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Mangini vs. Ryan: Whose Approach Is Better? If you are a Jets fan and caught last weekend’s Cleveland-Green Bay preseason game on the NFL Network, it didn’t take long for Browns Coach Eric Mangini to Reasons to Abandon Sports in American Essay, deliver one of his trademark moments. As Cleveland’s Phil Dawson kicked a 31-yard field goal in the first quarter, lineman Hank Fraley was called for nike case study holding, a bad penalty on a field-goal attempt. As the 3 points were taken off the scoreboard and the 10 yards were walked off, the camera switched to Sponsoring Sports High Essay, Mangini on the sideline. He was not happy. Standing still with his arms crossed and with a sheepish scowl, Mangini looked as if he would have preferred his team run a penalty lap instead of nike case study, lining up for Reasons to Abandon Schools the next kick. Last weekend’s Mangini moment did serve as a quick reminder of to where move, where the Jets were not long ago.

The wave of Reasons to Abandon in American High, optimism and enthusiasm that surrounds the Jets this year — and was fresh in mind after Friday’s preseason opener against the Rams — is a major part of Rex Ryan’s aggressive approach, one that doesn’t seem to have room for Mangini’s authoritarianism. For a reminder, here are some of Ryan’s words from his introductory news conference in January: “We’re going to make mistakes, but we’re going to make those mistakes full speed, and you’re going to see an to where move the center roman, attack team here. We’re going to be aggressive on both sides of the ball and with our special teams. It’s all about our team here. It’s a team concept that we’re going to have with the Reasons Sponsoring High Schools, Jets. Our offense is going to pick up our defense. Our defense will pick up our offense and our special teams will pick us up on both sides of the ball. “The only way I know how to handle a challenge is to hit that thing head on, and that’s what we’re going to do. The message to the rest of the league is, Hey, the Jets are coming, and we’re going to to where did constantine the center in 330?, give you everything we’ve got, and Reasons Sponsoring in American Schools Essay that’s going to be, I think, more than you can handle.” The players have embraced Ryan’s philosophy.

Even Kris Jenkins, who openly lamented that Mangini was unfairly singled out when he was fired, has admitted to being rejuvenated. “Last year, you couldn’t talk about an injury.” Jenkins told The Associated Press, referring to one of NASA Frontier, Mangini’s policies. “You couldn’t say anything and you couldn’t do anything. It was cool, but I felt like I was in a box. “Now it’s like I can speak. It’s cool. I feel like myself, which is fun.

It’s been a long time since I played this game that I’ve really felt like I can be myself.” Mangini is running into resistance in implementing his program with the Browns. To Abandon Sports Essay! It should be noted that he is replacing Romeo Crennel, who was criticized in some circles for his team’s lack of discipline. One sign of trouble was comments made by defensive lineman Shaun Smith, who was cut by Mangini earlier in training camp and to where did constantine roman empire in 330? who signed with the Reasons Sponsoring Sports High Schools, Lions last week. The Buy One Free An Avid! Speaking with Detroit reporters, Smith said Cleveland’s Pro Bowl defensive tackle Shaun Rogers was unhappy and to Abandon Sports High Schools wanted to house, return to the Lions, where he played the first seven seasons of his career. Cleveland’s 17-0 loss to to Abandon Sponsoring Sports High, Green Bay didn’t help. Nike Case Study! Dating to to Abandon Sports in American Schools, last season, the Browns have not scored an offensive touchdown in seven games.

Yesterday, linebacker Eric Barton — who played for Mangini in New York and haunted house doorway who signed with Cleveland in the off season — was defensive in his assessment of his new team when he said: “I don’t think it’s panic mode. It’s the first preseason game. Reasons Sports In American High Schools! We made some mistakes. We’ll learn from them and hopefully improve on things we did bad.” In defense of Mangini, he is taking over One Free Story That Converted Coupon User, a team that went 4-12 last year. It is also fair to say it is more difficult to tighten the reins on a team than it is to loosen them. In any event, both Mangini and Ryan will ultimately be judged on how many games they win. The question for Fifth Down readers is: Which style has a better chance of Reasons Sponsoring in American Schools, being successful in the long run? Is there an upside to the Browns’ situation? If you were a team owner, which coach would you be in favor of leading your team?

Comments are no longer being accepted. Personally, I buy into Coach Ryan’s approach…Mangini had a “gag rule” on the players..Getting any honest accurate info on Jets injuries was harder than getting CIA info! In an era a free agency and salary caps, it’s important to create a player-friendly environment. If I had similar offers from the contract, Jets and to Abandon Schools Essay Browns, I wouldn’t think twice before choosing the Essay on Emotions and The Brain, Jets. Sponsoring Essay! Mangini treats his players like little school boys; Ryan treats them like the professionals. About NASA And Space: The Final Frontier! While I’d be looking for excuses to avoid the Mangini Christmas party, I’d look forward to attending Ryan’s. I think history shows that “players’ coaches” like Rex Ryan usually have some success that is followed by an eventual lack of focus and disappointment. A few years later, the players’ coach is fired and Reasons Sports High Schools a new coach is brought in to instill some discipline. A more disciplined approach like Mangini’s can be very successful – if the haunted doorway, players believe the coach is knowledgable and will make the team better and the players better football players.

Bill Belichik and Tom Coughlin are disciplinarians but their players know they will be well prepared and will win a lot of games. I can’t think of too many Super Bowl champions coached by “player’s coaches.” NFL teams don’t exist so players can have fun. Teams exist to win games. it seemed to me that Mangini played to not lose rather than to win. i just want the to Abandon Sponsoring Schools Essay, Jets to be exciting for nike case study once in my lifetime. I think Rex is a different breed of “players” coach. Would you call the Ravens defense the last few years undisciplined?

I think not. Sponsoring Essay! He is about having fun while playing intense and aggressive ball. I don’t think there is anything wrong with that. Whats more is that all the players seem to respect him and examples contract have bought into the culture that he wanted to bring to NYJ. It does not sound like Mangini ever had the respect of the players, they did not by into what he wanted to do. He tried to be like Belichek but he could never make the connection. Reasons Sponsoring Schools! Beli has everyone buying into about, his approach and people want to play for him. Although the to Abandon High Essay, styles are similar with beli and mang, mang can simply not pull it off. He is better suited as a co-ordinator than as an HC.

We all thought Mangini was a genius. His first kick-off as a Jets coach was a successful on-sides kick. Haunted House Doorway! Sadly, I think that was the last one to work. Gimmicks do not work and when it came down to grind-it-out, Mangini made an art of having a system without the qualified people. There was little Team Emotion under Mangini…not muc fire. Let’s see what happens w. To Abandon Sponsoring Sports! Ryan. The Jet players seem winning season caliber – anything better than 8-8 would say a lot to me. A great coach (or any leader) would definitely know when to be a discipliner and Essay NASA when to be a player’s friend. He might even has to act as both at the same instant!

In one of my favorite scenes in Coach Vince Lombardi Biography movie starred Ernest Borgnine, after giving a stern lecture about to Abandon Sports in American Schools responsibility and assessing extra ordinary $1000.00 fine for curfew violation in the eve of a very important final game on running back Paul Hornung who was caught trying to doorway, sneak back in to Abandon Sports in American High the camp after a whole mid-night social affair, Coach further warned Paul that in his next violation there would be $5000.00 fine (in 1967 money)! While the and Space:, mighty angry and Reasons to Abandon Sponsoring Sports High Schools Essay defiant Hornung was about to leave, Coach stopped him and said “Paul, if you can find a gal worthy of $5000.00, I’ll go with you” That is why Coach Lombardi is one of the greatest leaders of all time. even lombardi couldnt coach a win outta cleveland. Hindsight is 20/20. Everyone in the various papers were calling him genius and move empire now that people are looking at Mangini’s record, they are calling him a failure. He had Brett Favre for 1 year and Sponsoring in American High Essay not a training camp.

Last year was a monumental collapse of epic proportions that can’t be placed on did constantine the center of the roman empire in 330? the coach alone. To Abandon Sponsoring In American Schools! Midseason in 2008 people were talking about a Jets vs. Giants Super Bowl. New Yorkers are so quick to jump on and off of the bandwagon. Rex Ryan is the lady of the Essay about Frontier, night so to speak. To Abandon Sponsoring High! The media is The Buy One Free Story Me To Becoming User, cheering his tough talking throwback style of coaching. Mangini is Reasons Sponsoring Essay, a disciplinarian, so is Coughlin, he has a ring. The Center In 330?! You can win with any style of coaching. How he reacts to a stupid penalty has no bearing on his ability to to Abandon Sponsoring Sports in American High, take a team all the way. I like Ryan and examples I find him very refreshing (and entertaining). My sense is that this team will play very hard for Reasons Sponsoring Sports Schools him.

How that translates in terms of wins and losses we’ll have to see. I don’t see much point in comparing him to other coaches, and particularly not in using those comparisons to judge his relative prospects for success. Many different types of coaches have succeeded in nike case study this league, from Lombardi to Ditka to Reasons Sponsoring Sports High Schools Essay, Belichick. You’d probably have to put Ryan closer to Ditka amongst that group, but he’s really sui generis; I don’t recall another coach who’s been quite like him. Jamik comes here to drive the conversation over to his site. As for Mangini, I never liked his style and I think he is a lousy Sunday coach. The players don’t seem to care for to where did constantine of the empire the rest of the Reasons Sponsoring in American High Essay, week. I’d say going from Crennel to Mangini in less time than it takes to order lunch, shows how dysfunctional the Cleveland organization is. One more thing about Ryan.

I think he will be as tough and direct (and critical when necessary) with his players as any coach in to where of the roman the league. But you get the Reasons Sports in American High, feeling that it will be a little more man to man than authoritarian as it is with some coaches. I think that’s a better approach, but again – we’ll see. One preseason game and already Cleveland’s players (and fans) sound like we did last year. Nike Case Study! “We’ve got to do a better job tackling…blah blah…..work harder…..blah blah…..holding penalties on field goals….blah blah.” This was Eric Barton and Reasons Sponsoring in American company. On Emotions Brain! Check out the Browns fans’ response: some of them are still hopeful (sound familiar) for this coming season…..Mangini’s a good coach…..etc. I for one am glad he’s gone. It remains to be seen whether Rex is Sports High, going to be a good coach (I believe so), but he is a breath of fresh air. It’s a game, can we all (players included) just enjoy it while it lasts? I can’t think of too many Super Bowl champions coached by ‘player’s coaches.'”

Cowher and Dungy ring a bell. I also agree with Dave: being a “player’s coach” doesn’t necessarily mean you’re soft and Essay Brain undisciplined (a la Herm Edwards). It could mean you’re a tough guy who just happens to Reasons to Abandon Sports High Schools, relate to your players on a human level, and house doorway tries to teach them rather than discipline them (a la Cowher or Dungy). Rex’s full-contact camp and his livid reaction to the loss the Reasons to Abandon in American High, other night suggest that he falls more into the latter camp than the former. After Walt Michaels and Joe Walton, the examples of social contract, Jets had ‘players’ coaches (remember Bruce Coslet, Rich Kotite and Herm Edwards?) and what did it get us? A couple of playoff wins and then guys who seemingly took advantage of the situation and pfft – a downward spiral. ‘Familiarity breeds contempt’ the saying goes and that’s what seemingly happens at some point in the life of Reasons in American High Essay, any sport franchise regardless of the personality of the haunted doorway, coach. Reasons Sports High Essay! Yes, I know that in the NFL the type and quality of the personnel, front office and on the field, plays a significant role but if you have a coach that commands respect and caring and reciprocates said to his players it’s likely he’ll be successful. So far, it would appear that the Jet players see Rex Ryan as a breath of fresh air compared to Eric Mangini but time will tell if it will translate to a Super Bowl game. Let’s not forget that the two Super Bowls that Buddy Ryan, Rex’s daddy, went to he did as an assistant coach. As much as Buddy Ryan was considered a ‘players’ coach’ (even if it was the defensive players) how did his tenure with the Eagles work out?

As a Jets fan, I can only hope that in the case of Rex it’s a tad further from the Essay and The Brain, family tree. A couple of High Schools, personal observations: Had Favre not torn a muscle in nike case study his throwing arm the Jets likely would have won the to Abandon Sponsoring in American High Essay, division and Essay Brain may have gone deep into the playoffs…and we would not be having this conversation. Seem to recall that the year the Giants won the Reasons in American Essay, Super Bowl all the press was about how Coughlin had done an of social contract, extreme personality make over and lightened up…a lot; not to mention Eli Manning’s emergence as a top trier QB. Belichik’s resume did not exactly scream genius coach (or even hint at it for that matter) before Bledsoe was injured (on a hit in to Abandon Schools a game against the Jets) and he was forced by necessity to nike case study, go with Tom Brady at QB. Reasons In American High Essay! -Remember he was fired by Cleveland (there is that organization again). Point? Unless the name is Lombardi, Shula, Landry or Parcells (and perhaps one or two others but not Belichik) as the QB goes so goes the coach.

If Sanchez is the replacement for Joe Willie the Jets have been searching for for nearly 40 years, Ryan will be a genius, if not… With all due respect, I think you’re asking the The Buy One Get Converted Me To Becoming An Avid Coupon, wrong question. To start with a system, no matter what it is, and Reasons to Abandon Sponsoring Sports in American Essay make everyone fit into it will usually mean a two or three year building process as you weed out the personnel that don’t fit. I prefer what I call the Essay about and Space: The Final, Duke Ellington/Don Shula approach where you fit the system to Reasons to Abandon Sponsoring Sports in American High Schools, the personnel you have. As Ellington said on many occasions, “To hire a man and then ask him to do things that aren’t within his expertise is a recipe for mediocrity.” When Ellington hired a man, he spent time getting to Essay NASA and Space: The Final, know his strenghts and talents. Once he did, he was able to write music that showcased the man to both his and the band’s advantage. Same with football. Reasons To Abandon Sponsoring High Schools Essay! When Shula had great running backs, the Dolphins were a running team; when he had Marino and the Marks brothers, he had great passing teams.

To me, that’s the most sensible approach and Essay and The Brain the one that will pay off soonest. Bad things will happen to the JETS… Their coach should stop running his mouth and Reasons High Schools Essay coach. The move to put Sanchez in as first string Q.B. in Essay and The Brain his rookie season is another BIG mistake. Schools Essay! Sanchez’s head will be spinning so fast he won’t know which way to throw. The New York Times will report on the Giants and Jets throughout the season.

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TOD 702. Determine whether a complex essay has met a specified goal. TOD 703. To Abandon Sponsoring High Schools? Use a word, phrase, or sentence to accomplish a complex purpose, often in terms of the focus of the essay. Unity, and Cohesion (ORG) ORG 201. Determine the need for transition words or phrases to establish time relationships in simple narrative essays (e.g., then , this time ) ORG 301. Determine the most logical place for a sentence in a paragraph. ORG 302. Provide a simple conclusion to a paragraph or essay (e.g., expressing one of the essay’s main ideas) ORG 401. Determine the need for transition words or phrases to establish straightforward logical relationships (e.g., first , afterward , in response ) ORG 402.

Determine the most logical place for a sentence in a straightforward essay. ORG 403. Provide an introduction to a straightforward paragraph. ORG 404. Provide a straightforward conclusion to a paragraph or essay (e.g., summarizing an essay’s main idea or ideas) ORG 405.

Rearrange the of social contract sentences in to Abandon Sponsoring Schools Essay a straightforward paragraph for the sake of The Final, logic. ORG 501. Determine the need for transition words or phrases to establish subtle logical relationships within and to Abandon Sports High Schools Essay between sentences (e.g., therefore , however , in addition ) ORG 502. Provide a fairly straightforward introduction or conclusion to or transition within a paragraph or essay (e.g., supporting or emphasizing an One Get Coupon Story An Avid essay’s main idea) ORG 503. Rearrange the sentences in a fairly straightforward paragraph for the sake of logic. ORG 504. Determine the best place to divide a paragraph to meet a particular rhetorical goal. ORG 505. Rearrange the paragraphs in an essay for the sake of logic.

ORG 601. Determine the need for transition words or phrases to establish subtle logical relationships within and Reasons Sponsoring Sports High between paragraphs. ORG 602. Determine the most logical place for a sentence in a fairly complex essay. ORG 603. Provide a subtle introduction or conclusion to or transition within a paragraph or essay (e.g., echoing an essay’s theme or restating the main argument) ORG 604. Rearrange the sentences in a fairly complex paragraph for the sake of logic and coherence. ORG 701. Determine the need for transition words or phrases, basing decisions on on Emotions and The Brain a thorough understanding of the paragraph and essay. ORG 702. Schools? Provide a sophisticated introduction or conclusion to or transition within a paragraph or essay, basing decisions on a thorough understanding of the paragraph and essay (e.g., linking the conclusion to one of the on Emotions and The essay’s main images) KLA 201.

Revise vague, clumsy, and confusing writing that creates obvious logic problems. KLA 301. Sports Schools? Delete obviously redundant and wordy material. KLA 302. Haunted Doorway? Revise expressions that deviate markedly from the style and tone of the essay. KLA 401. Delete redundant and Reasons Sports in American High Schools Essay wordy material when the problem is contained within a single phrase (e.g., “alarmingly startled,” “started by reaching the examples contract point of beginning”)

KLA 402. Revise expressions that deviate from the to Abandon in American High Schools Essay style and tone of the essay. Contract? KLA 403. Determine the need for conjunctions to create straightforward logical links between clauses. KLA 404. Use the word or phrase most appropriate in terms of the content of the sentence when the vocabulary is relatively common. To Abandon In American Schools Essay? KLA 501.

Revise vague, clumsy, and confusing writing. KLA 502. Delete redundant and wordy material when the meaning of the entire sentence must be considered. KLA 503. Revise expressions that deviate in subtle ways from the style and tone of the essay.

KLA 504. Determine the need for conjunctions to create logical links between clauses. Nike Case Study? KLA 505. Use the word or phrase most appropriate in terms of the content of the sentence when the vocabulary is uncommon. High? KLA 601. Revise vague, clumsy, and confusing writing involving sophisticated language. KLA 602. Delete redundant and wordy material that involves fairly sophisticated language (e.g., “the outlook of an aesthetic viewpoint”) or that sounds acceptable as conversational English.

KLA 603. Determine the need for of social contract conjunctions to create subtle logical links between clauses. KLA 604. Use the word or phrase most appropriate in Reasons Sports terms of the content of the sentence when the vocabulary is fairly sophisticated. KLA 701. Delete redundant and wordy material that involves sophisticated language or complex concepts or where the material is redundant in terms of the paragraph or essay as a whole. KLA 702. Use the word or phrase most appropriate in terms of the content of the doorway sentence when the vocabulary is sophisticated. Conventions of Standard English Grammar, Usage, and Punctuation. SST 201. Reasons To Abandon Sponsoring Sports? Determine the need for punctuation or conjunctions to Essay, join simple clauses.

SST 202. Recognize and correct inappropriate shifts in verb tense between simple clauses in Reasons Sponsoring in American Schools Essay a sentence or between simple adjoining sentences. SST 301. To Where Move The Center? Determine the need for punctuation or conjunctions to correct awkward-sounding fragments and fused sentences as well as obviously faulty subordination and coordination of Sponsoring Sports High Schools Essay, clauses. SST 302. Recognize and correct inappropriate shifts in the center roman empire verb tense and voice when the meaning of the entire sentence must be considered.

SST 401. Recognize and correct marked disturbances in sentence structure (e.g., faulty placement of adjectives, participial phrase fragments, missing or incorrect relative pronouns, dangling or misplaced modifiers, lack of Sponsoring in American High Essay, parallelism within a simple series of verbs) SST 501. Recognize and correct disturbances in nike case study sentence structure (e.g., faulty placement of phrases, faulty coordination and subordination of clauses, lack of parallelism within a simple series of phrases) SST 502. Sports? Maintain consistent and logical verb tense and pronoun person on the basis of the preceding clause or sentence. Examples Contract? SST 601. Recognize and correct subtle disturbances in sentence structure (e.g., danglers where the intended meaning is clear but the Reasons Sports in American High Essay sentence is ungrammatical, faulty subordination and haunted doorway coordination of clauses in long or involved sentences) SST 602.

Maintain consistent and logical verb tense and voice and pronoun person on the basis of the paragraph or essay as a whole. SST 701. Recognize and correct very subtle disturbances in to Abandon Sponsoring Sports in American High Essay sentence structure (e.g., weak conjunctions between independent clauses, run-ons that would be acceptable in conversational English, lack of parallelism within a complex series of about NASA, phrases or clauses) USG 201. To Abandon In American Essay? Form the past tense and past participle of irregular but commonly used verbs. USG 202. Form comparative and superlative adjectives. USG 301.

Determine whether an adjective form or an adverb form is called for in a given situation. USG 302. Ensure straightforward subject-verb agreement. USG 303. Ensure straightforward pronoun-antecedent agreement. USG 304. Use idiomatically appropriate prepositions in simple contexts.

USG 305. Use the Essay on Emotions appropriate word in frequently confused pairs (e.g., there and their , past and in American High passed , led and lead ) USG 401. Use the correct comparative or superlative adjective or adverb form depending on nike case study context (e.g., “He is the Sponsoring Sports Schools oldest of my three brothers”) USG 402. Ensure subject-verb agreement when there is some text between the subject and verb. USG 403. Use idiomatically appropriate prepositions, especially in combination with verbs (e.g., long for , appeal to ) USG 404. Recognize and correct expressions that deviate from idiomatic English.

USG 501. Form simple and compound verb tenses, both regular and haunted irregular, including forming verbs by using have rather than of (e.g., would have gone , not would of Reasons to Abandon Sports, gone ) USG 502. Ensure pronoun-antecedent agreement when the pronoun and antecedent occur in separate clauses or sentences. House Doorway? USG 503. Recognize and correct vague and ambiguous pronouns. Sponsoring In American High Schools Essay? USG 601. Ensure subject-verb agreement in some challenging situations (e.g., when the subject-verb order is inverted or when the subject is an indefinite pronoun) USG 602. Correctly use reflexive pronouns, the examples possessive pronouns its and your , and the relative pronouns who and whom. USG 603.

Use the appropriate word in Reasons to Abandon Sports High Essay less-common confused pairs (e.g., allude and elude ) USG 701. Ensure subject-verb agreement when a phrase or clause between the subject and verb suggests a different number for the verb. USG 702. Use idiomatically and contextually appropriate prepositions in combination with verbs in situations involving sophisticated language or complex concepts. PUN 201. Delete commas that create basic sense problems (e.g., between verb and direct object) PUN 301. Delete commas that markedly disturb sentence flow (e.g., between modifier and modified element) PUN 302. Use appropriate punctuation in straightforward situations (e.g., simple items in a series) PUN 401. Delete commas when an incorrect understanding of the sentence suggests a pause that should be punctuated (e.g., between verb and direct object clause) PUN 402. Delete apostrophes used incorrectly to form plural nouns.

PUN 403. Use commas to avoid obvious ambiguity (e.g., to set off a long introductory element from the rest of the sentence when a misreading is possible) PUN 404. Use commas to examples of social contract, set off simple parenthetical elements. PUN 501. Delete commas in long or involved sentences when an incorrect understanding of the in American Schools Essay sentence suggests a pause that should be punctuated (e.g., between the elements of a compound subject or compound verb joined by and ) PUN 502. Recognize and correct inappropriate uses of colons and semicolons. PUN 503. Use punctuation to set off complex parenthetical elements. PUN 504.

Use apostrophes to form simple possessive nouns. PUN 601. Use commas to avoid ambiguity when the syntax or language is sophisticated (e.g., to examples contract, set off a complex series of items) PUN 602. Use punctuation to set off a nonessential/ nonrestrictive appositive or clause. PUN 603. Reasons Sports In American Schools Essay? Use apostrophes to form possessives, including irregular plural nouns. PUN 604. One Get One Free Story That Converted Coupon? Use a semicolon to link closely related independent clauses. PUN 701. Delete punctuation around essential/restrictive appositives or clauses. PUN 702.

Use a colon to introduce an example or an elaboration. Score Range 1–12. Score Range 13–15. Reasons To Abandon Sponsoring Sports In American High Schools? Score Range 16–19. Score Range 20–23. Score Range 24–27. Score Range 28–32. Standards are provided for each Mathematics Test score range except the 1–12 range. Students who score in the 1–12 range are most likely beginning to develop the The Buy One Free Coupon Story Converted Becoming An Avid knowledge and skills assessed in the other ranges.

Students who score in the 1–12 range are most likely beginning to develop the knowledge and skills assessed in the other ranges. Students who achieve the 28–32 level are likely able to use variables fluently so that they can solve problems with variables in Sponsoring Sports High Schools the same way that they can solve the problems with numbers, and they can use variables to Story Converted Me To Becoming An Avid, represent general properties. Because Algebra and Functions are closely connected, some standards apply to both categories. These have the abbreviation AF and are listed in both categories. N 201.

Perform one-operation computation with whole numbers and decimals. N 202. Schools Essay? Recognize equivalent fractions and fractions in lowest terms. N 203. Locate positive rational numbers (expressed as whole numbers, fractions, decimals, and mixed numbers) on the number line. N 301. Recognize one-digit factors of a number. N 302. Identify a digit’s place value.

N 303. Locate rational numbers on nike case study the number line. Note: A matrix as a representation of data is treated here as a basic table. Sponsoring Sports High Schools? N 401. Exhibit knowledge of elementary number concepts such as rounding, the ordering of decimals, pattern identification, primes, and greatest common factor.

N 402. Write positive powers of 10 by using exponents. Move The Center Empire In 330?? N 403. Comprehend the Reasons to Abandon Sponsoring Sports in American High Essay concept of length on house doorway the number line, and find the distance between two points. N 404. To Abandon Sponsoring Sports In American High Essay? Understand absolute value in terms of distance. N 405. Find the distance in the coordinate plane between two points with the same x -coordinate or y -coordinate. N 406. Add two matrices that have whole number entries.

N 501. Order fractions. N 502. Find and use the least common multiple. N 503. Work with numerical factors. Coupon Converted Me To An Avid Coupon User? N 504. Exhibit some knowledge of the complex numbers. N 505. Add and subtract matrices that have integer entries. To Abandon Sponsoring Sports In American High? N 601.

Apply number properties involving prime factorization. N 602. The Buy Coupon Story Converted Me To An Avid User? Apply number properties involving even/odd numbers and factors/multiples. N 603. Apply number properties involving positive/negative numbers. N 604. Apply the facts that ? is Reasons High Essay irrational and that the square root of an integer is rational only to where did constantine move if that integer is a perfect square.

N 605. Apply properties of rational exponents. N 606. Multiply two complex numbers. N 607. Use relations involving addition, subtraction, and scalar multiplication of vectors and of matrices. N 701. Analyze and draw conclusions based on number concepts. N 702. To Abandon Sponsoring Sports In American Essay? Apply properties of rational numbers and the rational number system. N 703.

Apply properties of real numbers and the real number system, including properties of irrational numbers. Contract? N 704. Apply properties of complex numbers and the complex number system. N 705. Multiply matrices.

N 706. Apply properties of matrices and properties of matrices as a number system. AF 201. Sponsoring Sports Schools? Solve problems in one or two steps using whole numbers and using decimals in the context of Essay The Final, money. A 201. Exhibit knowledge of basic expressions (e.g., identify an expression for a total as b + g ) A 202. Solve equations in the form x + a = b , where a and b are whole numbers or decimals. AF 301. Solve routine one-step arithmetic problems using positive rational numbers, such as single-step percent.

AF 302. Solve some routine two-step arithmetic problems. AF 303. Relate a graph to a situation described qualitatively in terms of familiar properties such as before and after, increasing and decreasing, higher and lower. AF 304.

Apply a definition of an Reasons to Abandon Sports Schools operation for whole numbers (e.g., a • b = 3 a – b ) A 301. Substitute whole numbers for unknown quantities to evaluate expressions. A 302. Solve one-step equations to get integer or decimal answers. AF 401.

Solve routine two-step or three-step arithmetic problems involving concepts such as rate and proportion, tax added, percentage off, and estimating by using a given average value in place of actual values. AF 402. Perform straightforward word-to-symbol translations. AF 403. Relate a graph to a situation described in terms of a starting value and an additional amount per unit (e.g., unit cost, weekly growth) A 401.

Evaluate algebraic expressions by substituting integers for unknown quantities. A 402. Add and subtract simple algebraic expressions. A 403. Solve routine first-degree equations. A 404. Multiply two binomials.

A 405. Match simple inequalities with their graphs on the number line (e.g., x? –3 5 x? –35 ) A 406. One Free Story That Converted Me To User? Exhibit knowledge of slope. Reasons To Abandon Sports In American Schools? AF 501. Solve multistep arithmetic problems that involve planning or converting common derived units of measure (e.g., feet per second to and Space:, miles per hour) AF 502.

Build functions and write expressions, equations, or inequalities with a single variable for common pre-algebra settings (e.g., rate and distance problems and problems that can be solved by using proportions) AF 503. Match linear equations with their graphs in the coordinate plane. A 501. Reasons Sponsoring Sports In American Schools? Recognize that when numerical quantities are reported in real-world contexts, the numbers are often rounded. A 502. Solve real-world problems by using first-degree equations. A 503. Solve first-degree inequalities when the method does not involve reversing the inequality sign. A 504. Match compound inequalities with their graphs on the number line (e.g., –10.5 x ? 20.3) A 505. Add, subtract, and multiply polynomials.

A 506. Identify solutions to simple quadratic equations. Me To Coupon User? A 507. Solve quadratic equations in the form ( x + a )( x + b ) = 0, where a and b are numbers or variables. A 508. Reasons To Abandon In American Schools Essay? Factor simple quadratics (e.g., the house doorway difference of squares and perfect square trinomials) A 509. Work with squares and square roots of numbers. A 510. Work with cubes and cube roots of numbers.

A 511. Work with scientific notation. A 512. Sponsoring Sports In American Schools? Work problems involving positive integer exponents. A 513. Determine when an expression is undefined. A 514. On Emotions Brain? Determine the slope of a line from an equation. AF 601.

Solve word problems containing several rates, proportions, or percentages. AF 602. Build functions and write expressions, equations, and inequalities for common algebra settings (e.g., distance to a point on a curve and profit for variable cost and demand) AF 603. Interpret and use information from graphs in the coordinate plane. AF 604. Given an equation or function, find an equation or function whose graph is a translation by a specified amount up or down. A 601. Manipulate expressions and equations. Reasons To Abandon Sponsoring Sports In American Schools? A 602. Solve linear inequalities when the method involves reversing the inequality sign.

A 603. Of Social Contract? Match linear inequalities with their graphs on the number line. A 604. Reasons To Abandon Sponsoring High Essay? Solve systems of two linear equations. A 605. Solve quadratic equations. A 606. Solve absolute value equations.

AF 701. Solve complex arithmetic problems involving percent of increase or decrease or requiring integration of several concepts (e.g., using several ratios, comparing percentages, or comparing averages) AF 702. Build functions and write expressions, equations, and nike case study inequalities when the process requires planning and/or strategic manipulation. AF 703. Analyze and draw conclusions based on properties of algebra and/or functions. AF 704. Reasons Sponsoring In American Schools Essay? Analyze and draw conclusions based on information from graphs in the coordinate plane. AF 705. Identify characteristics of graphs based on a set of conditions or on a general equation such as y = ax ? + c. AF 706. Given an equation or function, find an equation or function whose graph is a translation by specified amounts in the horizontal and vertical directions.

A 701. The Buy One Get One Free Story Me To Coupon User? Solve simple absolute value inequalities. A 702. To Abandon Schools? Match simple quadratic inequalities with their graphs on the number line. A 703. Apply the remainder theorem for polynomials, that P ( a ) is the Essay on Emotions and The Brain remainder when P ( x ) is Sponsoring divided by ( x – a ) AF 201. Essay About? Solve problems in one or two steps using whole numbers and Reasons to Abandon Sponsoring Sports High Schools using decimals in the context of nike case study, money.

F 201. Extend a given pattern by a few terms for patterns that have a constant increase or decrease between terms. AF 301. Solve routine one-step arithmetic problems using positive rational numbers, such as single-step percent. To Abandon Essay? AF 302.

Solve some routine two-step arithmetic problems. AF 303. House? Relate a graph to a situation described qualitatively in terms of familiar properties such as before and after, increasing and decreasing, higher and lower. AF 304. Apply a definition of an operation for whole numbers (e.g., a • b = 3 a – b ) F 301. Extend a given pattern by a few terms for patterns that have a constant factor between terms.

AF 401. Reasons Sports In American High Essay? Solve routine two-step or three-step arithmetic problems involving concepts such as rate and The Buy One Get Coupon Story Converted Me To An Avid proportion, tax added, percentage off, and estimating by in American High Schools Essay, using a given average value in nike case study place of actual values. AF 402. Reasons Sports Schools? Perform straightforward word-to-symbol translations. AF 403. Relate a graph to a situation described in terms of a starting value and an additional amount per unit (e.g., unit cost, weekly growth) F 401. Evaluate linear and quadratic functions, expressed in function notation, at nike case study integer values. AF 501. Solve multistep arithmetic problems that involve planning or converting common derived units of Sports Schools, measure (e.g., feet per second to miles per did constantine of the roman, hour) AF 502. Build functions and write expressions, equations, or inequalities with a single variable for Reasons to Abandon in American High Schools Essay common pre-algebra settings (e.g., rate and distance problems and problems that can be solved by using proportions) AF 503.

Match linear equations with their graphs in the coordinate plane. F 501. Evaluate polynomial functions, expressed in function notation, at integer values. F 502. Find the next term in a sequence described recursively. To Where Move The Center Roman? F 503. Reasons In American High Essay? Build functions and use quantitative information to identify graphs for relations that are proportional or linear. F 504. Attend to the difference between a function modeling a situation and the reality of the situation. Nike Case Study? F 505. Understand the concept of Reasons to Abandon Sponsoring Sports in American High Essay, a function as having a well-defined output value at each valid input value.

F 506. Understand the concept of Essay on Emotions Brain, domain and range in terms of valid input and Reasons to Abandon Sponsoring Sports High Schools Essay output, and in terms of function graphs. F 507. Interpret statements that use function notation in terms of their context. F 508. Find the domain of polynomial functions and rational functions.

F 509. Find the range of polynomial functions. F 510. Find where a rational function’s graph has a vertical asymptote. F 511. Use function notation for simple functions of two variables. AF 601. Solve word problems containing several rates, proportions, or percentages. AF 602. Build functions and write expressions, equations, and inequalities for common algebra settings (e.g., distance to a point on a curve and profit for variable cost and demand) AF 603. Interpret and use information from haunted house graphs in the coordinate plane.

AF 604. Given an equation or function, find an equation or function whose graph is a translation by a specified amount up or down. To Abandon Sports High? F 601. Relate a graph to examples, a situation described qualitatively in terms of in American High Essay, faster change or slower change. F 602. Build functions for relations that are inversely proportional. F 603.

Find a recursive expression for the general term in a sequence described recursively. F 604. Evaluate composite functions at integer values. Doorway? AF 701. Solve complex arithmetic problems involving percent of increase or decrease or requiring integration of several concepts (e.g., using several ratios, comparing percentages, or comparing averages) AF 702. Build functions and write expressions, equations, and inequalities when the Sponsoring Sports in American High Schools Essay process requires planning and/or strategic manipulation. AF 703. Analyze and draw conclusions based on properties of Essay, algebra and/or functions. AF 704.

Analyze and draw conclusions based on information from graphs in the coordinate plane. Reasons Sponsoring? AF 705. Identify characteristics of haunted house doorway, graphs based on Reasons to Abandon Sponsoring in American Schools a set of of social contract, conditions or on a general equation such as y = ax ? + c. AF 706. Given an equation or function, find an equation or function whose graph is a translation by in American Essay, specified amounts in the horizontal and vertical directions. F 701. Compare actual values and the values of examples, a modeling function to judge model fit and compare models. To Abandon Essay? F 702. Build functions for relations that are exponential. F 703. Exhibit knowledge of geometric sequences.

F 704. Exhibit knowledge of unit circle trigonometry. Examples Of Social? F 705. Match graphs of basic trigonometric functions with their equations. Reasons In American? F 706. Use trigonometric concepts and basic identities to solve problems. F 707. Exhibit knowledge of logarithms. NASA Frontier? F 708. Write an expression for the composite of two simple functions. G 201.

Estimate the length of Reasons to Abandon Sponsoring Sports Essay, a line segment based on other lengths in a geometric figure. G 202. Calculate the length of a line segment based on the lengths of other line segments that go in examples of social contract the same direction (e.g., overlapping line segments and parallel sides of polygons with only right angles) G 203. Perform common conversions of money and of length, weight, mass, and time within a measurement system (e.g., dollars to dimes, inches to feet, and hours to minutes) G 301. Exhibit some knowledge of the angles associated with parallel lines. Reasons To Abandon Essay? G 302. Compute the perimeter of polygons when all side lengths are given.

G 303. Compute the area of rectangles when whole number dimensions are given. About NASA And Space: The Final Frontier? G 304. Locate points in the first quadrant. G 401. Reasons Sponsoring In American Schools Essay? Use properties of parallel lines to find the measure of an angle. G 402. Exhibit knowledge of basic angle properties and special sums of angle measures (e.g., 90°, 180°, and 360°) G 403. Compute the area and perimeter of triangles and rectangles in Essay about NASA and Space: The Final simple problems. G 404.

Find the length of the to Abandon Sponsoring Sports Schools hypotenuse of Essay about and Space:, a right triangle when only very simple computation is involved (e.g., 3-4-5 and 6-8-10 triangles) G 405. Use geometric formulas when all necessary information is given. To Abandon Sponsoring Sports In American High Schools? G 406. Essay? Locate points in the coordinate plane. G 407. Translate points up, down, left, and right in the coordinate plane. G 501.

Use several angle properties to Sponsoring Schools, find an did constantine move the center of the empire in 330? unknown angle measure. G 502. Count the number of lines of symmetry of a geometric figure. G 503. Use symmetry of isosceles triangles to find unknown side lengths or angle measures.

G 504. Recognize that real-world measurements are typically imprecise and that an appropriate level of precision is related to the measuring device and Reasons to Abandon Sponsoring in American Schools procedure. G 505. Compute the perimeter of on Emotions and The Brain, simple composite geometric figures with unknown side lengths. G 506.

Compute the area of triangles and Sponsoring in American Schools rectangles when one or more additional simple steps are required. G 507. Compute the area and circumference of circles after identifying necessary information. G 508. Given the length of two sides of a right triangle, find the nike case study third when the lengths are Pythagorean triples. G 509.

Express the sine, cosine, and tangent of an angle in a right triangle as a ratio of given side lengths. G 510. Determine the slope of a line from points or a graph. G 511. Reasons Sponsoring High Essay? Find the midpoint of a line segment. G 512. Find the coordinates of a point rotated 180° around a given center point. G 601. Use relationships involving area, perimeter, and volume of geometric figures to compute another measure (e.g., surface area for a cube of a given volume and simple geometric probability) G 602. Nike Case Study? Use the Pythagorean theorem.

G 603. Apply properties of 30°-60°-90°, 45°-45°-90°, similar, and congruent triangles. G 604. Apply basic trigonometric ratios to to Abandon Sponsoring Sports in American High Schools, solve right-triangle problems. G 605. Use the distance formula. G 606. Use properties of parallel and perpendicular lines to determine an equation of a line or coordinates of a point. G 607. Find the coordinates of a point reflected across a vertical or horizontal line or across y = x. G 608.

Find the coordinates of a point rotated 90° about the origin. G 609. Recognize special characteristics of parabolas and circles (e.g., the vertex of a parabola and the center or radius of contract, a circle) G 701. To Abandon Sponsoring Sports? Use relationships among angles, arcs, and distances in a circle. G 702. Compute the area of composite geometric figures when planning and/or visualization is required. G 703.

Use scale factors to determine the magnitude of a size change. G 704. Analyze and draw conclusions based on a set of Essay on Emotions and The, conditions. To Abandon Sports Schools Essay? G 705. Solve multistep geometry problems that involve integrating concepts, planning, and/or visualization. S 201. Of The Empire? Calculate the average of a list of positive whole numbers.

S 202. To Abandon Essay? Extract one relevant number from a basic table or chart, and haunted use it in a single computation. S 301. Calculate the average of a list of numbers. S 302. Calculate the average given the number of data values and the sum of the data values. S 303. Read basic tables and charts. S 304.

Extract relevant data from a basic table or chart and use the data in a computation. S 305. To Abandon Sponsoring In American High Schools Essay? Use the of social contract relationship between the probability of an Reasons Sports Essay event and the probability of its complement. S 401. Calculate the missing data value given the and Space: average and all data values but one. S 402. Translate from one representation of data to another (e.g., a bar graph to Sponsoring Sports Essay, a circle graph) S 403. Determine the NASA The Final Frontier probability of a simple event.

S 404. Describe events as combinations of other events (e.g., using and Reasons to Abandon Sponsoring High Essay , or , and not ) S 405. Exhibit knowledge of simple counting techniques. S 501. Calculate the average given the frequency counts of all the data values. S 502.

Manipulate data from tables and charts. Of Social Contract? S 503. Compute straightforward probabilities for common situations. Sponsoring In American Schools? S 504. Use Venn diagrams in counting. S 505. Recognize that when data summaries are reported in the real world, results are often rounded and must be interpreted as having appropriate precision. S 506. Recognize that when a statistical model is used, model values typically differ from actual values. S 601. Calculate or use a weighted average.

S 602. Interpret and examples of social contract use information from tables and Reasons to Abandon in American High Essay charts, including two-way frequency tables. Move The Center Of The Empire? S 603. Sponsoring Sports Essay? Apply counting techniques. S 604. Compute a probability when the event and/or sample space are not given or obvious. S 605. Recognize the Essay concepts of conditional and joint probability expressed in real-world contexts. S 606. Recognize the concept of independence expressed in real-world contexts.

S 701. Distinguish between mean, median, and to Abandon in American High Schools mode for a list of numbers. S 702. Analyze and draw conclusions based on information from tables and charts, including two-way frequency tables. S 703. Understand the role of randomization in One Get One Free Converted Me To Becoming An Avid Coupon surveys, experiments, and observational studies.

S 704. Exhibit knowledge of conditional and joint probability. S 705. Recognize that part of the power of statistical modeling comes from looking at regularity in the differences between actual values and model values. Score Range 1–12. Score Range 13–15. To Abandon Sponsoring High Schools? Score Range 16–19. Score Range 20–23. Score Range 24–27. Score Range 28–32.

Standards are provided for each Reading Test score range except the 1–12 range. Students who score in the 1–12 range are most likely beginning to develop the knowledge and skills assessed in the other ranges. CLR 201. Locate basic facts (e.g., names, dates, events) clearly stated in a passage. CLR 202.

Draw simple logical conclusions about the main characters in somewhat challenging literary narratives. CLR 301. Locate simple details at the sentence and paragraph level in of social somewhat challenging passages. CLR 302. Draw simple logical conclusions in somewhat challenging passages. CLR 401.

Locate important details in somewhat challenging passages. CLR 402. Draw logical conclusions in Sports in American High somewhat challenging passages. CLR 403. Draw simple logical conclusions in more challenging passages. CLR 404. Paraphrase some statements as they are used in somewhat challenging passages. About NASA Frontier? CLR 501. Locate and interpret minor or subtly stated details in somewhat challenging passages. CLR 502. Locate important details in Reasons to Abandon Sports in American Schools more challenging passages.

CLR 503. Draw subtle logical conclusions in somewhat challenging passages. CLR 504. Draw logical conclusions in more challenging passages. Examples Of Social? CLR 505. Paraphrase virtually any statement as it is used in somewhat challenging passages. CLR 506. Paraphrase some statements as they are used in more challenging passages. CLR 601. Locate and interpret minor or subtly stated details in more challenging passages. CLR 602.

Locate important details in complex passages. CLR 603. Draw subtle logical conclusions in more challenging passages. CLR 604. Draw simple logical conclusions in complex passages. CLR 605. Reasons Sponsoring Essay? Paraphrase virtually any statement as it is used in more challenging passages. CLR 701. Locate and interpret minor or subtly stated details in complex passages.

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Score Range 16–19. Score Range 20–23. Score Range 24–27. Score Range 28–32. Scores below 3 do not permit useful generalizations about students’ writing abilities. Score Range 9-10. Score Range 11-12. Expressing Judgements (EXJ) EXJ 201. Essay NASA The Final Frontier? Show a little understanding of the in American High persuasive purpose of the task but neglect to take or to maintain a position on nike case study the issue in the prompt. EXJ 202.

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DEV 502. Frontier? Show clear movement between general and specific ideas and examples. DEV 601. Provide ample development in support of ideas; substantiate ideas with precise use of specific, logical reasons and illustrative examples. DEV 602. Show effective movement between general and specific ideas and examples. Organizing Ideas (ORI) ORI 201.

Provide a discernible organizational structure by grouping together a few ideas. ORI 202. Use transitional words and Reasons High phrases that are simple and obvious, or occasionally misleading. ORI 203. Present a minimal introduction and conclusion.

ORI 301. Provide a simple organizational structure by logically grouping some ideas. ORI 302. Use simple and obvious transitional words and phrases. ORI 303. Present an underdeveloped introduction and conclusion. ORI 401.

Provide an adequate but simple organizational structure by logically grouping most ideas. ORI 402. Use some appropriate transitional words and phrases. ORI 403. Present a somewhat developed introduction and conclusion. ORI 501. Provide a coherent organizational structure with some logical sequencing of ideas. ORI 502.

Use accurate and clear transitional words and phrases to convey logical relationships between ideas. ORI 503. Present a generally well-developed introduction and conclusion. ORI 601. Provide a unified, coherent organizational structure that presents a logical progression of ideas. ORI 602. Use precise transitional words, phrases, and Essay NASA sentences to convey logical relationships between ideas. ORI 603. Present a well-developed introduction that effectively frames the prompt’s issue and writer’s argument; present a well-developed conclusion that extends the essay’s ideas. Using Language (USL) USL 201.

Show limited control of language by. correctly employing some of the conventions of standard English grammar, usage, and mechanics, but with distracting errors that sometimes significantly impede understanding choosing words that are simplistic or vague using only simple sentence structure. USL 301. Show a basic control of language by. correctly employing some of the Sports Schools conventions of standard English grammar, usage, and mechanics, but with distracting errors that sometimes impede understanding choosing words that are simple but generally appropriate using a little sentence variety. Of Social Contract? USL 401. Show adequate use of language to communicate by. correctly employing many of the conventions of standard English grammar, usage, and to Abandon Sports High Schools mechanics, but with some distracting errors that may occasionally impede understanding choosing words that are appropriate using some varied kinds of sentence structures to roman empire in 330?, vary pace. USL 501. Show competent use of Reasons to Abandon Sponsoring High Schools Essay, language to empire in 330?, communicate ideas by. correctly employing most conventions of to Abandon Sports in American, standard English grammar, usage, and did constantine the center empire in 330? mechanics, with a few distracting errors but none that impede understanding generally choosing words that are precise and Reasons Sponsoring Sports varied using several kinds of sentence structures to vary pace and to support meaning. USL 601.

Show effective use of language to communicate ideas clearly by. correctly employing most conventions of standard English grammar, usage, and One Get One Free Coupon Story Converted Me To An Avid mechanics, with just a few, if any, errors consistently choosing words that are precise and varied using a variety of kinds of sentence structures to vary pace and to support meaning. Score Range 9–10. How ACT Assessments Align with State College and Career Readiness Standards. This white paper looks at how college and career readiness is measured. Among the findings: When state standards represent knowledge and skills that prepare students for college and to Abandon High Schools Essay career, then ACT Aspire® and to where did constantine of the in 330? the ACT® test can help measure them.

Ongoing Process of Validity Research at ACT. ACT is committed to to Abandon Sponsoring Sports Schools Essay, validity research. The first type of validity research ACT conducts is content validity, designed to answer the house doorway following question: Does a test measure what it aims to measure? This essentially involves the validation of the Reasons Sports in American Schools Essay ACT College and Career Readiness Standards, which are built on a foundation of years of empirical data. House? Tools used in to Abandon in American High Schools Essay the validation process include the ACT National Curriculum Survey ® . The Survey helps to inform the test blueprint for the assessments (see figure). Results from the assessments are used to validate the ACT College and Career Readiness Standards, as well as the ACT College Readiness Benchmarks. (The figure represents only the validation cycle, not how the ACT Standards and Benchmarks were derived.) The second type of validity research ACT conducts is doorway predictive validity. This research uses data about actual course performance to to Abandon High, answer a second question: Does a test predict performance in a reliable way? Constant monitoring enables ACT to ensure that—for ACT assessments at least—the answer to the questions of content validity and predictive validity is “yes.” We continually use research and performance results to inform the changes we will make to test blueprints, the ACT College and Career Readiness Standards, and contract the ACT College Readiness Benchmarks.

Examining educational practices and expectations. Conducted every three to five years by ACT, the ACT National Curriculum Survey collects data about to Abandon Schools Essay, what entering college students should know and of social be able to do to be ready for college-level coursework in English, math, reading, and science. ACT Aspire maps progress from grades 3 - 12 on a vertical scale, anchored to the scoring system of the ACT. Skills in four key areas, beyond academic abilities alone, are critical to college and career success. We#39;re always improving the ACT, and we keep you informed along the way.

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Italy, diplomatically aligned with Germany and Austria since the Sponsoring Sports High Triple Alliance of 1882, declared its neutrality on 3 August. Examples Of Social Contract! In the following months it was ardently courted by France and Britain. On 23 May 1915 the Italian government succumbed to in American Schools, Allied temptations and declared war on Austria-Hungary in pursuit of territorial aggrandizement in the Trentino. Bulgaria invaded Serbia on 7 October 1915 and sealed that pugnacious country's fate. Serbia was overrun. The road to Constantinople was opened to the Central Powers. Romania prevaricated about which side to join, but finally chose the Allies in August 1916, encouraged by the success of the Russian 'Brusilov Offensive'. It was a fatal miscalculation. The German response was swift and decisive. Romania was rapidly overwhelmed by two invading German armies and its rich supplies of wheat and oil did much to keep Germany in the war for another two years.

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During this period the Germans stood mainly on the defensive, but they showed during the Second Battle of Ypres (22 April-25 May 1915), and more especially during the Battle of Verdun (21 February-18 December 1916), a dangerous capacity to disrupt their enemies' plans. The French made three major assaults on the German line: in the spring of 1915 in to Abandon Sponsoring High Essay Artois; in the autumn of 1915 in Champagne; and in the spring of 1917 on the Aisne (the 'Nivelle Offensive'). These attacks were characterized by the intensity of the fighting and the absence of achievement. Little ground was gained. No positions of strategic significance were captured. Casualties were severe.

The failure of the Nivelle Offensive led to a serious breakdown of morale in the French army. For much of the rest of 1917 it was incapable of major offensive action. The British fared little better. The Buy One Get One Free Coupon That Converted Becoming An Avid Coupon User! Although their armies avoided mutiny they came no closer to breaching the German line. During the battles of the Reasons Sponsoring in American High Schools Somme (1 July19 November 1916) and the Third Battle of Essay on Emotions and The Brain, Ypres (31 July-12 November 1917) they inflicted great losses on the German army at great cost to themselves, but the German line held and no end to the war appeared in Sports in American Schools Essay sight.

The final phase of the war in the west lasted from 21 March until 11 November 1918. This saw Germany once more attempt to achieve victory with a knock-out blow and once more fail. The German attacks used sophisticated new artillery and infantry tactics. They enjoyed spectacular success. The British 5th Army on the Somme suffered a major defeat. But the British line held in front of Amiens and of the roman empire in 330?, later to the north in to Abandon Sports High Schools front of of social contract, Ypres. No real strategic damage was done. By midsummer the German attacks had petered out. Reasons To Abandon In American Schools Essay! The German offensive broke the trench deadlock and returned movement and man#156;uvre to the strategic agenda. It also compelled closer Allied military co-operation under a French generalissimo, General Ferdinand Foch. The Allied counter-offensive began in July.

At the Battle of nike case study, Amiens, on 8 August, the British struck the German army a severe blow. For the rest of the war in the west the Germans were in retreat. On the Sports High Schools Essay Eastern Front in Galicia and haunted house doorway, Russian Poland the Germans and their Austrian allies fought the gallant but disorganized armies of Russia. Reasons Sponsoring Schools Essay! Here the distances involved were very great. Artillery densities were correspondingly less.

Man#156;uvre was always possible and cavalry could operate effectively. This did nothing to lessen casualties, which were greater even than those on the Western Front. The war in the east was shaped by German strength, Austrian weakness, and Russian determination. German military superiority was apparent from the start of the war. The Russians suffered two crushing defeats in 1914, at Tannenberg (26-31 August) and the Masurian Lakes (5-15 September). These victories ensured the security of Germany's eastern frontiers for the rest of the war. They also established the military legend of Field-Marshal Paul von Hindenburg and General Erich Ludendorff, who emerged as principal directors of the German war effort in the autumn of 1916. By September 1915 the Russians had been driven out of Poland, Lithuania, and Courland. Austro-German armies occupied Warsaw and the Russian frontier fortresses of Ivangorod, Kovno, Novo-Georgievsk, and nike case study, Brest-Litovsk.

These defeats proved costly to Russia. They also proved costly to Austria. Austria had a disastrous war. Italian entry into the war compelled the Austrians to fight an three fronts: against to Abandon Schools Essay, Serbia in the Balkans; against nike case study, Russia in Galicia; against Italy in the Trentino. This proved too much for Austrian strength. Their war effort was characterized by dependency on Germany. Germans complained that they were shackled to the 'Austrian corpse'.

The war exacerbated the to Abandon in American High Austro-Hungarian Empire's many ethnic and national tensions. By 1918 Austria was weary of the war and desperate for peace. This had a major influence on the German decision to seek a victory in the west in the spring of 1918. Perceptions of the Russian war effort have been overshadowed by the October Revolution of 1917 and by Bolshevik 'revolutionary defeatism' which acquiesced in the punitive Treaty of Brest-Litovsk (14 March 1918) and to where of the empire, took Russia out of the war. This has obscured the astonishing Russian determination to Reasons Sponsoring Sports in American High Essay, keep faith with the Franco-British alliance. Without the Russian contribution in the east it is far from certain that Germany could have been defeated in haunted house the west.

The unhesitating Russian willingness to aid their western allies is nowhere more apparent than in the 'Brusilov Offensive' (June-September 1916), which resulted in the capture of the to Abandon Sports Essay Bukovina and large parts of Galicia, as well as 350,000 Austrian prisoners, but at a cost to Russia which ultimately proved mortal. In southern Europe the Italian army fought eleven indecisive battles in an attempt to dislodge the Austrians from their mountain strongholds beyond the Isonzo river. In October 1917 Austrian reinforcement by seven German divisions resulted in on Emotions Brain a major Italian defeat at Caporetto. The Italians were pushed back beyond the Piave. This defeat produced changes in Sports in American High the Italian high command. During 1918 Italy discovered a new unity of purpose and a greater degree of organization. On 24 October 1918 Italian and British forces recrossed the move of the empire in 330? Piave and split the Austrian armies in two at Vittorio Veneto.

Austrian retreat turned into rout and then into surrender. In the Balkans the Serbs fought the Austrians and Bulgarians, suffering massive casualties, including the highest proportion of servicemen killed of any belligerent power. In October 1915 a Franco-British army was sent to Macedonia to operate against the Bulgarians. It struggled to have any influence on the war. Reasons To Abandon Sponsoring In American High Schools Essay! The Germans mocked it and declared Salonika to be the biggest internment camp in Europe, but the French and British eventually broke out nike case study, of the malarial plains into the mountainous valleys of the Vardar and Struma rivers before inflicting defeat on Bulgaria in Reasons in American High the autumn of 1918.

In the Middle East British armies fought the to where did constantine of the empire in 330? Turks in a major conflict with far-reaching consequences. Here the war was characterized by the doggedness of Sports in American Essay, Turkish resistance and by the constant struggle against climate, terrain, and disease. The British attempted to knock Turkey out of the war with an attack on the Gallipoli peninsula in April 1915, but were compelled to withdraw at the end of the year, having failed to break out from their narrow beach-heads in the face of stubborn Turkish resistance, coordinated by a German general, Liman von Sanders. The British also suffered another humiliating reverse in Mesopotamia when a small army commanded by Major-General C. V. F. Townshend advanced to Ctesiphon but outran its supplies and was compelled to surrender at house, Kut-al-Amara in April 1916. Only after the appointment of Sir Stanley Maude to the command of British forces in Mesopotamia did Britain's superior military and economic strength begin to assert itself. Maude's forces captured Baghdad in March 1917, the first clear-cut British victory of the war. The following June General Sir Edmund Allenby was appointed to command British forces in Egypt. He captured Jerusalem by Christmas and in September 1918 annihilated Turkish forces in Palestine.

Turkey surrendered on 31 October 1918. The war also found its way to tropical Africa. To Abandon High Schools! Germany's colonies in West and south-west Africa succumbed to British and contract, South African forces by the spring of 1915. Reasons To Abandon Sponsoring In American Essay! In East Africa, however, a German army of Essay about and Space:, locally raised black African soldiers commanded by Reasons Sponsoring Sports in American Colonel Paul von Lettow-Vorbeck conducted a brilliant guerrilla campaign, leading over nike case study 100,000 British and South African troops a merry dance through the bush and to Abandon Sports High, surrendering only after the defeat of Germany in Europe became known. On and under the oceans of the world, Great Britain and Essay and The, Germany contested naval supremacy. Surface battles took place in to Abandon Sports High Schools Essay the Pacific, the south Atlantic, and the North Sea. The British generally had the contract better of Sports Schools Essay, these despite suffering some disappointments, notably at to where did constantine move the center of the roman, Coronel (1 November 1914) and Jutland (31 May-1 June 1916), the only major fleet engagement, during which Admiral Sir John Jellicoe failed to deliver the expected Nelsonic victory of total annihilation. Sponsoring Sports In American High Schools! Submarine warfare took place in the North Sea, the Black Sea, the Atlantic, the move the center of the roman empire in 330? Mediterranean, and the Baltic.

German resort to unrestricted submarine warfare (February 1917) brought Britain to the verge of Sponsoring Sports High Schools Essay, ruin. German violation of international law and contract, sinking of American ships also helped bring the United States into to Abandon in American Essay the war on the Allied side. The British naval blockade of Germany, massively reinforced by NASA The Final Frontier the Americans from April 1917, played an Reasons Sponsoring Sports in American High Schools important role in German defeat. The geographical scale of the conflict made it very difficult for political and move the center in 330?, military leaders to control events. The obligations of coalition inhibited strategic independence. Short-term military needs often forced the great powers to Sponsoring Sports in American High Schools, allow lesser states a degree of licence they would not have enjoyed in peacetime. Governments' deliberate arousal of popular passions made suggestions of compromise seem treasonable. The ever-rising cost of the military means inflated the political ends. Hopes of One Get One Free Coupon Converted Me To Becoming An Avid, a peaceful new world order began to replace old diplomatic abstractions such as 'the balance of power'. Rationality went out of season.

War aims were obscured. Strategies were distorted. Great Britain entered the war on proclaimed principles of international law and in defence of the rights of to Abandon Sports Schools, small nations. By 1918 the haunted house British government was pursuing a Middle Eastern policy of naked imperialism (in collaboration with the French), while simultaneously encouraging the aspirations of Arab nationalism and promising support for the establishment of a Jewish national home in Palestine. It was truly a war of illusions. Europe's political and military leaders have been subjected to much retrospective criticism for their belief that the #145;war would be over by Reasons Sponsoring Schools Christmas'. This belief was not based on complacency. Even those who predicted with chilling accuracy the murderous nature of First World War battlefields, such as the haunted house doorway Polish banker Jan Bloch, expected the war to be short. This was because they also expected it to be brutal and costly, in both blood and treasure. Sponsoring Sports Essay! No state could be expected to examples contract, sustain such a war for very long without disastrous consequences. The war which gave the lie to these assumptions was the American Civil War.

This had been studied by European military observers at Reasons to Abandon Sponsoring Sports in American High, close quarters. Most, however, dismissed it. This was particularly true of the Prussians. Their own military experience in the wars against Austria (1866) and France (1870-1) seemed more relevant and compelling. These wars were both short. They were also instrumental. In 1914 the Germans sought to replicate the success of their Prussian predecessors. They aimed to fight a 'cabinet war' on the Bismarckian model. One Free Coupon Story Converted Becoming An Avid Coupon! To do so they developed a plan of breath-taking recklessness which depended on the ability of the Reasons to Abandon Sponsoring Schools German army to NASA The Final Frontier, defeat France in the thirty-nine days allowed for a war in the west. Strategic conduct of the Sports Schools Essay First World War was dominated by German attempts to achieve victory through knock-out blows. Erich von Falkenhayn, German commander-in-chief from September 1914 until August 1916, was almost alone in his belief that Germany could obtain an outcome to the war satisfactory to contract, its interests and those of its allies without winning smashing victories of Reasons Sponsoring in American High Schools, total annihilation.

His bloody attempt to win the Essay on Emotions and The Brain war by attrition at to Abandon Sports in American Schools Essay, Verdun in 1916 did little to recommend the strategy to his fellow countrymen. The preference for knock-out blows remained. It was inherited from German history and was central to Germany's pre-war planning. Pre-war German strategy was haunted by the fear of a war on two fronts, against France in the west and move the center in 330?, Russia in the east. The possibility of a diplomatic solution to this dilemma was barely considered by Reasons Sports in American High Schools the military-dominated German government.

A military solution was sought instead. The German high command decided that the best form of defence was attack. They would avoid a war on two fronts by knocking out one of their enemies before the other could take the field. One Get One Free Coupon That Becoming An Avid Coupon User! The enemy with the slowest military mobilization was Russia. The French army would be in the field first.

France was therefore chosen to receive the first blow. Once France was defeated the Reasons to Abandon Sports in American High Essay German armies would turn east and on Emotions and The, defeat Russia. The Schlieffen Plan rested on two assumptions: that it would take the Russians six weeks to put an army into the field; and that six weeks was long enough to defeat France. By 1914 the first assumption was untrue: Russia put an Sponsoring Sports High army into the field in fifteen days. The second assumption left no margin for error, no allowance for the inevitable friction of war, and was always improbable. The failure of the Schlieffen Plan gave the First World War its essential shape. House Doorway! This was maintained by the enduring power of the German army, which was, in John Terraine's phrase, 'the motor of the war'.

The German army was a potent instrument. It had played a historic role in the emergence of the Sponsoring in American Schools German state. It enjoyed enormous prestige. It was able to recruit men of talent and dedication as officers and NCOs. The Buy One Free Coupon That Becoming User! As a result it was well trained and well led. It had the political power to command the resources of Germany's powerful industrial economy. Germany's position at to Abandon Sports in American Schools, the heart of Europe meant that it could operate on interior lines of communication in a European war. The efficient German railway network permitted the on Emotions movement of Sports High, German troops quickly from front to front. The superior speed of the locomotive over the ship frustrated Allied attempts to use their command of the sea to operate effectively against the periphery of the Central Powers. The power of the German army was the fundamental strategic reality of the war. 'We cannot hope to Essay on Emotions, win this war until we have defeated the German army,' wrote the commander-in-chief of the British Expeditionary Force, Field Marshal Sir Douglas Haig.

This was a judgement whose consequences some Allied political leaders were reluctant to embrace. The German army suffered from two important strategic difficulties. The first of these was the inability of the German political system to forge appropriate instruments of strategic control. The second was Great Britain. German government rested on the tortured personality of the Kaiser.

It was riven by intrigue and Schools Essay, indecision. The kind of centralized decision-making structures which eventually evolved in Britain and France (though not in Russia) failed to evolve in Germany. When the Kaiser proved incapable of coordinating German strategy, he was replaced not by a system but by other individuals, seemingly more effective. Field Marshal Paul von Hindenburg radiated calm and inspired confidence. Move Of The Roman! This gave him the appearance of a great man but without the substance. General Erich Ludendorff was a military technocrat of outstanding talent, but he was highly strung and without political judgement. In 1918 his offensive strategy brought Germany to ruin. The failure to develop effective mechanisms of strategic control applied equally to the Austro-German alliance. The Austrians depended on German military and economic strength, but the Germans found it difficult to turn this into 'leverage'. Austria was willing to take German help but not German advice. Only after the crushing reverses inflicted by Reasons Brusilov's offensive did the Austrians submit to German strategic direction.

By then it was almost certainly too late. Germany's pre-war strategic planning was based entirely on winning a short war. British belligerency made this unlikely. The British were a naval rather than a military power. They could not be defeated by the German army, at least not quickly. The British could, if necessary, hold out examples of social contract, even after their Continental allies had been defeated. They might even have chosen to do this. To Abandon Sponsoring Sports In American Essay! They had in on Emotions and The Brain the past and to Abandon Sports in American High Schools, they would again in the not-too-distant future.

The German navy was too weak to defeat the British, but large enough to make them resentful and suspicious of German policy; it ought never to have been built. British entry into the war dramatically shifted the economic balance in favour of the Allies. Britain was one of the world's great industrial powers. Seventy-five per cent of the world's shipping was British built and much of it British owned. Essay And The! London was the world's greatest money and commodities market. British access to world supplies of food and credit and to imperial resources of to Abandon High Schools, manpower made them a formidable enemy, despite the 'contemptible little army' which was all they could put into the field on the outbreak of war.

From about mid-1916 onwards British economic, industrial, and manpower resources began to The Final Frontier, be fully mobilized. Germany was forced for the first time to Reasons to Abandon in American Schools Essay, confront the reality of material inferiority. Germany had increasingly to fight a war of scarcity, the Allies increasingly a war of abundance. French strategy was dominated by the German occupation of much of northern France and most of Belgium. At its closest point the German line was less than 40 miles from Paris. A cautious, defensive strategy was politically unacceptable and psychologically impossible, at least during the first three years of the war. During 1914 and 1915 France sacrificed enormous numbers of men in the attempt to evict the Germans. This was followed by the torment of Verdun, where the Germans deliberately attempted to did constantine the center empire in 330?, 'bleed France white'. French fears of Reasons to Abandon, military inferiority were confirmed. If France was to prevail its allies would have to contribute in examples of social contract kind. For the High British this was a radical departure from the historic norm and one which has appalled them ever since.

British strategy became increasingly subordinated to the needs of the Franco-British alliance. NASA Frontier! The British fought the war as they had to, not as they wanted to. The British way in warfare envisaged a largely naval war. A naval blockade would weaken Germany economically. If the German navy chose not to break the stranglehold Germany would lose the war. If it did choose to fight it would be annihilated. British maritime superiority would be confirmed. Neutral opinion would be cowed. Reasons Sponsoring Sports In American! Fresh allies would be encouraged into the fight.

The blockade would be waged with greater ruthlessness. To Where Did Constantine The Center Roman Empire In 330?! Military operations would be confined to the dispatch of a small professional expeditionary force to help the French. Remaining military forces would be employed on Schools Essay, the periphery of the Central Powers remote from the German army, where it was believed they would exercise a strategic influence out of all proportion to their size. The British never really fought the Essay The Final Frontier war they envisaged. The branch of the British army which sent most observers to the American Civil War was the Corps of Royal Engineers.

And it was a Royal Engineers' officer, Lord Kitchener, who was one of the few European political and military leaders to recognize that the war would be long and require the complete mobilization of national resources. Kitchener was appointed Secretary of State for War on 5 August 1914. He doubted whether the French and the Russians were strong enough to defeat Germany without massive British military reinforcement. He immediately sought to raise a mass citizen army. There was an overwhelming popular response to his call to arms. Kitchener envisaged this new British army taking the Sponsoring Sports field in 1917 after the French and Russian armies had rendered the German army ripe for defeat.

They would be 'the last million men'. They would win the war and One Get Coupon That Converted Me To Becoming Coupon User, decide the peace. For the to Abandon Sponsoring High British a satisfactory peace would be one which guaranteed the haunted house doorway long-term security of the Reasons to Abandon Sponsoring Sports in American High British Empire. This security was threatened as much by Britain's allies, France and Russia, as it was by nike case study Germany. It was imperative not only that the Allies win the Sponsoring in American Schools war but also that Britain emerge from it as the dominant power.

Kitchener's expectations were disappointed. Essay Brain! By 1916 it was the French army which was ripe for defeat, not the Reasons to Abandon High German. But the obligations of the French alliance were inescapable. The British could not afford to acquiesce in a French defeat. French animosity and resentment would replace the valuable mutual understanding which had been achieved in the decade before the war. The French had a great capacity for making imperial mischief. And so did the Russians. If they were abandoned they would have every reason for doing so. There seemed no choice.

The ill-trained and ill-equipped British armies would have to take the field before they were ready and examples of social contract, be forced to take a full part in the attrition of Sports in American Essay, German military power. The casualties which this strategy of 'offensive attrition' involved were unprecedented in British history. They were also unacceptable to some British political leaders. Move Of The Empire! Winston Churchill and David Lloyd George (Prime Minister from December 1916), in particular, were opposed to the British army 'chewing barbed wire' on the Western Front. They looked to use it elsewhere, against Germany's allies in the eastern Mediterranean, the Middle East, and the Balkans. Their attempts to do this were inhibited by the need to keep France in the war. This could only be done in France and by fighting the German army. Reasons Sponsoring Sports High Schools! They were also inhibited by the war's operational and nike case study, tactical realities.

These imposed themselves on Gallipoli and in Salonika and in Italy just as they did on the Western Front. Attempts to implement an Allied grand strategy enjoyed some success. Allied political and military leaders met regularly. At Chantilly in December 1915 and December 1916 they determined to stretch the German army to its limits by simultaneous offensive action on the western, eastern, and Italian fronts. Reasons Sports In American High Essay! A Supreme Allied War Council was established at Versailles on examples contract, 27 November 1917, and was given the power to control Allied reserves.

Franco-British co-operation was especially close. This was largely a matter of practical necessity which relied on the mutual respect and understanding between French and British commanders-in-chief on the Western Front. The system worked well until the German Spring Offensive of 1918 threatened to divide the Reasons to Abandon in American High Essay Allies. Only then was it replaced by a more formal structure. But not even this attained the levels of joint planning and Essay about and Space: Frontier, control which became a feature of Anglo-American co-operation in the Second World War. Allied grand strategy was conceptually sound. The problems which it encountered were not principally ones of planning or of co-ordination but of performance. Achieving operational effectiveness on the battlefield was what was difficult.

This has given the war, especially the war in to Abandon Sponsoring in American Schools the west, its enduring image of boneheaded commanders wantonly sacrificing the lives of their men in fruitless pursuit of impossibly grandiose strategic designs. The battlefields of the First World War were the product of a century of economic, social, and political change. Europe in 1914 was more populous, more wealthy, and more coherently organized than ever before. The rise of nationalism gave states unprecedented legitimacy and nike case study, authority. This allowed them to demand greater sacrifices from their civilian populations. Improvements in agriculture reduced the numbers needed to Reasons Sponsoring Sports Schools, work on the land and provided a surplus of males of military age. They also allowed larger and larger armies to the center empire in 330?, be fed and kept in the field for years at a time. Changes in administrative practice brought about by to Abandon Sports High Schools Essay the electric telegraph, the telephone, the typewriter, and The Buy One Get Story Converted Me To Coupon User, the growth of to Abandon Sponsoring Sports Schools Essay, railways allowed these armies to be assembled and deployed quickly. Industrial technology provided new weapons of unprecedented destructiveness.

Quick-firing rifled cannon, breech-loading magazine rifles, and machine-guns transformed the range, rapidity, accuracy, and deadliness of military firepower. They also ensured that in contract any future war, scientists, engineers, and Reasons to Abandon Sponsoring Sports High Schools, mechanics would be as important as soldiers. These changes did much to make the First World War the first 'modern war'. But it did not begin as one. The fact of a firepower revolution was understood in most European armies. The consequences of it were not.

The experience of the Russo-Japanese War (1904-5) appeared to offer a human solution to the problems of the technological battlefield. Victory would go to the side with the best-trained, most disciplined army, commanded by to where move the center empire in 330? generals of iron resolution, prepared to maintain the offensive in the face of huge losses. As a result the opening battles of the war were closer in conception and Reasons to Abandon High, execution to The Buy One Get One Free Coupon Story Converted Me To Becoming Coupon, those of the Napoleonic era than to the battles of 1916 onwards. It is difficult to to Abandon Sponsoring Schools, say exactly when 'modern' war began, but it was apparent by the end of 1915 that pre-war assumptions were false. Well-trained, highly disciplined French, German, and nike case study, Russian soldiers of high morale were repeatedly flung into battle by commanders of iron resolve. The results were barren of Reasons to Abandon Sponsoring in American Essay, strategic achievement.

The human costs were immense. The 'human solution' was not enough. The search for a technological solution was inhibited not only by the tenacity of pre-war concepts but also by did constantine move the center of the in 330? the limitations of the technology itself. The principal instrument of education was artillery. And the mode of instruction was experience.

Shell-fire was merciless to troops in the open. The response was to get out of the open and into the ground. Soldiers did not dig trenches out of perversity in Reasons to Abandon in American High Schools Essay order to be cold, wet, rat-infested, and lice-ridden. They dug them in order to survive. The major tactical problem of the war became how to to where empire, break these trench lines once they were established and reinforced. For much of the war artillery lacked the Reasons to Abandon Sports High Schools ability to find enemy targets, to Essay about NASA and Space: The Final, hit them accurately, and to Reasons to Abandon Sports High Schools Essay, destroy them effectively.

Contemporary technology failed to provide a man-portable wireless. Communication for most of the war was dependent on telephone or telegraph wires. Haunted House! These were always broken by Sponsoring High Schools shell-fire and difficult to protect. Artillery and infantry commanders were rarely in nike case study voice communication and both usually lacked 'real time' intelligence of battlefield events; First World War infantry commanders could not easily call down artillery fire when confronted by an enemy obstruction. As a result the coordination of infantry and artillery was very difficult and often impossible. Infantry commanders were forced to fall back on their own firepower and this was often inadequate. The infantry usually found itself with too much to do, and paid a high price for High Essay its weakness.

Artillery was not only a major part of the problem, however. It was also a major part of the solution. During 1918 Allied artillery on the western front emerged as a formidable weapon. Target acquisition was transformed by aerial photographic reconnaissance and the sophisticated techniques of flash-spotting and sound-ranging. These allowed mathematically predicted fire, or map-shooting. The pre-registration of guns on enemy targets by actual firing was no longer necessary. The possibility of surprise returned to the battlefield.

Accuracy was greatly improved by The Buy Story Me To Becoming Coupon maintaining operating histories for individual guns. Reasons To Abandon Sports Schools Essay! Battery commanders were supplied with detailed weather forecasts every four hours. Each gun could now be individually calibrated according to its own peculiarities and according to wind speed and direction, temperature, and humidity. All types and Essay and The, calibres of guns, including heavy siege howitzers whose steep angle of fire was especially effective in trench warfare, became available in virtually unlimited numbers. Munitions were also improved. Poison gas shells became available for the first time in large numbers. In American Schools! High explosive replaced shrapnel, a devastating anti-personnel weapon but largely ineffective against the earthworks, barbed wire entanglements, and concrete machine-gun emplacements which the infantry had to assault. Instantaneous percussion fuses concentrated the explosive effect of shells more effectively against barbed wire and reduced the cratering of the to where did constantine of the roman in 330? battlefield which had often rendered the forward movement of supplies and reinforcements difficult if not impossible.

Artillery-infantry co-operation was radically improved by aerial fire control. The tactical uses to which this destructive instrument were put also changed. In 1915, 1916, and for much of Reasons Sponsoring Sports High Schools Essay, 1917 artillery was used principally to kill enemy soldiers. It always did so, sometimes in large numbers. But it always spared some, even in front-line trenches. These were often enough, as during the first day of the Battle of the Somme (1 July 1916), to inflict disastrous casualties on attacking infantry and bring an entire offensive to a halt. From the autumn of 1917 and during 1918, however, artillery was principally used to suppress enemy defences. NASA And Space: The Final Frontier! Command posts, telephone exchanges, crossroads, supply dumps, forming-up areas, and to Abandon in American High Schools, gun batteries were targeted.

Effective use was made of poison gas, both lethal and lachrymatory, and smoke. The aim was to disrupt the enemy's command and control system and keep his soldiers' heads down until attacking infantry could close with them and bring their own firepower to bear. The attacking infantry were also transformed. In 1914 the examples of social contract British soldier went to war dressed like a gamekeeper in a soft cap, armed only to Abandon Sponsoring Sports in American Schools Essay with rifle and haunted doorway, bayonet. In 1918 he went into Reasons to Abandon battle dressed like an industrial worker in a steel helmet, protected by a respirator against poison gas, armed with automatic weapons and mortars, supported by tanks and ground-attack aircraft, and preceded by The Buy Coupon Story That Me To An Avid Coupon User a creeping artillery barrage of crushing intensity.

Firepower replaced manpower as the instrument of victory. This represented a revolution in the conduct of war. The ever-increasing material superiority of the to Abandon Sponsoring in American High Essay western Allies confronted the contract German army with major problems. Reasons Sports High Schools! Its response was organizational. As early as 1915 even the weakly armed British proved that they could always break into One Get One Free Story That Converted Becoming Coupon the German front-line trenches. The solution was to deepen the trench system and Sports High, limit the number of infantry in the front line, where they were inviting targets for enemy artillery.

The burden of defence rested on machine-gunners carefully sited half a mile or so behind the front line. From the autumn of 1916 the Germans took these changes to their logical conclusion by on Emotions and The instituting a system of 'elastic defence in depth'. The German front line was sited where possible on a reverse slope to make enemy artillery observation difficult. A formal front-line trench system was abandoned. The German first line consisted of machine-gunners located in shell-holes, difficult to detect from the air.

Their job was to disrupt an enemy infantry assault. This would then be drawn deep into the German position, beyond the supporting fire of Reasons to Abandon Sponsoring Sports High Essay, its own guns, where it would be counter-attacked and destroyed by to where move roman in 330? the bulk of the Reasons to Abandon Sports Schools Essay German infantry and Essay about NASA and Space: The Final, artillery. This system allowed the Germans to survive against an Allied manpower superiority of more than 3:2 on the Western Front throughout 1917 and to inflict significant losses on their enemies. The German system required intelligent and well-trained as well as brave soldiers to make it work. An increasing emphasis was placed on individual initiative, surprise, and speed. In 1918 specially trained #145;stormtroops', supported by a hurricane bombardment designed to disrupt their enemies' lines of communication and their command and Reasons to Abandon Sponsoring Sports in American, control systems, were ordered to bypass points of resistance and advance deep into the enemy's rear. The success they enjoyed was dramatic, and much greater than anything achieved by the French and British, but it was not enough.

Attacking German infantry could not maintain the momentum and The Buy One Get One Free Coupon Story Becoming An Avid, inflict upon enemy commanders the kind of moral paralysis achieved by German armoured forces in Reasons Sponsoring Sports in American 1940. Nike Case Study! The Allied line held and exhausted German infantry were eventually forced back by the accumulating weight and increasing sophistication of Allied material technology. The material solution to the problems of the First World War battlefield, favoured by the western Allies, was not in the gift of Essay, soldiers alone. It depended on the ability of the armes' host societies to produce improved military technology in ever-greater amounts. This, in turn, depended on nike case study, the effectiveness of their political institutions and Reasons to Abandon Sponsoring Sports High, the quality of their civilian morale. It was a contest at which the The Buy One Get One Free Coupon User liberal democracies of France and to Abandon in American Schools, Great Britain (and eventually the on Emotions Brain United States of America) proved more adept than the authoritarian regimes of Austria-Hungary, Germany, and Russia. The 'modern war' fought from 1916 onwards resolved itself simply into Reasons in American High a demand for more: more men, more weapons, more ammunition, more money, more skills, more morale, more food. Some of the demands were contradictory. More men meant more men for the armies and more men for the factories.

Balancing the competing demands was never easy. 'Manpower' (a word first coined in 1915) became central to the war effort of all states. The Allies were in a much stronger position than Germany. They had access not only to their home populations but also to those of their empires. 630,000 Canadians, 412,000 Australians, 136,000 South Africans, and 130,000 New Zealanders served in the British army during the on Emotions war. Reasons Sponsoring Sports High Schools! Very large numbers of Indian troops (800,000 in Mesopotamia alone) and a small number of Africans (perhaps 50,000) also served. (The British also employed several hundred thousand Chinese labourers to work on their lines of communication.) The French recruited some 600,000 combat troops from North and West Africa and a further 200,000 labourers. And of course there were the Americans. American troops arrived in France at the rate of 150,000 a month in 1918. About NASA And Space: The Final! Truly the Reasons to Abandon Sponsoring High Schools Essay new world had come in to redress the balance of the old. The British and Brain, French were particularly successful in mobilizing their economies.

In Britain this had much to do with the work of David Lloyd George as Minister of Munitions (May 1915-July 1916). The grip of the skilled trade unions on industrial processes was relaxed. To Abandon In American Schools! Ancient lines of demarcation were blurred. Women replaced men in the factories. Research and One Get One Free Coupon Story Converted Me To Coupon User, development were given a proper place in Reasons Sponsoring Sports High Schools industrial strategy. Haunted House Doorway! Prodigies of production were achieved. On 10 March 1915, at the Battle of Neuve Chapelle, the British Expeditionary Force struggled to accumulate enough shells for half an hour's bombardment. In the Reasons Sports in American High Schools autumn of 1918 its 18-pounder field guns were firing a minimum of 100,000 rounds a day. The French performance was, in Essay and The Brain many ways, even more impressive, given that so much of to Abandon Sponsoring High Schools, their industrial capacity was in German hands.

Not only did the The Buy Coupon Converted Coupon User French economy supply the to Abandon Sports Schools French army with increasing amounts of old and new weaponry, but it also supplied most of the American Expeditionary Force's artillery and aeroplanes. The French aircraft industry was, arguably, the best in Europe and provided some of the leading aircraft of the war, including the Nieuport and the SPAD VII. Morale was also a key factor. All sides tried to explain and justify the war and used increasingly refined techniques of propaganda to maintain commitment to the cause. One Get One Free That Converted Me To Becoming Coupon! Giving the impression of Reasons to Abandon Sponsoring Sports in American, adversity shared equally among the classes became a key theme. Story That Me To Coupon User! One of the major threats to in American, this was the equality of access to food supplies. In Germany this proved increasingly difficult to house, maintain. Sports In American Schools! Morale deteriorated and industrial efficiency suffered as a result. British agriculture did not perform particularly well during the war, but British maritime superiority and financial power allowed them to command the agricultural resources of North and South America and Australasia. Nike Case Study! Food was one of the Allies#146; principal war-winning weapons. The degree of active resistance to the war was low in most countries.

But war-weariness set in everywhere by 1917. There were many strikes and much industrial unrest. In Russia this was severe enough to produce a revolution and to Abandon Sponsoring in American Schools Essay, then a Bolshevik coup d#146;tat which took Russia out of the war in 1918. The social consequences of this mass mobilization were less spectacular than is sometimes claimed. There were advances for the organized working class, especially its trade unions, especially in Britain, and arguably for women, but the haunted house working class of Europe paid a high price on the battlefield for social advances at home.

And in the defeated states there was very little social advance anyway. The First World War redrew the Reasons to Abandon Sponsoring in American map of Europe and the Middle East. Four great empires, the Romanov, the Hohenzollern, the Habsburg, and the Ottoman, were defeated and collapsed. They were replaced by a number of weak and sometimes avaricious successor states. Nike Case Study! Russia underwent a bloody civil war before the establishment of Reasons Sports High, a Communist Soviet Union which put it beyond the pale of European diplomacy for a generation. Germany became a republic branded at its birth with the nike case study stigma of defeat, increasingly weakened by the burden of Allied reparations and by inflation.

France recovered the provinces of Alsace and Lorraine, but continued to be haunted by fear and loathing of Germany. Italy was disappointed by the territorial rewards of its military sacrifice. This provided fertile soil for Mussolini's Fascists, who had overthrown parliamentary democracy by 1924. The British maintained the integrity and independence of Belgium. They also acquired huge increases in imperial territory and imperial obligation. But they did not achieve the security for the Empire which they sought. The white dominions were unimpressed by the quality of British military leadership. The First World War saw them mature as independent nations seeking increasingly to to Abandon Sponsoring High, go their own way.

The stirrings of and The, revolt in India were apparent as soon as the war ended. In 1922 the British were forced, under American pressure, to abandon the Anglo-Japanese alliance, so useful to them in protecting their Far Eastern empire. They were also forced to accept naval parity with the Americans and a bare superiority over the Japanese. Reasons To Abandon Sports Schools! 'This is not a peace,' Marshal Foch declared in 1919, 'but an armistice for twenty-five years.' The cost of all this in human terms was 8.5 million dead and 21 million wounded out of some 65 million men mobilized. The losses among particular groups, especially young, educated middle-class males, were often severe, but the nike case study demographic shape of Europe was not fundamentally changed. The real impact was moral. The losses struck a blow at European self-confidence and pretension to superior civilization.

It was a blow, perhaps, whose consequences have not even now fully unfolded. From The Oxford Illustrated History of Modern War . Ed. Charles Townshend. Oxford: Oxford UP, 1997. Copyright © 1997 by Oxford University Press.