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nietzsche 3rd essay On the Genealogy of Morals. A Polemical Tract. [This document, which has been prepared by Ian Johnston of Malaspina University-College, Nanaimo, BC, is in the public domain and may be used by anyone, in whole or in part, without permission and without charge, provided the source is Beowulf and Siegfried acknowledged. Editorial comments and translations in square brackets and italics are by about Plan Ian Johnston; comments in normal brackets are from Nietzsche's text. For comments, suggestions, corrections, and so on, please contact ] What Do Ascetic Ideals Mean?

Carefree, mocking, violent—that what Wisdom wants us to be. She is a woman. She always loves a man of war. Thus Spoke Zarathustra. What do ascetic ideals mean?—Among artists they mean nothing or too many different things; among philosophers and scholars they mean something like having a nose or an instinct for the most auspicious conditions of a higher spirituality; among women, at best, an additional seductive charm, a little morbidezza [small morbidity] on beautiful flesh, the angelic quality of a nice-looking, plump animal; among physiologically impaired and and Siegfried Essay peevish people (that is, among the majority of mortals) they are an Who Are English Learner Students? Essay attempt to imagine themselves as too good for this world, a holy form of orgiastic excess, their chief tool in the fight with their enduring pain and Beowulf boredom; among the clergy they are the writing foundation of their priestly faith, their best instrument of power, and also the most important of Beowulf, all permits for their power; finally among the saints they are a pretext for hibernation, their novissima gloriae cupido [most recent desire for glory] , their repose in nothingness (God), their form of insanity. However, the fact that generally the ascetic ideal has meant so much to fate in macbeth, human beings is an expression of the basic fact of the human will, its horror vacui [ horror of a vacuum ]. It requires a goal—and it will sooner will nothingness than not will. Do you understand me? . . . Have you understood me? . . . Beowulf Essay Example? Not in the slightest, my dear sir! All right, let's start from the beginning. What do ascetic ideals mean? Or, to take a single example which I have been asked to consider often enough, what does it mean when, for Who Are English Learner Students? Essay instance, an artist, like Richard Wagner in his later years, pays homage to chastity?

In a certain sense, of course, he always did this, but in an ascetic sense he did it for the first time at the end. Beowulf Essay Example? What does this change in sense mean, this radical change in the sense? For that's what it was—with it Wagner leapt right over into his opposite. Religion? What does it mean when an artist leaps over into his opposite? . Beowulf Essay Example? . Essay About Classroom? . If we are willing to pause momentarily at this question, we immediately encounter the memory of perhaps the best, strongest, most cheerful, and Beowulf and Siegfried Essay bravest period in byzantine art characteristics Wagner's life—the time when he was innerly and deeply preoccupied with the idea of Luther's marriage. Who knows the circumstances which saw to example, it that today, instead of this wedding music, we have Die Meistersinger [ Wagner's opera The Master Singers ] And how much of the creative about former work may perhaps echo in the latter? But there is no doubt that this Luther's Wedding would have involved the Beowulf Essay example praise of chastity. Of course, it would also have contained a praise of Language Learner, sensuality—and that, it strikes me, would have been quite appropriate, very Wagnerian. For between chastity and Beowulf and Siegfried Essay example sensuality there is Who Are Language Learner Essay no essential opposition. Every good marriage, every genuine affair of the heart transcends them both.

In my view, Wagner would have done well if he had enabled his Germans to take this pleasant fact to heart once more, with the help of and Siegfried, a lovely and about brave comedy about Luther, for Essay among the Germans there are always a lot of people who slander sensuality, and Luther's value is probably nowhere greater than precisely here: he had the Classroom Management courage of and Siegfried Essay example, his own sensuality (at that time people called it, delicately enough, evangelical freedom . . .). But even if it were the case that there really were an antithesis between chastity and sensuousness, fortunately there is no need for it to fate in macbeth, be a tragic antithesis. At least this should be the case for all successful and cheerful mortals, who are far from considering their unstable equilibrium between animal and Essay angel as, in itself, an byzantine argument against existence. The finest and brightest, like Goethe, like Hafiz, even saw that that made life more attractive. Essay Example? It's precisely contradictions like that which make life more enticing. . . . On the Management Plan other hand, it's easy enough to and Siegfried example, understand that once pigs who have had bad luck are persuaded to worship chastity—and there are such swine!—they see in chastity only their opposite, the opposite to unlucky pigs, and will worship that—and with such zealous tragic grunting! We can imagine it—that embarrassing and unnecessary antithesis, which Richard Wagner at the end of his life unquestioningly still wanted to set to music and produce on stage. What on about discovery, earth for? That's a fair question. For why should he be concerned about pigs?

Why should we? In this matter there is, of Beowulf and Siegfried Essay, course, another question we cannot circumvent: why Wagner was concerned about that manly (and also so unmanly) simpleton from the country, that poor devil and industry nature boy Parsifal, whom he finally turned into a Catholic in such an embarrassing way. What? Was this Parsifal really meant to be taken seriously? For we could be tempted to assume the Beowulf Essay example reverse, even to zoroastrianism, desire it—that the Wagnerian Parsifal was intended to and Siegfried Essay, be cheerful, as it were, a concluding piece and satyr drama, with which the tragic writer Wagner wanted to take his farewell, in an respectful manner worthy of him, from us, from himself, and, above all, from byzantine, tragedy, that is, with an excess of the highest and most high-spirited parody of tragedy itself, of the entire dreadful earthy seriousness and earthy wailing of his earlier works, of the crudest form in the perversity of the ascetic ideal, conquered at last. That would have been, as mentioned, worthy of Beowulf, a great tragedian, who, like every artist, first attains the final peak of greatness when he knows how to see himself and his art as beneath him, when knows how to laugh at himself. Is Parsifal Wagner's secret superior laughter at himself, the Who Are English Learner Students? triumph of his achieving the ultimate and highest artistic freedom, his movement beyond art? As I've said, we might wish that. For what would Parsifal be if intended seriously? Do we need to see in it (as it was put to me) the epitome of an insane hatred for knowledge, spirit, and Beowulf sensuality?

A curse on the senses and the spirit in one breath of hatred? An apostasy and going back to sickly Christian and Essay about Management Plan obscurantist ideals? And finally even a denial of the self, a cancellation of the self, from an artist who up to that point had directed all the power of his will to Beowulf example, attain the reverse, namely, the highest spiritualization and sensuousness in his art? And not only in his art, but also in his life. We should remember how Wagner once so enthusiastically followed in the footsteps of the philosopher Feuerbach. Feuerbach's phrase about healthy sensuality—in Wagner's thirties and fate in macbeth forties, as with many Germans (they called themselves the young Germans), that phrase rang out like a word of redemption. Did Wagner finally learn something different? It appears, at least, that he finally wanted to Beowulf and Siegfried Essay, teach something different. . . And not only on byzantine art characteristics, the stage with the Parsifal trombones. In the cloudy writings of his last years—as constricted as they are baffling—there are a hundred places which betray a secret wish and will, a despondent, uncertain, unacknowledged will to preach nothing but going back, conversion, denial, Christianity, medievalism, and to say to his followers There's nothing here! Seek salvation somewhere else! In one place he even calls out to the Blood of the Redeemer . . . In a case like Wagner's, which is in many ways an embarrassing one, although the example is and Siegfried Essay example typical, my opinion is that it's certainly best to separate an artist far enough from his work, so that one does not take him with the same seriousness as one does his work.

In the final analysis, he is only the precondition for his work, its maternal womb, the Language soil or, in some cases, the dung and manure out of Beowulf and Siegfried example, which it grows—and thus, in most cases, something that we must forget about, if we want to enjoy the work itself. Our understanding of the origin of a work involves physiologists and vivisectionists of the spirit—never the aesthetic men, the artists, never! In a deep, fundamental way (something terrifying for the spirit) the poet and composer of Parsifal could not escape living inside and descending into the conflicts of the medieval soul, a hostile distance from all spiritual loftiness, rigor, and discipline, a form of intellectual perversity (if you will forgive the expression), any more than a pregnant woman can escape the repellent and strange aspects of pregnancy—something which, as I have said, we must forget if we want to enjoy the child. We should be on fate in macbeth, our guard against that confusion which arises from Beowulf Essay, psychological contiguity (to use an English word), a confusion in which even an artist can too easily get caught up, as if he himself were what he can present, imagine, and express. In fact, the case is this: if that's what he was, he simply would not present, imagine, or express it. Homer would not have written a poem about Achilles or Goethe a poem about Faust if Homer had been Achilles or Goethe had been Faust. A complete and entire artist is forever separated from the real, what actually is.

On the other hand, one can comprehend how he can sometimes grow weary of this eternal unreality and falseness of his innermost existence to the point of desperation and how he then makes an attempt for once to reach over into what is forbidden precisely to him, into reality, in English Language Students? an attempt to be real. Beowulf And Siegfried Essay? What success does he have? We can guess. . . That is the typical mere wishfulness of the artist—the same mere wishfulness which fell over Wagner once he'd grown old and for which he had to pay such a high and fatal price (because of it he lost a valuable number of his friends). Finally, however, and quite apart from Who Are English Language Learner, this mere wishfulness of his, who would not desire that Wagner—for his own sake—had taken his leave of and Siegfried Essay example, us and his art in a different manner, not with a Parsifal , but more victoriously, more self-confidently, more like Wagner—less deceptive, less ambiguous about all his intentions, less like Schopenhauer, less nihilistic . . . So what, then, do ascetic ideals mean? In the case of an writing about discovery artist, we know the Beowulf Essay answer immediately—nothing at all! . . . Or they mean so many things, that they amount to creative about discovery, nothing at all! . . And Siegfried Essay Example? . So let's eliminate the artists right away. They do not stand independent of the art characteristics world and against and Siegfried Essay the world long enough for their evaluations and the changes in those evaluations to Essay Plan, merit our interest for their own sake! They have in Beowulf Essay example all ages been valets to a morality or philosophy or religion, quite apart from the fact that, often enough, they unfortunately have been the all-too-adaptable courtiers of groups of their followers and, above all, their patrons and creative writing about discovery fine-nosed flatterers of old or even newly arriving powers. And Siegfried? At the very least, they always need a means of protection, a support, an already established authority. The artist never stands by fate in macbeth himself—standing alone contravenes his deepest instincts.

Hence, for Beowulf and Siegfried Essay example, Richard Wagner took the philosopher Schopenhauer (once his time had come) as his point man, his protection. Who could have even imagined that he would have had the courage for an ascetic ideal without the support which Schopenhauer's philosophy offered, without the authority of Schopenhauer, which had become predominant in Europe in the 1860's? (And that's not even considering whether in the new Germany it would have been at all possible to be an artist without the milk of creative about discovery, a pious, imperially pious way of thinking). And so with this we come to the more serious question: what does it mean when a real philosopher pays homage to the ascetic ideal, a truly independent spirit like Schopenhauer, a man and a knight with an iron gaze, who was courageous enough to be himself, who knew how to stand alone and example did not first wait for a point man and higher signs. Here let us consider right away the remarkable and for all kinds of people fascinating position of Schopenhauer on about Classroom, art, for that was apparently the reason Richard Wagner first moved over to Schopenhauer (persuaded to do that, as we know, by the poet Herwegh). That shift was so great that it opened up a complete theoretical contrast between his earlier and Beowulf his later aesthetic beliefs, between, for example, the earlier views expressed in Opera and Drama and the later views in the writings which he published from 1870 on.

In particular, what is perhaps most surprising is that from this point on Wagner ruthlessly altered his judgment of the Who Are Learner value and place of music itself. Why should it concern him that earlier he had used music as a means, a medium, a woman, something which simply required a purpose, a man, in order to flourish—that is, drama! But suddenly he realized that with Schopenhauer's theory and innovation he could do more in majorem musicae gloriam [ for Beowulf and Siegfried the greater glory of music ]—that is, through the sovereignty of music, as Schopenhauer had understood it: music set apart from all other arts, the inherently independent art, and not, like the other arts, offering copies of phenomena, but rather the voice of the will itself speaking out directly from the abyss as its most authentic, most primordial, most original revelation. With this extraordinary increase in the value of music, as this seemed to grow out of Schopenhauer's philosophy, the musician himself suddenly grew in value to an unheard-of extent: from now on he would be an oracle, a priest, even more than a priest, a kind of byzantine art characteristics, mouthpiece of the and Siegfried Essay example essence of things, a telephone from the world beyond us—in future he didn't speak only fate in macbeth of music, this ventriloquist of God; he talked metaphysics. Is it any wonder finally one day he spoke about ascetic ideals? . . . Schopenhauer used Kant's formulation of the aesthetic problem, although he certainly did not examine it with Kantian eyes. Kant thought he had honoured art when among the and Siegfried example predicates of the Beautiful he gave priority to and set in the foreground those which constitute the honour of religion, knowledge—impersonality and universal validity. Beowulf And Siegfried Essay Example? This is fate in macbeth not the place to explore whether or not this is for the most part a false idea. The only thing I wish to Beowulf and Siegfried example, stress is English Language Learner Students? Essay that Kant, like all philosophers, instead of taking aim at the aesthetic problem from the experiences of the artist (the creator), thought about Beowulf Essay, art and the Beautiful only from the point of view of the looker on and therefore without noticing it brought the spectator himself into the concept beautiful. If only these philosophers of zoroastrianism religion, beauty were at least more knowledgeable about Beowulf and Siegfried Essay, this spectator—that is, as a significant personal fact and experience, as a wealth of very particular, strong experiences, desires, surprises, and delight in the realm of the beautiful! But I fear the opposite has always been the byzantine case. And Siegfried? And so from the very start we get from them definitions like that famous definition which Kant gives for writing discovery the Beautiful, in which the lack of a finer sensitivity sits in the shape of a thick worm of fundamental error.

The Beautiful, Kant said, is what pleases in a disinterested way. In a disinterested way! Let's compare this definition with that other one formulated by a true spectator and artist—Stendhal, who once called the Beautiful a promesse de bonheur [ a promise of happiness ]. Here the disinterestedness [ dsintressement ] which Kant made the single element in the aesthetic state is Essay clearly rejected and deleted. Who's right, Kant or Stendhal? Naturally if our aestheticians never get tired of writing about, weighing the issue in Kant's favour, claiming that under the magic spell of beauty people can look even at naked female statues without interest, we can laugh a little at and Siegfried their expense. In relation to this delicate matter, the experiences of artists are interesting, and Pygmalion was certainly not necessarily an un-aesthetic man. Let's think all the better of the innocence of our aestheticians, which is meat industry 1900s reflected in such arguments.

For example, let's count it to Kant's honour that he knew how to Beowulf and Siegfried Essay example, lecture on the characteristic properties of the sense of touch with the navet of a country parson. This point brings us back to Schopenhauer, who stood measurably closer to the arts than Kant but who nonetheless did not get away from the industry spell of the Kantian definition. How did that happen? The circumstance is sufficiently odd: he interpreted the word disinterested in the most personal manner from a single experience which must have been something routine with him. There are few things Schopenhauer talks about with as much confidence as he does about the effect of aesthetic contemplation. In connection with that, he states that it counteracts sexual interest—and thus acts like lupulin or camphor.

He never got tired of extolling this emancipation from the will as the great advantage and use of the Beowulf example aesthetic state. Indeed, we could be tempted to ask whether his basic conception of Will and idea, the notion that there could be a redemption from the will only through representation, might have taken its origin from his universalizing his sexual experience. (With all questions concerning Schopenhauer's philosophy, incidentally, we should never fail to Learner Students? Essay, consider that it is the Beowulf and Siegfried Essay example conception of a twenty-six-year-old young man, so that it involves not merely the specific details of meat, Schopenhauer but also the specific details of Beowulf, that time of life). If, for example, we listen to one of the most expressive passages from the countless ones he wrote to honour the aesthetic stance ( World and Will and Idea , I, 231), we hear its tone, the suffering, the happiness, the gratitude uttered in words like these: That is the painless state which Epicurus valued as the highest good and as the condition of the gods. For that moment, we are relieved of the contemptible drive of the will.

We celebrate a holiday [ den Sabbat ] from the zoroastrianism penal servitude to Beowulf example, the will. The wheel of religion, Ixion stands motionless. What vehemence there is in these words! What a picture of torment and long weariness! What an almost pathological contrast between that moment and and Siegfried the usual wheel of Ixion, the meat 1900s penal servitude to the will, the contemptible drive of the will! But if we assumed that Schopenhauer was right a hundred times about himself, what would that provide by way of insight into the essence of the Beautiful? Schopenhauer wrote about one effect of the Beautiful—the way it calms the will. But is there only Beowulf and Siegfried Essay one regular effect? Stendhal, as mentioned, a no less sensual person, but with a natural constitution much happier than Schopenhauer's, emphasized another effect of the Beautiful: the Beautiful promises happiness.

To him the fact of the matter seemed to be that the will (interest) was aroused by the Beautiful. And could we not finally object about Schopenhauer himself that he was very wrong to think of himself as a Kantian in this matter, that he had completely failed to understand Kant's definition of the Beautiful in a Kantian manner, that even he found the Beautiful pleasing out of a certain interest, even out of the about Management Plan strongest and most personal interest of all, that of a torture victim who escapes from and Siegfried Essay example, his torture? . . . And to Essay Classroom Management Plan, come back to that first question, What does it mean when a philosopher renders homage to the ascetic ideal, we get here at least our first hint: he wants to escape his own torture. Let's be careful not to create gloomy images out of that word torture. In this case there remains enough to draw a different conclusion, to offset the word—there even remains something to laugh about. For let's not underestimate the fact that Schopenhauer, who in example fact treated sexuality as a personal enemy (including its instrument, woman, this instrumentum diaboli [ tool of the devil ]), needed enemies in order to maintain his good spirits, that he loved grim, caustic, black-green words, that he got angry for the sake of about discovery, getting passionately angry, that he would have become ill, would have become a pessimist (and he wasn't a pessimist, no matter how much he wanted to and Siegfried Essay, be one) without his enemies, without Hegel, women, sensuousness, and about Management Plan the whole will for existence, for continued life. Had that been the case, Schopenhauer would not have continued—on that we can wager. He would have run off. But his enemies held him securely; his enemies always seduced him back to Beowulf Essay example, existence. Like the writing about discovery ancient cynics, his anger was his refreshment, his relaxation, payment, his remedy for Beowulf Essay disgust, his happiness.

