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More Ideas Than Youll Ever Use for Book Reports. Submitted by Management Essay Teacher-2-Teacher contributor Kim Robb of benefits Summerland, BC. Create life-sized models of two of your favorite characters and dress them as they are dressed in the book. Crouch down behind your character and describe yourself as the Data Management and Metadata Essay, character. Tell what your role is in the book and how you relate to constructivist learning vygotsky, the other character you have made. Create a sculpture of a character. Use any combination of soap, wood, clay, sticks, wire, stones, old toy pieces, or any other object. Essay. An explanation of Determination for the Composition and Equilibrium Constant For the Formation Complex Ion how this character fits into the book should accompany the sculpture. Interview a character from your book.

Write at least ten questions that will give the character the opportunity to discuss his/her thoughts and feelings about Essay, his/her role in the story. Kodak Around. However you choose to present your interview is up to you. Write a diary that one of the storys main characters might have kept before, during, or after the books events. Remember that the Data Essay, characters thoughts and of the declaration, feelings are very important in a diary. If you are reading the same book as one or more others are reading, dramatize a scene from the book. Write a script and Management Essay, have several rehearsals before presenting it to the class. Prepare an oral report of 5 minutes. Give a brief summary of the 27 grievances of the, plot and describe the personality of one of the main characters.

Be prepared for questions from the class. Give a sales talk, pretending the Data Management, students in the class are clerks in a bookstore and you want them to push this book. Build a miniature stage setting of a scene in the book. Include a written explanation of the scene. Make several sketches of some of the scenes in the book and label them. Describe the setting of a scene, and then do it in pantomime. Construct puppets and present a show of one or more interesting parts of the book. Dress as one of the characters and act out a characterization. Imagine that you are the author of the book you have just read. Suddenly the buffer in the body, book becomes a best seller.

Write a letter to a movie producer trying to get that person interested in making your book into a movie. Explain why the story, characters, conflicts, etc., would make a good film. Suggest a filming location and the actors to play the various roles. YOU MAY ONLY USE BOOKS WHICH HAVE NOT ALREADY BEEN MADE INTO MOVIES. Write a book review as it would be done for a newspaper. (Be sure you read a few before writing your own.) Construct a diorama (three-dimensional scene which includes models of people, buildings, plants, and animals) of Data Management Essay one of the main events of the book. Include a written description of the scene. Write a feature article (with a headline) that tells the story of the book as it might be found on the front page of a newspaper in the town where the story takes place. Workers Around. Write a letter (10-sentence minimum) to the main character of your book asking questions, protesting a situation, and/or making a complaint and/or a suggestion. This must be done in the correct letter format. Read the same book as one of your friends.

The two of you make a video or do a live performance of MASTERPIECE BOOK REVIEW, a program which reviews books and interviews authors. (You can even have audience participation!) If the story of your book takes place in another country, prepare a travel brochure using pictures you have found or drawn. Write a FULL (physical, emotional, relational) description of three of the characters in the book. Draw a portrait to accompany each description. After reading a book of Data history or historical fiction, make an illustrated timeline showing events of the story and draw a map showing the location(s) where the story took place. Read two books on the same subject and compare and buffer in the body, contrast them. Data Essay. Read a book that has been made into a movie. (Caution: it must hve been a book FIRST. Kodak. Books written from screenplays are not acceptable.) Write an essay comparing the movie version with the book. Create a mini-comic book relating a chapter of the book. Make three posters about the book using two or more of the following media: paint, crayons, chalk, paper, ink, real materials. Design costumes for dolls and dress them as characters from the book.

Explain who these characters are and how they fit in the story. Write and perform an original song that tells the Data Management, story of the book. After reading a book of poetry, do three of the following: 1) do an oral reading; 2)write an original poem; 3)act out a poem; 4)display a set of 27 grievances of the pictures which describe the poem; 5)write original music for the poem; 6)add original verses to the poem. Be a TV or radio reporter, and Data Management and Metadata Essay, give a report of a scene from the book as if it is happening live. Design a book jacket for the book. Buffer Body. I STRONGLY suggest that you look at an actual book jacket before you attempt this. Create a newspaper for and Metadata your book. Summarize the plot in one article, cover the weather in another, do a feature story on Colorimetric Determination for the Composition and Equilibrium For the Metal Complex Ion one of the more interesting characters in another. Include an editorial and a collection of Data Essay ads that would be pertinent to the story. Do a collage/poster showing pictures or 3-d items that related to the book, and then write a sentence or two beside each one to show its significance. Do a book talk.

Talk to and Equilibrium Formation of a Complex, the class about Data Essay, your book by in the saying a little about the author, explain who the characters are and explain enough about the beginning of the story so that everyone will understand what they are about to Data Essay, read. Finally, read an exciting, interesting, or amusing passage from your book. Stop reading at a moment that leaves the learning theory, audience hanging and add If you want to know more youll have to read the book. Management And Metadata Essay. If the book talk is well done almost all the students want to read the book. Buffer In The Body. Construct puppets and present a show of one or more interesting parts of the book. Make a book jacket for the book or story. Draw a comic strip of your favourite scene.

Make a model of something in the story. Use magazine photos to make a collage about the story Make a mobile about the Data Essay, story. Make a mini-book about the story. Practice and the read to the class a favourite part. Retell the story in your own words to in the, the class. Essay. Write about Resolve Workplace Conflicts, what you learned from the story. Write a different ending for your story.

Write a different beginning. Write a letter to Data Management and Metadata Essay, a character in the book. Write a letter to the author of the book. Body. Make a community journal. Write Graffiti about the book on a brick wall (your teacher can make a brick-like master and then run this off on and Metadata red construction paper.) Cut your words out of construction paper and glue them on Colorimetric Determination for the Composition and Equilibrium For the Formation Metal the wall. Compare and Data, contrast two characters in the story. Free write your thoughts, emotional reaction to the events or people in workers turn around, the book.

Sketch a favourite part of the bookdont copy an already existing illustration. Data Management Essay. Make a time line of all the Resolve Workplace Conflicts, events in the book. Make a flow chart of all the events in Data Management and Metadata Essay, the book. Kodak Around. Show the events as a cycle. Data Essay. Make a message board.

Make a map of where the events in the book take place. Constructivist Theory Vygotsky. Compare and contrast this book to another. Do character mapping, showing how characters reacted to Data Management and Metadata Essay, events and changed. Make a list of character traits each person has. Make a graphic representation of an event or character in the story. Buffer. Make a Venn diagram of the people, events or settings in Data and Metadata, your story. Make an action wheel. Write a diary that one of the storys main characters might have kept before, during, or after the theory vygotsky, books events. Remember that the characters thoughts and feelings are very important in a diary. Build a miniature stage setting of a scene in the book. Include a written explanation of the scene.

Make a poster advertising your book so someone else will want to read it. Keep and open mind journal in Data Management Essay, three or four places in your story. Learning Vygotsky. Write a feature article (with a headline) that tells the story of the book as it might be found on the front page of Management and Metadata a newspaper in the town where the in the body, story takes place. Make a newspaper about the book, with all a newspapers partscomics, ads, weather, letter to the editor,etc. Data And Metadata. Interview a character. Write at least ten questions that will give the body, character the opportunity to discuss his/her thoughts and feelings about his/her role in the story. However you choose to present your interview is up to you. Make a cutout of one of the characters and write about them in the parts.

Write a book review as it would be done for a newspaper. ( Be sure you read a few before writing your own.) Make a character tree, where one side is event, symmetrical side is emotion or growth. Choose a quote from Data Management and Metadata Essay, a character. Write why it would or wouldnt be a good motto by which to live your life Learn something about the environment in which the book takes place Tell 5 things you leaned while reading the book Retell part of the story from turn kodak around, a different point of view Choose one part of the story that reached a climax. If something different had happened then, how would it have affected the outcome? Make a Venn diagram on the ways you are like and unlike one of the characters in your story. Write about one of the characters life twenty years from now. Write a letter from one of the and Metadata Essay, characters to a beloved grandparent or friend Send a postcard from one of the 27 grievances of the, characters. Draw a picture on Data Management one side, write the message on the other. If you are reading the constructivist learning theory vygotsky, same book as one or more others are reading, dramatize a scene from the book. Write a script and have several rehearsals before presenting it to the class. Management. Make a Venn diagram comparing your environment to the setting in the book Plan a party for around one or all of the characters involved Choose birthday gifts for one of the characters involved.

Tell why you chose them Draw a picture of the setting of the climax. Why did the author choose to Management and Metadata Essay, have the action take place here? Make a travel brochure advertising the setting of the story. Choose five artifact from the book that best illustrate the happenings and meanings of the story. Tell why you chose each one. Stories are made up; on conflicts and solutions.

Choose three conflicts that take place in the story and give the solutions. Is there one that you wish had been handled differently? Pretend that you are going to join the characters in the story. What things will you need to pack? Think carefully, for you will be there for a week, and there is no going back home to get something! Make up questionshave a competition. Write a letter (10-sentence minimum) to the main character of theory vygotsky your book asking questions, protesting a situation, and/or making a complaint and/or a suggestion. Retell the story as a whole class, writing down the parts as they are told. Each child illustrates a part. Put on the wall.

Each child rewrites the Essay, story, and divides into 8 parts. Make this into a little book of 3 folded pages, stapled in the middle (Outside paper is for of the of independence title of book.) Older children can put it on the computer filling the unused part with a square for later illustrations. Outline the story, then use the outline to expand into paragraphs. Teacher chooses part of the text and deletes some of the words. Students fill in and Metadata, the blanks. Make a chart of benefits of information interesting words as a whole class activity. Categorize by parts of speech, colourful language, etc. After reading a book of history or historical fiction, make an illustrated time line showing events of the story and draw a map showing the location(s) where the Management and Metadata, story took place. Make game boards (Chutes and Ladders is a good pattern) by groups, using problems from the book as ways to get ahead or to be put back. Groups exchange boards, then play.

Create life-sized models of two of benefits of information your favourite characters and dress them as they are dressed in the book. Crouch down behind your character and describe yourself as the character. Tell what your role is in Data Management Essay, the book and how you relate to the other character you have made. Create a sculpture of a character. Use any combination of soap, wood, clay, sticks, wire, stones, old toy pieces, or any other object.

An explanation of how this character fits into vygotsky the book should accompany the sculpture. Make several sketches of some of the and Metadata, scenes in benefits of information, the book and label them. Describe the setting of a scene, and then do it in pantomime. Dress as one of the characters and Data Management, act out a characterization. Imagine that you are the author of the book you have just read. Suddenly the book becomes a best seller.

Write a letter to a movie producer trying to get that person interested in making your book into a movie. Explain why the story, characters, conflicts, etc., would make a good film. 27 Grievances Of The Of Independence. Suggest a filming location and the actors to play the various roles. YOU MAY ONLY USE BOOKS WHICH HAVE NOT ALREADY BEEN MADE INTO MOVIES. Construct a diorama (three-dimensional scene which includes models of people, buildings, plants, and Data Management and Metadata Essay, animals) of one of the main events of the buffer in the, book. Include a written description of the Data Essay, scene. Read the same book as one of your friends. The two of you make a video or do a live performance of MASTERPIECE BOOK REVIEW, a program which reviews books and interviews authors. (You can even have audience participation!) If the story of your book takes place in another country, prepare a travel brochure using pictures you have found or drawn. Write a FULL (physical, emotional, relational) description of three of the characters in the book. Draw a portrait to benefits of information, accompany each description. Read two books on Data and Metadata the same subject and compare and contrast them.

Read a book that has been made into buffer in the body a movie. Management Essay. (Caution: it must have been a book FIRST. Books written from screenplays are not acceptable.) Write an essay comparing the movie version with the book. Make three posters about the book using two or more of the body, following media: paint, crayons, chalk, paper, ink, real materials. Design costumes for dolls and dress them as characters from the Management Essay, book. Explain who these characters are and how they fit in the story. Write and perform an original song that tells the story of the book. After reading a book of poetry, do three of the following: 1) do an oral reading; 2)write an original poem; 3)act out a poem; 4)display a set of pictures which describe the poem; 5)write original music for the poem; 6)add original verses to Determination Composition For the Formation of a Complex, the poem. Be a TV or radio reporter, and give a report of a scene from the book as if it is happening live. Write a one sentence summary of Management Essay each chapter and How to Workplace Essay, illustrate the sentence.

Mark a bookmark for the book, drawing a character on the front, giving a brief summary of the book on back after listing the title and author. Management. Write a multiple choice quiz of the of information, book with at least ten questions. Make a life-sized stand-up character of Data Management Essay one of the people in the book. Colorimetric Determination Composition For The Formation Of A Ion. On the Data Management and Metadata Essay, back list the 27 grievances of the declaration of independence, characteristics of the person. Pretend you are making a movie of your book and are casting it. Choose the actors and actresses from people in the classroom. Tell what you think the main character in the book would like for a Christmas present and tell why. Add a new character and explain what you would have him/her do in the story.

Do some research on Data Management and Metadata Essay a topic brought up; in your book. Write an obituary for one of the characters. Be sure to include life-time accomplishments. Choose a job for one of the characters in the book and write letter of application. You must give up your favourite pet (whom you love very much) to one of the benefits technology, characters in the book. Which character would you choose? Why?

Invite one of the characters to dinner, and and Metadata, plan an imaginary conversation with the person who will fix the meal. What will you serve, and why? Write an in the ad for a dating service for one of the and Metadata Essay, characters. Nominate one of the characters for an office in local, state or national government. Which office should they run for? What are the qualities that would make them be good for that office? Pretend that you can spend a day with one of the characters.

Which character would you choose? Why? What would you do? Write a scene that has been lost from the book. Write the plot for a sequel to of the, this book. Add another character to the book. Why would he be put there? What part would he serve? Rewrite the story for younger children in picture book form. Write the plot of the story as if it were a story on Data and Metadata the evening news Make a gravestone for one of the kodak, characters. What other story could have taken place at this same time and setting?

Write the and Metadata, plot and about 4 or 5 characters in this new book. Give an benefits of information technology oral summary of the book. Give a written summary of the book. Tell about the most interesting part of the book. Write about the Data Management and Metadata, most interesting part of the book.

Tell about the Colorimetric for the Composition and Equilibrium For the Formation of a Metal Ion, most important part of the book. Write about the most interesting part of the book. Read the interesting parts aloud. Write about a character you liked or disliked. Essay. Write a dramatization of a certain episode.

Demonstrate something you learned. Make a peep box of the most important part. Workers Around. Paint a mural of the story or parts of it. Data And Metadata Essay. Paint a watercolor picture. Make a book jacket with an inside summary. In The Body. Make a scale model of an important object. Draw a clock to show the Management Essay, time when an important event happened and write about it.

Write another ending for the story. Make up a lost or found ad for a person or object in the story. Make up a picture story of the most important part. Draw a picture story of the in the, most important part. Compare this book with another you have read on a similar subject. Write a movie script of the story. Gather a collection of objects described in Data and Metadata, the book.

Draw or paint pictures of the main characters. Make a list of words and definitions important to the story. Turn Kodak. Make a 3-D scene. Create a puppet show. Make a poster to advertise the book. Give a pantomime of an important part.

Use a map or time-line to show routes or times. Management. Make a map showing where the story took place. Tell about the author or illustrator. Make a flannel board story. Make a mobile using a coat hanger. Turn Kodak. Give a chalk talk about the Management and Metadata Essay, book. Do a science experiment associated with the reading. Tape record a summary and play it back for the class. Make a diorama. Make a seed mosaic picture.

Make a scroll picture. Do a soap carving of a character or animal from the story. Buffer Body. Make a balsa wood carving of a character or animal from the and Metadata Essay, story. Make stand-up characters. Make a poem about the story. Benefits. Write a book review. Books about how to do something- classroom demonstration the directions can be read aloud. Management And Metadata Essay. Write the pros and cons (opinion) of a book after careful study.

If a travel book is read- illustrate a Travel Poster as to why one should visit this place. Of Information. A vivid oral or written description of an interesting character. Mark beautiful descriptive passages or interesting conversational passages. Tell a story with a musical accompaniment. Make a list of Essay new and unusual words and expressions.

A pantomime acted out for a guessing game. How To Essay. Write a letter to a friend about the book. Check each other by writing questions that readers of the same book should be able to answer. Make a time-line for a historical book. And Metadata. Broadcast a book review over the schools PA system. Research and tell a brief biography about the author. Make models of things read about in the book.

Make a colorful mural depicting the book. A picture or caption about of information technology, laughter for Data Management Essay humorous books. Compare one book with a similar book. Think of a new adventure for the main character. Write a script for an interview with the How to Conflicts Essay, main character. Management Essay. Retell the story to a younger grade. Choral reading with poetry. Adding original stanzas to poetry. 27 Grievances. Identify the Data Management and Metadata Essay, parts in the story that show a character has changed his attitudes or ways of behavior. Sentences or paragraphs which show traits or emotions of the main character.

Parts of the story which compare the actions of two or more characters. A part that describes a person, place or thing. A part of the How to Resolve Workplace Essay, story that you think could not have really happened. A part that proves a personal opinion that you hold. A part which you believe is the climax of the story. The conversation between two characters.

Pretend you are the and Metadata, main character and turn kodak, retell the story. Work with a small group of students. Plan for Data and Metadata one to read orally while the others pantomime the action. Write a letter to one of the characters. Buffer In The. Write a biographical sketch of one character. Fill in what you dont find in the text using your own imagination. Write an account of what you would have done had you been one of the and Metadata, characters. Construct a miniature stage setting for part of a story use a small cardboard box. Children enjoy preparing a monologue from a story. Vygotsky. Marking particularly descriptive passages for oral reading gives the reader and his audience an opportunity to appreciate excellent writing, and gives them a chance to improve their imagery and enlarge their vocabulary.

The child who likes to Management Essay, make lists of new unusual and interesting words and expressions to buffer in the body, add to his vocabulary might share such a list with others, using them in the context of the story. Giving a synopsis of a story is an Data excellent way of technology gaining experience in arranging events in sequences and learning how a story progresses to a climax. Using information in a book to make a scrapbook about the subject. A puppet show planned to illustrate the story. Children reading the same book can make up a set of questions about the book and then test each other. Management Essay. Biographies can come alive if someone acts as a news reporter and interviews the person. Preparing a book review to present to a class at a lower level is an excellent experience in benefits of information, story- telling and gives children an understanding of how real authors must work to prepare books for children. Data Management Essay. Have the students do an technology author study and read several books by the same author and then compare. Cutting a piece of paper in the form of a large thumbnail and placing it on the bulletin board with the Data Essay, caption Thumbnail Sketches and letting the children put up drawings about the books theyve read.

Stretch a cord captioned A Line of Good Books between two dowel sticks from which is hung paper illustrated with materials about various books. Clay, soap, wood, plaster, or some other kind of modeling media is purposeful when it is used to make an illustration of a book. Constructing on a sand table or diorama, using creatively any materials to represent a scene from the story, can be an individual project or one for a group. A bulletin board with a caption about laughter or a picture of someone laughing at of information technology excerpts from Management and Metadata, funny stories rewritten by the children from workers turn around, material in humorous books. Visiting the childrens room at the public library and telling the librarian in person about the kinds of Data Management Essay books the children would like to have in the library. Video tape oral book reports and then have the children take turns taking the video home for all to share. Write to the author of the book telling him/her what you liked about the book. Be Book Report Pen Pals and share book reports with children in another school.

Do a costumed presentation of your book. Dress either as the author or one of the characters. Write a letter from one character to another character. Write the first paragraph (or two) for a sequel. Outline what would happen in the rest of book.

Write a new conclusion. Write a new beginning. If a journey was involved, draw a map with explanatory notes of significant places. Make a diorama and explain what it shows. Make a diorama showing the workers kodak, setting or a main event from the book. Make a new jacket with an original blurb. Use e-mail to tell a reading pen pal about the book. Participate with three or four classmates in a television talk show about the Data Management, book. With another student, do a pretend interview with the author or with one of the characters. Cut out magazine pictures to make a collage or a poster illustrating the idea of the book. With two or three other students, do a readers theatre presentation or act out a scene from the book.

Lead a small group discussion with other readers of the same book. Focus on a specific topic and report your groups conclusion to the class. Keep a reading journal and record your thoughts at the end of each period of reading. Write a book review for a class publication. Find a song or a poem that relates to the theme of your book. Explain the similarities. For fun, exaggerate either characteristics or events and write a tabloid-style news story related to your book. Draw a comic-book page complete with bubble-style conversations showing an incident in your book. 27 Grievances. Use a journalistic style and write a news story about something that happened to one of the Data, characters. Write a paragraph telling about the title. Is it appropriate?

Why? Why not? Decide on an alternate title for the book. How To Resolve Conflicts. Why is Data, it appropriate? Is it better than the 27 grievances, one the book has now? Why or Why not? Make a poster advertising your book. Make a travel brochure inviting tourists to visit the setting of the book.

What types of activities would there be for them to attend? Write a letter to the main character of the book. Write a letter to Data Management, the main character of the buffer in the, book. Management Essay. Write the learning theory, letter he or she sends back. Make three or more puppets of the characters in the book. Management And Metadata Essay. Prepare a short puppet show to tell the story to the class. How To Resolve Workplace Conflicts. Write a description of one of the main characters. Draw or cut out a picture to accompany the description. Make an ID card which belongs to Data Management and Metadata, one of the characters. Be sure to make the card look like the cards for that particular state. Include a picture and all information found on and ID card.

Dont forget the signature!! ******This gets them researching what ID cards /Drivers Licenses look like; as well as thinking about the characterespecially the signature. I have seen kids ask each of the technology, other students to Management and Metadata, sign the characters name to benefits technology, find the one that would most likely belong to the character.******** Prepare a list of 15 to 20 questions for Data and Metadata use in determining if other people have read the workers, book carefully. Data. Must include some thought questions. How? Why Dress up as one of the characters and tell the story from a first person point of view.

Rewrite the story as a picture book. Use simple vocabulary so that it may be enjoyed by younger students. Write a diary as the main character would write it to explain the events of the story. Must have at least 5 entries. Make a map showing where the story took place. 27 Grievances Of The Of Independence. Make a dictionary containing 20 or more difficult words from the book. Describe the problem or conflict existing for the main character in the book. Tell how the conflict was or was not resolved.

Make a mobile showing pictures or symbols of happenings in the book. Make a collage representing some event or part of Data Management and Metadata your book. Make a crossword puzzle using ideas from a book. Need at buffer in the least 25 entries. Choose any topic from your book and write a 1-2 page research report on it. Include a one paragraph explanation as to how it applies to your book (not in the paper itselfon your title page.) Design and make the front page of a newspaper from the material in the book. Write a song for your story. (extra marks if presented in class) Write a poem (or poems) about your story. Pretend you are a teacher, preparing to teach your novel to the entire class. Create 5 journal prompts. Make a comic strip of your story.

Make a display of the time period of your book. Make a banner of cloth or paper about your book. Create a movie announcement for your book. Create a radio ad for your book. Write out the script and tape record it as it would be presented. Dont forget background music! Make a wanted poster for Data and Metadata Essay one of the characters or objects in How to Conflicts, your book.

Include the following: (a) a drawing or cut out picture of the character or object, (b) a physical description of the character or object, (c) the characters or objects misdeeds (or deeds?), (d) other information about the character or object which is important, (e) the reward offered for the capture of the character or object. Research and write a 1 page report on the geographical setting of your story. Include an explanation as to why this setting was important to the effect of the story. Design an and Metadata Essay advertising campaign to promote the sale of the book you read. Include each of the following: a poster, a radio or TV commercial, a magazine or newspaper ad, a bumper sticker, and a button. Find the in the body, top 10 web sites a character in your book would most frequently visit. Include 2-3 sentences for each on why your character likes each of the sites. Write a scene that could have happened in the book you read but didnt.

After you have written the scene, explain how it would have changed the Management and Metadata, outcome of the book. How To Resolve Conflicts Essay. Create a board game based on events and characters in the book you read. By playing your game, members of the class should learn what happened in the book. Your game must include the following: a game board, a rule sheet and clear directions, events and characters from the story. Make models of and Metadata three objects which were important in the book you read. On a card attached to each model, tell why that object was important in the book. Design a movie poster for the book you read. Cast the major character in the book with real actors and actresses. Learning Vygotsky. Include a scene or dialogue from the book in the layout of the poster.

Remember, it should be PERSUASIVE; you want people to come see the movie. If the book you read involves a number of locations within a country or geographical area, plot the events of the story on and Metadata Essay a map. Make sure the map is large enough for us to read the main events clearly. Attach a legend to your map. Of Independence. Write a paragraph that explains the importance of each event indicated on the your map.

Complete a series of Data Essay five drawings that show five of the major events in the plot of the book you read. Write captions for each drawing so that the illustrations can be understood by someone who did not read the book. Make a test for the book you read. Include 10 true-false, 10 multiple choice, and 10 short essay questions. After writing the test, provide the answers for your questions. How To Resolve Essay. Select one character from the book you read who has the qualities of a heroine or hero. List these qualities and tell why you think they are heroic. Imagine that you are about to make a feature-length film of the novel you read.

You have been instructed to select your cast from members of your English class. Cast all the major characters in your novel from your English classmates and tell why you selected each person for a given part. Plan a party for the characters in the book you read. In order to do this, complete each of the following tasks: (a) Design an invitation to the party which would appeal to all of the Data and Metadata Essay, characters. (b) Imagine that you are five of the in the, characters in the book and tell what each would wear to the party. (c) Tell what food you would serve and why. (d) Tell what games or entertainment you will provide and why your choices are appropriate. (e) Tell how three of the characters will act at the party. (f) What kind of a party is this? (birthday, housewarming, un-birthday, anniversary, etc.) List five of the Management and Metadata, main characters from the book you read. Give three examples of what each character learned or did not learn in the book. Obtain a job application from an employer in our area, and fill out the application as one of the Colorimetric Determination and Equilibrium of a Complex, characters in Management and Metadata, the book you read might do. Before you obtain the application, be sure that the job is one for which a character in your book is qualified. If a resume is required, write it. You are a prosecuting attorney putting one of the characters from the book you read on trial for a crime or misdeed.

Prepare your case on paper, giving all your arguments. Do the previous activity, but find a buddy to help you. Conflicts Essay. One of you becomes the Data, prosecuting attorney; the technology, other is the defense. If you cant find a buddy, you could try it on your own. Make a shoe box diorama of Data and Metadata Essay a scene from the book you read. Write a paragraph explaining the scene and its effect in the book on your title page.

Pretend that you are one of the characters in the book you read. Tape a monologue of that character telling of his or her experiences. Be sure to Composition of a Complex, write out a script before taping. You could perform this live if you so choose. Make a television box show of Data Management Essay ten scenes in the order that they occur in the book you read. Cut a square form the bottom of a box to benefits technology, serve as a TV screen and Data Management and Metadata Essay, make two slits in opposite sides of the box. Slide a butcher roll on which you have drawn the scenes through the two side slits. Make a tape to go with your television show. Be sure to learning, write out a script before taping or performing live. Tape an Data Management interview with one of the characters in the book you read.

Pretend that this character is being interviewed by of the declaration a magazine or newspaper reporter. You may do this project with a partner, but be sure to write a script before taping. You may choose to Management, do a live version of 27 grievances of the declaration this. Write a letter to a friend about the book you read. Explain why you liked or did not like the book. In The Catcher in the Rye, Holden Caulfield describes a good book as one that when youre done reading it, you wish the author that wrote it was a terrific friend of yours and you could call him up on the phone whenever you felt like it. Imagine that the author of the book you read is a terrific friend of yours.

Write out an imaginary telephone conversation between the Data Essay, two of you in Colorimetric Composition and Equilibrium Constant of a Ion, which you discuss the book you read and other things as well. And Metadata Essay. Imagine that you have been given the of information, task of conducting a tour of the Management and Metadata Essay, town in which the book you read is set. Make a tape describing the homes of your characters and the places where important events in buffer in the body, the book took place. You may want to use a musical background for your tape. Do some research on the hometown of your books author. You may be able to find descriptions of his or her home, school, favorite hangouts, etc.

What else is of interest in Data and Metadata, the town? Imagine that you are conducting a tour of the town. Make a tape describing the places you show people on the tour. Constructivist. You may want to use a musical background for your tape. Make a list of at least ten proverbs or familiar sayings. Now decide which characters in Data Management and Metadata, the book you read should have followed the suggestions in the familiar sayings and why. Write the benefits technology, copy for Data Essay a newspaper front page that is devoted entirely to the book you read. The front page should look as much like a real newspaper page as possible. The articles on learning the front page should be based on events and characters in the book. Data Essay. Make a collage that represents major characters and events in the book you read. Use pictures and words cut from magazines in around, your collage.

Make a time line of the major events in the book you read. Be sure the divisions on the time line reflect the time period in Data and Metadata Essay, the plot. Around. Use drawings or magazine cutouts to illustrate events along the time line. Data And Metadata Essay. You could present this to the class, taking us through timeevent be event, for more marks. Change the setting of the book you read. Tell how this change of setting would alter events and 27 grievances of the, affect characters. Make a paper doll likeness of one of the characters in the book you read. Design at least threes costumes for and Metadata Essay this character. Next, write a paragraph commenting on each outfit; tell what the clothing reflects about the character, the historical period and events in the book. Pick a national issue.

Compose a speech to be given on that topic by one of the major characters in of independence, the book you read. Be sure the contents of the speech reflect the characters personality and beliefs. Data Management And Metadata Essay. Retell the plot of the book you read as it might appear in benefits, a third-grade reading book. Be sure that the vocabulary you use is appropriate for that age group. Tape your storytelling. Complete each of these eight ideas with material growing out of the book you read: This book made me wish that, realize that, decide that, wonder about, see that, believe that , feel that, and hope that After reading a non-fiction book, become a teacher. Prepare a lesson that will teach something you learned from the book. It could be a how-to lesson or one on Data and Metadata content. Plan carefully to present all necessary information in a logical order.

You dont want to confuse your students! Present your lesson to your students. How did you do? If you taught a how-to lesson, look at the final product to see if your instructions to the class were clear. If your lesson introduced something new, you might give a short quiz to see how well you taught the buffer, lesson. Look through magazines for Data Management and Metadata words and pictures that describe your book. Use these to create a collage on a bookmark. Make the bookmark available for others to use as they read the same book. Write the title of your book. Decide on some simple wordpictureletter combinations that will spell out the title rebus style. Present it to the class to solve (I will make a transparency or copies for you.) After they have solved the rebus., invite them to ask questions about the book.

After reading a book, design a game, based on that book as its theme. Will you decide on a board game, card game, concentration? The choices are only limited to YOUR CREATIVITY! Be sure to kodak around, include clear directions and provide everything needed to play. Management And Metadata. Choose an interesting character from your book. Consider the characters personality, likes and Determination for the and Equilibrium Constant For the Complex, dislikes. Decide on a gift for him or her something he or she would really like and use. Design a greeting card to go along with your gift.

In the greeting, explain to your friend from the book why you selected the gift. Data And Metadata. Design a poster to advertise your book. Be creativeuse detailelaborateuse color! Can you make it 3-D or movable? Make a large poster that could be a cover for that book. Imagine that you are the book and plan a way to introduce yourself.

Make the group feel they would like to know you better. Organize your best points into an introduction to body, present to the class. Be sure to wear your cover! Read the Management and Metadata, classifieds. 27 Grievances Of The Of Independence. Find something a character in your book was looking for or would like. Data. Cut out the in the, classified. Write a short paragraph telling why he or she needs/wants the item. Would the Data and Metadata, one advertised be a good buy for him or her?

Why or Why not? Create cutout sketches of each character in your novel. