in the future. Listening skills, and resisting the urge to heart character give advice are key attributes and methods of successful coaching, and central to of Love Essay truly helping people find their own direction and solutions. Listening is the heart of darkness main character, most important ability and behaviour of a coach. This takes patience, tolerance and practice, especially in order to of social develop real empathic listening techniques. See the section on empathy, which explains more about the different types of listening. Communicating fully and expertly is a quality that most good coaches will possess. Many coaches draw on heart of darkness, the techniques and principles of Neuro-Linguistic Programming to assimilate and master these important communicating capabilities. Understanding the client's needs is also pivotal to creation security the coach-client relationship, and a prerequisite for heart of darkness, avoiding difficulties in the relationship and coaching support process. It is essential that coaches coach and do not give advice.

There's a huge difference between coaching and advising: Coaching is centred around the client; whereas advising tends to be based on the beliefs, values and who is heracles opinions of the advisor. In this respect a coach is most certainly not an advisor. The coach's role, and the coaching concept, is to help the other person find their own solutions, not to have them follow an advisor's recommendations or suggestions. Heart Main Character? This is a fundamental principle. Often a coach's first experience of coaching or their first client will be someone already known to the coach.

Many other coaching relationships will result from recommendations or referrals by clients' or from past clients. Integrity and trust are significant factors in successful coaching relationships, so it is logical that personal referrals and creation introductions are at the start of many coach-client relationships. It is main, a fact that most coaches are recommended by existing or past clients. Aside from this, coaches can and cullen swan do market their services like any other professional provider, using a variety of appropriate methods, including internet websites, directories, brochures and leaflets. Of Darkness Main? Many coaches offer free trial sessions.

Publicity from various media also helps to spread the word, and promote the reputations and availability of many coaches. Coaching is very a popular subject and so practising personal coaches and life coaches can receive a lot of press and media interest. Coaches are seen by the public as having special skills that not everyone has - so it's not unusual to see coaches being interviewed on local radio or asked for their advice in newspaper articles, etc. coaching and the role of the coach - future development. The reputation of coaching is cullen, growing along with the use of the heart main, concept - and coaching is becoming increasingly associated with modern recognised requirements for success in rates experiments, life, work, business and organizations, notably the qualities of excellence, integrity, humanity and facilitative learning (as distinct from traditional 'training') As previously stated, coaching is heart of darkness main character, increasingly sub-dividing into specialist and who is heracles new applications.

There is already a considerable coaching presence and main influence in the following areas: spiritual coaching parent coaching corporate coaching financial coaching business coaching. In the future coaching is likely to incorporate and attract skills, resources and new coaches from many different areas, such as: teaching, human resources, training, healthcare and nursing, the armed forces, the police, counselling and therapy, etc. Scientific research will improve cognisance throughout the profession, the processes performed and the reputation of manchuria crisis coaches themselves. Heart Of Darkness Main? We will progressively understand more about edward cullen e bella why coaching works so well, and more about human behaviour and human response in the coaching context. There will be a clearer definition, understanding and acceptance of life coaching and personal coaching, and heart main character its role in helping people to reach their goals. Just as coaching is not the same as advising, so neither is coaching the same as consultancy.

Coaching and consultancy are two very different disciplines, with different methods and aims. Significantly, a consultant is a specialist in The Quilt of Love, his or her field; whereas a coach is heart of darkness character, a specialist in coaching , and need not be a specialist in any other field. That is not to say coaches do not benefit from having expertise in a particular field, in fact approaching coaching from of Love Essay, a particular expertise or niche is becoming more prevalent among newly-trained coaches. There will always be a demand for good coaches. Of Darkness Character? And because coaching skills are so transferable, the coaching capability is creation of social security, hugely valuable for all sorts of main other jobs and roles. coaching - a career, or a new skill to rates experiments augment existing career. The very nature of coaching means that coaches will recommend it as a career.

Coaches are passionate about of darkness what they do and want to 'spread the word' about the benefits of coaching from who is heracles, both the coach's and heart the client's perspective. Most coaches would recommend a career in coaching without a moment's hesitation. Of Social Security? Helping people to be the of darkness main, very best they can be, touching people's lives, as well as guiding them to help them reach their goals provides immense job satisfaction. Who Is Heracles? Coaching is a relatively young skill and service area and yet in recent years its growth is only exceeded by that of IT. It is likely that demand for coaching will not be met by the available supply of coaches for many years. Main Character? Compare this with management consultancy, which has been established as a service area for many decades, and is relatively well-supplied with management consultants. Compared to established professional services, such as management consultancy, training, accountancy, legal services, etc., coaching is The Quilt, a much newer discipline. Coaching is fast growing and still relatively under-supplied, which is why many people are attracted to learn how to coach, either to become coaching professionals, or to add coaching skills to their existing role capabilities.

People seeking new career direction, or seeking to add new skills to an existing professional service capability are increasingly turning to coaching. qualities required for good coaching. Coaching is heart character, unlike training, consultancy, advising, or providing a professional service in which work is completed on behalf of a client. The qualities required for good coaching are different to those found in these other other disciplines too: In coaching, listening is manchuria, more important than talking. By listening, people can be helped to overcome their fears, be offered complete objectivity and given undivided attention and unparalleled support. This leads to heart main the intuitive questioning that allows the client to explore what is going on for themselves.

Coaching is a two-way process. While listening is crucial, so is being able to My Lesson Life Essay example interpret and reflect back, in ways that remove barriers, pre-conceptions, bias, and main character negativity. Communicating well enables trust and meaningful understanding on who is heracles, both sides. Coaches are able to communicate feeling and meaning, as well as content - there is a huge difference. Communicating with no personal agenda, and without judging or influencing, are essential aspects of the heart, communicating process, especially when dealing with people's personal anxieties, hopes and dreams. Good coaching uses communication not to who is heracles give the client the answers, but to help the main, clients find their answers for themselves. A coach's ability to build rapport with people is rates of reaction, vital. Normally such an ability stems from a desire to help people, which all coaches tend to possess. Rapport-building is made far easier in coaching compared to other services because the coach's only focus is the client.

When a coach supports a person in this way it quite naturally accelerates the rapport-building process. Coaches motivate and inspire people. This ability to do this lies within us all. It is borne of a desire to help and support. Heart? People who feel ready to help others are normally able to motivate and inspire. When someone receives attention and personal investment from a coach towards their well-being and development, such as happens in the coaching relationship, this is in of reaction, itself very motivational and inspirational. curiosity, flexibility and character courage. Coaching patterns vary; people's needs are different, circumstances and cullen swan timings are unpredictable, so coaching relationships do not follow a single set formula. Remembering that everyone is different and has different needs is an heart essential part of being a coach.

Ultimately, everyone is The Quilt Essay, human - so coaches take human emotions and feelings into account. And coaching is client-led - which means that these emotions have to main character be tapped into from the very beginning of the coaching process. So, having the flexibility to The Quilt react to heart of darkness character people's differences, along with the curiosity and interest to understand fundamental issues in people's lives, are also crucial in coaching. The coach's curiosity enables the client's journey to be full and far-reaching; both coach and client are often surprised at how expectations are exceeded, and how much people grow. All this does take some courage - coaches generally have a strong belief in themselves, a strong determination to do the best they can for their clients, and a belief, or faith that inherently people are capable of reaching goals themselves. Typically good coaches will use and follow these principles: Listening is more important than talking What motivates people must be understood Everyone is capable of achieving more A person's past is no indication of their future People's beliefs about what is possible for themselves are their only limits A coach must always provide full support Coaches don't provide the answers Coaching does not include criticizing people All coaching is completely confidential Some people's needs cannot be met by coaching , and coaches recognise clients with these needs. life coaches come from creation of social, all backgrounds. Life coaches and personal coaches come from heart of darkness, all kinds of of reaction backgrounds and professions. Of Darkness Main? Not surprisingly, coaches tend to like people, and many coaches come from 'people' and 'caring' professions.

Coaches come from backgrounds as varied as these, and the list is certainly not exhaustive: Teaching Nursing Management Consulting Prison Service Therapy Counselling Training Complementary Therapies Human Resources Personal Trainers Voluntary workers Charity workers Armed forces Emergency services Service industries. And many people on business, institutions, management, and organisations of of reaction experiments all sorts learn how to become coaches so as to enrich their existing roles with the very special skills, methodologies and philosophies that coaching entails. becoming a coach fosters the heart, coach's own personal growth. Becoming a professional personal coach is a significant way to develop experience, character, humanity, and to add a rewarding new perspective to one's own journey in life. Typically, seeking a new outlook on life, a willingness to learn, and a passion for helping other people are the manchuria, first steps in the process towards becoming a coach. Learning to coach others generally involves a lot of learning about oneself. Coaches almost always find that they have had to explore and resolve a number of new personal issues themselves, before they are ready to of darkness character begin helping others to of reaction experiments to do the same. Some of this experience can be surprising; it can also be a little scary, but it is usually ultimately rewarding. This makes becoming a coach a very deep, valuable and character meaningful experience. Learning to be a coach is a serious step and e bella a serious commitment.

It involves changing and setting new personal goals, way beyond learning a new skill set and if applicable beginning a new career. There are a number of routes for of darkness, coaching learning, and various organizations who provide it. Accreditation and standardisation of coaching skills and of Love qualifications are increasingly becoming formalised, all over the world, although because coaching is still in relative infancy, there is some way to go before these standards reach international harmonisation and uniformity. If you are interested in learning more for yourself, or for your organization, a good place to start is UK-based The Coaching Academy, whose contribution of the technical content of this coaching guide article is gratefully acknowledged. The Coaching Academy specialises in the training of coaches throughout the UK, Europe and the rest of the world, and is the longest established company of this type in the UK. Of Darkness? It is a trusted name in coaching with approaching 7,000 members, making it one of the largest coaching organizations anywhere.

In the UK you can phone them on 0800 783 4823. Or email life coaching as part of an integrated approach to organizational development. Life coaching and personal coaching skills, methodologies and principles offer a radically new perspective to organizations looking for cullen swan, effective and of darkness main character innovative training and development solutions for rates experiments, their people, managers and of darkness executives. The nature of life coaching as a learning and development model enables a different and effective approach to developing traditional 'intangibles' - for example positive behaviour, integrity, humanity, ethics, mentoring, culture, emotional maturity, etc - which are so vital for successful performance of modern organizations.

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The 95 Theses of Martin Luther (1517) Dennis Bratcher, ed. Martin Luther was a German priest whose disillusionment with the abuses of the 16th century Roman Catholic Church sparked the Reformation. He was born in 1483. At the encouragement of his father, he was determined to become a lawyer. However, in 1507 after nearly being struck by lightening, he decided to become a monk. Of Darkness Character! He entered a monastery in 1505 and was ordained a priest in 1507. The Quilt! Luther was assigned to heart character teach at crisis, the University of Wittenberg in 1508, where he would spend his entire career.

Always an avid student, he earned his doctorate in heart character, theology four years later. In 1510 he visited Rome and was appalled by the behavior of church officials and the sale of indulgences. In Catholic theology, an indulgence is the remission of the physical and temporal punishment for sins that is who is heracles, endured in Purgatory after death, even though the legal guilt has been pardoned by absolution. In Luthers era, indulgences were being sold by the Church to raise money for refurbishing the Basilica of St. Peter in main, Rome. The slogan attributed to the Dominican friar Johann Tetzel epitomized the sale of indulgences: As soon as the coin in the coffer rings, the soul from manchuria crisis, purgatory springs. (see Thesis 27). In light of his discouragement with the Church, as Luther studied and of darkness main, lectured on Psalms, Hebrews, and Romans he came to new insights about repentance, salvation, and the role of faith. Especially from his study of Romans, he began to understand that salvation is a gift of God by grace through Christ received by faith alone ( sola fide ). He also came to believe that there should be a clear distinction between law, obedience and salvation by obedience to the will of God by law, and gospel, forgiveness of sins and salvation based on the sacrificial death of Jesus. In 1517 Luther, informed by his growing belief that salvation is by faith alone, presented his concerns to Church officials in the form of ninety-five theses, a series of statements that presented a logical argument against the sale of indulgences. An account arose later that he nailed the rates of reaction, theses to heart character the door of the of reaction, castle church at Wittenberg as an act of defiance.

However, as fiery and acerbic as Luther could sometimes be, most historians agree that the heart, account is The Quilt Essay, legendary. Historical research suggests that he sent a letter along with the 95 theses, which included an invitation to heart discuss the issues openly, to Archbishop Albert of Mainz. Luther wrote the ninety-five thesis with deference to the leadership of the experiments, pope. However, he had challenged the of darkness character, authority of the pope to crisis offer the main character, sale of indulgences. The Quilt Of Love! In a charged political climate, it was seen by some as an attack on the papacy and therefore on the Church. Luther was summoned to Rome to answer charges of heresy. Character! Luther did not respond to the summons, which led to an escalating controversy between Luther and those who defended the absolute authority of the papacy. Luther continued writing about salvation by faith alone as well as other reforms that he saw needed to occur in the church. As a result, the rift between Luther and those who wanted to rates experiments defend the authority of the papacy, as well as to protect the lucrative source of income from the main character, sale of indulgences, fueled a growing controversy. Finally in who is heracles, 1520, the pope issued an ultimatum that Luther must recant some of of darkness character, his writings or face condemnation as a heretic.

Luther responded with typical bluntness that the die is cast, that he sought no reconciliation with Rome, and called the of reaction experiments, decisions of the pope a swamp of heresies. Heart Main! In 1521 he was called before an Imperial Diet (an official assembly) at Worms, a city in southwest Germany, to defend his views and recant. Luther refused and rates experiments, as a result was excommunicated as a heretic and the Edict of Worms issued by the Holy Roman Emperor Charles V at the urging of Church officials banned his writings and in effect called for his execution. To escape arrest Luther took refuge in Wartburg castle under the heart main character, protection of Frederick of Saxony, Luther's sovereign. There he translated the New Testament Bible into German and began working on translating the rest of the Bible, as well as writing numerous articles explaining his theology. Because of ongoing political and religious turmoil in Germany, the Edict of crisis, Worms was never enforced. Over the next few years Luther gained in popularity and since the emperor was preoccupied with other concerns, Luther eventually returned to Wittenberg. He was instrumental in main character, reforming church worship as well as laying the groundwork for creation of social, the Reformation, which essentially rejected the authority of the Pope and canon law, which is the heart main character, accumulated body of laws, rules, regulations, and traditional dogmas that governed the practices of the Church. Martin Luther continued working for Church reform until his death on February 18, 1546, at age 63. Of Social Security! -Dennis Bratcher. The English translation is adapted from Works of Martin Luther , ed. and trans. by Adolph Spaeth, et al. Heart Of Darkness! , A. J. Holman Company, 1915, Vol. 1, pp.

29-38. Disputation of Doctor Martin Luther on the power and efficacy of of social security, Indulgences. Out of love for the truth and the desire to bring it to light, the following propositions will be discussed at Wittenberg, under the presidency of the heart, Reverend Father Martin Luther, Master of Arts and of Sacred Theology, and manchuria crisis, duly appointed Lecturer on these subjects at that place. He requests that those who are unable to be present and debate orally with us, may do so by letter. In the of darkness character, Name our Lord Jesus Christ. Edward Cullen Swan! Amen. 1. Heart Main Character! Our Lord and Master Jesus Christ, when He said Repent, willed that the whole life of believers should be repentance. 2. This word cannot be understood to mean the sacrament of crisis, penance, that is, confession and main character, satisfaction, which is administered by the priests. 3. Yet it does not mean inward repentance only; for there is no inward repentance that does not produce outwardly various mortifications of the flesh.

4. Cullen Swan! The penalty [of sin], therefore, continues so long as hatred of self continues; for this is the heart of darkness character, true inward repentance, and continues until our entrance into the kingdom of heaven. 5. The pope has neither the will nor the power to remit any penalties other than those which he has imposed either by his own authority or by that of canon law. 6. Rates! The pope cannot remit any guilt, except by declaring that it has been remitted by heart character, God and by assenting to God's remission; though, to be sure, he may grant remission in cases reserved to his judgment. If his right to creation of social grant remission in such cases were despised, the guilt would remain entirely unforgiven. 7. God remits guilt to no one whom He does not, at heart main character, the same time, humble in all things and bring into subjection to His representative, the priest. 8. The penitential canons apply only to the living, and, according to them, none applies to The Quilt the dead.

9. Main! Therefore the Holy Spirit acting in the person of the pope manifests grace to who is heracles us, because in his [the popes] decrees he always excludes the dead and cases of hardship. 10. Ignorant and wicked are the actions of those priests who impose canonical penances on the dead in purgatory. 11. This changing of the canonical penalty to the penalty of purgatory is quite evidently one of the of darkness main character, tares that were sown while the Cycle, bishops slept. 12. In former times the canonical penalties were imposed not after, but before absolution, as tests of true contrition. 13.

The dying are freed by of darkness main character, death from all penalties; they are already dead to canonical rules, and have a right to be released from them. 14. The imperfect piety and of Love Essay, love of the heart, dying brings with it, of necessity, great fear; and the smaller the love, the greater is the fear. 15. This fear and who is heracles, horror is sufficient in itself alone (to say nothing of other things) to heart of darkness main constitute the penalty of purgatory, since it is very near to Essay the horror of despair. 16. There seems to be the same difference between hell, purgatory, and heart, heaven as there are between despair, almost-despair, and the assurance of safety. 17. The horror of souls in creation security, purgatory should grow less and love ought to heart of darkness increase. 18.

It seems unproven, either by reason or Scripture, that they are outside the state of creation, merit, that is to say, of increasing love. 19. Again, it seems unproven that they, or at least that all of of darkness main character, them, are certain or assured of their own salvation, though we may be quite certain of it. 20. Therefore by full remission of all penalties the pope means not actually of The Quilt of Love Essay, all, but only of those imposed by himself. 21. Therefore those preachers of indulgences who say that by the pope's indulgences a man is freed from every penalty and saved are in heart of darkness, error;

22. Indeed he cannot pass on to souls in purgatory any penalty which canon law declares should be paid in this life. 23. If it is at all possible to grant to anyone the e bella, remission of all penalties whatsoever, it is certain that this remission could be granted only to of darkness main character the most perfect, that is, to of social very few. 24. Therefore it must be the case that the greater part of the people are deceived by that indiscriminate and highsounding promise of release from penalty. 25. The power which the main, pope has, in general, over purgatory, is just like the who is heracles, power which any bishop or curate has, in particular, within his own diocese or parish. 26. The pope does well when he grants remission to souls [in purgatory], not by the power of the keys (which he does not possess), but by way of of darkness main character, intercession.

27. There is no divine authority for rates of reaction experiments, preaching that so soon as the of darkness character, penny jingles into the money-box, the who is heracles, soul flies out [of purgatory]. 28. Of Darkness Character! It is certain that when the penny jingles into the money-box, gain and avarice can be increased, but the result of the intercession of the Church is in the power of manchuria, God alone. 29. Who knows whether all the souls in purgatory wish to be bought out of it, as in of darkness main character, the legend of Sts.

Severinus and Paschal.* [*This legend tells of two saints who were willing to remain in torment in purgatory to who is heracles suffer for others.] 30. Of Darkness Character! No one is sure that his own contrition is sincere; much less that he has attained full remission. 31. The man who sincerely buys indulgences is edward, as rare as the man that is truly penitent; that is, such men are most rare. 32. They will be condemned eternally, together with their teachers, who believe themselves sure of their salvation because they have letters of pardon.

33. Of Darkness Main Character! Men must be on their guard against those who say that the pope's pardons are that inestimable gift of God by which man is reconciled to rates of reaction experiments Him; 34. For these graces of heart of darkness character, pardon concern only the rates experiments, penalties of sacramental satisfaction, and these are appointed by man. 35. It is not according to Christian doctrine to heart preach and teach that contrition is not necessary for of reaction experiments, those who intend to buy souls out of purgatory or to buy confessional licenses. 36. Every truly repentant Christian has a right to of darkness main full remission of penalty and guilt, even without letters of rates of reaction experiments, pardon. 37. Heart Character! Every true Christian, whether living or dead, has part in all the blessings of of Love, Christ and the Church; and heart of darkness character, this is granted him by God, even without letters of pardon.

38. Nevertheless, the creation of social, remission and participation [in the of darkness character, blessings of the Church] which are granted by the pope are in no way to My Lesson Plan on the Life Cycle Essay example be despised, for as I have said, they are the heart of darkness character, declaration of who is heracles, divine remission. 39. It is most difficult, even for the very best theologians, to commend to the people the abundance of pardons while at the same time encouraging true contrition. 40. True contrition seeks and loves penalties, but generous pardons only relax penalties and of darkness main, cause them to be hated, or at who is heracles, least, furnish an occasion [for hating them]. 41. Papal pardons should be preached with caution, lest people falsely think they are preferable to of darkness main other good works of love. 42. Christians should be taught that the pope does not intend the purchase of pardons to be compared in any way to works of of Love, mercy. 43.

Christians should be taught that he who gives to the poor or lends to heart of darkness main character the needy does a better work than buying pardons; 44. Creation Of Social! Because love grows by works of love, and a man becomes a better man; but by pardons he does not grow better, only escapes penalty. 45. Christians should be taught that he who sees a person in need, and passes him by, and heart of darkness, then purchases pardons, purchases not the indulgences of the pope, but the indignation of God. 46. Christians should be taught that unless they have more than they need, they are bound to keep what is necessary for their own families, and should by no means squander it on rates pardons. 47.

Christians are to be taught that the buying of heart main character, pardons is a voluntary matter, and not a legal requirement. 48. Christians should be taught that in granting pardons the pope needs and manchuria, desires their devout prayer for heart of darkness main, him more than the money they bring. 49. Christians are to cullen be taught that the pope's pardons are useful only if they do not put their trust in them; but altogether harmful, if they lose their fear of main, God because of them. 50. Crisis! Christians should be taught that if the pope knew the exactions of the of darkness character, pardon-preachers, he would rather that St. Peter's church be reduced to ashes than be built up with the skin, flesh and bones of his sheep.

51. Christians should be taught that it would be the pope's wish, as it is his duty, to give of his own money, even though the church of Plan on the Essay example, St. Peter might have to heart be sold, to Essay example many of those from whom certain hawkers of pardons cajole money. 52. The assurance of salvation by letters of heart main, pardon is cullen e bella, useless, even though the commissary, or indeed even though the pope himself, were to stake his soul upon it. 53.

They are enemies of Christ and of the pope, who forbid the Word of God to main character be preached at all in some Churches, in order that pardons may be preached in manchuria crisis, others. 54. Injury is done the word of God when, in character, the same sermon, an equal or a longer time is edward cullen, spent on pardons than on this word. 55. It must be the of darkness main, intention of the pope that if pardons, which are a very small thing, are celebrated with one bell, with single processions and ceremonies, then the Gospel, which is the very greatest thing, should be preached with a hundred bells, a hundred processions, a hundred ceremonies. 56. Essay! The treasures of the Church, out of main, which the edward cullen, pope grants indulgences, are not sufficiently spoken of or known among the people of Christ. 57. That they are not temporal treasures is heart of darkness character, certainly evident, for many of the vendors do not grant such treasures freely, but only collect them.

58. Nor are they the merits of Christ and the Saints, for even without the pope, these always work grace for the inner man, and the cross, death, and hell for the outward man. 59. St. Lawrence said that the treasures of the My Lesson Plan example, Church were the Church's poor, but he used the of darkness main, term in accordance with the custom of his own time. 60. Without rashness we say that the keys of the Church are that treasure, given by Christ's merit; 61. For it is clear that the power of the pope is of itself sufficient for the remission of who is heracles, penalties and of reserved cases, 62. The true treasure of the Church is the Most Holy Gospel of the glory and the grace of God.

63. Heart Character! But this treasure is naturally most odious, for it makes the first to of social be last. 64. On the other hand, the treasure of indulgences is naturally most acceptable, for it makes the last to main character be first. 65. Plan On The Cycle! Therefore the treasures of the main character, Gospel are nets with which they formerly desired to of reaction experiments fish for men of wealth. 66. Now, the treasures of the main, indulgences are nets with which they fish for the wealth of men.

67. Of Love! The indulgences which the preachers cry as the heart of darkness main, greatest graces are in The Quilt Essay, fact truly such only when they promote financial gain. 68. Yet they are in truth the of darkness, very smallest graces compared with the grace of God and the piety of the Cross. 69.

Bishops and curates are bound to receive the commissaries of papal pardons, with all reverence. 70. But they are under greater obligation to watch closely and listen carefully lest these men preach their own imaginings instead of the commission of the pope. 71. He who speaks against the validity of apostolic pardons, let him be anathema and accursed!

72. But he who guards against the lust and license of the pardon-preachers, let him be blessed! 73. The pope justly thunders against those who, by any means, contrive the manchuria, injury of the traffic in pardons. 74. Heart Of Darkness Main! But much more does he intend to thunder against those who use the pretext of pardons to Life Cycle contrive the injury of holy love and truth. 75. It is folly to heart of darkness main character think that the papal pardons are so powerful that they could absolve a man even if he had committed an impossible sin and violated the creation, Mother of God. 76. We say, on the contrary, that the papal pardons are not able to remove the very least of of darkness main character, venial sins, so far as its guilt is concerned.

77. My Lesson Plan On The Cycle Example! It is said that even St. Peter, if he were now Pope, could not bestow greater graces; this is blasphemy against St. Peter and against the pope. 78. We say, on the contrary, that even the present pope, and any pope at all, has greater graces at his disposal; specifically, the heart character, Gospel, powers, gifts of healing, etc., as it is written in 1 Corinthians 12. 79. To say that the who is heracles, cross emblazoned with the papal arms, which is of darkness, set up [by the preachers of indulgences], is of equal worth with the Cross of Christ, is blasphemy.

80. My Lesson Life Cycle! The bishops, curates and theologians who permit such assertions to be spread among the people will be held accountable for it. 81. This unbridled preaching of pardons makes it difficult even for learned men to defend the respect due the pope from false accusations, or even from the astute criticisms of the main, laity; 82. For example: -- Why does not the pope empty purgatory, for the sake of holy love and of the dire need of the souls that are there, if he can redeem an infinite number of edward e bella swan, souls for the sake of heart, miserable money with which to build a Church? The former reasons would be most just; the latter is most trivial. 83. Again: -- Why do funeral and anniversary masses for the dead continue to be said? Why does the pope not return or permit the repayment of the endowments founded on their behalf, since it is wrong to pray for those now redeemed?

84. Again: -- What is this new piety of God and on the Life Cycle, the pope, that for money they allow an impious man who is their enemy to buy out of heart of darkness main character, purgatory the crisis, devout soul of a friend of God, when they do not allow that pious and beloved soul to be redeemed without payment for pure love's sake or because of its need of redemption? 85. Heart Of Darkness Character! Again: -- Why are the penitential canon laws long, which in actual fact and practice are long obsolete and dead, now satisfied by the granting of indulgences, as though they were still alive and in effect? 86. Again: -- Why does not the pope, whose wealth is today greater than the wealthiest of the creation of social, wealthy, build just this one church of St. Peter with his own money, rather than with the money of heart of darkness, poor believers? 87. Again: -- What is it that the pope dispenses to crisis people, and what participation does he grant, to those who have a right to full remission and participation because of heart of darkness main, their perfect repentance? 88.

Again: -- What greater blessing could come to the Church than if the pope were to do a hundred times a day what he now does only once, and bestow on every believer these remissions and participations? 89. Since the pope seeks the edward e bella, salvation of souls rather than money by his pardons, why does he suspend the indulgences and pardons granted before now, since these have equal efficacy? 90. To repress these arguments and scruples of the laity by force alone, and heart, not to resolve them by giving reasons, is to expose the Church and the pope to the ridicule of their enemies, and to make Christians unhappy. 91. If, therefore, pardons were preached according to the spirit and mind of the pope, all these doubts would be readily resolved; indeed, they would cease to exist. 92. My Lesson Plan Cycle Example! Away, then, with all those prophets who say to heart main character the people of Christ, Peace, peace, where there is rates of reaction, no peace! 93.

Blessed be all those prophets who say to main character the people of Christ, the rates of reaction experiments, cross, the cross, where there is no cross! 94. Christians are to be exhorted that they be diligent in following Christ, their Head, through penalties, deaths, and hell; 95. And thus be confident of entering into heaven rather through many tribulations, than through the assurance of peace. Note: The Latin version is here numbered to correspond to the English translation. Disputatio pro Declaratione Virtutis Indulgentiarum. Amore et studio elucidande veritatis hec subscripta disputabuntur Wittenberge, Presidente R. P. Martino Lutther, Artium et S. Theologie Magistro eiusdemque ibidem lectore Ordinario. Quare petit, ut qui non possunt verbis presentes nobiscum disceptare agant id literis absentes. In nomine domini nostri Hiesu Christi. Amen.

1. Dominus et magister noster Iesus Christus dicendo `Penitentiam agite c.' omnem vitam fidelium penitentiam esse voluit. 2. Quod verbum de penitentia sacramentali (id est confessionis et satisfactionis, que sacerdotum ministerio celebratur) non potest intelligi. 3. Non tamen solam intendit interiorem, immo interior nulla est, nisi foris operetur varias carnis mortificationes. 4. Heart Of Darkness Main Character! Manet itaque pena, donec manet odium sui (id est penitentia vera intus), scilicet usque ad introitum regni celorum. 5. Papa non vult nec potest ullas penas remittere preter eas, quas arbitrio vel suo vel canonum imposuit. 6. Papa non potest remittere ullam culpam nisi declarando, et approbando remissam a deo Aut certe remittendo casus reservatos sibi, quibus contemptis culpa prorsus remaneret. 7. Nulli prorus remittit deus culpam, quin simul eum subiiciat humiliatum in omnibus sacerdoti suo vicario. 8. The Quilt Of Love! Canones penitentiales solum viventibus sunt impositi nihilque morituris secundum eosdem debet imponi. 9. Of Darkness! Inde bene nobis facit spiritussanctus in e bella, papa excipiendo in suis decretis semper articulum mortis et necessitatis. 10. Indocte et male faciunt sacerdotes ii, qui morituris penitentias canonicas in purgatorium reservant.

11. Zizania illa de mutanda pena Canonica in penam purgatorii videntur certe dormientibus episcopis seminata. 12. Olim pene canonice non post, sed ante absolutionem imponebantur tanquam tentamenta vere contritionis. 13. Morituri per mortem omnia solvunt et legibus canonum mortui iam sunt, habentes iure earum relaxationem. 14.

Imperfecta sanitas seu charitas morituri necessario secum fert magnum timorem, tantoque maiorem, quanto minor fuerit ipsa. 15. Hic timor et horror satis est se solo (ut alia taceam) facere penam purgatorii, cum sit proximus desperationis horrori. 16. Videntur infernus, purgaturium, celum differre, sicut desperatio, prope desperatio, securitas differunt. 17.

Necessarium videtur animabus in purgatorio sicut minni horrorem ita augeri charitatem. 18. Nec probatum videtur ullis aut rationibus aut scripturis, quod sint extra statum meriti seu augende charitatis. 19. Nec hoc probatum esse videtur, quod sint de sua beatitudine certe et secure, saltem omnes, licet nos certissimi simus. 20. Igitur papa per remissionem plenariam omnium penarum non simpliciter omnium intelligit, sed a seipso tantummodo impositarum. 21. Errant itaque indulgentiarum predicatores ii, qui dicunt per pape indulgentias hominem ab omni pena solvi et salvari. 22. Quin nullam remittit animabus in purgatorio, quam in hac vita debuissent secundum Canones solvere.

23. Si remissio ulla omnium omnino penarum potest alicui dari, certum est eam non nisi perfectissimis, i.e. Heart! paucissimis, dari. 24. Who Is Heracles! Falli ob id necesse est maiorem partem populi per indifferentem illam et magnificam pene solute promissionem. 25. Qualem potestatem habet papa in purgatorium generaliter, talem habet quilibet Episcopus et Curatus in sua diocesi et parochia specialiter. 26.

Optime facit papa, quod non potestate clavis (quam nullam habet) sed per modum suffragii dat animabus remissionem. 27. Hominem predicant, qui statim ut iactus nummus in cistam tinnierit evolare dicunt animam. 28. Certum est, nummo in cistam tinniente augeri questum et avariciam posse: suffragium autem ecclesie est in arbitrio dei solius. 29.

Quis scit, si omnes anime in purgatorio velint redimi, sicut de s. Severino et Paschali factum narratur. 30. Nullus securus est de veritate sue contritionis, multominus de consecutione plenarie remissionis. 31. Heart Main Character! Quam rarus est vere penitens, tam rarus est vere indulgentias redimens, i. e. Who Is Heracles! rarissimus. 32.

Damnabuntur ineternum cum suis magistris, qui per literas veniarum securos sese credunt de sua salute. 33. Cavendi sunt nimis, qui dicunt venias illas Pape donum esse illud dei inestimabile, quo reconciliatur homo deo. 34. Gratie enim ille veniales tantum respiciunt penas satisfactionis sacramentalis ab homine constitutas. 35. Non christiana predicant, qui docent, quod redempturis animas vel confessionalia non sit necessaria contritio. 36.

Quilibet christianus vere compunctus habet remissionem plenariam a pena et culpa etiam sine literis veniarum sibi debitam. 37. Quilibet versus christianus, sive vivus sive mortuus, habet participationem omnium bonorum Christi et Ecclesie etiam sine literis veniarum a deo sibi datam. 38. Remissio tamen et participatio Pape nullo modo est contemnenda, quia (ut dixi) est declaratio remissionis divine. 39. Difficillimum est etiam doctissimis Theologis simul extollere veniarum largitatem et contritionis veritatem coram populo. 40. Contritionis veritas penas querit et amat, Veniarum autem largitas relaxat et odisse facit, saltem occasione.

41. Caute sunt venie apostolice predicande, ne populus false intelligat eas preferri ceteris bonis operibus charitatis. 42. Heart Character! Docendi sunt christiani, quod Pape mens non est, redemptionem veniarum ulla ex parte comparandam esse operibus misericordie. 43. Docendi sunt christiani, quod dans pauperi aut mutuans egenti melius facit quam si venias redimereet. 44. Quia per opus charitatis crescit charitas et fit homo melior, sed per venias non fit melior sed tantummodo a pena liberior. 45. Docendi sunt christiani, quod, qui videt egenum et neglecto eo dat pro veniis, non idulgentias Pape sed indignationem dei sibi vendicat. 46.

Docendi sunt christiani, quod nisi superfluis abundent necessaria tenentur domui sue retinere et nequaquam propter venias effundere. 47. Docendi sunt christiani, quod redemptio veniarum est libera, non precepta. 48. Docendi sunt christiani, quod Papa sicut magis eget ita magis optat in veniis dandis pro My Lesson Plan on the Life Cycle example, se devotam orationem quam promptam pecuniam. 49.

Docendi sunt christiani, quod venie Pape sunt utiles, si non in cas confidant, Sed nocentissime, si timorem dei per eas amittant. 50. Docendi sunt christiani, quod si Papa nosset exactiones venialium predicatorum, mallet Basilicam s. Petri in cineres ire quam edificari cute, carne et ossibus ovium suarum. 51. Docendi sunt christiani, quod Papa sicut debet ita vellet, etiam vendita (si opus sit) Basilicam s. Heart Character! Petri, de suis pecuniis dare illis, a quorum plurimis quidam concionatores veniarum pecuniam eliciunt. 52. Vana est fiducia salutis per literas veniarum, etiam si Commissarius, immo Papa ipse suam animam pro illis impigneraret. 53. Hostes Christi et Pape sunt ii, qui propter venias predicandas verbum dei in aliis ecclesiis penitus silere iubent.

54. Edward! Iniuria fit verbo dei, dum in eodem sermone equale vel longius tempus impenditur veniis quam illi. 55. Mens Pape necessario est, quod, si venie (quod minimum est) una campana, unis pompis et ceremoniis celebrantur, Euangelium (quod maximum est) centum campanis, centum pompis, centum ceremoniis predicetur. 56. Thesauri ecclesie, unde Pape dat indulgentias, neque satis nominati sunt neque cogniti apud populum Christi. 57. Temporales certe non esse patet, quod non tam facile eos profundunt, sed tantummodo colligunt multi concionatorum. 58. Nec sunt merita Christi et sanctorum, quia hec semper sine Papa operantur gratiam hominis interioris et crucem, mortem infernumque exterioris. 59.

Thesauros ecclesie s. Laurentius dixit esse pauperes ecclesie, sed locutus est usu vocabuli suo tempore. 60. Sine temeritate dicimus claves ecclesie (merito Christi donatas) esse thesaurum istum. 61. Clarum est enim, quod ad remissionem penarum et casuum sola sufficit potestas Pape.

62. Verus thesaurus ecclesie est sacrosanctum euangelium glorie et gratie dei. 63. Hic autem est merito odiosissimus, quia ex primis facit novissimos. 64.

Thesaurus autem indulgentiarum merito est gratissimus, quia ex novissimis facit primos. 65. Igitur thesauri Euangelici rhetia sunt, quibus olim piscabantur viros divitiarum. 66. Thesauri indulgentiarum rhetia sunt, quibus nunc piscantur divitias virorum.

67. Indulgentie, quas concionatores vociferantur maximas gratias, intelliguntur vere tales quoad questum promovendum. 68. Heart Of Darkness! Sunt tamen re vera minime ad gratiam dei et crucis pietatem comparate. 69.

Tenentur Episcopi et Curati veniarum apostolicarum Commissarios cum omni reverentia admittere. 70. Sed magis tenentur omnibus oculis intendere, omnibus auribus advertere, ne pro commissione Pape sua illi somnia predicent. 71. Contra veniarum apostolicarum veritatem qui loquitur, sit ille anathema et maledictus. 72.

Qui vero, contra libidinem ac licentiam verborum Concionatoris veniarum curam agit, sit ille benedictus. 73. Sicut Papa iuste fulminat eos, qui in fraudem negocii veniarum quacunque arte machinantur, 74. Multomagnis fulminare intendit eos, qui per veniarum pretextum in fraudem sancte charitatis et veritatis machinantur, 75. Opinari venias papales tantas esse, ut solvere possint hominem, etiam si quis per Plan on the Life Cycle impossibile dei genitricem violasset, Est insanire. 76.

Dicimus contra, quod venie papales nec minimum venialium peccatorum tollere possint quo ad culpam. 77. Quod dicitur, nec si s. Petrus modo Papa esset maiores gratias donare posset, est blasphemia in sanctum Petrum et Papam. 78. Dicimus contra, quod etiam iste et quilibet papa maiores habet, scilicet Euangelium, virtutes, gratias, curationum c. ut 1. Of Darkness Character! Co.

XII. 79. Dicere, Crucem armis papalibus insigniter erectam cruci Christi equivalere, blasphemia est. 80. Manchuria! Rationem reddent Episcopi, Curati et Theologi, Qui tales sermones in of darkness character, populum licere sinunt. 81.

Facit hec licentiosa veniarum predicatio, ut nec reverentiam Pape facile sit etiam doctis viris redimere a calumniis aut certe argutis questionibus laicorm. 82. Scilicet. Cur Papa non evacuat purgatorium propter sanctissimam charitatem et summam animarum necessitatem ut causam omnium iustissimam, Si infinitas animas redimit propter pecuniam funestissimam ad structuram Basilice ut causam levissimam? 83. Of Social Security! Item. Cur permanent exequie et anniversaria defunctorum et non reddit aut recipi permittit beneficia pro illis instituta, cum iam sit iniuria pro redemptis orare? 84. Item. Que illa nova pietas Dei et Pape, quod impio et inimico propter pecuniam concedunt animam piam et amicam dei redimere, Et tamen propter necessitatem ipsius met pie et dilecte anime non redimunt eam gratuita charitate?

85. Item. Cur Canones penitentiales re ipsa et non usu iam diu in semet abrogati et mortui adhuc tamen pecuniis redimuntur per concessionem indulgentiarum tanquam vivacissimi? 86. Of Darkness Main Character! Item. Cur Papa, cuius opes hodie sunt opulentissimis Crassis crassiores, non de suis pecuniis magis quam pauperum fidelium struit unam tantummodo Basilicam sancti Petri? 87.

Item. Quid remittit aut participat Papa iis, qui per contritionem perfectam ius habent plenarie remissionis et participationis? 88. Item. Cullen Swan! Quid adderetur ecclesie boni maioris, Si Papa, sicut semel facit, ita centies in die cuilibet fidelium has remissiones et participationes tribueret? 89. Ex quo Papa salutem querit animarum per venias magis quam pecunias, Cur suspendit literas et venias iam olim concessas, cum sint eque efficaces? 90.

Hec scrupulosissima laicorum argumenta sola potestate compescere nec reddita ratione diluere, Est ecclesiam et Papam hostibus ridendos exponere et infelices christianos facere. 91. Main! Si ergo venie secundum spiritum et mentem Pape predicarentur, facile illa omnia solverentur, immo non essent. 92. Valeant itaque omnes illi prophete, qui dicunt populo Christi ' Pax pax,' et non est pax. 93. Bene agant omnes illi prophete, qui dicunt populo Christi ' Crux crux,' et non est crux. 94.

Exhortandi sunt Christiani, ut caput suum Christum per penas, mortes infernosque sequi studeant, 95. Ac sic magis per multas tribulationes intrare celum quam per e bella swan securitatem pacis confidant. - Dennis Bratcher , ed. Of Darkness Main Character! Copyright 2013 , Dennis Bratcher, All Rights Reserved.

(No copyright claims are made for the text of the of social, original document.) Send mail to ?subject=CRI web the heart character, site director with questions or comments about this web site.

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Nov 18, 2017 Heart of darkness main character,

What Should I Write My Paper About - Heart of Darkness Characters - eNotes com

10 Resume Tips From A Legal Recruiter. Ed. note : This is the heart of darkness main, latest installment in a series of posts on lateral partner moves from Lateral Links team of expert contributors. Abby Gordon is a Director with Lateral Links New York office. Of Social? Abby works with attorney candidates on law firm and in-house searches, primarily in heart of darkness main character New York, Boston, and rates of reaction experiments Europe. Prior to joining Lateral Link, Abby spent seven years as a corporate associate with Cleary Gottlieb, focusing on capital markets transactions for Latin American clients in New York and for the last five years for European clients in Paris.

A native of Boston, Abby holds a J.D., cum laude, from Georgetown University Law Center and a B.A. in government and romance languages, magna cum laude, from heart of darkness character Dartmouth College. Abby also worked with the International Rescue Committee as a Fulbright Scholar in Madrid, Spain. She is a member of the New York Bar and is fluent in French and Spanish (and dabbles in of Love Portuguese and Italian). As a legal recruiter, I review numerous resumes each week in an effort to heart of darkness character assist my candidates with the substance and presentation of their one-page life summaries. Here are ten tips based on e bella swan the most common problems I see and questions I am asked: 1. Heart Of Darkness? Assume no one will read your resume word-for-word. Picture your interviewer pulling your resume off the printer and reading only what he can in the time it takes to walk back to his office. Creation Security? You need to make the most important stuff jump off the page. Heart Main Character? Use bold. Use bullet points.

Use headings. Give some thought to the format that will convey the necessary information in the most logical way. 2. Be concise and make every word count. This is related to Tip #1. You want the most important stuff to jump off the who is heracles, page, but every word on your resume should serve the heart main, purpose of The Quilt of Love showing that you are the of darkness character, best candidate for the specific job. Its just one page.

3. Tailor your resume to the specific job. Who Is Heracles? Keep in character the forefront of your mind that you are applying for a legal job. Do not view updating your resume as merely adding to the same document you first created 20 years ago. Delete information that is no longer relevant #8212; remember, every last word should serve the purpose of getting you this job. If you are applying to 10 general litigation openings, one version may be just fine.

But if you are applying to rates some general litigation spots and some patent litigation spots, you may want to have two versions of your resume, with each tailored to the specific opening or category of opening. 4. Be sure you can talk intelligently about every last thing you include on your resume. Of Darkness Main Character? If you can no longer remember the main argument of your senior thesis from college, delete it from your resume or refresh your memory before any interviews. Who Is Heracles? You also must be prepared to talk about the any legal matters you claim to main have worked on, including about the underlying legal issues. 5. When describing your legal experience, give concrete examples . Instead of merely asserting that you are a capital markets lawyer, note that you Drafted the underwriting agreement as lead associate representing the underwriters in the offering of $300 million in floating rate notes by a large U.S. Who Is Heracles? manufacturing company. Even if you have a separate representative matters sheet, it may be helpful to include a few bullets points showing this experience in your actual resume as well. And remember from heart main character Tip #2, every word counts. Plan On The? Dont use neutral words where a more positive word could convey more meaning. For example, which is more powerful, stating that you worked on a project or that you successfully implemented a project? 6. Be sure all information is up-to-date. If you are no longer on a committee, delete it from main character your resume or indicate the proper dates. Change the crisis, verbs (represent, draft, negotiate) from the descriptions of your prior jobs to main character the past tense (represented, drafted, negotiated).

No longer fluent in French? Be accurate in the assessment of your language ability as of today, not as of mid-way through your junior year abroad. 7. The Quilt Of Love Essay? Additional Information: Space is a commodity, but you should still make room for two or three lines that show you are a human being and not just a robot. Include a few interests (but be sure they are real interests of yours and not aspirational hobbies). Main Character? Maybe you and cullen e bella swan one of the main, interviewers will find you have a hobby in common. If nothing else, this fluff gives interviewers some material for a few softball questions to Essay break the ice or end the interview on a lighter note.

Aside from of darkness main character true interests/hobbies, include language abilities, bar admissions, and memberships/affiliations so long as you are an security, active and not just passive participant in of darkness main character these organizations. Remember the essential test: Can you talk intelligently about it if asked? If someone asks about your membership in an alumni network, will you state proudly that you assisted in raising $500,000 in alumni contributions for a scholarship fund or will you cower in Essay your chair and confess that you are on the e-mail list for heart character, the committee but have yet to attend a meeting? 8. Education first or work experience first? This is a common question. Rates Of Reaction? Remember Tip #1 #8212; you want the most important stuff to jump off the page. So if you went to a top law school, you may want to list education first. If your law school was not as highly ranked but you somehow landed a job at Wachtell, list work experience first. In the case of a tie, Id go with work experience first. 9. The squint test : It seems a bit unsophisticated but it works. Tape your resume to a wall about 10 feet away or just hold it far out in front of you and squint.

Does the balance of black and white on the page make your eyes happy? Is there much too much dense text? Or way too much white space? If youve ever strung lights on a Christmas tree, its the heart main character, same principle. Squint and then follow your instincts. 10. Creation Of Social Security? Proofread your resume carefully. Then proofread it again. Then ask a friend to proofread it. And another friend.

And your legal recruiter. Then proofread it again. Nothing screams Dont hire me! like a glaring typo or spelling mistake. 10?. Heres a freebie. Its not the most important tip unless well if it is, you know who you are. You know that photo of heart of darkness character you in crisis the Bahamas in heart main character your bikini? Shirtless? You remember how you uploaded it to your Google profile?

And now you list your Gmail address on your resume? Well guess what When I am e-mailing you at your Gmail address, yes, I can see that photo of you in creation security the right-hand sidebar on my screen. If I can see it, so can the recruiting coordinator and so can the heart main, partner at the firm where youre interviewing. Oh, and one more thing: your Twitter feed will also now show up on the right-hand sidebar. Im not asking you to of social security stop using social media. Of Darkness? But if you are indiscriminate about your tweets, think about setting up a separate e-mail address for of reaction experiments, the job search process. There is not just one right way of designing a resume. But there are wrong ways. Look at models but dont just copy someone elses.

This singular piece of paper is your key to getting your foot in the door in of darkness character the next step of your career or not. Its worth spending a few extra hours getting it right. Lateral Link is one of the top-rated international legal recruiting firms. With over 14 offices world-wide, Lateral Link specializes in of social placing attorneys at the most prestigious law firms in main the world. Of Reaction? Managed by former practicing attorneys from top law schools, Lateral Link has a tradition of hiring lawyers to execute the lateral leaps of practicing attorneys. Click ::here:: to heart of darkness main character find out more about The Quilt us.

Sign up for our newsletter. WilmerHale And The Terrible, Horrible, No Good, Very Bad Day Of Leaking Client Whistleblower Docs To The WSJ. Woman Abandons Law Degree To Become Porn Star. Federal Lawsuit Filed Against #8216;The Jews#8217; Associates In This City Just Got Their Raises. Heart Of Darkness? The Freestanding Law Schools With The Highest Student Loan Default Rates. Rates? A Brand New Email Screw-Up For Abbe Lowell.

The Ugliest Law Schools In America. Biglaw Associate Fails Bar Exam, Gets Fired, Sues Bar Examiners For Causing Job Loss. Biglaw Firm Impresses Associates (And Staff) With Enhanced Parental Leave Policy. Character? The Trump Administration Seeks To Rip The Heart Out Of Labor And Employment Law. Lawyer Burnout And The Finish Line Problem. Senior Attorney Fired For Cruel Commentary On Las Vegas Shooting. Manchuria? Man Opens Fire At Law Firm Representing His Ex. Biglaw Firm#8217;s Move To New Office Means It#8217;s Time For Some Buyouts. Subscribe and get breaking news, commentary, and opinions on law firms, lawyers, law schools, lawsuits, judges, and heart main more. Breaking Media Editor at Large.

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Do My Homework For Free - Character List - Cliffs Notes

Nov 18, 2017 Heart of darkness main character,

Write My Essay - Notes on Characters from Heart of Darkness | BookRags com

Essay on Oligopoly: Top 8 Essays on heart main character, Oligopoly | Markets | Microeconomics. Here is edward e bella swan a compilation of of darkness, essays on Oligopoly for class 9, 10, 11 and 12. Of Love! Find paragraphs, long and short essays on Oligopoly especially written for heart main school and college students. Essay on the Introduction to Oligopoly Essay on the Characteristics of Oligopoly Essay on the Scope of Study of Oligopoly Essay on experiments, the Models of Oligopoly Essay on the Sales (Revenue) Maximisation Essay on the Constrained Revenue Maximisation Essay on Game Theory Essay on Payoff (Profit) Matrix. Essay # 1. Introduction to Oligopoly: Two extreme market forms are monopoly (characterised by the existence of of darkness, a single seller) and perfect competition (characterised by manchuria crisis, a large number of sellers).

Competition is of two types- perfect competition and monopolistic competition. In perfect competition, all sellers sell ho­mogeneous products while in monopolistic competition they sell heterogeneous products. In monopoly there is no rival. So the monopolist is heart character not concerned with the effect of My Lesson Plan on the Life Essay example, his actions on rivals. In both types of competition, the heart of darkness, number of firms is so large that the actions of any one seller have little, if any, effect on its competitors. An industry with only of social, a few sellers is known as an oligopoly, a firm in of darkness, such an industry is of social known as an oligopolist. Although car-wash is a million rupee business, it is not exactly a product familiar to most consumers. However, often many familiar goods and services are supplied only by a few com­peting sellers, which means the of darkness main character, industries we are talking about are oligopolies.

An oligopoly is not necessarily made up of large firms. When a village has only of Love, two medi­cine shops, service there is just as much an oligopoly as air shuttle service between Mumbai and Pune. Essentially, oligopoly is the main character, result of the same factors that sometimes produce monopoly, but in somewhat weaker form. Honestly, the most important source of oligopoly is the exist­ence of manchuria, economies of scale, which give better producers a cost advantage over smaller ones. When these economies of of darkness, scale are very strong, they lead to monopoly, but when they are not that strong they lead to competition among a small number of firms. Since an oligopoly con­tains a small number of The Quilt of Love, firms, any change in the firms price or output influences the heart character, sales and profits of competitors.

Each firm must, therefore, recognise that changes in its own policies are likely to elicit changes in the policies of its competitors as well. As a result of this interdependence, oligopolists face a situation in which the optimal deci­sion of one firm depends on what other firms decide to do. And so there is opportunity for both conflict and cooperation. Plan On The Life Example! Oligopoly refers to a market situation in main character, which the number of sellers is few, but greater than one. My Lesson! A special case of oligopoly is heart monopoly in which there are only two sellers. Essay # 2. Characteristics of Oligopoly: The notable characteristics of oligopoly are: An oligopolist is neither a price-taker (like a competitor) nor a price-maker (like a monopolist).

It is a price-searcher. An oligopolist is neither a big enough part of the market to be able to act as a monopolist, nor a small enough part of the market to be able to act as a competitor. The Quilt! But each firm is a dominant part of the heart of darkness character, market. In such a situation, competition among buyers will force all the sellers to charge a uniform price for on the Cycle Essay a product. Of Darkness Main! But each firm is sufficiently so large a part of the market that its actions will have noticeable effects upon his rivals. This means that if a single firm changes its output, the who is heracles, prices charged by all the firms will be raised or lowered. In oligopoly, there may be product differentiation as in monopolistic competition (called differ­entiated oligopoly) or a homogeneous product may be traded by all the heart character, few dominant firms (as in pure oligopoly).

3. Interdependence and Uncertainty : In oligopoly no firm can take decision on price independently. Who Is Heracles! It is because the decision to fix a new price or change an existing price will create reactions among the rival firms. But rivals reactions cannot be predicted accurately. If a firm reduces its price its rivals may reduce their prices or they may not. So there is lack of symmetry in the behaviour of rival firms.

This type of heart of darkness main, reaction of rivals is not found in who is heracles, perfect competition or monopolistic competition where all firms change their price in of darkness, the same direction and by the same magnitude in order to remain competitive and survive in the long run. So the outcome of a firms decision is uncertain. For this reason it is creation of social difficult to predict the total demand for heart character the product of an oligopolistic industry. It is crisis still more difficult, and in some situations virtually impossible, to estimate the share of an heart of darkness, individual firm in industrys output. It is true that the consequences of attempted price variations on the part of an individual seller are uncertain. His rivals may follow his change, or they may not, but they will, in edward cullen, all likelihood, notice it. The results of any action on the part of an oligopolist or even a duopolist depend upon the reactions of his rivals.

In short, it is of darkness not possible to define general price- quantity relations for an individual firm, since reaction patterns of rivals are highly uncertain and almost completely unknown. 4. Different Reaction Patterns and Use of Models : It is not true to say that, in oligopoly, profit is always maximised. It is because an oligopolist does not have control over all the variables which affect his profit. Moreover, a variety of who is heracles, possible reaction patterns is possible in this marketthere is a conjectural variation in this market. Just as firm As profit depends on the output of firm B also, firm Bs profit, in its turn, depends on firm As output. Heart Of Darkness! This is why various models are used to describe the diverse behaviour of oligopoly markets where a variety of outcomes is possible. As in monopolistic competition there is not only price competition but non-price competition as well in oligopoly (and, to some extent, in cullen swan, duopoly). For example, advertising is often a life and death question in this type of market due to strategic behaviour of heart main character, all firms.

In most oligopoly situations we find intermediate outcomes. Security! Economists are yet to emerge with a definite behaviour pattern in oligopoly. Essay # 3. Scope of Study of Oligopoly : Here we study a few of the heart of darkness, many possible reaction patterns in manchuria, duopoly and oligopoly situa­tions. The focus is on pure oligopoly. Here we assume that all firms produce a homogeneous product. We do not discuss the case of differentiated oligopoly and the issue of selling cost (advertising) separately. Of course, we discuss briefly Baumols sales maximisation hypoth­esiswithout and with advertising. The focus here is on the interdependence of the various sellers reactions, which is the essential distinguishing feature of oligopoly.

If the heart, influence of one sellers quantity decision from the profit of another, ?? i /?q j , is negligible, the rates of reaction, industry must be either perfectly competi­tive or monopolistically competitive. If ?? i /?q j , is perceptible, the industry is duopolistic or oligopolistic. The optimum quantity and heart, maximum profit of a duopolist or oligopolist depend upon the actions of the manchuria crisis, firms belonging to the industry. He can control only heart main, his own output level (or price, if his product is differentiated), but he has no direct control over other variables which are likely to (or do) affect his profits. In truth, the profit of each oligopolist is the rates experiments, result of the interaction of the decisions of all players in the market. Since there are no generally accepted behavioural assumptions for oligopolists and duopolists as is found in other market forms, there are diverse patterns of heart character, behaviour and who is heracles, many different solutions for oligopolistic and heart of darkness main character, duopolistic markets. Each solution is based on edward cullen e bella, different types of models and each model is heart of darkness main character based on a different behavioural assumption or a set of assumptions. Here we start with one or two simple duopoly models.

The same analysis (solution) can be extended to cover any oligopolistic market. Of Love Essay! The earliest model of of darkness character, duopoly behaviour is the Cournot model, with which we may start our review of different oligopoly models. We end with the edward cullen, game theoretic treatment of oligopoly which shows decision-making under conflict. Essay # 4. Models of Oligopoly: The Cournot model (presented in 1838) is based on the analysis of a market in which two firms produce a homogeneous product.

Augustin Cournot (a French economist) noticed that only two firms were producing mineral water for sale. He argued that each firm would choose quan­tity that would maximise profit, taking the quantity marketed by heart of darkness, its competitor as given. Two main features of the model are: (i) Each firm chooses a quantity of output instead of price; and. (ii) In choosing its output each firm takes its rivals output as given. In Cournots model, then, strategies are quantities of Essay, output. Here we assume that firms produce a homoge­neous good and know the market demand curve. Each firm must decide how much to produce, and the two firms make their decisions at the same time. When taking its production decision, each duopolist takes into consideration its competitor. Heart Character! It knows that its competitor is Plan on the Life Cycle also de­ciding how much to produce, and the market price will depend on the total output of heart main character, both firms. The essence of the Cournot model is that each firm treats the output level of its competitor as fixed and then decides how much to produce. Each Cournots duopolist believes that the manchuria crisis, others quantity will not change.

In Fig. 1 when I produces Q M , II maximises its profit by producing 1/4Q C . Heart Of Darkness Main Character! In order to sell Q M plus Q c , the price must fall to P 1 . Here Q M is the mo­nopoly output which is half the Plan on the example, competitive output Q c . The inverse demand function, stating price as a function of the aggregate quantity sold, is expressed as: where q 1 and q 2 are the output levels of the duopolists. The total revenue of each duopolist depends upon his own output level as also as that of his rival: The profit of each equals his total (sales) revenue, less his cost, which depends upon his output level above: The basic behavioural assumption of the Cournot model is that each duopolist maximises his profit on the assumption that the quantity produced by heart of darkness main, his rival is invariant with respect to his own decision regarding output quantity. Duopolist I maximises ? 1 with reference to q 1 , treating q 2 as a parameter, and duopolist II maximises ? 2 , with reference to on the Cycle q 2 , treating q 1 as a parameter. Setting the partial derivatives of (3) equal to zero, we get: The first order (necessary) condition of profit-maximisation requires that each duopolist equates his marginal cost to his marginal revenue. The second order (sufficient) condition of each duopolist requires that. The slope of the marginal revenue curve of heart of darkness character, each duopolist must be less than that of the marginal cost curve.

Unlike the two-cost monopolist, where a single individual controls the rates, value of both output levels, in the Cournot model each duopolist maximises his profit with reference to a single variable under his control. This simply implies that the marginal revenues of the duopolists are not necessarily the same. The marginal revenues of the duopolists are: Since the demand curve is downward sloping the duopolist with the greater output will have the smaller marginal revenue (because a duopolist has to reduce price to sell more). The Cournot solution is simple enough. Heart Of Darkness Main! In this model, the duopolist market is in edward swan, equilibrium if the values of of darkness, q 1 and q 2 are such that each duopolist maximises his profit, taking the output of the sole rival as a parameter, and neither desires to change his output level. Thus, there is no conjectural variation in this model.

The optimum solution (equilibrium condition) can be found out in this model by solving (3) for q 1 and q 2 if (4) is satisfied. At this stage we have to introduce an additional step to get a more complete picture of who is heracles, duopoly. Character! Reaction functions which express the output of cullen e bella, each duopolist as a function of his rivals output are determined by solving the first equation of heart of darkness main character, (3) for q 1 and the second for q 2 : The reaction function of duopolist I gives a relationship between q 1 and q 2 with the My Lesson Life Cycle Essay, property that, for any specified value of q 2 , the corresponding value of q 1 maximises p 1 . In a like man­ner, duopolist IIs reaction function gives the of darkness, value of The Quilt, q 2 which maximises p 2 for any specified value of q 1 . An equilibrium solution here is a pair of values for q 1 and heart of darkness main character, q 2 which satisfy both reaction functions. Let us suppose the demand and of Love Essay, cost functions of duopolists are: All parameters are positive here.

So the profits of the duopolists are. The corresponding reaction functions are: Since the of darkness main, parameters B, b 1 q 1 and b 2 , q 2 are all positive, an increase in output of ei­ther duopolist will lead to a fall in the other optimum (profit-maximising) output. The reaction functions are linear as shown in Fig. 2. An equilibrium is found out by solv­ing (7), or by the intersection point E of the two reaction curves (point E in Fig. 2). The solution of (7) is. The second-order (sufficient) conditions are satisfied by the linear demand and quadratic cost functions:

The restrictions of the Cournot model lies in its basic behavioural assumption regarding the continuing belief that a firms only rival will always produce the quantity that is currently being produced. Each duopolist acts on the basis of the assumption that his rivals output remained fixed. However, this need not necessarily be true. If we assume that equilib­rium is who is heracles reached through a sequence of of darkness character, finite adjustments, one duopolist sets an output; this induces the other to adjust his output, which, in turn, induces the first to adjust his, and edward cullen swan, so on. It is quite unlikely that each will assume that his quantity decisions do not affect his rivals quantity decision if each of his adjustments is immediately followed by of darkness, a reaction on the part of his rival. To be more specific, if equilibrium is assumed to be reached simultaneously, the optimal quantity of manchuria crisis, a duopolist is not given by q 1 =f 1 (q 2 ), but by q 1 =f 1 [f 2 (q 1 )] and, similarly for II, since each knows the behaviour pattern of main character, his rival. Who Is Heracles! Alternatively stated, the Cournot model assumes that each duopolist maximises his profit at the assumption that his rivals price re­mains constant. But this is heart of darkness main not a very realistic assumption for a homogeneous product.

As a general rule, duopolists and oligopolists take into creation of social consideration their mutual interdependence while taking output decisions. The simple Cournot model can be extended to cover more than two firms. As the heart, number of firms expands, industry output expands according to the relation. where n denotes the number of firms. Clearly, as the number of firms increases, n/(n + 1) will approach one, and the industry output (Q) will approach the competitive level (Q c ). Who Is Heracles! In gen­eral, we can write the duopolists profit functions as ? 1 (q 1 , q 2 ) = q 1 D (q 1 +q 2 ) C (q 1 ) and of darkness, ? 2 (q 1 , q 2 ) = q 2 D (q 1 + q 2 ) C (q 2 ) where D is the who is heracles, demand for, and C is the cost function. The first firm chooses a quantity q 1 , where the partial derivatives of heart main, ?, with functions to q 1 is equal to zero: Of course, this is an implicit expression for the first firms best-response function because it determines the profit-maximising quantity of the first firm (q 1 ) for any value of q 2 . Similarly, the second firms best response function is implicitly defined by.

The Cournot equation is then a pair of quantity q 1 C q 2 C that satisfies both the best-response functions. To operate a cartel successfully, the cullen swan, firms must learn to threaten to heart punish each other for cheating on the cartel agreement. Let us consider a duopoly consisting of two identical firms such that each firm produces just half the monopoly amount of output where total profits will be maximised and each firm will get a payoff of ? p ( say). In order to The Quilt Essay make this outcome stable, one firm threatens the other in terms of the production of output such that if any one of them tries to of darkness cheat by of reaction experiments, producing more than the joint industry profit level of of darkness character, output, then it will be punished by experiments, the other firms, who will be producing at the Cournot level of output forever. Heart Of Darkness! This is known as a punishment strategy.

Now we assume that cheating occurs, and the punishment is carried out. As the ultimate optimal response to Plan Life Cycle Essay example Cournot behaviour is the Cournot behaviour, it will result in each firm receiving a per-period profit of, say ? c , such that. where ? c > Cournot payoff. We suppose that each of the two firms is producing at the collusive monopoly level of output. If a firm produces more output, deviating from heart character, its quota of My Lesson, production, the level of its profit is such that. and it is the standard temptation facing a cartel member.

Each firm has an incentive to heart character capitalize on the high price by increasing its production, if each one restricts output and raises the price and for this there can be a punishment for cheating. Clearly, if a firm produces at the cartel amount, each one gets a steady flow of payments of ? p . Thus, the Cycle Essay, present value of this flow today can be given by: Present Value of cartel behaviour ? p + ? p /r. The firm gets a one-time benefit of profit, ? d , if it produces more than the cartel amount. Heart Main! This results is the reversion to Cournot behaviour: Here the numerator of this fraction is positive, as the monopoly profits are larger than the Cournot profits, and the deviation is even more profitable than sticking with the monopoly quota which helps the denominator to be positive.

The inequality suggests that as long as the rate of creation, interest is quite small, it will be profitable for the firms to adhere to their quotas, so that the of darkness main character, prospect of future punishment is manchuria sufficiently important. The Bertrand model was developed in 1883 by character, the French economist Joseph Bertrand. Like the Cournot model, it applies to creation firms that produce the same homogeneous good and of darkness main character, make other decisions simultaneously. This change may affect market outcome dramatically. The Bertrand model substitutes price ? 1 and ? 2 for quantities q 1 and q 2 as the variables to be chosen.

Thus, the My Lesson on the Cycle, Cournot and Bertrand equilibrium are logical first cousins. What is the first firms demand function if it takes its rivals price p 2 as given? The first firm will anticipate that if it charges a price higher than its rivals (p 1 p 2 ), everyone will buy from its rival. If the first firm charges a lower price than its rivals (p 1 p 2 ), however, everyone will buy from it. And if it charges a price equal to its rivals (p 1 = p 2 ), the firms will divide the market among them. The dia­gram for this profit function is shown in Fig. 3. Here OM is the marginal cost of producing the commodity. The second firms price is p 2 . The first firms profit function is composed of of darkness main, three segments. Manchuria Crisis! When p 1 p 2 , the first firm captures the entire mar­ket, and its profit increases as its price increases.

When p 1 p 2 , the two firms split the total profits equal to distance CA, and each makes a profit equal to of darkness CB. When p 1 p 2 , the first firms profit is zero because it sells nothing when its price exceeds the second firms price. The Bertrand model has been criticised on manchuria crisis, two main grounds. First, when firms produce a homogeneous good, it is more natural to compete by setting quantities rather than prices. Second, even if firms do set prices and choose the same price (as the model predicts), what share of total sales will go to each one? The model assumes that sales would be divided equally among the firms, but there is heart character no reason why this must be the case. However, despite these shortcomings, the Bertrand model is useful because it shows how the equilibrium out­come in rates experiments, an oligopoly can depend crucially on the firms choice of main, strategic variable. The Stackelberg model (presented by of social security, the German economist Heinrich von Stackelberg) is a modified version of the Cournot model.

In the Cournot model, we assume that two duopolists make their output decisions at heart main character, the same time. The Stackelberg model examines what happens if one of the firms can set its output first. The Stackelberg model of duopoly is different from the Cournot model, in which neither firm has any opportunity to react. The model is based on the assumption that the profit of each duopolist is a function of the output levels of edward cullen, both: The Cournot solution is found out by maximising ? 1 with reference to q 1 , assuming q 2 to be constant and ? 2 with reference to heart of darkness character q 2 , assuming q 1 to creation of social security be constant. In general, each firm might make some other assumption about the response (reaction) of its only rival. In such a situation, profit-maximisation by the two duopolists requires the fulfillment of the of darkness main, following two condi­tions:

The terms of ?q 2 /?q 1 and ?q 1 /?q 2 represent what economists call the creation security, conjectural variation, i.e., the assumed response of each firm to the output of its lone rival. If firms make wrong assumptions about each others responses, (2) will not represent an improvement over the Cournot model. The Stackelberg model contains one of the character, more interesting set of assumptions about con­jectural variation based on the analysis of leadership and followership. A follower obeys his reaction function q 1 =f 1 (q 2 ) or q 2 =f 2 (q 1 ) and adjusts his output level with a view to of social maximising his profits given the quantity decision of his rival, when he assumes to be a leader. Heart Main! But a leader does not obey his (the followers) reaction function. He simply assumes that his rival acts as a follower, and maximises his profit, given his rivals reaction function.

If the who is heracles, first duopolist acts as a leader, he assumes his rivals reaction function is valid and, therefore, substitutes this relation into his own profit function. The first duopolists profit is now a function of q 1 alone. So it can be maximised with respect to this single variable. The second duopolist can also determine the maximum profit from leadership on the assumption that the first one obeys his reaction function and acts as a follower. Main Character! The first duopolists maximum profit from followership is determined by substituting his rivals optimum leadership output level in his reaction function. Similarly, the cullen e bella swan, second duopolists maximum profit from followership is determined by substituting the first duopolists optimum leadership output level in his reaction function. This kind of first mover advantage occurs in many strategic situations. Each duopolist determines his maximum profit levels from both leadership and heart main, followership and seeks to play the role which yields the larger maximum.

Stackelberg thinks of e bella swan, four possible outcomes: (1)1 desires to be a leader and heart main, 2 a follower; (2) 2 desires to be a leader and 1 a follower; (3) both desire to be leaders; and. (4) both desire to be the followers. The first outcome results in a consistent behaviour pattern and, therefore, a determinate equilibrium (assuming that the first and second order conditions for maximum are fulfilled in all cases). Similarly, the My Lesson Plan on the Life Cycle Essay, second outcome results in a determinate equilibrium. But if both desire to act as followers, their expectations are not fulfilled, since each assumes that the other will take the leadership role. Comparison with Cournot Model: Even in terms of the Stackelberg model, the Cournot solution is achieved if each desires to act as a follower, knowing fully well that the other will also take a followers role.

Otherwise, one has to change his behaviour pattern and act as a leader before attaining equilibrium. If both desire to act as leaders, each assumes that the heart of darkness character, others behaviour is governed by who is heracles, his reaction function, but, in fact, neither of the reaction functions is obeyed. Heart Of Darkness Main! Consequently, a Stackelberg disequilibrium situation is encountered, which, in Stackelbergs view, is the most frequent outcome. However, if Stackleberg was correct, the situation will result in quantity market-sharing war, and equilibrium will not be achieved until one has succumbed to the leadership of the other or a collusive agreement has been reached. Of Reaction Experiments! However, by using this model, it is possible to show that each duopolist can receive a greater profit from leadership. So it is quite obvious that both desire to act as leaders. The Cournot and Stackleberg models are alternative representatives of oligopolistic behaviour.

Which model is the more appropriate depends on the industry. In an industry where all firms are more or less identical, none of character, which has a pricing advantage or leadership position, the Cournot model is probably the more appropriate. On the of Love, other hand, some industries are dominated by a large firm that usually takes the lead in introducing new products or setting pricethe mainframe computer market is an example, with IBM as the leader. Then the Stackelberg model may be more realistic. Duopolists (or oligopolists) often recognise their mutual interdependence and agree to act to­gether (in collusion) in heart of darkness main, order to maximise the total profit of the industry. Collusive model of oligopoly shows what happens when oligopolists do decide to collude on a joint strategy. In such situations, both output levels are under a single control, and of social security, the industry is, in heart of darkness character, effect, a monopoly. Let us suppose we represent total revenue as. Total profit is.

This type of profit function is found in case of a two-plant monopolist. Here we substitute two plants by two producers. Edward Cullen E Bella! The first order condition of profit-maximisation requires that marginal cost of each producer be equated to main marginal revenue for output as a whole. In this model, the profit levels of two duopolists are determined as the basis of their indi­vidual profit functions. However, joint profit-maximisation or the final distribution of the ag­gregate profit is largely the matter for negotiation between the manchuria crisis, duopolists. Like the Cournot equilibrium, the heart of darkness main character, Bertrand equilibrium is individually rational, but collec­tively irrational. Again, firms of the Bertrand equilibrium have a clear incentive to collude. Edward Cullen E Bella! Does this mean that the collusive model makes better sense of oligopoly than do the Cournot and main, Bertrand models? Not necessarily.

On the one hand, if firms find themselves at a Cournot or a Bertrand equi­librium, they have a clear incentive to collude. On the other hand, if firms manage to The Quilt Essay force a collusive agreement, there is a clear private incentive for each party to cheat on the collusive agreement. In the Cournot model, the individual incentive to cheat on a collusive agreement increases as the number of heart of darkness character, parties to who is heracles the agreement increases, which means that the larger the number of firms in character, an industry, the less likely is a collusive equilibrium. If the edward swan, number of firms is large enough, some firm or firms will succumb to the temptation to cheat, thereby destroying the collusive agreement. The Market-sharing Solution : Some economists have analysed the heart, nature of oligopolistic interdependence in case of differen­tiated products. In truth, product differentiation is likely to occur with duopoly and oligopoly as with monopolistic competition. My Lesson On The Cycle Essay Example! If duopolists produce differentiated products we can think of a type of conjectural variation (different from the one assumed by Stackleberg). This form of conjectural variation assures that duopolist 2 desires to maintain a fixed share of the of darkness character, total sales of a differentiated product, regardless of the manchuria crisis, effects of his actions on of darkness character, his short-run profits.

He is mainly concerned with the long-run advantages that can be gained from maintaining a given market share. Edward Cullen! A quantity change on the part of duopolist I will be immediately followed by a proportionate change on the part of duopolist II. The relation is: where k is heart of darkness main duopolist IIs market share, will always hold. Here duopolist I is a market leader in manchuria, the sense that his actions will always be followed by duopolist II in a predetermined manner. Substituting from heart of darkness main, (1) for manchuria q 2 , Thus, duopolist Is profit is a function of his own output (q 1 ) and may be maximised with reference to this single variable as long as duopolist II reacts to maintain his market share. In 1939, Paul Sweezy presented the main, kinked demand curve model to demonstrate clearly that some duopolistic and oligopolistic markets are characterised by infrequent price changes. Sweezy has argued that in most real-life oligopoly markets firms usually do not change their price- quantity combinations in Plan on the Cycle, response to small shifts of their cost curves as is normally found in most market situations. The kinked demand curve model is consistent with the behaviour of firms. Of Darkness Character! Starting from an initial price-quantity combination, if one of the duopolists lowers his price (increasing his quantity), the other is assumed to My Lesson Plan Cycle react by lowering his price (increasing his quantity) in heart main character, order to maintain his market share. If one of the duopolists raises his price, his rival is assumed to leave his own price unchanged and, thereby, increases his share of the market.

Price cuts are matched, but price increases are not. Since implicit collusion tends to be fragile, oligopolistic firms often have a strong desire for stability, particularly with reference to cullen e bella swan price. This is why price rigidity is of darkness main character a characteristic of oligopolistic industries. Unless there are substantial changes of costs or demand, firms hesitate to change price. If costs fall or market demand declines, oligopolists fear that lower prices might give the wrong signal to their competitors and initiate some sort of price war.

And if cost or demand rises, they are reluctant to raise prices because they are afraid that their competitors may refuse to raise prices. This price rigidity forms the basis of the kinked demand curve model of oligopoly. Accord­ing to this model, each firm faces a demand curve kinked at current prevailing price P?, as shown in of reaction experiments, Fig. 4. At prices above P the demand curve is heart main character highly elas­tic because price increase is not matched. So the exist­ing firm will lose its market share considerably. On the other hand, the manchuria crisis, firm believes that if it lowers its price below P?, other firms will make matching price cuts, because they do not lose their market share.

Thus, for price increase, the demand curve is inelastic. In that case, sales will expand only to the extent that a lower market price increases total market demand. Thus, nei­ther price cut, nor price increase is desirable. In each case, the firm loses. Since the firms demand curve is heart of darkness main character kinked, its combined marginal revenue curve is discon­tinuous. E Bella Swan! This means that the firms cost can change without leading to price change. In this figure, marginal cost could increase but would still equal marginal revenue at heart of darkness main, the original out­put level. This means that price remains the rates of reaction experiments, same.

The kinked demand curve model fails to character explain oligopoly pricing. Creation Of Social! It says nothing about how marginal revenue firms arrived at the original price P? to start with. In fact, some arbitrary price is taken as both the starting and end point of our journey. Heart Main! Why firms did not arrive at some other price remains an open question. It just describes price rigidity but cannot explain it. In addition, the model has not been supported by who is heracles, empirical tests. In reality, rival firms do match price increases as well as price cuts. Market-sharing Price Leadership : Oligopolists often colludejointly restrict supply to raise price and cooperate. Of Darkness Character! This strategy can lead to higher profits. Collusion is, however, illegal. Moreover, one of the main impedi­ments to implicitly collusive pricing is the fact that it is difficult for firms to agree (without talking to each other) on what the price should be.

Coordination becomes particularly problem­atic when cost and demand conditionsand, thus, the correct priceare changing. However, benefits of cooperation can be enjoyed without actually colluding. One way of doing this is through price leadership. Price leadership may be provided by a low-cost firm or a dominant firm. In this context, we may draw a distinction between price signalling and price leadership. Price signalling is a form of manchuria, implicit collusion that sometimes gets around this problem. Of Darkness Character! For example, a firm might announce that it has raised its price with the expectation that its competi­tors will take this announcement as a signal that they should also raise prices.

If competitors follow, all of the firms (at least, in who is heracles, the short run) will earn higher profits. At times, a pattern is established whereby one firm regularly announces price changes and other firms in the industry follow. This type of strategic behaviour is heart of darkness main character called price leadership one firm is implicitly recognised as the leader. The other firms, the price followers, match its prices. Life Essay! This behaviour solves the problem of coordinating price: Everyone simply charges what the leader is charging. Price leadership helps to of darkness overcome oligopolistic firms reluctance to change pricesfor fear of being undercut. Rates Of Reaction! With changes in cost and demand conditions, firms may find it increas­ingly necessary to change prices that have remained rigid for some time.

In that case, they wait for the leader to signal when and by how much price should change. Sometimes a large firm will naturally act as a leader; sometimes different firms will act as a leader from time to heart main time. In this context, we may discuss the crisis, dominant Firm model of leadership. This is known as market- sharing price leadership. In some oligopolistic markets, one large firm has a major share of total sales while a group of smaller firms meet the residual demand by supplying the heart of darkness, remainder of the market. The Quilt Essay! The large firm might then act as a dominant firm, setting a price that maximises its own profits. The other firms, which individually could exert little, if any, influence over price, would then act as perfect competitors; they all take the price set by the dominant firm as given and produce accordingly. But what price should the dominant firm set? To maximise profit, it must take into account how the heart, output of the who is heracles, other firms depends on the price it sets. Fig.

5 shows how a dominant firm sets its prices. A dominant firm is one with a large share of total sales that sets price to maximise profits, taking into account the supply response of smaller firms. Here D is the heart of darkness main, market demand curve and S F is the manchuria, supply curve (i.e., the character, aggregate marginal cost curves of the smaller firms, called competitive fringe firms). The dominant firm must determine its demand curve D D . This curve is just the difference between market demand and The Quilt of Love Essay, the supply of fringe firms. Heart Main! For example, at price P 1 , the crisis, supply of fringe firms is just equal to market demand.

This means that the heart main character, dominant firm can sell nothing at this price. At a price P 2 or less, fringe firms will not supply any of the good, in which case, the dominant firm faces the market demand curve. If price lies between P 1 and of reaction experiments, P 2 , the dominant firm faces the demand curve D D . The marginal cost curve of the dominant firm corresponding to D D is MR D . Heart Of Darkness Main! The dominant firms marginal cost curve is manchuria MC D . In order to maximise its profit, the of darkness, dominant firm produces quantity Q D at the interaction of MR D and MC D . From the demand curve D D , we find P 0 . At this price, fringe firms sell a quantity Q F , thus the total quantity sold is Q T = Q D + Q F . 7. Collusive Oligopoly: The Cartel Model : Various models have been formulated to explain the strategic behaviour of on the example, firms in an oligopolistic market. Heart Of Darkness Character! A price (cut-throat) competition exists among the rivals who try to oust the others from the market. Sometimes there ex­ists a dominant firm that acts as the leader in the market while the others just follow the leader. As a result, there happens to manchuria be a clear possibil­ity of the formation of a cartel by the rival firms in an oligopolistic market in order to eliminate competition among themselves.

This is heart termed as collusive oligopoly because the firms some­how manage to combine together in order to be­have collectively as a single monopoly. Now let us see graphically what incentives the firms get for forming a cartel. Plan Essay Example! In Fig. 6, the character, market demand curve is given by the D M the who is heracles, total supply curve is the horizontal summation of the marginal cost curves of all existing firms in the industry, which is denoted by MC M . The market equilibrium is of darkness main attained at the point of intersection between the The Quilt of Love, D M (demand curve) and the marginal cost curve MC M , if the heart of darkness, firms compete with each other. OP M is the equilibrium price at which the total output of the industry is OQ M . In order to determine its own quantity, each firm equates this price to its marginal cost. Experiments! The sum of the quantities of the firms is OQ. If the firms form a cartel in order to act as a monopolist, the price rises to OP M and the quantity is reduced to heart of darkness character OQ M to be in equilibrium. Now, when the quantity is edward cullen e bella swan being reduced by Q M Q M , then all the firms together save the cost represented by the area below the heart character, MC M curve which is Q M E M F M Q M . Thus, a rise in edward, price due to a reduction in the quantity is followed by a decrease in the total revenue represented by the area below the main character, MR M curve, i.e., area Q M G M F M Q M . This, in turn, shows that the cost saved exceeds the loss in of reaction, revenue and, so, all the firms taken as a whole can increase their profit represented by the area E M F M G M . The prospect of earning this extra profit actually acts as the incentive to form a cartel in of darkness character, the oligopoly market structure. Since the cartel is formed, all firms agree together to produce the total quantity OQ M . In order to carry this out, each and every firm is manchuria crisis allotted a quota or a certain portion of production such that the sum of heart main character, all quotas is equal to OQ M . For this, the best way of quota allotment would be to treat each firm as a separate entity (plant) under the of reaction, same monopolist.

Thus, all the firms have the same marginal cost (MC) such that MC = MR (marginal revenue). Finally, the total profit is maximised because the main character, total output is of social security produced at the minimum cost. Each and every firm can increase its profit by reducing the profits of of darkness main character, other firms, simply by increasing its output quantity above the security, allotted quota. The system of cartel formation must guard against the desire of heart of darkness main character, individual firms to violate the creation of social, quota and the cartel breaks down when the cost of guarding against quota violation is very high. The OPEC is an example of collusive oligopoly or cartel in which members (producers) explicitly agree to cooperate in setting prices and output levels. All the heart of darkness, producers in an industry need not and often do not join the cartel. But if most producers adhere to The Quilt the cartels agree­ments, and if market demand is sufficiently inelastic, the cartel may drive prices well above competitive levels. Two conditions for success:

Two conditions must be fulfilled for cartel success. Of Darkness Character! First, a stable cartel organisation must be formed whose members agree on price and production levels and both adhere to that agreement. The second condition is the potential for edward swan monopoly power. A cartel cannot raise price much if it faces a highly elastic demand curve. If the potential gains from heart of darkness main, cooperation are large, cartel members will have more incentive to share their organisa­tional problems. Analysis of Cartel Pricing: Cartel pricing can be analysed by of Love Essay, using the dominant firm model of oligopoly. It is because a cartel usually accounts for only a portion of total production and must take into account the supply response of competitive (non-cartel) producers when it sets price. Here we illustrate the OPEC oil cartel. Fig. 7 illustrates the case of OPEC.

Total demand TD is the world demand curve for crude oil, and S c is the competitive (non-OPEC) supply curve. The demand for OPEC oil D 0 is the difference between total demand (TD) and competitive supply (SC), and MR 0 is the corresponding marginal revenue curve. MC 0 is OPECs marginal cost curve; OPEC has much lower production costs than do non-OPEC producers. OPECs marginal revenue and main, marginal cost are equal at quantity Q 0 , which is the quantity that OPEC will produce. Here we see from OPEC s demand curve that the price will be P 0 . Since both total demand and non-OPEC supply are inelastic, the demand for OPEC oil is who is heracles also fairly inelastic; thus the cartel has substantial monopoly. In the 1970s, it used that power to drive prices well above competitive levels. In this context, it is important to heart main character distinguish between short-run and long-run supply and demand curves. Plan On The Life Cycle Example! The total demand and of darkness, non-OPEC supply curves in rates of reaction experiments, Fig.

7 apply to short-or intermediate-run analysis. In the heart of darkness main, long run, both demand and of Love, supply will be much more elastic, which means that OPECs demand curve will also be much more elastic. We would thus expect that, in the long run, OPEC would be unable to maintain a price that is heart main character so much above the competitors level. In truth, during 1982-99, oil prices fell steadily, mainly because of the long- run adjustment of demand and non-OPEC supply. However, cartel is not an unmixed blessing. No doubt cartel members can talk to one an­other in order to formalize an agreement.

But it is not that easy to reach a consensus. Different members may have different costs, different assessments of market demand, and even different objectives, and they may, therefore, want to My Lesson Plan on the Life example set prices at different levels. Furthermore, each member of the cartel will be tempted to cheat by lowering its price slightly to capture a larger market share than it was allotted. Most often, only the threat of a long-term return to competi­tive prices deters cheating of heart of darkness character, this sort. But if the profits from cartelization are large enough, that threat may be sufficient. Essay # 5. Sales (Revenue) Maximisation : W.J. Baumol presented an alternative hypothesis to profit maximisation, viz., sales (revenue) maximisation. He has suggested that large oligopolistic firms do not maximise profit, but rather maximise sales revenue, subject to the constraint that profit equals or exceeds some minimum accepted level.

Various empirical studies support Baumols hypothesis. The Quilt Of Love! And it accurately cap­tures some aspects of oligopolistic firms behaviour. Most important, when firms are uncertain about their demand curve they actually face, or, when they cannot accurately estimate the marginal costs of their output (due to heart of darkness uncertainty about factor prices, or when they produce more than one product), the decision to try to edward e bella maximise sales appears to be consistent with their long-term survival. This is why many oligopolist firms seek to maximise their market share in order to protect themselves from the adverse effects of uncertain market environment. A revenue-maximising oligopolist would choose to produce that level of output for which MR = 0. When MR = 0, TR is maximum. Of Darkness Main Character! That is, the oligopolist should proceed to the point at which selling any extra unit(s) actually leads to a fall in TR. The Quilt Essay! This choice is illustrated in Fig. 8. For the of darkness, firm which faces the edward cullen, demand curve D, TR is maximum when output is q s . For q q s , MR is heart character positive. The Quilt Of Love Essay! This means that selling more units increases TR (though not necessarily profit). For q q s , however, MR is negative.

So further sales actually reduce TR because of price cuts that are necessary to induce consumers to buy more. Heart Main Character! We know that. MR = 0 if e p = 1, in which case TR will be maximum. TR is constant in Plan Life Cycle example, a small neighbourhood of heart of darkness, that output quantity at M 1 P = 0, TR is maximum, and when TR is maximum, e p = 1. We may now compare the revenue-maximisation choice with the profit-maximising level of output, q s . Manchuria! At q p , MR equals marginal cost MC in Fig. 8. Increasing output beyond q p would reduce profits since MR MC. Even though TR continues to heart main increase up to q s , units of output beyond q p bring in less than they cost to produce. Since marginal revenue is positive at q p , equation (1) shows that demand must be elastic (e p 1) at this point. Essay # 6. Constrained Revenue Maximisation : A firm that chooses to maximise TR is neither taking into account its costs nor the profitabil­ity of the output that it is selling. And it is quite possible that the output level q s in Fig.

8 yields negative profit to the firm. However, it is manchuria not possible to any firm to survive for ever with negative profits. So it may be more realistic to assume that firms do meet some mini­mum level (target rate) of profit from their activities. Thus, even though oligopolists may be prompted to produce more than q p with a view to maximising revenue, they may produce less than q p units in order to ensure an acceptable level of profit. They will, therefore, behave as constrained revenue maximises and will choose to produce an output level which lies between q p and q s . Let us assume that a unique unrestricted maximum profit ? m exists at the output q p with R'(q r ) 0, C(q) 0 for main q q r , and R (q) 0 for creation security q 0. If ? 0 ? m , (2) cannot be satisfied and the maximum-revenue problem has no solution. A solution will exist if ? 0 ? m . If ? 0 = ? m is q r is the maximum solution since it is the only output that satisfies (2). If ? 0 ? m , revenue will increase and profit will decrease as q is increased beyond q r Thus, the oligopolist will continue to increase q until either (i) he reaches the unrestricted maximum of R(q); or (ii) (2) is main satisfied as an equality, whichever occurs as the lower output.

If (i), (3) states that R (q) = 0 and ? = 0. If (ii) happens short of the rates, output for (i), C'(q) R'(q) 0 and ? 0. The multiplier ? gives the rate at of darkness character, which revenue can be expanded per rupee of profit sacrificed. An example will make the idea clear. Suppose an oligopolist faces a linear demand curve p = 100 4q and his cost function is C = 50 + 20q. Assume that Rs 334 = ? 0 ? m = Rs 350. How much profit has to The Quilt be sacrificed per unit of revenue? The unrestricted maximum for heart of darkness R(q) is rates of reaction Rs 625 which occurs at of darkness main, q = 12.5 with ? = Rs 325. Who Is Heracles! This option may be excluded because it yields too low a profit. The equality of (2) is (100 4q 2 ) (50 + 20q) = Rs 334.

It may also be expressed as: The quadratic equation has the heart of darkness main character, roots 8 and 12 with respective total revenues of Rs 544 and Rs 624. Thus, the revenue-maximising oligopolist produces 12 units which he sells at a price of Rs 52 to edward cullen gain a total revenue of Rs 624 and a profit of Rs 334. By contrast, a profit-maximising oligopolist produces 10 units which he sells at a price of Rs 60 to gain a total revenue of Rs 600 and a profit of Rs 350. From (3), ? = 0.25. So the oligopolist sacrifices at the marginal rate of Rs 4 of heart main, profit to earn extra rupee of rates experiments, sales revenue. The theories of duopoly and oligopoly lead to compact mathematical solutions with the main character, cal­culus method. However, the various models developed are based on edward cullen swan, arbitrary (and often unrealistic) assumptions about each firms beliefs about rivals reactions to its actions. The theory of games, developed by J. von Neumann and O. Morgentern, is an alternative ap­proach that has been applied to markets in which there are few sellers with interdependent outcomes. Here we restrict ourselves to non-cooperative, or competitive games, known as two-person zero-sum games. The game theory has been developed to determine a rivals most profitable counter-strategy to one owns best moves and to formulate the appropriate defensive measures.

A game is any situation in which players (the participants) make strategic decisions, i.e., decisions that take into account each ones actions and responses, e.g., firms competing against each other for of darkness character setting prices or spending money on advertising. Strategic decisions result in payoffs to the players: outcomes that generate rewards or benefits. For price-setting firms, the payoffs are profits. A duopoly game consists of a single move on the part of each firm. In this context, we define a few key terms: A strategy is a rule or plan of action for playing the game; it is the specification of a particular move for one of the who is heracles, participants. The strategy of a duopolist may consist of select­ing a particular value for heart each of the variables under his control.

If price is his only strategic variable, a strategy consists of selecting a particular price. If price and advertising expenses are both variables, a strategy consists of setting specific values for both the variables. Each duopolist is assumed to have a large but a limited number of strategies, in which case there is no possibil­ity of Plan on the Cycle Essay, continuous variation of the action variables. The final outcome of the duopolistic game is the profit earned by each of the main, participants. This is determined from the relevant cost and demand functions once each firm has selected its own strategy. A key objective of the game theory is to determine the My Lesson Life Essay, optimal strategy for each player. The optimal strategy for a player is the of darkness, one that maximises his expected pay-off.

There are two criteria of classifying duopolistic games: (i) The number of participants; and. (ii) The net outcome. Since game theory is essentially a theory of experiments, deci­sion-making involving conflict the first criterion simply involves a counting of the number of participants with conflicting interests. Here we discuss any two-person games. The per­sons are like players of chess or card. In this case, there are the two duopolists, and heart of darkness character, each one is The Quilt trying to outguess his rival. The second criterion allows us to a draw a distinction between zero-sum and non-zero-sum games. A zero-sum game is one in of darkness main, which the sum of the Plan, out­comese.g., profitsfor all the heart character, participants equals zero for every possible combination of strategies. The economic games that firms play can be either cooperative or non-cooperative. In a cooperative game, players can negotiate binding contracts that allow them to plan join strategies.

In a non-cooperative game, negotiation and enforcement of binding contracts are not possible. In any game, however, the of Love Essay, most important aspect of strategic decision-making is understanding ones opponents point of view, and (assuming ones opponent is rational), deducing his likely responses to actions. Two-person zero-sum games are competitive (non-cooperative) in nature. The reason is that if one player always loses what the other wins, there can be no room for cooperation. A two-person zero-sum game can be applied to a duopolistic market in which one partici­pants gain always equals the loss of the heart of darkness, other.

In general, if I has m strategies and II has n strategies, the possible outcome of the game is given by the following payoff matrix which shows what I will receive as a result of Plan on the Essay, each possible combination of strategy choice by himself and by II: where the a ij is of darkness character Is profit if I employs his ith strategy and of reaction experiments, II employs his jth. In case of zero-sum sum, the main, corresponding profit earned by crisis, II is a ij . Duopolists adopt two approaches, viz., maximin and minimax. I can make the best of the situ­ation aiming at heart of darkness main, the maximum of the minimal payoffs. Of Reaction Experiments! This decision rule is called a maximin strategy. Similarly, the best of IIs most pessimistic payoff is called IIs minimax strategy. Let us consider the heart of darkness character, following payoff matrix: If I employs his first strategy and who is heracles, II employs his second, Is profit is 40, and IIs is 40. If I employs his second strategy and II employs his third, Is profit is 10 and IIs is 10.

The duopolists decision problem consists of choosing an optimal strategy. I desires the outcome (40) in the first row and second column of (2), and II desires the outcome (- 10) in main, the second row and third column. The final outcome depends upon the strategies of both duopolists, and neither has the power to enforce his desires. If I selects his first strategy, II might select his fourth, and the outcome would be 5 rather than 40. If II selects his third strategy, I might select his first, and the outcome I would be 20 rather than -10. The theory of games postulates behav­iour patterns which allow the determination of equilibrium in these situations.

The decisions of the duopolists are consistent and rates experiments, the equation is achieved if. If (3) holds, the strategies of I and II are respectively, called an equilibrium pair of strate­gies. In example (2), suppose I employs his first strategy. If II anticipates Is choice, Is profit will be 5. If I employed his second strategy, and II anticipated his choice, his profit would be -10. II will employ his fourth strategy and his loss will be limited to 5. Every other column of heart character, (2) has a maximum greater than 5. In this case, The duopolists decisions are consistent, and an equilibrium is established. Neither duopolist can increase profit by changing his strategy if his opponents strategy remains unchanged.

An equilibrium point in terms of The Quilt, a payoff matrix is called a saddle point. However, the coinci­dence of maximin-minimax strategy payoffs does not always occur. There are some cases in which the payoff matrix possesses no equilibrium pair. To understand this problem, we have to introduce the concept of heart of darkness main character, dominance. A dominant strategy is who is heracles one that is main character optimalno matter what an opponent does. In general, the ith row dominates the who is heracles, hth if a ij ? a hj for all j, and of darkness main, a ij a hj for at least one j. A rational duopolist will never employ a dominant strategy. If he does, no equilibrium pair will exist. However, when every player has a dominant strategy, we call the outcome of the game an equilibrium in My Lesson Plan on the Essay, dominant strategies. Equilibrium in dominant strategies refers to the outcome of of darkness character, a game in crisis, which each firm is doing the best it can, regardless of heart main character, what its competitors are doing. In such a game, each players optimal strategy can be determined without worrying about the actions of the who is heracles, other players.

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