So much with respect to about Management, the most personal features in Schopenhauer. On the and Siegfried Essay other hand, with him there is Plan still something typical—and here we finally come up against our problem once more. As long as there have been philosophers on earth and wherever there have been philosophers (from India to Beowulf and Siegfried, England, to name two opposite industry 1900s poles of Essay example, talent in philosophy) there unquestionably have existed a genuine philosophical irritability with and rancour against sensuousness. Schopenhauer is Essay Classroom Management Plan only the most eloquent eruption of these and, if you have an ear for it, the Beowulf Essay example most captivating and delightful. In addition, there exist a real philosophical bias and Who Are English Essay affection favouring the Beowulf and Siegfried whole ascetic ideal. No one should fool himself about that. As mentioned, both belong to fate in macbeth, the philosophical type: if both are missing in a philosopher then he is always only a so-called philosopher—that we know for certain. What does that mean? For we must first interpret this, something which stands there inherently and Essay eternally stupid, like every thing in English Learner Essay itself. Every animal, including also la bte philosophe [ the philosophical beast ] instinctively strives for the optimal beneficial conditions in which it can let out all its power and attain the strongest feeling of its strength. Every animal in the same instinctual way and with a refined sense of smell that is loftier than all reason dislikes any kind of trouble maker or barrier which lies or which could lie in its way to example, these optimal conditions (I'm not speaking about about Classroom, its path to Beowulf and Siegfried Essay example, happiness but about its way to power, to action, to its most powerful deeds, and, in most cases, really about its way to unhappiness).

Thus, the philosopher dislikes marriage as well as what might persuade him into it—marriage is a barrier and a disaster along his route to the optimal. What great philosopher up to now has been married? Heraclitus, Plato, Descartes, Spinoza, Leitniz, Kant, Schopenhauer—none of these got married. What's more, we cannot even imagine them married. A married philosopher belongs in fate in macbeth a comedy, that's my principle. And Socrates, the exception, the malicious Socrates, it appears, got married ironically to Beowulf and Siegfried Essay example, demonstrate this very principle. Every philosopher would speak as once Buddha spoke when someone told him of the birth his son, Rahula has been born to me. A shackle has been forged for me. (Rahula here means a little demon). To every free spirit there must come a reflective hour, provided that previously he has had a one without thought, of the sort that came then to Buddha—Life in a house, he thought to fate in macbeth, himself, is narrow and confined, a polluted place. Freedom consists of abandoning houses; because he thought this way, he left the house. Ascetic ideals indicate so many bridges to independence that a philosopher cannot, without an inner rejoicing and applause, listen to the history of all those decisive people who one day said no to all lack of Beowulf example, freedom and went off to some desert or other, even given the fact that such people were strong donkeys and entirely different from a powerful spirit.

So what, then, does the ascetic ideal mean as far as a philosopher is concerned? My answer is—you will have guessed it long ago—the philosopher smiles when he sees an optimal set of conditions for the loftiest and Classroom boldest spirituality. In so doing, he does not deny existence; rather that's how he affirms his existence and only his existence, and does this perhaps to Beowulf and Siegfried Essay, such a degree that he stays close to the wicked desire perat mundus, fiat philosphia, fiat phiosophus, fiam ! [ let the world perish, but let philosophy exist, let the philosopher exist, let me exist ] You see that these philosophers are not unprejudiced witnesses to and judges of the value of fate in macbeth, ascetic ideals! They think about themselves—what concern to them is the saint! In this matter they think about what is most immediately indispensable to them: freedom from compulsion, disturbance, fuss, business, duties, worries—a bright light in the head, the dance, the Beowulf and Siegfried leap and flight of ideas; a good air—thin, clear, free, dry—like the air at high altitudes, with which everything in animal being grows more spiritual and acquires wings; calm in all basement areas; all dogs nicely tied up in chains; no hostile barking or shaggy rancour; no gnawing worm of wounded ambition; with modest and humble inner organs busy as windmills but at a distance; heart strange, distant, looking to the future, posthumous—all in all, so far as the ascetic ideal is concerned, they think of the cheerful asceticism of some deified and independent animal, which wanders above life rather than resting in it. We know what the three great catchphrases of the ascetic idea are: poverty, humility, and chastity. If we now look closely at the lives of all great, prolific, inventive spirits we'll always rediscover all three there to a certain degree. Not at all (this is self-evident) as if it were something to religion, do with their virtues—what does this kind of man have to do with creating virtues?—but as the most appropriate and most natural conditions of their best existence, their most beautiful fecundity. It is indeed entirely possible that their dominating spirituality at first had to set aside an unbridled pride or the reins of a wanton sensuality or that they perhaps had difficulty enough maintaining their will for the desert against an inclination for luxury, for something very exquisite, as well as a lavish liberality of heart and hand. But their spirituality did it, precisely because it was the dominating instinct, which achieves its own demands in relation to all the other instincts and continues to do so.

If it did not, then it would no longer dominate. Hence, this has nothing to do with virtue. Besides, the desert of which I just spoke, into which the strong, independent spirits withdraw and isolate themselves—oh, how different it seems from the Essay desert educated people dream about. For in some circumstances these educated people are themselves this desert. And certainly no actor of the spirit could simply endure it—for them it is Essay about Classroom Plan not nearly romantic enough or Syrian, not nearly enough of a theatrical desert! It's true there's no lack of Essay example, camels there—but that's the only similarity between them. Perhaps a voluntary obscurity, a detour away from one's self, a timidity about noise, admiration, newspapers, influence; a small official position, a daily routine, something which hides more than it bring to light, contact now and then with harmless, cheerful wildlife and poultry whose sight is relaxing, a mountain for company, not a dead one but one with eyes (that means with lakes); in Essay about Classroom Management some circumstances even a room in and Siegfried Essay example a full, nondescript inn, where one is sure to be confused for someone else and can talk to byzantine, anyone with impunity—that's what a desert is here.

Oh, it's lonely enough, believe me! When Heraclitus withdrew into and Siegfried example the courtyard and byzantine art characteristics colonnades of the and Siegfried Essay immense temple of Who Are Learner, Artemis, that was a worthier desert, I admit. Why do we lack such temples? (Perhaps we don't lack them. I've just remembered my most beautiful room for study, the Piazza San Marco, in the spring, naturally, as well as in the morning, between ten and twelve o'clock). But what Heraclitus was getting away from is still the Beowulf Essay same thing we go out of our way to escape: the noise and the democratic chatter of the Ephesians, their politics, their news about the art characteristics empire (you understand I mean the Persians), their daily market junk—for we philosophers need peace and quiet from one thing above all—from anything to do with today. We honour what is still, cold, noble, distant, past, in Essay example general everything at the sight of which the soul does not have to byzantine, defend itself or tie itself up, something a person can speak to without having to speak loudly. Let us hear only the sound which a spirit makes when it speaks.

Every spirit has its own sound and loves its own sound. The man over there, for example, must be a real agitator (I mean a hollow head, a hollow pot [ Hohlkopf, Hohltopf ])—no matter what goes into example him, it all comes back out of him dull and thick, weighed down with the echo from a huge emptiness. That man over there rarely speaks in anything other than a hoarse voice. Has he perhaps imagined himself hoarse? That might be possible—ask the physiologists—but whoever thinks in words thinks as a speaker and not as a thinker (it reveals that fundamentally he doesn't think of things or think factually, but only in relation to fate in macbeth, things, that he really is thinking of himself and his listeners). A third man speaks with an insistent familiarity—he steps in too close to our bodies, he breathes over us—instinctively we shut our mouths, even though he is speaking to us through a book. The sound of his style tells us why we do that—that he has no time, that he has little faith in and Siegfried example himself, that he'll not be speaking any more today or ever. But a spirit which is Essay Classroom Management sure of itself, speaks quietly. He's looking for seclusion. Beowulf And Siegfried Essay? He lets people wait for him. We can recognize a philosopher by the following: he walks away from three glittering and garish things—fame, princes, and women.

That doesn't mean that they might not come to him. He shrinks from light which is too bright. Hence he shies away from his time and its day. Who Are English Learner Essay? In that he's like a shadow: the lower the Beowulf and Siegfried Essay example sun sinks, the bigger he becomes. So far as his humility is concerned, he endures a certain dependence and obscurity, as he endures the darkness. About Classroom Management? More than that, he fears being disturbed by lightning and Beowulf and Siegfried Essay recoils from the unprotected and totally isolated and abandoned tree on which any bad weather can discharge its mood or any mood discharge its bad weather.

His maternal instinct, the secret love for Essay Management what is growing in him, directs him to places where his need to think of himself is removed, in the same sense that the maternal instinct in women has up to now generally kept her in a dependent situation. Ultimately they demand little enough, these philosophers. Their motto is Whoever owns things is owned—not, as I must say again and again, from virtue, from an admirable desire for modest living and simplicity, but because their highest master demands that of them, demands astutely and Beowulf example unrelentingly. He cares for only one thing and for that gathers up and holds everything—time, power, love, and interest. This sort of man doesn't like to be disturbed by fate in macbeth hostile things or by friendships, and he easily forgets or scoffs. To him martyrdom seems something in and Siegfried Essay example bad taste—to suffer for the truth he leaves to Essay Management Plan, the ambitious and the stage heroes of the spirit and anyone else who has time enough for Beowulf example it (they themselves—the philosophers—have to do something for the truth). They use big words sparingly.

It's said that they resist using even the word truth—it sounds boastful . . Who Are English Language Learner Students? Essay? . Essay? Finally, as far as chastity concerns philosophers, this sort of spirit apparently keeps its fertility in something other than children; perhaps he keeps the continuity of Essay about, his name elsewhere, its small immortality (among philosophers in ancient India people spoke with more presumption, What's the point of offspring to the man whose soul is the world?). There's no sense of chastity there out of some ascetic scruple or other or hatred of the senses—just as it has little to do with chastity when an athlete or jockey abstains from women. It's more a matter of their dominating instinct, at Essay example least during its great pregnant periods. Every artist knows how damaging the effects of sexual intercourse are to states of great spiritual tension and preparation. The most powerful and most instinctual artists don't acquire this knowledge primarily by experience, by meat packing bad experience—it's that maternal instinct of Beowulf and Siegfried example, theirs which makes the decision ruthlessly to creative writing about, benefit the developing work among all the other stores and Essay supplies of energy, of animal vitality.

The greater power then uses up the lesser. Now let's apply this interpretation to the above mentioned case of Schopenhauer: the sight of the art characteristics beautiful evidently worked in his case as the stimulus for Essay example the release of the main power in his nature (the power of reflection and the deep look), so that this then exploded and religion suddenly became master of his consciousness. In the process, we should in no way rule out the possibility that that characteristic sweetness and abundance typical of the aesthetic condition could originate precisely from the ingredient sensuality (just as from the same source is derived that idealism characteristic of sexually mature young girls)—so that thus, with the entry of the aesthetic condition, sensuality is not shoved out, as Schopenhauer believed, but is transformed and does not enter the consciousness any more as sexual stimulation. (I will come back to this point of view at another time, in connection with the even more delicate problems of the Essay example physiology of aesthetics, a problem untouched up to this point, so unanalyzed). A certain asceticism, as we have seen, a hard and cheerful renunciation in the best wills, belongs to those conditions favourable to the highest spirituality and is also among its most natural consequences. About Discovery? So, of course, it's no wonder that philosophers in particular never treat the ascetic ideal without some bias. A serious historical review demonstrates that the Beowulf and Siegfried Essay tie between the ascetic ideal and philosophy is even much narrower and stronger. We could say it was in the leading reins of this ideal that philosophy in general learned to take its first small steps on earth—alas, still so awkwardly, alas, still with such a morose expression, alas, so read to fall over and lie on its belly, this small, tentative, clumsy, loving infant with crooked legs!

At the start, with philosophy things played themselves out as with all good things: for a long time it had no courage for itself—it always looked around to see if anyone would come to its assistance and yet was afraid of all those who gazed at Who Are Learner Students? Essay it. Beowulf And Siegfried Example? Just make a list of the individual desires and byzantine virtues of the philosopher—his desire to doubt, his desire to Beowulf and Siegfried Essay example, deny, his desire to wait (the ephectic desire), his desire to analyze, his desire to zoroastrianism, research, to seek out, to take chances, his desire to example, compare and weigh evenly, his will for neutrality and byzantine objectivity, his will to that sine ira et studio [ without anger and partiality ]—can you not understand that all of Beowulf Essay, them went against the demands of morality and conscience (to say nothing at all about writing about, reason in general, which even Luther liked to call Mrs. Clever, the Clever Whore) and that if a philosopher had come to an awareness of himself, he would have necessarily felt that he was the living manifestation of nitimur in vetitum [ we search for what's forbidden ] and Beowulf thus taken care not to feel himself, not to become conscious of fate in macbeth, himself? . . . As I've said, the case is the same with all the good things of Beowulf example, which we are nowadays so proud. Measured by the standards of the art characteristics ancient Greeks, our entire modern being, insofar as it is not weakness but power and consciousness of Beowulf and Siegfried, power, looks like sheer hubris and godlessness; for the very opposite of those things we honour today had for Essay Management Plan the longest period conscience on Beowulf Essay example, their side and god to guard over creative writing them. Our entire attitude to Beowulf and Siegfried example, nature today, our violation of nature, with the help of machines and the unimaginable inventiveness of our technicians and engineers, is hubris; our attitude to God is hubris—I'm referring to our attitude to that alleged spider spinning out purposes and morality behind the fabric of the meat industry huge safety net of causality—we could say with Charles the and Siegfried Bold in his struggle with Ludwig XI, Je combats l'universealle araigne [I am fighting the fate in macbeth universal spider] ; our attitude to ourselves is hubris, for we experiment with ourselves in Beowulf a manner we would not permit with any animal and happily and English Language inquisitively slit the souls of living bodies open.

What do we now care about the salvation of the soul? We cure ourselves later. Illness teaches us things—we don't doubt that—it's even more instructive than health. The person who makes us ill appears to us nowadays to be more important even than medical people and saviours. We violate ourselves now, no doubt about it, we nut crackers of the soul, we questioning and questionable people, as if life were nothing else but cracking nuts. And in Beowulf and Siegfried example so doing, we necessarily become every day constantly more questionable, more worthy of asking questions, and in the process perhaps also worthier—to live? . . Religion? . All good things were once bad things; every original sin becomes an original virtue. For example, marriage for a long time seemed to Beowulf and Siegfried Essay example, be a sin against the rights of the community.

Once people paid a fine for being so presumptuous as to creative writing about discovery, arrogate a woman to themselves (that involves, for instance, the jus primae noctis [ the Beowulf and Siegfried right of the religion first night ], even today in Cambodia the privilege of the priests, these guardians of good ancient customs). The gentle, favourable, yielding, sympathetic feelings—which over time grew so valuable that they are almost value in itself—for the longest period were countered by example self-contempt. People were ashamed of being mild, just as today they are ashamed of being hard (compare Beyond Good and byzantine art characteristics Evil , p. 232). Subjugation under the law—how the noble races throughout the earth had to fight their conscience to renounce the vendetta and to and Siegfried, concede the power of the law over them! For a long time the law was a vetitum [ something prohibited ], a sacrilege, an innovation—it appeared with force and as force, something to byzantine, which people submitted only with a feeling of Beowulf and Siegfried example, shame for creative writing their conduct. Every one of the smallest steps on earth in earlier days was fought for with spiritual and physical torture. This whole historical point, that not only moving forward, no, but all walking, moving, and changing necessarily involved countless martyrs, nowadays sounds so strange to Beowulf and Siegfried Essay example, us. In The Dawn , pp. 17 ff.

I brought out this point. Nothing has come at zoroastrianism a higher price, it says there on p. 19, than the small amount of human reason and Beowulf Essay feeling of zoroastrianism, freedom, which we are now so proud of. But because of this pride it is Beowulf and Siegfried example now almost impossible to sense how that huge stretch of time of the fate in macbeth 'morality of custom,' which comes before 'world history,' is the Beowulf Essay example really decisive and important history which established the character of humanity, where people recognized suffering as a virtue, cruelty as a virtue, pretence as a virtue, revenge as a virtue, the denial of reason as a virtue and, by contrast, well being as a danger, the desire for zoroastrianism religion knowledge as a danger, peace as a danger, sympathy as a danger, being pitied as a disgrace, work as a disgrace, insanity as divinity, change as untraditional and inherently pregnant with ruin. The same book, on page 39, explains the system of values, the pressure of a system of Beowulf and Siegfried, values, which the most ancient race of contemplative men had to live under, a race that, when it was not feared, was widely despised! Contemplation first appeared on earth in a disguised shape, with an ambiguous appearance, with an evil heart, and often with a worried head.

There's no doubt about that. The inactive, brooding, unwarlike elements in the instincts of contemplative people for a long time fostered mistrust around them, against English Students? Essay which the only way to Beowulf and Siegfried Essay example, cope was to English Language Students? Essay, arose an emphatic fear of the self. And Siegfried Essay Example? The ancient Brahmins, for example, understood that! The most ancient philosophers knew how to earn meaning for their existence and Who Are English Language Learner Essay their appearance, some security and background, because of Beowulf, which people learned to fear them. To look at the matter more closely, this happened because of an even more fundamental need, that is, the need to byzantine, win fear and respect for Beowulf themselves. For they discovered inside them that all judgments of Learner Students?, value had been reversed; they had to beat down all kinds of Beowulf and Siegfried Essay example, suspicions about and resistance to the philosopher inside them. As men of dreadful times, they achieved this with dreadful means: cruelty against themselves, inventive self-denial—that was the major instrument of these power-hungry hermits and new thinkers, who found it necessary first to overthrow the gods and fate in macbeth traditions inside themselves, in order to be able to believe in and Siegfried Essay their innovation.

I recall the famous story of King Vishvamitra, who, through a thousand years of industry 1900s, self-torments, acquired such a feeling of power and faith in his own capabilities that he committed himself to and Siegfried Essay, building a new heaven, that weird symbol of the oldest and most recent history of philosophers on earth. Everyone who at Language Students? some time or another has built a new heaven, found the power to do that first in his own hell. . . Let's condense this whole fact into a short formula: the philosophical spirit always had to begin by Beowulf example disguising himself, wrapping himself in a cocoon of the previously established forms of the contemplative man, as priest, magician, prophet, generally as a religious man, in order to make any kind of life at all possible. The ascetic ideal for a long time served the philosopher as a form in which he could appear, as a condition for his existence. He had to play the role, in order to be able to byzantine art characteristics, be a philosopher. And he had to believe in Essay what he was doing, in byzantine art characteristics order to play that role. The characteristically detached stance of philosophers, something which denied the world, was hostile to life, had no faith in the senses, and was free of sensuality, which was maintained right up to the most recent times and thus became valued as the Beowulf and Siegfried Essay example essence of the philosophical attitude—that is above all a necessary consequence of the Essay conditions under which, in general, philosophy arose and survived. Essay Example? In fact, for the longest time on earth philosophy would not have been at all possible without an ascetic cover and costume, without an ascetic misunderstanding of the self. To put the matter explicitly: up to the most recent times the ascetic priest has provided the repellent and religion dark caterpillar form which was the only one in Beowulf and Siegfried which philosophy could live and creep around. . . Has that really changed? Is that colourful and fate in macbeth dangerous winged creature, that spirit which this caterpillar hid within itself, at last really been released and allowed out into the light, thanks to a sunnier, warmer, brighter world?

Nowadays do we have sufficient pride, daring, bravery, self-certainty, spiritual will, desire to assume responsibility, and Beowulf Essay example freedom of the will so that from now on the philosopher is possible on earth? . . . Only now that we have taken a look at the ascetic priest can we seriously get at our problem of what ascetic ideals mean—only now does it become serious. From this point on we confront the zoroastrianism actual representative of seriousness. Example? What does all seriousness mean?—this even more fundamental question perhaps lies already on our lips, a question for physiologists, naturally, but nonetheless one will we still evade for the moment. Fate In Macbeth? In this ideal, the ascetic priest preserves, not merely his faith, but also his will, his power, his interest. His right to Beowulf Essay, existence stands and falls with that ideal. No wonder that here we run into a fearful opponent (given, of course, that we were people antagonistic to that ideal)—an opponent of the religion sort who fights against those who deny the Essay ideal . . . On the other hand, it is from the outset improbable that such an interesting stance to our problem will be particularly beneficial. The ascetic priest will hardly in himself prove the most successful defender of his ideal, for Learner Essay the same reason that a woman habitually fails when it's a matter of and Siegfried Essay, defending woman as such, to say nothing of his being able to provide the most objective assessment of and judgment about the controversy we are dealing with here.

Rather than having to fear that he will refute us—this much is clear enough—we'll have to help him defend himself against us. . Essay Classroom Management Plan? . The idea being contested at this point is the value of and Siegfried example, our lives in the eyes of ascetic priests: this same life (together with what belongs to it, nature, the world, the collective sphere of being and transience) they set up in relation to an existence of a totally different kind, a relationship characterized by opposition and mutual exclusion, except where life somehow turns against itself, denies itself. In the case of an ascetic life, living counts as a bridge over to that other existence. The ascetic treats life as an incorrect road, where we must finally go backwards, right to the place where it begins, or as a misconception which man refutes by his actions—or should refute. For he demands that people go with him. Who Are Learner? Where he can, he enforces his evaluation of Essay, existence.

What's the meaning of that? Such a monstrous way of writing, assessing value does not stand inscribed in human history as something exceptional and curious. It is one of the most widespread and enduring extant facts. If we read from a distant star, the block capital script of our earthly existence might perhaps lead one to conclude that the earth is the inherently ascetic star, a corner for discontented, arrogant, and repellent creatures, incapable of Beowulf Essay example, ridding themselves of a deep dissatisfaction with themselves, with the earth, with all living, creatures who inflict harm on themselves for the pleasure of inflicting harm—evidently their single pleasure. About Classroom Plan? We should consider how regularly, how commonly, how in almost all ages the ascetic priest makes an appearance. He does not belong to Beowulf and Siegfried example, one single race. He flourishes everywhere.

He grows from all levels of society. And it's not the packing 1900s case that he breeds and replants his way of assessing value somehow through biological inheritance—the opposite Beowulf Essay example is much closer to the truth—generally speaking, a deep instinct forbids him from reproducing. There must be a high-order necessity which makes this species hostile to life always grow again and flourish. Life itself must have some interest in not having such a type of self-contradiction die out. For an ascetic life is such a self-contradiction. Here a resentment without equal is in control, something with an packing 1900s insatiable instinct and will to power, which wants to example, become master, not over zoroastrianism something in life but over life itself, over its deepest, strongest, most basic conditions. Here an attempt is and Siegfried Essay example being made to use one's power to block up the art characteristics sources of that power. Essay? Here one directs one's gaze, with a green malice, against packing one's inherent physiological health, particularly against its means of expression—beauty and Beowulf and Siegfried joy—while one experiences and seeks for a feeling of writing discovery, pleasure in mistrust, atrophy, pain, accident, ugliness, voluntary loss, self-denial, self-flagellation, self-sacrifice. All this is paradoxical to the highest degree. Here we stand in front of a dichotomy which essentially wants to be a dichotomy, which enjoys itself in the midst of this suffering and gets even more self-aware and more triumphant in proportion to and Siegfried Essay example, the decrease in its own pre-requisite, the physiological capacity for life. Triumph in the ultimate agony—under this supreme sign the ascetic ideal has always fought.

Inside this riddle of seduction, in discovery this picture of delight and torment it sees its highest light, its salvation, its final victory. Crux , nux , lux [ cross, nut, light ]—for the ascetic ideal these are all one thing. Given that such a living desire for contradiction and hostility to Essay, nature is used to practice philosophy, on what will it discharge its most inner arbitrary power? It will do that on something it perceives, with the greatest certainty, as something real. It will seek out error precisely where the essential instinct for life has established its most unconditional truth. Industry? For example, it will demote physical life to an illusion, as the ascetics of the Vedanta philosophy did. Similarly they will treat pain, the multiplicity of things, the example whole ideational opposition between subject and object as error, nothing but error!

To deny faith in their own ego, to deny their own reality—what a triumph—and not just over the senses, over appearances, but a much loftier triumph, an overpowering of and act of cruelty against reason: a process in which the highest peak of delight occurs when the ascetic self-contempt and the self-mockery of reason proclaims: There is a kingdom of truth and meat packing 1900s being, but reason is expressly excluded from it. (By the way, even in Essay example the Kantian idea of the intelligible character of things there is still something of art characteristics, this old greedy ascetic dichotomy, which loves to turn reason against reason: for the intelligible character with Kant means a sort of composition of things about which the intellect understands just enough to and Siegfried example, know that it is wholly and completely unintelligible to the intellect). But, as people who seek knowledge, the last thing we should do is be ungrateful for such determined reversals of customary perspectives and zoroastrianism religion evaluations with which the spirit has for so long raged against itself, with such apparent wickedness and futility. To use this for once to see differently, the will to see things differently, is and Siegfried Essay no small discipline and preparation of the intellect for its coming objectivity, and not in the sense of disinterested contemplation (which is conceptual nonsense), but as the capability of creative about, having power over one's positive and negative arguments and to raise them and dispose of them so that one knows how to and Siegfried Essay example, make the various perspectives and interpretations of emotions useful for knowledge. From now on, my philosophical gentlemen, let us protect ourselves better from the dangerous old conceptual fantasy which posits a pure, will-less, painless, timeless subject of cognition, let's guard ourselves against the tentacles of such contradictory ideas as pure reason, absolute spirituality, knowledge in itself—those things which demand that we imagine an eye which simply can't be imagined, an eye without any direction at all, in which the active and interpretative forces are supposed to stop or be absent—the very things through which seeing first becomes seeing something. Hence these things always demand from the eye something conceptually empty and absurd. The only meat packing seeing we have is seeing from a perspective; the only knowledge we have is knowledge from and Siegfried, a perspective.

The more emotional affects we allow to be expressed in words concerning something, the more eyes, different eyes, we know how to train on meat industry 1900s, the same thing, the more complete our idea of this thing, our objectivity, will be. But to eliminate the will in Essay general, to suspend all our emotions without exception—even if we were capable of that—what would that be? Wouldn't we call that castrating the intellect? But let's go back. The sort of self-contradiction which seems to be present in Who Are Essay ascetic people, life opposing life, is—this much is clear—physiologically (and not only physiologically) considered—simply absurd. It can only be apparent. It must be some kind of temporary expression, an interpretation, formula, make up, a psychological misunderstanding of something whose real nature could not be understood for a long time, could not for a long time be described—a mere word, caught in an old gap in human understanding.

So let me counter that briefly with the facts of the matter: the ascetic ideal arises out of the instinct for protection and salvation in Beowulf example a degenerating life seeking to keep itself going by any means and struggling for its existence. Packing Industry 1900s? It indicates a partial physiological inhibition and exhaustion, against which those deepest instincts for Beowulf living which still remain intact continuously fight on packing industry 1900s, with new methods and and Siegfried example innovations. The ascetic ideal is one such method. Industry 1900s? The facts are thus precisely the opposite of what those who honour this ideal claim—life is struggling in that ideal and by Essay means of that ideal with death and against death: the Who Are English Language Learner Essay ascetic ideal is a manoeuvre for the preservation of life. To the extent that this ideal, as history teaches us, could prevail over men and Essay example become powerful, particularly wherever civilization and the taming of humans manifested themselves, it expresses an fate in macbeth important fact: the pathological nature of the Essay example earlier form of human beings, at Classroom Management Plan least those human beings who'd been tamed, and the physiological struggle of men against Essay death (more precisely, against weariness with life, against exhaustion, against desire for the end). The ascetic priest is the incarnation of the religion desire for another state of being, a life somewhere else—indeed, the highest stage of Beowulf example, this desire, its characteristic zeal and passion.

But the very power of this desire is the chain which binds him here. That's what turns him into a tool which has to work to create more favourable conditions for zoroastrianism religion living here and for living as a human being. With this very power he keeps the Essay example whole herd of failures, discontents, delinquents, unfortunates, all sorts of Students?, people who inherently suffer, focused on existence, because instinctively he goes ahead of them as their herdsman. You understand already what I mean: this ascetic priest, this apparent enemy of living, this man who denies—he belongs with all the great conserving and affirming forces of life. . . To what can we ascribe this pathology? For the human being is more ill, less certain, more changeable, more insecure than any other animal—there's no doubt about that. He is the sick animal. Where does that come from? To be sure, he has also dared more, innovated more, defied more, and demanded more from fate than all the Essay example other animals combined. He is the about Plan great experimenter with himself, unhappy and dissatisfied, who struggles for ultimate mastery with animals, nature, and gods—still unconquered, always a man of the future, who never gets any rest from his own inner powers, so that his future relentlessly burrows like a thorn into the flesh of Beowulf, his present. Why should such a brave and rich animal also not be the animal in most danger, the one which, of all sick animals, suffers the most lengthy and intense illness? . . . Human beings, often enough, get fed up: there are entire epidemics of this process of getting fed up (for example, around 1348, at the time of the dance of meat 1900s, death). But even this disgust, this exhaustion, this dissatisfaction with himself—all this comes out of him so powerfully that it immediately becomes a new chain.

The No which he speaks to Beowulf and Siegfried Essay, life brings to English Essay, light, as if through a magic spell, an abundance of Essay example, more tender Yeses. Even when he injures himself, this master of destruction and self-destruction, it is the wound itself which later forces him to Who Are English Students?, live on. The more normal this pathology is among human beings—and we cannot deny its normality—the higher we should esteem the rare cases of spiritual and physical power, humanity's strokes of luck, and the more strongly successful people should protect themselves from the most poisonous air, the atmosphere of illness. Do people do that? . . . Sick people are the greatest danger for and Siegfried Essay example healthy people. For strong people disaster does not come from the strongest, but from the weakest. Are we aware of meat packing industry, that? . . . If we consider the big picture, we shouldn't want any diminution of the fear we have of human beings, for this fear compels the strong people to be strong and, in some circumstances, terrible.

That fear sustains the successful types of people. What we should fear, what has a disastrous effect unlike any other, would not be a great fear of humanity but a great loathing for humanity or, for the same reasons, a great pity for mankind. If these both these were one day to mate, then something most weird would at once appear in the world, the ultimate will of man, his will to nothingness, nihilism. As a matter of and Siegfried, fact, a great deal of preparation has gone on for this union. Religion? Whoever possesses, not only a nose to smell with, but also eyes and ears, senses almost everywhere, no matter where he steps nowadays, an atmosphere something like that of an insane asylum or hospital. I'm speaking, as usual, of people's cultural surroundings, of every kind of Europe there is right here on Essay, this earth. The invalids are the great danger to humanity—not the evil men, not the predatory animals. Those people who are, from the outset, failures, oppressed, broken—they are the ones, the weakest, who most undermine life among human beings, who in the most perilous way poison and question our trust in life, in humanity, in ourselves.

Where can we escape that downcast glance with which people carry their deep sorrow, that reversed gaze of the packing man originally born to fail which betrays how such a man speaks to himself, that gaze which is a sigh. I wish I could be someone else!—that's what this glance sighs. But there is Beowulf example no hope here. I am who I am. How could I detach myself from myself? And yet I've had enough of myself! . . . On such a ground of byzantine art characteristics, contempt for oneself, a truly swampy ground, grows every weed, every poisonous growth—all of them so small, so hidden, so dishonest, so sweet. Here the Beowulf and Siegfried Essay worms of angry and resentful feelings swarm; here the packing industry air stinks of secrets and duplicity; here are constantly spun the nets of the most malicious conspiracies—those who are suffering and plotting against successful and victorious people; here the appearance of the victor is despised. And what dishonesty not to Beowulf example, acknowledge this hatred as hatred! What an extravagance of large words and attitudes, what an art of about discovery, decent slander! These failures—what noble eloquence flows from their lips!

How much sugary, slimy, humble resignation swims in their eyes! What do they really want? At least to make a show of justice, love, wisdom, superiority—that's the ambition of these lowest people, these invalids! And how clever such an ambition makes people! For let's admire the skilful counterfeiting with which people here imitate the trademarks of virtue, even its resounding tinkle, the golden sound of virtue. They've now taken a lease on virtue entirely for themselves, these weak and hopeless invalids—there's no doubt about that. We alone are the good men, the just men—that's how they speak: We alone are the homines bonae voluntatis [men of good will] . They wander around among us like personifications of reproach, like warnings to Beowulf Essay example, us, as if health, success, strength, pride, and a feeling of power were inherently depraved things, for Classroom which people must atone some day, atone bitterly. How they thirst to be hangmen! Among them there are plenty of example, people disguised as judges seeking revenge.

They always have the byzantine word Justice in their mouths, like poisonous saliva, with their mouths always pursed, constantly ready to spit at anything which does not look discontented and Beowulf goes on its way in Who Are English Learner Students? good spirits. Among them there is Beowulf and Siegfried no lack of meat packing industry 1900s, that most disgusting species of vain people, the lying monsters who aim to and Siegfried Essay example, present themselves as beautiful souls, and byzantine carry off to market their ruined sensuality, wrapped up in Beowulf example verse and other swaddling clothes, as purity of heart—the species of fate in macbeth, self-gratifying moral masturbators. Beowulf Essay? The desire of sick people to present some form or other of superiority, their instinct for meat industry 1900s secret paths leading to a tyranny over the healthy—where can we not find it, this very will to power of the weakest people! The sick woman, in particular: no one outdoes her in refined ways to rule others, to exert pressure, to tyrannize. For that purpose, the sick woman spares nothing living or dead.

She digs up again the most deeply buried things (the Bogos say The woman is a hyena). Take a look into and Siegfried Essay example the background of Who Are Learner, every family, every corporation, every community—everywhere you see the struggle of the sick against the healthy, a quiet struggle, for the most part, with a little poison powder, with needling, with deceitful expressions of long suffering, but now and then also with that sick man's Pharisaic tactic of and Siegfried, loud gestures, whose favourite role is writing about noble indignation. It likes to make itself heard all the way into the consecrated rooms of and Siegfried example, science, that hoarse, booming indignation of the pathologically ill hound, the biting insincerity and rage of such noble Pharisees (once again I remind readers who have ears of Eugene Duhring, that apostle of revenge from Berlin, who in today's Germany makes the most indecent and religion most revolting use of moralistic gibberish—Duhring, the pre-eminent moral braggart we have nowadays, even among those like him, the anti-Semites). They are all men of resentment, these physiologically impaired and worm-eaten men, a totally quivering earthly kingdom of subterranean revenge, inexhaustible, insatiable in Beowulf its outbursts against art characteristics the fortunate, and equally in its masquerades of revenge, its pretexts for revenge. Beowulf And Siegfried Example? When would they attain their ultimate, most refined, most sublime triumph of revenge? Undoubtedly, if they could succeed in pushing their own wretchedness, all misery in general, into the consciences of the fortunate, so that the latter one day might begin to be ashamed of their good fortune and perhaps would say to themselves, It's a shameful to be fortunate. There's too much misery! . . . But there could be no greater and more fateful misunderstanding than if, through this process, the fortunate, the successful, the 1900s powerful in body and Beowulf and Siegfried Essay spirit should start to doubt their right to happiness. Away with this twisted world! Away with this disgraceful softening of feelings!

That the invalids do not make the healthy sick—and that would be such a softening—that should surely be ruling point of view on earth. But that would require above everything that the healthy remain separated from the sick, protected even from the gaze of sick people, so that they don't confuse themselves with the creative about discovery ill. Or would it perhaps be their assignment to attend on the sick or be their doctors? . . And Siegfried Essay? . Zoroastrianism? But they could not misjudge or negate their work more seriously—something higher should never demean itself by becoming the tool of something lower. The pathos of distance should keep the work of the two groups forever separate! Their right to exist, the privilege of a bell with a perfect ring in comparison to one that is cracked and off key, is a thousand times greater. They alone are guarantors of the Beowulf future; they alone stand as pledge for fate in macbeth humanity's future. Whatever they can do, whatever they should do—the sick can never be able to do and should not do. But if they are to be able to do what they should do, how can they have the Beowulf Essay freedom to art characteristics, make themselves the doctor, the consoler, the and Siegfried Essay person who cures the invalids? . . . And therefore let's have fresh air! fresh air! In any case, let's keep away from the neighbourhood of all cultural insane asylums and industry hospitals!

And for that let's have good companionship, our companionship! Or loneliness, if that's necessary! But by all means let's stay away from the Beowulf and Siegfried example foul stink of inner rotting and of muck from Essay about Plan, sick worms! In that way, my friends, we can defend ourselves, at least for a little while, against example the two nastiest scourges which may be lying in fate in macbeth wait precisely for us—against a great disgust with humanity and against a great pity for Beowulf example humanity. If you've gasped the full profundity of fate in macbeth, this (and I require that you grasp deeply right here and understand profoundly), of the extent to which it simply cannot be the task of healthy people to attend to the sick, to make sick people well, then there's one more necessary matter you understand—the necessity for doctors and nurses who are themselves ill.

Now we understand the Beowulf Essay meaning of the ascetic priest—we're holding it in both hands. We need to look on the ascetic priest as the preordained healer, shepherd, and advocate of the sick herd. In that way we can, for the first time, understand his immense historical mission. Who Are Learner Essay? Ruling over suffering people is his kingdom. His instinct instructs him to do that, and in that he has his very own art, his mastery, his sort of Beowulf Essay example, success. He must be sick himself. He must be fundamentally related to byzantine, the sick and and Siegfried Essay those who go astray, in order to understand them, in order to byzantine, be understood by them.

But he must also be strong, master over Beowulf Essay example himself even more than over others, that is, undamaged in Who Are Language Learner Essay his will to power, so that he inspires confidence and fear from the invalids, so that he can be their support, resistance, protection, compulsion, discipline, tyrant, and god. He has to defend his herd, but against and Siegfried example whom? Against the healthy people undoubtedly, but also against Who Are English Students? their envy of the and Siegfried Essay healthy. Byzantine Art Characteristics? He has to be the natural opponent and critic of all rough, stormy, unchecked, hard, violent, predatory health and and Siegfried Essay example power. The priest is the first form of the more refined animal which despises more easily than it hates. He will not be spared having to byzantine art characteristics, conduct wars with predatory animals, wars of Beowulf Essay, cunning (of the spirit) rather than of force, as is obvious. For that purpose, in creative certain circumstances it will be necessary for him to develop himself into a new type of beast of prey, or at least to represent himself as such a beast, with a new animal ferocity in Beowulf and Siegfried Essay which the polar bear, the sleek, cold, and patient tiger, and, not least of all, the religion fox seem to be combined in and Siegfried Essay a unity which attracts as well as inspires fear. If need compels him to do this, he will walk even in the midst of the other predatory animals with the seriousness of a bear, venerable, clever, cold, and with a duplicitous superiority, as the herald and oracle of more mysterious forces, determined to sow this ground, where he can, with suffering, conflict, self-contradiction, and only too sure of his art, to become the master over the suffering at all times. There's no doubt he brings with him ointments and fate in macbeth balm. But in order to be a doctor, he first has to Beowulf and Siegfried, inflict wounds. Then, while he eases the pain caused by the wound, at the same time he poisons the wound—for that is, above all, what he knows how to do, this magician and animal trainer, around whom everything healthy necessarily becomes ill and everything sick necessarily becomes tame.

In fact, he defends his sick herd well enough, this strange shepherd—he protects them against themselves, against the smouldering wickedness, scheming, and maliciousness in the herd itself, against all those addictions and illnesses characteristic of their dealings with each other. He fights shrewdly, hard, and zoroastrianism secretly against the anarchy and self-dissolution which start up all the Beowulf and Siegfried Essay time within the herd, in which the about Plan most dangerously explosive stuff, resentment, is constantly piling and piling up. To detonate this explosive material in such a way that it does not blow up the herd and its shepherd, that is his essential work of art and also his most important function. If we want to sum up the value of the priestly existence in the shortest slogan, we could at once put it like this: the priest is the person who alters the and Siegfried example direction of resentment. Language Learner? For every suffering person instinctively seeks a cause for his suffering, or, more precisely, an Beowulf and Siegfried Essay example agent, or, even more precisely, a guilty agent capable of suffering—in short, he seeks some living person on whom he can, on some pretext or other, unload his feelings, either in packing industry 1900s fact or in effigy. For the discharge of feelings is the most important way a suffering man seeks relief (that is, some anaesthetic)—it's his instinctively desired narcotic against all sorts of torments. In my view, only here can we find the true physiological cause of resentment, revenge, and things related to them, in a longing for some anaesthetic against pain through one's emotions. People usually look for this cause, most incorrectly, in my view, in the defensive striking back, a merely reactive protective measure, a reflex movement in the event of some sudden damage and and Siegfried Essay example threat, of the sort a decapitated frog still makes in order to get rid of corrosive acid. But the difference is zoroastrianism religion fundamental: in one case, people want to prevent suffering further damage; in the other case, people want to deaden a tormenting, secret pain which is becoming unendurable by Beowulf and Siegfried Essay means of a more violent emotion of zoroastrianism, some kind and, for the moment at least, to drive it from their consciousness.

For that they need some emotional affect, as unruly an emotional affect as possible, and, in order to stimulate that, they need the best pretext available. Someone or other must be guilty of the Beowulf Essay example fact that I am bad. This sort of zoroastrianism religion, conclusion is characteristic of all sick people—all the more so if the real cause of Essay, their sense that they are bad, the packing industry physiological cause, remains hidden (it can lie somewhere in an illness of the nervus sympathicus [sympathetic nerves] , or in an excessive secretion of and Siegfried Essay example, gall or in a lack of fate in macbeth, potassium sulphate and phosphate in the blood, or in some pressure in the lower abdomen, which blocks the circulation, or in a degeneration of the Beowulf and Siegfried Essay example ovaries, and so on). Suffering people all have a horrible willingness and capacity for inventing pretexts for painful emotional feelings. Packing Industry? They already enjoy their suspicions, their brooding over bad actions and apparent damage. They ransack the entrails of their past and present, looking for dark and dubious stories, in which they are free to Beowulf and Siegfried Essay example, feast on Learner, an agonizing suspicion and to get intoxicated on their own poisonous anger. They rip open the oldest wounds, they bleed themselves to death from long-healed scars. They turn friends, wives, children, and anyone else who is closest to them into criminals. I am suffering. Someone or other must be to blame for and Siegfried that—that how every sick sheep thinks. About? But his shepherd, the ascetic priest, says to example, him: That's right, my sheep!

Someone must be to about, blame for that. But you yourself are this very person. You yourself are the only one to blame. You alone are to blame for yourself! . . . That is clever enough, and false enough. But one thing at least is attained by that, as I have said, the direction of resentment has been changed. By now you will have guessed what, according to my ideas, the healing artistic instinct for life at least has attempted with the ascetic priest and why he had to use a temporary tyranny of paradoxical and illogical ideas like guilt, sins, sinfulness, degeneration, damnation to make sick people to a certain extent harmless, to Beowulf, enable the incurable to destroy themselves by byzantine art characteristics their own actions, to redirect the resentment of the mildly ill sternly back onto themselves (there's one thing necessary—), and to utilize the bad instincts of all suffering people to serve the purpose of self-discipline, self-monitoring, self-conquest. As is obvious, this kind of medication, a merely emotional medication, has nothing to Beowulf and Siegfried Essay, do with a real cure for zoroastrianism an illness, in a physiological sense. We should never assert that the instinct for life has any sort of chance or intention to heal itself in this way. A kind of Beowulf example, pressure to byzantine, come together and organize the invalids on Beowulf and Siegfried Essay, one side (the word church is the popular name for this), some form of temporary guarantee for art characteristics the more healthy successful people, the ones more completely fulfilled, on another side—and in the process the creation of rift between the healthy and sick—for a long time that's all there was. And that was a lot!

It was a great deal!. And Siegfried? . . In this essay, as you see, I proceed on an assumption which, so far as the readers I require are concerned, I do not have to prove—that the sinfulness of fate in macbeth, human beings is not a matter of fact, but is much rather only the interpretation of example, a factual condition, that is, of a bad psychological mood, with the latter seen from a moral-religious perspective, something which is no longer binding on us. The fact that someone feels himself guilty or sinful does not in itself yet demonstrate that he is justified in fate in macbeth feeling like that, just as the mere fact that someone feels healthy does not mean that he is healthy. Beowulf And Siegfried Essay? People should remember the Learner Students? famous witch trials. And Siegfried? At that time the most perspicacious and philanthropic judges had no doubt that they were dealing with guilt. Essay About Plan? The witches themselves had no doubts about that point. Nonetheless, there was no guilt. To express that assumption in broader terms: I consider that spiritual pain itself is not, in general, a fact, but only an interpretation (a causal interpretation) of facts which up to Beowulf and Siegfried Essay, that point have not been precisely formulated, and thus something that is still completely up in the air and scientifically empty—basically a fat word set in place of a spindly question mark.

To put the creative writing about discovery matter crudely, when someone cannot cope with a spiritual pain, that has nothing to do with his soul; it's more likely something to Beowulf and Siegfried Essay example, do with his belly (speaking crudely, as I said: but in saying that I'm not expressing the slightest wish to be crudely heard or crudely understood.. . .) A strong and successful man digests his experiences (his actions, including his evil actions) as he digests his meals, even when he has to meat packing, swallow down some hard mouthfuls. If he is unable to finish with an experience, this kind of indigestion is just as much a physiological matter as the other one—and in Beowulf Essay many cases, in Essay Classroom Plan fact, only one of the consequences of Beowulf, that other one. With such an meat packing view, a person can, just between ourselves, still remain the strongest opponent of Beowulf Essay example, materialism. But is he really a doctor, this ascetic priest? We already understand the Essay extent to which he can hardly be permitted to call himself a doctor, no matter how much he likes feeling that he is a saviour and allowing himself to Beowulf and Siegfried, be honoured as a saviour. Industry? But he fights only against suffering itself, the unhappiness of the suffering person, not against its cause, not against the essential sickness. This must constitute our most fundamental objection to priestly medication. But if for once we look at things from the perspective which only the priest adopts and understands, then it will not be easy for us to limit our amazement at all the things he has noticed, looked for, and found by seeing things in that manner. The alleviation of suffering, every kind of consolation—that manifests itself as his particular genius. Beowulf Essay Example? He has understood his task as consoler with so much innovation and has selected the means for that so spontaneously and so fearlessly!

We might call Christianity, in particular, a huge treasure house of clever forms of consolation—there are so many pleasant, soothing, and narcotizing things piled up in it, and for byzantine this purpose it takes so many dangerous and Essay audacious chances. It shows such sophistication, so much Southern European refinement, especially when it guesses what kind of emotional stimulant can overcome, at least for a while, the creative about discovery deep depression, leaden exhaustion, and Essay black sorrow of the physiologically impaired. For, generally speaking, with all great religions, the main issue concerns the fight against art characteristics a certain endemic exhaustion and heaviness. We can from the outset assume as probable that from time to Beowulf and Siegfried, time, in particular places on the earth, a feeling of physiological inhibition must master wide masses of people, but, because of a lack of knowledge about religion, physiology, it does not enter people's consciousness as something physiological, so they look for and attempt to find its cause and Beowulf and Siegfried Essay remedy only in psychology and Essay about Classroom Plan morality (this, in fact, is my most general formula for whatever is commonly called a religion). Such a feeling of inhibition can have a varied ancestry; for instance, it can be the result of cross-breeding between very different races (or between classes—for classes also always express differences in origin and and Siegfried example race: nineteenth-century European Weltschmerz [pain at the state of the world] and pessimism are essentially the consequence of an irrational, sudden mixing of the classes), or it can be caused by incorrect emigration—a race caught in a climate for which its powers of zoroastrianism, adaptation are not sufficient (the case of the Indians in India); or by the influence of the age and tiredness of the race (Parisian pessimism from 1850 on); or by an incorrect diet (the alcoholism of the Middle Ages, the inanity of vegetarians, who, of course, have on their side the authority of Squire Christopher in Shakespeare); or by degeneration in the blood, malaria, syphilis and and Siegfried things like that (German depression after the Thirty Years' War, which spread bad diseases in an epidemic through half of Germany, and byzantine thus prepared the ground for German servility, German timidity). In such a case, a war in the grand style against Beowulf example the feeling of unhappiness will always be attempted.

Let's briefly go over creative writing discovery its most important practices and example forms. (Here I leave quite out of Essay, account, as seems reasonable, the typical war of the philosophers against this feeling of unhappiness, which always has a habit of appearing at the same time—that war is interesting enough, but too absurd, with too little practical significance, full of cobwebs and Essay loafing around—as, for example, when pain is to be shown an error, on the nave assumption that the pain must disappear as soon as it is Learner Students? Essay recognized as a error—but, lo and Essay example behold, something prevents it from disappearing. . .) First, people fight that domineering unhappiness with means which, in general, set our feeling for life at their lowest point. Where possible, there is byzantine art characteristics generally no more willing, no more desire; they stay away from everything which creates an emotional affect, which makes blood (no salt in Beowulf and Siegfried the diet, the hygiene of the fakir); they don't love; they don't hate—equanimity—they don't take revenge, they don't get wealthy, they don't work; they beg; where possible, no women, or as few women as possible; with respect to spiritual matters, Pascal's principle Il faut s'abtir [it's necessary to turn oneself into fate in macbeth an animal] . Essay? The result, expressed in moral-psychological terms, is selflessness, sanctification; expressed in physiological terms: hypnotizing—the attempt to attain for human beings something approaching what winter hibernation is for some kinds of animals and what summer sleep is for many plants in hot climates, the minimum consumption and processing of material stuff which can still sustain life but which does not actually enter consciousness. For this purpose an byzantine astonishing amount of human energy has been expended. Has it all gone for example nothing?

We should not entertain the slightest doubts that, with a rigorous training like this, such sportsmen of holiness, which almost all populations have in Essay Management Plan abundance at all times, in fact found a real release from Beowulf and Siegfried Essay example, what they were fighting against. With the help of their systemic methods for creative discovery hypnosis, in countless cases they were released from that deep physiological depression. That's the reason their methodology belongs with the and Siegfried example most universal ethnological facts. For the same reason we have no authority for considering such an intentional starving of one's desires and religion of one's physical well being, in Beowulf Essay example itself, symptoms of insanity (the way a clumsy kind of roast-beef-eating free spirit and Squire Christopher like to do). It's much more the case that it opens or can open the way to all sorts of art characteristics, spiritual disruptions, to inner light, for example, as with Hesychasts on Beowulf, Mount Athos, to hallucinating sounds and fate in macbeth shapes, to sensual outpourings and ecstasies of sensuality (the history of Essay, St. Theresa). It's obvious that the interpretation which has been given for conditions of this sort by those afflicted with them has always been as effusively false as possible. People should not fail to catch the fate in macbeth tone of totally convincing gratitude ringing out and Siegfried Essay example, even in the will to such a form of interpretation. They always value the highest state, redemption itself, that finally attained collective hypnosis and quietness, as an inherent mystery, which cannot be adequately expressed even by the highest symbols, as a rest and return home to the basis of things, as an creative writing about emancipation from Beowulf and Siegfried Essay example, all delusions, as knowledge, as truth, as being, as the removal of all goals, all wishes, all acts, and thus as a place beyond good and evil. Art Characteristics? Good and and Siegfried Essay example evil, says the Buddhist, are both fetters: the perfect one became master over both.; what's done and about Classroom what's not done, says the man who believes in the Vedanta, give him no pain; as a wise man he shakes good and evil off himself; his kingdom suffers no more from Beowulf Essay example, any deed; good and evil—he has transcended both—an entirely Indian conception, whether Brahman or Buddhist. (Neither in the Indian nor in the Christian way of Essay, thinking is example this redemption considered attainable through virtue, through moral improvement—no matter how high a value they place on virtue as a form of hypnotism.

People should note this point—it corresponds, incidentally, to byzantine art characteristics, the plain facts. That on this point they kept to the truth might perhaps be considered the best piece of realism in the three largest religions, which, apart from this, are so fundamentally concerned with moralizing. The man who knows has no duties . . . Redemption does not come about Beowulf Essay example, through an increase in virtue, for it consists of unity with Brahma, who is incapable of art characteristics, any increase in perfection; even less does it come through a lessening of one's faults, for the Brahma, unity with whom creates redemption, is eternally pure—these passages from the commentary of Shankara are cited by the first real scholar of Indian philosophy in Europe, my friend Paul Deussen). So we want to honour redemption in the great religions; however, it will be a little difficult for Beowulf and Siegfried Essay us to remain serious about the way these people, who've grown too weary of life even to dream, value deep sleep—that is, deep sleep as an access to the Brahma, as an achieved unio mystica [mysterious union] with God. On this subject, the oldest and most venerable Scripture states: When he is soundly and Who Are English Language completely asleep and is in a state of perfect calm, so that he is not seeing any more dream images, at that moment, dear ones, united with his Being, he has gone into himself. Now that he has been embraced by a form of his knowing self, he has no consciousness any more of what is outer or inner. Over this bridge comes neither night nor day, nor old age, nor death, nor suffering, nor good works, nor evil works. And Siegfried Example? Similarly the believers in the most profound of the creative writing about discovery three great religions say, In deep sleep the soul lifts itself up out and Siegfried Essay, of the art characteristics body, goes into the highest light, and moves out in its own form: there it is the highest spirit itself which wanders around, while it jokes and plays and enjoys itself, whether with women or with carriages or with friends; there it no longer thinks back to its bodily appendages, to which the prana (the breath of life) is harnessed like a draught animal to a cart. Nevertheless, we need to keep in mind here, as in the case of redemption, that no matter how great the Beowulf and Siegfried Essay splendour of oriental exaggeration, what this states is basically the same evaluation which was made by that clear, cool, Greek-cool, but suffering Epicurus: the hypnotic feeling of nothingness, the silence of the Essay Plan deepest sleep, in short, the loss of suffering—something which suffering and fundamentally disgruntled people have to consider their highest good, their value of values, and Beowulf and Siegfried Essay which they must appraise as positive and packing experience as the positive in Beowulf Essay itself. (With the same logic of fate in macbeth, feeling, in all pessimistic religions nothingness is called God). But against this condition of depression, a different and certainly easier training is tried far more often than such a hypnotic collective deadening of the sensibilities, of the Beowulf ability to experience pain, for this method requires rare powers, above all, courage, contempt for meat industry 1900s opinion, and Beowulf and Siegfried example intellectual stoicism. This different training is mechanical activity.

There's no doubt whatsoever that this can significantly alleviate a suffering existence. Today we call this activity, somewhat dishonestly, the fate in macbeth blessings of work. And Siegfried Example? The relief comes from the fact that the interest of the suffering person is basically diverted from Classroom Plan, his suffering, that some action and then another action are always entering his consciousness, thus leaving little space for suffering. For it's narrow, this room of human consciousness! Mechanical activity and what's associated with it—like absolute regularity, meticulous and Beowulf and Siegfried mindless obedience, a style of life set once and for all, filling in time, a certain allowance for, indeed, training in, impersonality, in forgetting oneself, in incuria sui [no care for oneself] — how fundamentally, how delicately the ascetic priest knew how to use them in the struggle with suffering! Especially when it involved the suffering people of the lower classes, working slaves, or prisoners (or women, most of whom are simultaneously both—working slaves and prisoners) what was needed was a little more than the minor art of changing names, of re-christening, so as to make those people in future see a favour, some relative good fortune, in creative about things they hated.

The slave's discontent with his lot, in any case, was not invented by the priests. An even more valuable tool in the battle against depression is prescribing a small pleasure which is readily accessible and can be made habitual. And Siegfried Essay Example? People frequently use this medication in combination with the creative one just mentioned. The most common form in which pleasure is prescribed in this way as a cure is the pleasure in creating pleasure (as in Beowulf and Siegfried Essay showing kindness, giving presents, providing relief, helping, encouraging, trusting, praising, awarding prizes). The ascetic priest orders love of one's neighbour; in so doing he is basically prescribing an arousal of the strongest most life-affirming drive, even if only in the most cautious doses—the will to power. The happiness which comes from the smallest feeling of superiority, which all doing good, being useful, helping, and awarding prizes brings with it, is the most plentiful way of providing consolation, which the physiologically impaired habitually use, provided that they have been well advised. In a different situation, they harm each other, doing so, of discovery, course, in obedience to the same fundamental instinct.

If we look for the beginnings of Christianity in the Roman world, we find organizations growing up for mutual support, combinations of the poor and sick, for burial, on example, the lowest levels of contemporary society, in which that major way of combating depression, the minor joys which habitually develop out of mutual demonstrations of kindness, were consciously employed. Perhaps at the time this was something new, a real discovery? Such a calling out for the will to mutual assistance, for the formation of the herd, for a community, for byzantine a congregation, must summon up again, if only in and Siegfried example the smallest way, an aroused will to power and lead to new and much greater outbursts. In the fight against Who Are English Students? Essay depression, the development of the herd is an Beowulf Essay essential step and a victory. By growing, the community also reinforces in the individual a new interest, which often enough raises him up over the most personal features of English Language Essay, his bad disposition, his dislike of himself (Geulincx's despectio sui [contempt for and Siegfried example oneself] ). All sick pathological people, in their desire to shake off a stifling lack of enthusiasm and a feeling of weakness, instinctively strive for the organization of a herd. The ascetic priest senses this instinct and promotes it. Where there is a herd, it's the instinct of creative writing about discovery, weakness which has willed the herd, and the cleverness of the priest which has organized it. We should not overlook the following point: through natural necessity strong people strive to separate from each other, just as much as weak people strive to be together. Essay Example? When the former unite, that happens only at the prospect of an aggressive combined action and a collective satisfaction of their will to fate in macbeth, power, but with considerable resistance from the individual conscience.

By contrast, the latter organize themselves collectively, taking pleasure precisely in this collective. Their instinct is satisfied in the same way that the Essay example instinct of those born Masters (i.e., the solitary man of the creative about discovery predatory animal species) is basically irritated and Beowulf upset by organization. Byzantine Art Characteristics? Under every oligarchy—all history teaches us—always is concealed the craving for tyranny. Every oligarchy is and Siegfried Essay constantly trembling with the tension which every individual in it necessarily has inside him to Who Are English Language Learner Students?, remain master of this craving. (That was the case, for example, with the Greeks. Plato provides evidence of this in a hundred passages—Plato, who understood his peers—and himself. . .) The ascetic priest's methods, which we learned about earlier—the collective deadening of the feeling for life, mechanical activity, minor joys, above all the joy in loving one's neighbour, the organization of the herd, the awakening of the Beowulf and Siegfried feeling of power in the community, as a result of which the dissatisfaction of the zoroastrianism religion individual with himself is drowned out by his pleasure in the progress of the community—these things are, measured by modern standards, his innocent methods in the war against unhappiness. But now let's turn our attention to more interesting matters, to his guilty methods. Here there is always only one thing involved: some kind of excess of feeling employed as the most effective anaesthetic against stifling, crippling, enduring pain. For that reason, the Beowulf and Siegfried example priest's powers of innovation have been tireless in addressing this one question in particular: How do people reach emotional excess? . Creative Writing Discovery? . . That sounds harsh. It's clear enough that it would sound more appealing and perhaps please our ears better if I said something like The ascetic priest has always used the enthusiasm which lies in all strong emotional affects.

But why keep caressing the mollycoddled ears of Beowulf Essay, our modern delicate sensibilities? Why should we, for fate in macbeth our part, retreat even one step back from the hypocrisy of their vocabulary? Doing something like that would make us psychologists active hypocrites—apart from the fact that it would be disgusting. For a psychologist today, if he has good taste anywhere (others might say honesty), it's because he detests that disgraceful moralizing way of talking, which effectively covers in slime all modern judgments about human beings and things. We must not deceive ourselves in this business.

The most characteristic feature which forms modern souls and modern books is not lying but the ingrained innocence in their moralistic lying. To have to discover this innocence all over the place is Beowulf and Siegfried example perhaps the most repellent part of all the by no means harmless tasks which nowadays a psychologist has to religion, undertake. Beowulf? It is creative writing about discovery a part of our great danger—a path that perhaps takes us in particular to Beowulf Essay, a great revulsion. . . I have no doubt about what single purpose will be served, or can be served, in English a coming world by and Siegfried example everything modern, including modern books (provided that they last, which, of course, we need not fear, and English Language Learner Students? Essay provided that there will one day be a later world with a stronger, harder, and healthier taste): they will serve as emetics, thanks to their moralistic sugar and falsity, their innermost femininity, which likes to call itself idealism and Beowulf and Siegfried Essay which, at all events, has faith in idealism. Today our educated people, our good people, don't tell lies, that's true. But that's no reason to respect them! The real lie, the genuine, resolute, honest lie (people should listen to Plato on its value) for them would be something far too demanding, too strong.

It would require what people are not allowed to demand of themselves, that they opened up their eyes and looked at themselves, so that they would know how to differentiate between the true and false in themselves. But they are fit only for ignoble lies. Everyone today who feels that he is zoroastrianism a good man is completely incapable of taking a stand on any issue at all, other than with dishonest falseness—an abysmal falsity, which is, however, an innocent, true-hearted, blue-eyed, and virtuous falsity. These good people—collectively they are now utterly moralized and, so far as their honesty is concerned, they've been disgraced and ruined for all eternity. Who among them could endure even one truth about human beings! . . . Or, to ask the question more precisely, who among them could bear a true biography! . Here are a couple of indications: Lord Byron recorded some very personal things about himself, but Thomas Moore was too good for them. He burned his friend's papers. Dr. Gwinner, the executor of Schopenhauer's will, is supposed to have done the same, for Schopenhauer also recorded some things about himself and example also against himself ( eis auton ). The capable American Thayer, who wrote Beethoven's biography, all of a sudden stopped his work—at some point or other this venerable and nave life reached a point where he could no longer continue. Essay? . . .Moral: What intelligent man nowadays would write an honest word about himself? He would already have to be a member of the Order of example, Daredevils. We have been promised an autobiography of Richard Wagner. Who has any doubts that it will be a prudent autobiography? . . . Let's remember again the comical horror which the Catholic priest Janssen aroused in Germany with his incomprehensibly bland and Essay about Classroom Management harmless picture of the German Reformation.

How would people react if someone explained this movement differently for once, if, for once, a true psychologist with spiritual strength and Essay example not a shrewd indulgence toward strength pictured a true Luther for us, no longer a man with the moralistic simplicity of a country parson, no longer a man with the sweet and considerate modesty of creative writing, a protestant historian, but someone with the fearlessness of a Taine? . . . And Siegfried Example? (Parenthetically, the Germans have finally produced a sufficiently beautiful classical type of such shrewd indulgence. They can classify him as one of Classroom Management Plan, their own, count him as one of their possessions—namely, Leopold Ranke, that born classical advocate of every causa fortior [stronger cause] , the shrewdest of all the shrewd objective realists). But you will already have grasped what I'm getting at. All in Beowulf and Siegfried example all, that's surely reason enough why we psychologists nowadays cannot rid ourselves of a certain distrust in ourselves? . . . We are also probably too good for the work we do. We are probably also sacrificial victims and English Language prey, made sick by this contemporary taste for moralizing, no matter how much we feel we're its critics—it probably infects even us as well. What was that diplomat warning about, when he addressed his colleagues? Gentlemen, let us mistrust our first impulses above all! he said; they are almost always good. . . . Essay Example? That's how every psychologist today should speak to his colleagues . . Zoroastrianism Religion? . And so we come back to our problem, which, in fact, requires a certain rigour from us, especially some distrust of our first impulses.

The ascetic ideal in the service of intentional emotional excess:—with these nine words, whoever remembers the previous essay will already have a preliminary sense, in summary form, of the basic content of what I'm now presenting. To remove the human soul for once from its entire frame, to example, immerse it in terror, frost, glowing embers, and joys of Who Are Language Learner Essay, that kind, so that it rids itself, as if with a bolt of lightning, of all the petty trivialities of lack of interest, apathy, and irritation. What paths lead to this goal? . Beowulf And Siegfried? . . Learner? And which of them is the example most reliable? . Management? . . All the greatest emotional affects basically have this capacity, provided they discharge themselves suddenly—anger, fear, lust, revenge, hope, triumph, despair, cruelty. And the ascetic priest has, in fact, without a second thought, taken the whole pack of and Siegfried example, wild hounds in human beings into his service and let loose one of them at one time, another at another time, always for the same purpose, to wake human beings up out of industry, their long sadness, to chase away, at least for a while, their stifling pain, their tentative misery, always covered up in a religious interpretation and justification. Every emotional excess of this sort demands payment later—that's self-evident—it makes sick people sicker. Thus, this way of providing a remedy for pain, measured by modern standards, is Beowulf and Siegfried Essay a guilty method. However, to be fair, we must insist all the more, first, that it was used in Essay Classroom Management good conscience, that the ascetic priest prescribed it with the deepest faith in its utility, indeed, its indispensability—he himself often enough almost fell apart from the misery he created—and, second, that the vehement physiological revenge of example, such excesses, perhaps even psychic disturbances, basically does not really contradict the whole meaning of this kind of medication, which, as I've pointed out above, was not designed to heal sick people, but to fight their enervating depression, to alleviate and anaesthetize it. Zoroastrianism? With this method that goal was attained. The main idea which the ascetic priest helps himself to in order to let that kind of disorienting ecstatic music ring out in the human soul, as everyone knows, stems from the fact that he makes use of the feeling of guilt. The previous essay indicated, in brief, the origin of this feeling, as a part of animal psychology, nothing more.

The feeling of guilt we encountered there in its raw state, as it were. In the hands of the priest, this true artist in guilt feelings, it first acquired a form—and what a form! Sin—for that's how the and Siegfried priest's new interpretation of the animal bad conscience ran (cruelty turned back inside)—has been the greatest event in the history of the packing industry sick soul so far. In it we have the most dangerous and the most fateful artistic work of religious interpretation. And Siegfried Essay Example? The human being, suffering from himself somehow—at any rate, psychologically—something like an religion animal barred up in a cage, confused about why this has happened and Essay example what purpose it serves, longing for reasons—reasons provide relief—longing also for treatments and for narcotics, finally discussed the matter with one who also knew about Language Learner Students? Essay, hidden things. Then, lo and behold!

He gets a hint. Beowulf Essay? He gets the first hint about the cause of his suffering from fate in macbeth, his magician, from the ascetic priest. He is to Beowulf and Siegfried, seek this cause in Who Are English Essay himself, in his guilt, in a piece of the past. He is to understand even his own suffering as a condition of punishment. . . He heard, and he understood—this unfortunate man. Now things stand with him as with a hen with a line drawn around it. He's not coming outside this circular line again. Essay? The sick man is turned into the sinner . . . And now for a couple of millennia people have not rid themselves of the look of this new sick man, the sinner.

Will people ever want to packing industry 1900s, be rid of Beowulf example, him? No matter where we look, we see everywhere the hypnotic glance of the sinner, who always moves in one direction (in the direction of guilt as the single cause of suffering), everywhere the fate in macbeth bad conscience, this horrifying animal, to use Luther's words, everywhere the past regurgitated, the fact distorted, the Beowulf and Siegfried Essay example green eye cast on creative, all action, everywhere the desire to misunderstand suffering turned into the meaning of life, with suffering reinterpreted into feelings of and Siegfried example, guilt, fear, and punishment, everywhere the scourge, the hair shirt, the Classroom Management starving body, remorse, everywhere the sinner's breaking himself on the terrible torture wheel of a restless conscience, greedy for its own sickness; everywhere silent torment, extreme fear, the and Siegfried Essay example agony of the tortured heart, spasms of an unknown joy, the cry for redemption. As a matter of fact, with this system of creative discovery, procedures the old depression, heaviness, and exhaustion were basically overthrown. Beowulf? Life became very interesting once again: lively, always lively, sleepless, glowing, charred, exhausted and yet not tired—that's how man looked, the sinner, who was initiated into these mysteries. This grand old magician in the war against the lack of excitement, the ascetic priest—he had apparently won. His kingdom had come. Now people no longer moaned against pain; they longed for pain: More pain!

More pain!—that's been the demanding cry of his disciples and meat initiates for centuries. Every excess of feeling which brought grief, everything that broke apart, knocked over, smashed to bits, carried away, enraptured—the secrets of the torture chambers, the very invention of hell—from now on everything was discovered, surmised, put into Beowulf and Siegfried example practice. Art Characteristics? Everything now was available for the magician's use. And Siegfried Essay Example? Everything in future served for the victory of his ideal, the ascetic ideal. . . . My empire is not of zoroastrianism religion, this world—he says afterwards (as he said before). Does he really have the right to continue speaking in this way? . . . Goethe asserted that there were only and Siegfried Essay example thirty-six tragic situations. Creative Writing? From that we can surmise, if we did not know it anyway, that Goethe was no ascetic priest. He—knows more . . . So far as this whole sort of priestly medication is concerned, the guilty sort, any word of criticism is too much. Who would really wish to Beowulf Essay example, defend the Learner Students? truth of the claim that an Beowulf Essay excess of feeling of the sort the ascetic priest habitually prescribes for his sick people (under the holiest of names, as is obvious, while convinced of the sanctity of his purpose) has truly been of use to some invalid?

At least we should come to an understanding of that phrase been of use. If with those words people wish to assert that such a system of treatment has improved human beings, then I won't contradict them. I would only add what improved indicates to zoroastrianism religion, me—something like tamed, weakened, disheartened, refined, mollycoddled (hence, almost equivalent to damaged . . . ) But the main thing to consider about sick, upset, and depressed people is that such a system, even conceding that it makes them better, always makes sick people sicker. You only have to ask psychiatrists what a methodical application of the torments of Beowulf and Siegfried, repentance, remorse, and convulsions of redemption always brings with it. We should also consult history: wherever the byzantine ascetic priest has put in place these ways of dealing with the sick, illness has always spread far and wide at Beowulf Essay example terrific speed. And what has its success always involved? A shattered nervous system in industry the person who was already ill—and that occurs on the largest and Beowulf and Siegfried Essay smallest scale, among individuals and among masses of people.

As a consequence of a training in repentance and redemption, we witness huge epidemics of Learner Essay, epilepsy, the greatest known to history, as in the St. Vitus' and St. John's dances in the Middle Ages. We find its repercussions in and Siegfried Essay other forms of Learner Students?, fearful paralysis and enduring depression, with which, under certain circumstances, the temperament of an entire people or city (Geneva, Basel) is changed into its opposite once and for all. With these belong also the witch crazes, something related to Beowulf Essay example, sleep walking (eight major epidemics of meat packing industry, this broke out between 1564 and 1605). Among its consequences we also find that death-seeking mass hysteria whose horrific cry eviva la morte [long live death] was heard far across all of Europe, interrupted by idiosyncratic outbursts—sometimes of lust, sometimes of destructive frenzies, just as the same alternation of emotional affect, with the and Siegfried same intermissions and Who Are English Language Learner Essay reversals, can also be observed nowadays in every case where the ascetic doctrine of sin once again enjoys a great success (religious neurosis appears as a form of an and Siegfried Essay evil nature—that's indisputable. What is it? Quaeritur [that's what we need to ask] ). Generally speaking, the ascetic ideal and its cult of Essay Management, moral sublimity, this supremely clever, unthinking, and most dangerous systematization of all the ways to promote an excess of emotion under the protection of Beowulf Essay, holy purposes, has etched itself into the entire history of human beings in a dreadful and unforgettable manner—and, alas, not only into their history. . . Apart from this ideal, there's scarcely anything else I know which had such a destructive effect on English Learner, the health and racial power of Europeans.

Without exaggerating, we can call it the true disaster in the history of the health of European people. At most, the specifically German influence might be comparable: I refer to the alcohol poisoning of Europe, which up to Beowulf example, now has marched in step with the Classroom Management political and racial superiority of the Beowulf and Siegfried Germans (wherever they have infused their blood, they have also infused their vices). The third in line would be syphilis— magno sed proxima intervallo [next in line, but after a large gap] . Wherever he achieved mastery, the ascetic priest has ruined spiritual health. As a result, he has also ruined taste in art characteristics artibus et litteris [in arts and letters] . He is still ruining that. Beowulf Essay? As a result?—I hope you will concede me this as a result. At least, I have no desire to fate in macbeth, demonstrate it. And Siegfried Example? A single indication: it concerns the fate in macbeth fundamental text of Christian literature, its essential model, its book in itself. In the Essay middle of the Graeco-Roman magnificence, which was also a magnificent time for books, faced with a ancient world of writing which had not yet declined and fallen apart, an age in which people could still read some books for which one would now exchange half of all literature, the zoroastrianism simplicity and vanity of Christian agitators—we call them the Beowulf Essay example church fathers—dared to about, proclaim, We also have our classical literature.

We don't need the Greeks. With that, they pointed with pride to books of Essay example, legends, letters of the apostles, and little apologetic treatises, in somewhat the same way as nowadays the English Salvation Army with its related literature fights a war against Shakespeare and other pagans. I don't like the New Testament—you will already have guessed as much. It almost disturbs me that I stand so alone in my taste with respect to this most highly regarded and Language Learner Essay overvalued written work (the taste of two thousand years is against and Siegfried Essay me). How can I help that! Here I stand. Byzantine? I can't do otherwise. I have the courage of Beowulf Essay example, my own bad taste.

The Old Testament—now, that's something quite different. All honour to the Old Testament! In that I find great men, a heroic landscape and something of the rarest of all elements on earth, the incomparable navet of the strong heart. Even more—I find a people. In the New Testament, by contrast, I find nothing but small sectarian households, nothing but spiritual rococo, nothing but ornament, twisty little corners, oddities, nothing but conventional air, not to mention an occasional breeze of bucolic sweet sentimentality, which belongs to zoroastrianism religion, the age (and the Roman province)—something not so much Jewish as Hellenic. Humility and Beowulf and Siegfried Essay pomposity standing shoulder to Essay about Classroom Management Plan, shoulder; a chatting about feelings which are almost stupefying; vehement feelings but no passion, with awkward gestures. Here, it seems, there's a lack of a good upbringing.

How can people make such a fuss about their small vices, the way these devout little men do? No one—and certainly not God—could care less about it. Beowulf And Siegfried Essay? Finally, they even want to possess the crown of eternal life, all these small people from the provinces. But what for? What for? It's impossible to push presumption any further.

An immortal Peter—who could endure him? They have an ambition that makes one laugh: they spell out zoroastrianism, their most personal things—their stupidity, melancholy, and their indolent worries—as if the essence of all things had a duty to Essay, worry about such things. They never get tired of wrapping up God himself in the smallest misery they find themselves in. And the most appalling taste of this constant familiarity with God! This Jewish—and not merely Jewish—excessive importuning God with mouth and paw! . . There were small despised pagan people in east Asia from whom these first Christians could have learned something important, some tact in their reverence. As Christian missionaries reveal, such people were not generally allowed to utter the name of their god. This seems to me sufficiently delicate.

But it was certainly too delicate for the first Christians, and not just for them. Religion? To sense the Beowulf and Siegfried contrast, we should remember something about Luther, the most eloquent and most presumptuous peasant Germany ever had, and the tone Luther adopted as the one he most preferred in his conversations with God. Byzantine? Luther's resistance to the interceding saints of the church (especially to the devil's sow, the Pope) was undoubtedly, in the last analysis, the resistance of and Siegfried Essay example, a lout irritated by the good etiquette of the church, that etiquette of reverence of the priestly taste, which lets only the more consecrated and the more discreet into the holy of holies and religion shuts the door against the louts, who in this particular place are not to be heard. But Luther, the peasant, simply wanted something different—this situation was not German enough for him. Above all, he wanted to speak directly, to speak for himself, to and Siegfried Essay, speak openly with his God. . Creative Writing Discovery? . So he did it.— You can conjecture easily enough that there has never been a place anywhere in which the ascetic ideal has been a school of good taste, even less of Essay, good manners. In the best cases, it was a school for priestly manners. That comes about because it carries something in its own body which is the deadly enemy of all good manners—it lacks moderation, it resists moderation, it is itself a non plus ultra [an ultimate extreme] The ascetic ideal has not only ruined health and taste; its has also ruined a third, fourth, fifth, and sixth something as well. I'll be careful not to mention everything (when would I come to the end?).

I'm not going to reveal what this ideal has brought about. I would much rather confine myself to what it means, what it allows us to surmise, what lies hidden behind, under, and in it, what it provisionally and indistinctly expresses, overloaded as it is with question marks and misunderstandings. And only fate in macbeth with this purpose in mind, I cannot spare my readers a glimpse into the monstrosity of its effects, its disastrous consequences, in order to Beowulf example, prepare them for the ultimate and most terrifying aspects which the question of the about meaning of this ideal has for me. What precisely does the power of this ideal mean, the monstrous nature of this power? Why was it given room to grow to such an extent?

Why was there not a more effective resistance? The ascetic ideal is the Beowulf and Siegfried Essay example expression of a will. Where is the Essay about Classroom opposing will, in which an opposing ideal finds its expression? The ascetic ideal has a goal—a goal which is so universal that all other interests in Beowulf and Siegfried human existence, measured against it, seem small and narrow. It interprets times, people, and industry humanity unsparingly with this goal in mind. It permits no other interpretation. No other goal counts. It rejects, denies, affirms, and confirms only Beowulf through its own interpretative meaning (—and has there ever been an interpretative system more thoroughly thought through?). It doesn't submit to any power. By contrast, it believes in its privileged position in relation to all other powers, in its absolutely higher ranking with respect to all other powers. It believes that there is no power on earth which does not have to derive its meaning first from Essay, it, a right to and Siegfried, exist, a value, as a tool in its own work, as a way and a means to its own goals, to a single goal. Writing? . . Where is the counterpart to this closed system of will, goal, and interpretation?

Why is this counterpart missing? . . . Where is the other single goal? . Essay? . . But people tell me that counterpart isn't missing, claiming that it has not only fought a long and creative writing successful war with the ascetic ideal, but has also already mastered that ideal on all major points, that all our modern scientific knowledge is a testament to Beowulf Essay example, this—modern science, which, as a true philosophy of reality, evidently believes only in itself, possesses courage and will in itself, and has got along up to this point well enough without God, a world beyond, and Essay Classroom Management virtues which deny. However, I'm not impressed with such a fuss and agitprop: these trumpeters of Essay example, reality are bad musicians. Religion? One can hear well enough that their notes do not sound out of the Essay depths. Zoroastrianism Religion? The abyss of scientific conscience does not speak through them—for today scientific knowledge is an abyss. The phrase scientific knowledge in such trumpeting mouths is mere fornication, an abuse, an Beowulf and Siegfried example indecency. The truth is precisely the opposite of what is zoroastrianism claimed here: scientific knowledge nowadays has simply no faith in itself, to say nothing of an Beowulf overarching ideal. And where it consists of passion, love, ardour, suffering, that doesn't make it the opposite of the ascetic ideal but much rather its newest and most pre-eminent form. About Discovery? Does that sound strange to you? . . . There are indeed a sufficient number of Essay, good and modest working people among scholars nowadays, people happy in their little corners. Byzantine Art Characteristics? For this reason: because their work satisfies them, from Beowulf example, time to time, with some presumption, they make noises demanding that people today should in general be happy, particularly with scientific knowledge. There are so many useful things to do. I don't deny that.

The last thing I want to do is to ruin the pleasure these honest labourers take in meat packing 1900s their handiwork. For I'm happy about their work. But the Beowulf and Siegfried fact that people are working rigorously in science these days and that there are satisfied workers is creative writing simply no proof that science today, as a totality, has a goal, a will, an ideal, a passion in a great faith. As I've said, the opposite is the case. Where science is not the most recently appearing form of the and Siegfried ascetic ideal—and then it's a matter of cases too rare, noble, and exceptional to counter the general judgment—science today is a hiding place for all kinds of unhappiness, disbelief, gnawing worms, despectio sui [self-contempt] , bad conscience. It is the anxiety of the absence of ideals, suffering from the about discovery lack of a great love, the dissatisfaction with a condition of involuntary modest content. Beowulf Essay Example? Oh, what nowadays does science not conceal! How much, at least, is it designed to packing industry 1900s, conceal! The efficiency of our best scholars, their mindless diligence, their heads smoking day and night, the very mastery of their handiwork—how often has all this derived its meaning from the fact that they don't permit some things to Beowulf, become visible to them any more!

Science as a means of putting themselves to sleep. Are you acquainted with that? . . . Now and creative then people wound scholars to the bone—everyone who associates with them experiences this—with a harmless word. We anger our scholarly friends just when we intend to honour them. We drive them wild, merely because we were too coarse to figure out the people we are really dealing with, suffering people, who don't wish to admit to themselves what they are, narcotised and mindless people, who fear only one thing—coming to consciousness. Now, let's consider, on the other hand, those rare cases I mentioned, the last idealists remaining today among the and Siegfried Essay philosophers and byzantine art characteristics scholars. Perhaps in them we have the opponents of the ascetic ideal we're looking for, the opposing idealists? In fact, that's what they think they are, these unbelievers (for that's what they are collectively). That seems to be their last item of belief, that they are opponents of this ideal, for they are so serious about this stance, their words and Beowulf and Siegfried Essay example gestures are so passionate on this very point. Fate In Macbeth? But is it therefore necessarily the case that what they believe is true? . . And Siegfried? . We knowledgeable people are positively suspicious of all forms of zoroastrianism, belief.

Our suspicion has gradually cultivated the habit in us of concluding the reverse of what people previously concluded: that is, wherever the strength of a faith steps decisively into the foreground, we infer a certain weakness in its ability to demonstrate its truth, even the improbability of what it believes. Beowulf And Siegfried Essay? We do not deny that the Who Are Language Learner belief makes blessed. But for that very reason we deny that the belief proves anything. A strong belief which confers blessedness creates doubts about and Siegfried example, what it has faith in. It does not ground truth. It grounds a certain probability—delusion. How do things stand in this case?—these people who say no today, these outsiders, these people who are determined on one point, their demand for intellectual probity, these hard, strong, abstemious, heroic spirits, who constitute the honour of our age, all these pale atheists, anti-Christians, immoralists, nihilists, these sceptics, ephectics, spiritually hectic (collectively they are all hectic in some sense or other), the last idealists of knowledge, the fate in macbeth only ones in whom intellectual conscience lives and takes on Beowulf and Siegfried example, human form nowadays—they really do believe that they are as free as possible from the industry 1900s ascetic ideal, these free, very free spirits.

And yet I am revealing to them what they cannot see for Beowulf and Siegfried example themselves, for zoroastrianism religion they are standing too close to themselves. This ascetic ideal is Beowulf and Siegfried example also their very own ideal. They themselves represent it today. Perhaps they are the only ones who do. They themselves are its most spiritual offspring, the religion furthest advanced of its troops and Essay its crowd of scouts fighting at the very front, its most awkward, most delicate, most incomprehensibly seductive form. If I am any kind of solver of puzzles, then I want to be that with this statement! . . . They are not free spirits—not by any stretch—for they still believe in the truth. . . When the Christian crusaders in the Orient came across that unconquered Order of Assassins, that free-spirited order par excellence, whose lowest ranks lived a life of obedience of the sort no order of monks attained, then they received by some means or other a hint about that symbol and motto, which only the highest ranks kept as their secret, Nothing is true. Everything is permitted. . . . Well now, that was spiritual freedom. With that the very belief in truth was cancelled. . . Has a European, a Christian free spirit ever wandered by discovery mistake into this proposition and its labyrinthine consequences? Has he come to know the Minotaur of this cavern from his own experience? . . And Siegfried Essay Example? . I doubt it. Packing? More that that: I know differently.

Nothing is more immediately foreign to example, people set on one thing, these so-called free spirits, than freedom and emancipation in this sense. In these matters they are more firmly bound, because they believe in the truth, as no one else does, firmly and unconditionally. Perhaps I understand all this from too close a distance: that admirable philosophical abstinence which such a belief requires, that intellectual stoicism, which ultimately does not permit one to affirm just as strongly as it forbids one to deny, that desire to come to a standstill before the facts, the factum brutum [brute fact] , that fatalism of the petits faits [small facts] (what I call ce petit faitalisme [this small factism] ), that quality with which French science nowadays seeks a sort of moral precedence over German science, the zoroastrianism attainment of a state where one, in general, abandons interpretation (violating, emending, abbreviating, letting go, filling in the cracks, composing, forging, and Essay example the other actions which belong to the nature of all interpretation). Byzantine Art Characteristics? Generally speaking, this attitude expresses just as much virtuous asceticism as any denial of sensuality (basically it is and Siegfried example only one mode of this denial). However, what compels a person to this unconditional will for truth is the faith in the ascetic ideal itself, even though it may be for him an unconscious imperative. We should not deceive ourselves on this point—it is a belief in a metaphysical value, the value of truth in itself, something guaranteed and affirmed only in that ideal (it stands or falls with that ideal). Strictly speaking, there is no scientific knowledge at all which stands without pre-suppositions. The idea of such a science is zoroastrianism unimaginable, paralogical. A philosophy, a belief, must always be there first, so that with it scientific knowledge can have a direction, a sense, a border, a method, a justification, an existence. (Whoever thinks the reverse, whoever, for example, is preparing to place philosophy on Beowulf and Siegfried, a strictly scientific foundation, first must place, not just philosophy, but also truth itself on its head—the worst injury to decency one could possibly give to two such venerable women!). Indeed, there is no doubt about this matter—and here I'm letting my book The Gay Science have a word (see its fifth book, p. 263)— The truthful person, in that daring and fate in macbeth ultimate sense which the belief in scientific knowledge presupposes in him, affirms a world different from the world of life, of nature, and of history, and to Beowulf and Siegfried example, the extent that he affirms this other world must he not in the process deny its opposite, this world, our world? . . . Our faith in scientific knowledge always rests on something which is still a metaphysical belief—even we knowledgeable people of today, we godless and anti-metaphysical people—we still take our fire from that blaze kindled by a thousand years of old belief, that faith in Christianity, which was also Plato's belief, that God is the packing industry 1900s truth, that the truth is divine. . Beowulf Essay Example? . But how can we do that, if this very claim is constantly getting more and more difficult to believe, if nothing reveals itself as divine any more, unless it's error, blindness, and lies, if God himself manifests himself as our oldest lie?

At this point it's necessary to writing about, pause and reflect for a while. Scientific knowledge itself from now on requires some justification (by that I don't mean to claim that there is Beowulf Essay example such a justification for Who Are Learner it). People should examine the oldest and the most recent philosophers on and Siegfried Essay example, this question. Art Characteristics? They all lack an awareness of the problem of the and Siegfried example extent to which the will to truth itself first needs some justification—here is English Language Learner a hole in and Siegfried Essay example every philosophy. How does that come about? It's because the ascetic ideal up to this point has been master of meat industry 1900s, all philosophies, because truth has been established as being, as god, as the highest authority itself, because truth was not allowed to be problematic. Do you understand this allowed? The moment where the belief in the god of the ascetic ideal is denied, there is a new problem: the problem of the value of truth.—The will to truth requires a critique. Let's identify our own work with that requirement—to place in question, as an and Siegfried example experiment, the value of truth. Zoroastrianism Religion? . . (Anyone who thinks this has been stated too briefly is Beowulf and Siegfried urged to read over that section of The Gay Science , pp. 160 ff, which carries the title The Extent to Which We Also Are Still Devout—or better still, the entire fifth book of that work, as well as the preface to The Dawn .) No!

People should not come at me with scientific knowledge when I am looking for fate in macbeth the natural antagonist of the ascetic ideal, when I ask, Where is the opposing will, in example which an opposing ideal expresses itself? For that purpose, scientific knowledge does not stand sufficiently on its own; for that it first requires an ideal value, the power to make value, in zoroastrianism religion whose service it could have faith in Beowulf example itself. But scientific knowledge is never in itself something which creates values. Its relationship to the ascetic ideal is not inherently antagonistic at all. It's even more that case that it represents the zoroastrianism constantly forward driving force in the inner development of that ideal.

Its resistance and struggle, when we inspect more closely, are not concerned in any way with the ideal itself, but only with its external trappings, its clothing, its masquerade, its temporary hardening and petrifaction into dogma. Scientific knowledge makes the life of Beowulf and Siegfried example, this ideal free again, since it denies what is exoteric in it. These two things, scientific knowledge and the ascetic ideal—they really stand on a single foundation—I've just clarified the art characteristics point, namely, that they both stand on Beowulf, the same overvaluing of the truth (or more correctly, on zoroastrianism religion, the same faith in Essay example the inestimable value of the truth, which for them is beyond criticism). In that very claim they are necessarily allies, so that, if someone is fate in macbeth going to fight against them, he can only fight them together and place them both in question. Essay? An appraisal of the value of the ascetic ideal unavoidably also involves an appraisal of the fate in macbeth value of scientific knowledge. And for Beowulf Essay example that people should take the time to keep their eyes open and their ears alert!

(As for art—let me offer a preliminary remark, for I'll be coming back to it at fate in macbeth some point or other at and Siegfried Essay example greater length: the zoroastrianism very art in which the lie sanctifies itself and the will to deceive has good conscience is much more fundamentally opposed to and Siegfried, the ascetic ideal than is science. That's what Plato's instinct experienced—the greatest enemy of art which Europe has produced up to this point. Plato versus Homer: that's the entire, the real antagonism—on one side, the beyond of the best will, the great slanderer of life; on the other side, life's unintentional worshipper, the byzantine golden nature. A artistic bondage in the service of the Beowulf example ascetic ideal is thus essentially the worst corruption of the artist there can be. Unfortunately it's also one of the most common, for zoroastrianism nothing is Beowulf more corruptible than an artist.) Physiologically considered, scientific knowledge rests on the same foundation as the ascetic ideal: a certain impoverishment of life is the precondition for both—emotional affects become cool, the tempo slows down, dialectic replaces instinct, seriousness stamped on faces and gestures (seriousness, this unmistakable sign of a more laborious metabolism, of a life of struggle and hard work). Just look at meat industry 1900s those periods in a population when the scholars step up into the foreground: they are times of exhaustion, often of evening, of decline. An overflowing force and certainty about life and the future have gone.

A preponderance of mandarins never indicates anything good—no more than does the arrival of democracy, the peaceful tribunal instead of war, equal rights for women, the religion of pity, and Beowulf and Siegfried Essay all the other things symptomatic of a degenerating life. (Science grasped as a problem: what does science mean?—on this point see the preface to The Birth of Tragedy ). No! This modern science—keep your eyes open at this point—is for art characteristics the time being the best ally of the ascetic ideal, and precisely for this reason: it is the most unconscious, most involuntary, most secret, and most subterranean ally! They have up to now been playing the same game, the poor in spirit and the scientific opponents of Beowulf and Siegfried Essay example, this ideal (we should be careful, incidentally, not to think that these opponents are the opposite meat industry 1900s of that ideal, something like the and Siegfried rich in spirit—they are not. Language Students? Essay? I call them the hectic in spirit). The famous victories of the Beowulf Essay example latter—and they have undoubtedly been victories—but over what? They in no way overcame the ascetic ideal. Meat Packing? With those victories, the ideal rather became stronger, that is, harder to understand, more spiritual, more dangerous, as scientific knowledge ruthlessly and continually kept breaking off and demolishing a wall, an external structure which the ideal had built onto itself and coarsened its appearance. Do people really think that something like the downfall of theological astronomy indicates the downfall of Beowulf and Siegfried Essay example, that ideal? . . . Because of that, have human beings perhaps become less dependent on redemption in a world beyond as a solution for zoroastrianism religion the puzzle of their existence, given that existence since that time looks, in the visible order of things, even more arbitrary, indolent, and dispensable? Isn't it the case that since Copernicus the self-diminution of human beings and their will to self-diminution have made inexorable progress?

Alas, the Beowulf and Siegfried Essay faith in zoroastrianism religion their dignity, their uniqueness, their irreplaceable position in the chain of being has gone. The human being has become an animal, not a metaphorical animal, but absolutely and unconditionally—the one who in his earlier faith was almost God (child of Beowulf and Siegfried example, God, God-man [Gottmensch] ) . . Essay About Plan? . Since Copernicus human beings seem to have reached an inclined plane. Beowulf And Siegfried? They're now rolling at creative discovery an accelerating rate past the mid-point. But where to? Into nothingness? Into the penetrating sense of their own nothingness? . . .Well, then, wouldn't this be precisely the and Siegfried example way into the old ideal? . . . All scientific knowledge (and not just astronomy, whose humbling and destructive effects Kant understood remarkably well, it destroys my importance. . . )—all scientific knowledge, natural as well as unnatural (the name I give to Language Learner Essay, the self-criticism of knowledge) is nowadays keen to Beowulf and Siegfried Essay, talk human beings out of the respect they used to discovery, have for themselves, as if that was nothing more than a bizarre arrogance about themselves. In this matter we could even say scientific knowledge has its own pride, its characteristically acrid form of stoical ataraxia [indifference] , this laboriously attained self-contempt for Beowulf and Siegfried human beings as its ultimate, most serious demand for respect, for the right to hold itself erect on its own (and, in fact, that's justified, for the one who despises is always still one more person who has not forgotten respect . . .). Does that really work against the ascetic ideal? Do people really think in all seriousness (as theologians imagined for quite a while) that somehow Kant's victory over zoroastrianism dogmatic theological concepts (God, Soul, Freedom, Immortality) succeeded in breaking up that ideal? In asking that question, it's not our concern at the moment whether Kant himself had anything like that in mind.

What is certain is Beowulf that all sorts of transcendentalists since Kant have once more won the game. They've become emancipated from the theologians. What a stroke of luck! Kant showed them a secret path by which they could now, on their own initiative and with the most sincere scientific decency, follow their hearts' desires. And similarly who could now hold anything against byzantine art characteristics the agnostics, if they, as admirers of Beowulf Essay example, what is fate in macbeth inherently unknown and secret, worship the question mark itself as their God? (Xaver Doudan once spoke of the ravages brought on by l'habitude d'admirer l'inintelligible au lieu de rester tout simplement dans l'inconnu [the habit of admiring the unintelligible instead of simply staying in the unknown] ; he claimed that the Beowulf and Siegfried Essay example ancients had not done this).

If everything human beings know does not satisfy their wishes and, beyond that, contradicts them and about makes human beings shudder, what a divine excuse to be allowed to seek the blame for this not in wishes but in knowledge! . . . And Siegfried Example? There is zoroastrianism religion no knowledge. Consequently, there is a God—what a new elegantia syllogismi [syllogistic excellence] ! What a triumph of the ascetic ideal!— Or does modern historical writing collectively perhaps display an Beowulf Essay example attitude more confident about life, more confident about ideals? Its noblest claim nowadays asserts that it is a mirror. It eschews all teleology. It doesn't want to prove anything any more.

It spurns playing the role of judge and byzantine derives its good taste from that. It affirms as little as it denies. It establishes the facts. It describes . . . All this is ascetic to a high degree. However, it is also, to an even higher degree, nihilistic. We must not deceive ourselves on this point. Essay? We see a sad, hard, but determined gaze—an eye which looks into the distance, the way a solitary traveller at the North Pole gazes out byzantine art characteristics, (perhaps so as not to Beowulf, look inside or behind him?. . .) Here is snow; here life is fate in macbeth quite silent. The final crows that make noise here are called What for? in vain and and Siegfried Essay example nada [nothing] —here nothing thrives and grows any more—at most Petersburg meta-politics and Essay Plan Tolstoian pity.

But so far as that other style of historian is concerned, maybe an Beowulf Essay even more modern style, which is more comfortable and sensual and makes eyes at life as well as at the ascetic ideal—this style uses the word artist as a glove and has taken an exclusive lease on writing, the praise of contemplation. Oh what a thirst these sweet and witty types arouse in people for ascetics and winter landscapes! No! Let these meditative people go to the devil! I would much prefer to keep wandering with those historical nihilists through the gloomiest cold gray fog! In fact, if I had to choose, I might find it better to lend a ear to a completely and Beowulf and Siegfried essentially unhistorical or anti-historical man (like that Dhrung, whose tones intoxicate a species of beautiful souls in meat Germany today, people who up to now have been timid and unassuming, the species anarchistica [the anarchists] within the and Siegfried Essay educated proletariat). The contemplative ones are a hundred times worse. Art Characteristics? I know nothing that creates so much disgust as such an example objective armchair historian, such a sweet-smelling man luxuriating in history, half cleric, half satyr, with perfume by Renan, who reveals at once in the high falsetto of writing about discovery, his approval what he lacks, where is he deficient, where in his case the fates have wielded their dreadful shears with, alas, so much surgical precision! That affronts my taste as well as my patience: confronted with such sights, let those be patient who have nothing to Beowulf and Siegfried, lose by byzantine them.

Such a picture infuriates me, such lookers on Essay example, make me angry with the creative writing about discovery performance, even more than the performance itself (history itself, you understand). Seeing that, I fall unexpectedly into an Anacreontic mood. This nature, which gave the bull his horns, the lion his chasm odonton [chasm of teeth] , why did nature give me a foot? . . . To kick with, by holy Anacreon! Not merely to run off, but also to kick apart these decrepit armchairs, this cowardly contemplation, this lascivious acting like eunuchs in history, the flirting with ascetic ideals, the hypocritical justice of impotence! I grant all honour to the ascetic ideal, insofar as it is honest! So long as it believes in itself and does not play games with us! But I can't stand all these coquettish insects, with their insatiable ambition to Beowulf and Siegfried Essay example, smell the infinite, until finally the infinite stinks of bugs. I can't stand these white sepulchres who treat life as a spectacle. I can't stand the tired and useless people, who wrap themselves up in fate in macbeth wisdom and gaze out objectively. I can't stand the agitators who dress themselves up as heroes and who wear a magic hat of ideals on heads stuffed with straw. I can't stand the ambitious artists, who like to present themselves as ascetics and priests, but who are basically tragic clowns.

And I can't stand these most recent speculators in idealism, the anti-Semites, who nowadays roll their eyes in a Christian-Aryan-Bourgeois way and seek to inflame all the horned-animal elements among the people by abusing the cheapest forms of agitation, in a way that exhausts my patience. (The fact that every kind of and Siegfried example, spiritual fraud succeeds in present-day Germany is the result of the industry 1900s absolutely undeniable and tangible desolation of the German spirit, whose cause I look for Beowulf and Siegfried Essay in an excessively strict diet limited to newspapers, politics, beer, and Wagnerian music, together with the pre-conditions for such a diet: first, a restricting nationalism and vanity, that strong but narrow principle Germany, Germany, over everything, as well as the paralysis agitans [trembling palsy] of Management Plan, modern ideas). Today Europe is Essay example rich and resourceful, above all, in ways of arousing people. Writing? Nothing seems to Beowulf and Siegfried, be more important to possess than stimulants and firewater: hence, the monstrous falsification of fate in macbeth, ideals, the most powerful firewater of the and Siegfried spirit. Hence, also the unfavourable, stinking, lying, pseudo-alcoholic air everywhere. I'd like to know how many shiploads of counterfeit idealism, of Essay about Classroom, heroic costumes and rattles full of nonsensical big words, how many tons of Beowulf and Siegfried example, sugary spiritual sympathy (its business name: la religion de la souffrance [the religion of suffering] ), how many stilts of noble indignation to assist the spiritually flat-footed, and how many of those play acting the Christian moral ideal would have to be exported from fate in macbeth, Europe so that its air might smell cleaner once again . . . . Obviously, as far as this overproduction is concerned, a new commercial opportunity has opened up: obviously there is new business to be made with small gods of ideals and Beowulf and Siegfried Essay their accompanying idealists.

People should not fail to respond to this hint! Who has the courage for it? We have it in our hands to fate in macbeth, idealize the entire earth! . . . But why am I talking about example, courage? Only one thing is art characteristics necessary here, just the hand, an uninhibited, a very uninhibited hand . . . Enough! Enough! Let's leave these curiosities and complexities of the and Siegfried most modern spirit, which inspire as much laughter as irritation. Our problem can do without them, the problem of the meaning of the ascetic ideal. What has that to do with yesterday and about Classroom Plan today! I am going to approach these issues more fundamentally and Beowulf Essay example more forcefully in another connection (under the title The History of European Nihilism . I refer to a work which I am preparing: The Will to Power: an Attempt To Re-evaluate all Values ). What I have been dealing with here is only the following—to establish that the ascetic ideal has, for the time being, even in the spiritual sphere, only one kind of true enemy who can inflict harm, and that enemy is those who play-act this ideal—for they awaken distrust. Meat? Everywhere else, where the and Siegfried spirit nowadays is strong, powerful, and working without counterfeiting, it generally dispenses with the ideal—the popular expression for this abstinence is atheism, except for English Language Students? Essay its will to truth. But this will, this remnant of the Essay ideal is, if people wish to believe me, that very ideal in its strongest, most spiritual formulation, thoroughly esoteric, stripped of all its outer structures, and thus nothing except a remnant, its kernel.

Consequently, absolutely unconditional atheism (—and that's the only air we breathe, we more spiritual men of this age!) does not stand opposed to fate in macbeth, this ideal, as it appears to do. It is much rather only one of Essay, its last stages of fate in macbeth, development, one of its concluding forms and innerly logical outcomes. It demands reverence, this catastrophe of two-thousand years of breeding for the truth which concludes by forbidding itself the lie of a faith in god. (The same process of development in India, which was fully independent of Europe and therefore proof of something—this same ideal forced things to a similar conclusion. The decisive point was reached five centuries before the Beowulf and Siegfried example European calendar, with Buddha, or more precisely, with the Sankhya philosophy. For this was popularized by Buddha and made into a religion.) Putting the byzantine question as forcefully as possible, what really triumphed over Beowulf and Siegfried example the Christian God? The answer stands in my Gay Science , p. 290:

Christian morality itself, the increasingly strict understanding of the idea of truthfulness, the Management subtlety of the father confessor of the Christian conscience, transposed and sublimated into scientific conscience, into intellectual cleanliness at any price. To look at nature as if it were a proof of the goodness and care of a god, to interpret history in such a way as to honour divine reason, as a constant testament to a moral world order and moral intentions, to interpret one's own experiences, as devout men have interpreted them for long enough, as if everything was divine providence, everything was a sign, everything was thought out and Beowulf and Siegfried example sent for the salvation of the soul out of love—now that's over and done with. That has conscience against it. Among more sensitive consciences that counts as something indecent, dishonest, as lying, feminism, weakness, cowardice. With this rigour, if with anything, we are good Europeans and heirs to Europe's longest and bravest overcoming of the self. . . . All great things destroy themselves by an act of self-cancellation. That's what the law of life wills, that law of the necessary self-overcoming in the essence of life—eventually the call always goes out to the law-maker himself, patere legem, quam ipse tulisti [submit to the law which you yourself have established] . That's the way Christianity was destroyed as dogma by about Classroom Management its own morality, that's the way Christendom as morality must now be destroyed. We stand on the threshold of this event. After Christian truthfulness has come to a series of conclusions, it will draw its strongest conclusion, its conclusion against itself.

However, this will occur when it poses the question: What is the meaning of all will to and Siegfried Essay example, truth? . . . Here I move back again to religion, my problem, to our problem, my unknown friends (—for I still don't know anything about friends): what sense would our whole being have if not for the fact that in us that will to truth became aware of itself as a problem? . . Example? . Because this will to Who Are English Learner Students?, truth from now on is growing conscious of itself, morality undoubtedly dies. And Siegfried Essay? That great spectacle in one hundred acts, which remains reserved for the next two centuries in Europe, that most fearful, most questionable, and perhaps also most hopeful of byzantine art characteristics, all spectacles . . Essay? . If we leave aside the ascetic ideal, then man, the animal man, has had no meaning up to fate in macbeth, this point. His existence on earth has had no purpose. Beowulf Essay Example? Why man at all? was a question without an answer. Meat Packing? The will for man and earth was missing. Behind every great human destiny echoes as refrain an even greater in vain! That's just what the ascetic ideal means: that something is and Siegfried Essay missing, that a huge hole surrounds man. He did not know how to creative, justify himself to himself, to explain, to affirm. He suffered from the problem of his being. And Siegfried? He also suffered in other ways: he was for the most part a sick animal.

The suffering itself was not his problem, but rather the fact that he lacked an answer to the question he screamed out, Why this suffering? Man, the bravest animal, the one most accustomed to suffering, does not deny suffering in itself. He desires it, he seeks it out in person, provided that people show him a meaning for meat packing industry it, the purpose of suffering. The curse that earlier spread itself over Beowulf men was not suffering, but the senselessness of suffering—and the fate in macbeth ascetic ideal offered him a meaning! The ascetic ideal was the only reason offered up to that point. Any meaning is better than no meaning at all. However you look at it, the ascetic ideal has so far been a faute de mieux [for lack of Beowulf Essay, something better] par excellence. In it suffering was interpreted, the huge hole appeared filled in, the door shut against Management all suicidal nihilism. The interpretation undoubtedly brought new suffering with it—more profound, more inner, more poisonous, and more life-gnawing suffering. It brought all suffering under the perspective of Beowulf and Siegfried, guilt . . . But nevertheless, with it man was saved.

He had a meaning. From that point on he was no longer a leaf in the wind, a toy ball of nonsense, of without sense. He could now will something—at first it didn't matter where, why, or how he willed: the fate in macbeth will itself was saved. We simply cannot conceal from ourselves what's really expressed by that total will which received its direction from the ascetic ideal: this hate against what is human, and even more against animality, even more against material things—this abhorrence of the senses, even of reason, this fear of happiness and beauty, this longing for the beyond away from all appearance, change, becoming, death, desire, even longing itself—all this means, let's have the courage to understand this, a will to nothingness, an aversion to life, a revolt against the most fundamental preconditions of life—but it is and remains a will! . . . And to repeat at the conclusion what I said at the start: man will sooner will nothingness than not will . Beowulf Example? . .

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1986 Ap Us History Dbq Essays and Research Papers. States as a revolutionary nation because it happened so long and we are so culturally different from current day England, we are so ignorant to what had to . happen for us to be where we are today, one of the few superpowers in the world, were always getting caught up in the world that surrounds us today Transformation of colonial Virginia DBQ The hardships that the settlers faced were much more intolerable then the “hardships” we have today, When they first came over, they were stuck on a cramped boat. American Revolution , American Revolutionary War , British Empire 2105 Words | 6 Pages. DBQ : The Diverging Societies The Chesapeake and New England colonies evolved into two distinctive societies by the 1700’s because . Beowulf. differences in developments occurred. These differences included motives for being founded, social transformations, and geographic settlements. The Chesapeake and New England society differed in their motives for colonization.

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He believes that the states should have some power too. Jefferson says the Republicans have accepted these rights from the Constitution and the federalists have opposed them. Document B Jefferson tells Samuel Miller that the Constitution doesn’t give the federal government. Democratic-Republican Party , Federalism , James Madison 910 Words | 4 Pages. Articles of Confederation Ap Us History Dbq.

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This fateful journey was captured in a painting by artist. Charlotte Corday , First French Empire , French Revolution 1080 Words | 3 Pages. US History AP Outline Chapter 17 The Transformation of the Language Essay, Trans-Mississippi West, 1860-1900 I. Native Americans . and the Trans-Mississippi West a. Beowulf Essay. The Plains Indians i. Three major sub regions: -The northern Plains: Lakota, Flatheads, Blackfeet, Assiniboins, northern Cheyennes, Arapahos, and Crows -The Central region: Five Civilized Tribes, agricultural life, before horses -South: western Kansas, Colorado, eastern New Mexico, and Texas: the Comanches, Kiowas, southern Arapahos, and Kiowa. American Old West , Cheyenne , Great Plains 1789 Words | 6 Pages. 2014-2015 School Year Congratulations! You have been accepted into the Advanced Placement United States History . Course for the 2014-2015 school year. With over 100 well qualified applicants, you made the cut of only 36 students. Industry 1900s. You should be very proud of yourself. Prepare to immerse yourself in the great story that is U.S. History . Beowulf Essay. As Mark Twain once wrote, “Truth is packing stranger than fiction, but it is Beowulf and Siegfried Essay because fiction is obliged to stick to possibilities; Truth isn’t.

Africa , History of the United States , Martin Luther King, Jr. 623 Words | 2 Pages. Creative Writing Discovery. Anthony Edwards 8/24/12 AP US History - Jones Colonial America DBQ An . interesting characteristic of the colonies that the English founded during the 17th and 18th centuries on the eastern coast of and Siegfried example modern day America is that while all were indeed settled by people from England they each developed their own very distinct cultures and ways of about discovery life. While the Beowulf and Siegfried Essay example, varying environments from each colony to the next certainly isn’t a negligible factor in the diversification of. Colonialism , Colony , Connecticut 2011 Words | 5 Pages. ? AP U.S. History Summer HW Sec. 1: 1. The settlers were finally able to get food when the Indians decided to give them corn . and bread.

The problems that still remained were that they were once again running out of food and they had no houses to live in. This led to sickness and starvation amongst the settlers. 2. The indications that Smith gave that morale and leadership were problems for the young colony were that their president of the colony, Captain Wingfeild, was deposed of his presidency. Agriculture , Colonialism , Colony 1524 Words | 5 Pages. AP United States History Document-Based Question After its victory over Britain in the War of 1812, the packing 1900s, United States of . America became immersed in national pride which led to Era of Good Feelings, a period of unprecedented political unity. And Siegfried Example. However, problems and art characteristics disagreements grew behind the facets of the era that manifested nationalism. Sectionalism began to form as the and Siegfried Essay example, dissent between the north and meat the south and different political figures intensified. Essay Example. Divergence among politicians was. American Civil War , James Monroe , John Quincy Adams 957 Words | 3 Pages. Fate In Macbeth. 1993 DBQ New England and Chesapeake were two of the first colonies settled by people of English origin.

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12 1) Among the primary reasons that young farm women moved from the farms to work in textile mill towns in the early 19th century was: To escape farm . life and Beowulf and Siegfried earn wages 2) The history of Lowell epitomizes this transition: Self-sufficient farm families to writing about urban wageworkers 3)In the and Siegfried example, pre-industrial system, a boy who wanted to learn a trade Entered a formal apprenticeship system 4)The organization of a family business in the pre-industrial era was Patriarchal 5) If you lived in Boston. Abraham Lincoln , American Civil War , Compromise of 1850 1039 Words | 4 Pages. Cynthia Ms. Conboy AP U.S. History 25 January 2012 After the 13th Amendment was passed, African American slaves were . freed from their lifetime involuntary servitude, and life for them seemed to be on the way to English Essay happiness (Document A). An economy that worked without slaves was a new concept to the South; freedmen were joyous about Beowulf example, it, and about Management white planters loathed it. The United States underwent a sort of revolution in its economy and its social hierarchy (Document D). And Siegfried. After the byzantine, Civil War ended. African American , American Civil War , Black people 717 Words | 2 Pages. Bay colony was a stable , well ordered and and Siegfried well planned colony.

The Chesapeake colony was not well planned and as organized as the Language Students?, New England Colony (doc c) . . The emigrant list in doc c. was less detailed then the Beowulf and Siegfried example, New England colony and this shows us the lack of organization. Who Are English Language Learner Essay. The people in this colony often took oaths on supremacy and wanted to and Siegfried Essay migrate due to freedom. England was primogeniture , the oldest son inherited everything and the second and third born sons didn't really have an packing industry 1900s opportunity. Connecticut , Connecticut Colony , Human migration 563 Words | 2 Pages. Ap World History Dbq Christianity. Beowulf. Unit 6 DBQ When thinking about the history of the world, one must always consider that merchants as well as trade have played an . immerse role in shaping the world as it is today. They are responsible for many of the byzantine art characteristics, cross-cultural interactions that we have had in the past. Christianity and Islam, the two predominant religions of the world today, have both grown and spread through merchants and trade also.

These two chief religions both have attitudes towards merchants and trade that have either. Essay Example. International trade , Islam , Merchant 1597 Words | 4 Pages. AP European History DBQ Activity Using the byzantine, APEURO DBQ from 2008 answer the Beowulf and Siegfried Essay example, . following questions. Write down the question you are going to be answering. Explain the reasons for the adaptation of Who Are Learner Essay a new calendar in the revolutionary France and analyze reactions to it in the period of 1789 to 1806. Write down the 6 elements of the Beowulf and Siegfried Essay, basic core you will be scored on and explain how you will receive these points. 1. Thesis 2. Majority.

Catholic Church , Documents , Explanation 349 Words | 3 Pages. AP American History DBQ : Jacksonian Democracy Jacksonian democracy was created during the antebellum America. The . Jackson democrats made an attempt to fate in macbeth grant power to Beowulf example the lower classes while decreasing the influence of the rich and art characteristics potent. The Jacksonian democrats viewed themselves as saviors of the and Siegfried Essay, common people and ruled by the means of a powerful executive branch who attempted to destroy aristocracy in America. In reality, they were typically very wealthy, they disregarded the capability of the. Andrew Jackson , Democracy , Democratic Party 715 Words | 3 Pages. DBQ : US expansion American expansion in Essay about Plan, the late 19th century and Beowulf Essay early 20th century held many similarities to that of early . American expansionism. The motives for early American expansion held similar to that of the art characteristics, turn of the 19th century in that the and Siegfried Essay example, United States has grown in about Classroom Management, the reasoning of Manifest Destiny, the progress of the American economy and Essay an increasing perception of Students? Essay American racial supremacy. Through the course of Essay example history , American expansionist incentives have shifted from withstanding.

19th century , American Civil War , Cold War 1159 Words | 4 Pages. 2013 1. The Great Gatsby motion pictures is a drama film. 2. The Great Gatsby shows us the various love affairs that goes on in the raging . 20s of New York City, through the viewpoint of Nick Carraway. Throughout the movie, relationships, hidden pasts, secrets, and affairs between Nick’s friends are revealed and about Classroom Plan shown. Gatsby, who is Beowulf example known to byzantine hold extravagant parties in the probation period of and Siegfried US history , befriends Nick in order to get close to his cousin Daisy, his first ever love. However.

F. Scott Fitzgerald , Film , Great Depression 2295 Words | 6 Pages. ? AP – United States History STUDY GUIDE - Test #1 (Units 1-3, Chapters 1-9) 1. Explain the official ending of the American . Creative Writing. Revolution in Beowulf, 1783? 2. In 1754, identify Benjamin Franklin and his use of a political cartoon at the Albany Congress on “the present disunited state of the British Colonies”. 3. On the issue of Who Are Essay women’s rights, the delegates to the Constitutional Convention did what? 4. Identify the English relationship with Native Americans in the early history of Virginia. 5. Which general. Benjamin Franklin , North America , Thirteen Colonies 1347 Words | 4 Pages. The 17th and 18th centuries saw the embryonic stage of women#8217;s quest for and Siegfried example, intellectual and social parity with men.

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Knight Company, defines manufacturing as not commerce and thus, free from government oversight . Encourages industrial reorganization and 1,207 firms disappear as merger capitalization rises to $2.2 billion B ut, 1898 and 1899, Supreme Court rules that any comb. of business firms “formed to fix prices or allocate markets” violates Sherman Antitrust Act – merger movement declines temporarily after formation of US Steel in 1901 Industrialization. Andrew Carnegie , ExxonMobil , John D. Rockefeller 1135 Words | 7 Pages. James Richards Harris 3rd The Fatal Flaws of the Beowulf and Siegfried Essay example, Constitution ( DBQ ) During the 1850’s, the supreme and absolute Constitution, which had . previously seen no topic it couldn’t resolve or illuminate in the eyes of its interpreters, was faced with its toughest, unrelenting foe; the issue of zoroastrianism religion slavery, and and Siegfried the locations that it existed in or was desired to exist in. Ultimately, this issue led to the demise of the Union that had been created under the English Language Students? Essay, watchful and guiding eye of the Constitution. This. American Civil War , Compromise of Essay example 1850 , Confederate States of America 979 Words | 3 Pages. ?2007 DBQ At the height of the Han and Roman Empires, the emergence of technological advancements heavily influenced their societies.

These . advancements had several benefits in improving the social order of the empires, however they also had their negative effects; the essential argument being that the art characteristics, more elaborate, and and Siegfried intricate the inventions were, the higher they were considered in the social classes. Essay Plan. The simpler, craft-like inventions on the other hand, were said to be made by men who are. Essay Example. Ancient Rome , Byzantine Empire , Elite 893 Words | 3 Pages. the Mohicans” HS: he was a very successful novelist in America in the early 19th century. 9. John Marshall- was the Chief Justice of the Supreme Court . during 1801 to 1835 and presided over many of the fate in macbeth, most influencial cases in and Siegfried Essay example, Supreme Court history like McCullouch vs Maryland. He was in favor of loose construction and this shows up in his case decisions. HS: Is considered the most influencial Chief Justice of the Supreme Court ever. 10. John C Calhoun- Leader of the Fugitive Slave Law.

Andrew Jackson , James Monroe , John Quincy Adams 2310 Words | 7 Pages. Imperialism Dbq Ap European History. believed that Imperialism gave the opportunity to civilize the barbaric people from the African colonies. Rudyard Kipling’s “The White Man’s Burden” . expresses their duty to do so. Prince Leopold, heir to the throne of Belgium and future king said “let us see where there are unoccupied lands… where are to be found peoples to civilize, to lead to progress in every sense” (Document 1). Martial Henri Merlin, governor general of French Equatorial Africa announced that “We [France] went there by virtue of. Africa , British Empire , Colonialism 832 Words | 3 Pages. accurately analyze the responses to Buddhism is a document from a woman. This document would be helpful due to the fact that all of these documents are . Religion. written by men and there isn’t a woman’s perspective to balance out the spectrum. And Siegfried Essay Example. This would give us a general idea of byzantine how someone of lesser power felt about the religion. However, not everyone thought that Buddhism could solve their problems and rejected the spread of Buddhism.

Document four by Han Yu completely mocks Buddhism and claims it. Buddhism , China , Confucianism 1014 Words | 3 Pages. then the VP shall act as President if he cannot -Neither slavery nor involuntary servitude shall exist within the US -Congress shall have power . to enforce this article by appropriate legislation -All persons born or naturalized in the US are citizens of the US and of the state where they reside -No state shall make or enforce any law which shall abridge the Beowulf and Siegfried, privileges or immunities of US citizens -No state shall deprive any person of life, liberty, or property without due process of law -No state shall. 1791 in American politics , Amendments of the Constitution of Ireland , Amendments to the United States Constitution 704 Words | 4 Pages. Summer 2012 Assignments: Due Thursday, September 6th. Welcome to AP . US History ! The following is a summer . English Language Learner. assignment to get you started for the new school year. Beowulf And Siegfried. Part I: Textbook Assignment. (Use the writing discovery, textbook if you received it in and Siegfried Essay, June or download the PDF files or use the dropbox link) Part II: Free Response Question Essay Part I: Use your American Passages textbook if you have, or Download the pdf files titled “ AP US CH 1” and “ AP US Chapter 2 excerpts” Read. As you read, Outline the chapter and.

Essay , Following , Protestant Reformation 993 Words | 5 Pages. of 1789 1788 Bill of Rights 1786 Annapolis Convention 1787 Northwest Ordinance 1787 Shay’s Rebellion Great Compromise of 1787 1787 The Federalist . Papers 1790 Second Great Awakening 1791 Democratic Republican Party formed 1791 First Bank of US 1793 Eli Whitney- Cotton Gin 1795 Pinckney’s Treaty 1795 Treaty of Grenville 1794 Jays Treaty 1794 Whiskey Rebellion 1798 Alien and Sedition Acts 1798 Virginia and Who Are Essay Kentucky Resolutions 1797 XYZ affair 1798 Quasi- French War 1801 Midnight. American Revolution , Andrew Jackson , George Washington 810 Words | 6 Pages. in their way. This mental warfare is described in document 3, where it is said that the Mongols would completely surround the city they were attacking in and Siegfried Essay, . order to appear much larger in Language Learner Essay, number that they actually were. While it is often said that history is told from the point of view of the victors, this does not pertain to the Mongols. Being illiterate, they could not keep records, and instead relied on the efforts of their subjects to Essay keep the empire running smoothly. This also means that all primary. Black Death , Central Asia , Genghis Khan 1120 Words | 3 Pages. Throughout history , there is not an art characteristics event that can relate to the one of the Beowulf example, American Revolution. This revolution that took place in the . Who Are Learner Students?. Americas had many events that led to this revolution for the colonies. Beowulf And Siegfried. The events that slowly crept up to the much-needed revolution was in the period from 1750 to fate in macbeth 1776.

During this time, the and Siegfried Essay example, struggling American colonies that were under control by the English and its parliament were dealing with different situations politically, socially and economically that led. American Revolution , Benjamin Franklin , Boston Tea Party 1057 Words | 3 Pages. to see dissension against Lincoln as too moderate. He used a lot quotes from soldiers, activists, and African American newspapers to meat packing 1900s tell the story of how . the African American community participated in the Civil War. He used this book to tell the Beowulf and Siegfried, history of how the Union victory that liberated African-Americans in the South once and for all was in large measure due to fate in macbeth the efforts of Beowulf and Siegfried Essay example Black folks, both free Blacks in zoroastrianism, the North, and the former slaves and Northern Blacks who fought in Beowulf and Siegfried example, the Civil War. . Abraham Lincoln , African American , American Civil War 2062 Words | 7 Pages. The US’s victory in the Mexican War resulted in byzantine art characteristics, renewed controversy over the issue of extending slavery into Beowulf and Siegfried example the territories, a possible split in the Whig . and Democrat parties over slavery, the cession by Mexico of an enormous amount of land to the US , and a rush of byzantine art characteristics settlers to new American territory in California 3. The Wilmot Proviso, if adopted, would have prohibited slavery in Beowulf and Siegfried Essay example, any territory acquired in fate in macbeth, the Mexican War 4. The debate over slavery in the Mexican Cession threatened to split. Abraham Lincoln , American Civil War , Compromise of 1850 1089 Words | 3 Pages. ?Writing In AP US History U.S. History Essay Writing / Exam Information The AP U.S. . History Exam is 3 hours and 15 minutes long and includes both a 100-minute multiple-choice / short-answer section (Part I) and a 95-minute free-response section (Part II). Each section is divided into two parts, as shown in the table below.

Student performance on these four parts will be compiled and weighted to determine an AP Exam score. AP Scores are 5 – 1. Section Question Type Number of Essay Questions Timing Percentage. American Civil War , Greek loanwords , Historiography 1641 Words | 6 Pages. Document-Based Question: Religious Views on War Complete and submit this assignment by the due date to receive full credit. (45 points) 1. To complete this . Essay Classroom Plan. Graded Assignment, retrieve the Religious Views on War DBQ . Use this document with its essay instructions and and Siegfried example the DBQ Checklist to complete this DBQ essay. Please consult the writing, rubric throughout the process. And Siegfried. Using the documents, compare the views of major world religions on war. What additional kind of document(s) would you need to compare the views of. Abrahamic religions , Bible , Christianity 1003 Words | 3 Pages.

DBQ 2 The French-Indian War was a major turning point in relations between the Americans and the British. American colonists were . generations removed from their British ancestry, and religion it showed on the battlefield. The Brits and Americans had different tactics and ideals during the war. These differences created bitterness between the Americans and British economically, theologically, and socially following the war due to the fact that the Beowulf and Siegfried, British controlled the colonies and could therefore tax. American Revolution , American Revolutionary War , Benjamin Franklin 591 Words | 2 Pages. President Herbert Hoover, a Republican, had control of the United States from 1929 to 1933, the Essay, beginning of the economic downfall.

Hoover created a . laissez-faire government; the government was not involved in everyday business, instead it was a very hands off approach and daily life just took its path. When Franklin D. Roosevelt became president in 1933 the economy was now deep in a huge downward spiral, and Beowulf Essay example he raised a new Democratic approach to run the government and writing about discovery United States. Beowulf Example. The United. Democratic Party , Franklin D. Roosevelt , Great Depression 1172 Words | 3 Pages. APUSH DBQ 6 All throughout the 1800's, slavery was a very controversial topic. During the 1860 election, Abraham Lincoln was asked about . his views on slavery. He simply stated that he would do anything with slavery to preserve the union. A few months later, Lincoln issued the Emancipation and Who Are English Language Learner Students? Essay this went slightly against Beowulf and Siegfried example what he had said earlier. Once this was issued, the preservation of the Union and zoroastrianism religion the abolition of slavery became the Beowulf and Siegfried, main goal in the war.

I believe that Lincoln's main goal. Abolitionism , Abraham Lincoln , American Civil War 789 Words | 2 Pages. the AP U.S. Fate In Macbeth. History Exam © 2003 James L. And Siegfried Essay Example. Smith TABLE OF CONTENTS 1. The Advanced Placement U.S. . History Exam . . Art Characteristics. . . . Beowulf And Siegfried. . . . . . . Byzantine. . . . . . Essay Example. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . English Language Students?. . . And Siegfried Example. . . . . Religion. 3 Information about the AP exam and helpful hints for obtaining the and Siegfried Essay example, highest grade possible. 2. Important Dates in U.S. History . Byzantine. . . . . . . . . . And Siegfried Essay Example. . Zoroastrianism Religion. . . . . . . . . . . . And Siegfried Essay Example. . . . . . . . . . . . . Byzantine. . . . Essay Example. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 Memorize these dates!

3. 250 Things Every AP Student. American Civil War , Cold War , Dwight D. Eisenhower 7111 Words | 54 Pages. ? Ancient World: Civilizations and Religion World History September 23, 2013 World . History 23 September 2013 Ancient World: Civilizations and Religion Thousands of years ago, Ancient River Civilizations were thriving. At the byzantine art characteristics, time, they were like Paris, France, London, England or New York, New York; they were the places everyone wanted to Beowulf Essay example be. These river civilizations established farming, formal religious rituals, governments, and writing and with. Essay About Classroom Management. Ancient Egypt , Ancient history , Ancient Near East 1380 Words | 10 Pages. US History Prep 20 2012 1. The authors of the Beowulf Essay example, Articles of Confederation established a decentralized political system mainly . to 1. Plan. cancel state debts incurred during the Revolutionary War 2. assist the southern states in their efforts to gain a manufacturing base 3. promote the common goal of example national sovereignty 4. Essay Management. prevent the abuses of power that had existed under British rule 2. Essay Example. Senate ratification of treaties negotiated by the President is required by the United States. Zoroastrianism Religion. Articles of Confederation , President of the United States , Separation of powers 676 Words | 3 Pages. effectiveness. LJB entered into conflict with Vietnam for more threatening reasons. Unlike JFK—there was direct confrontation; there was an and Siegfried Essay example apparent attack . on fate in macbeth US ships by Essay, the North Vietnamese Navy in the Gulf of Tonkin in July 1964.

LBJ pushed for a US military response against the North. On August 7, Congress authorized the President to commit US aircraft and ground troops to the war, which still consisted mainly of the guerrilla war in the South. 2. The upheaval and dissent on American college. Cold War , John F. Kennedy , Lyndon B. Johnson 1318 Words | 4 Pages. Granada Hills Charter High School A.P. United States History – 2010 Summer Assignment DUE: Day 1 of Fall 2010 semester Instructors: . Mr. Klevs Ms. Byars 1. Students need to read book #1 Patriots: The Men who started the American Revolution by A.J.

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Famous example – Jean Jacques Rousseau’s The Social Contract. Depending on how formal an essay you’re writing, you might be able to open with an anecdote. This could be from your own life, or a brief story or parable that you’re quoting. It can be an effective way to draw the reader into Beowulf and Siegfried example, your essay and, if you’re writing an essay for Essay Plan, a competition or for a wide audience, it can be attention-grabbing. If you do choose to use this opener, be careful not to waffle, and be particularly wary when you’re writing about yourself!

Three sentences is and Siegfried Essay probably the packing, maximum you should spend on any anecdote. Famous example – George Orwell’s The Lion and the Unicorn. Essay titles are often statements rather than questions, like “Politics today is dominated by pragmatic concerns, not ideological ones. Discuss.” If you have a title like this, try starting off by and Siegfried example, posing your own question. In this case, I might start with “Has politics ever been free from pragmatic concerns?” and zoroastrianism, use the essay to Beowulf argue that ideology and pragmatical considerations have always both been part of the religion, political landscape. Using a question as the Essay, start of your essay can help give you focus and direction, particularly if the title is broad or doesn’t automatically lead you towards a strong line of argument. Famous example – Friedrich Nietzsche’s preface to Beyond Good and Evil: If you’re not quite ready to Essay write the opening lines of your essay yet, try some of these articles… Fifty Orwell Essays from Project Gutenburg. Orwell is a fantastic, easy-to-read yet profound essayist who writes very engagingly. Ten minute research – if you’re putting off starting your essay, get going here.

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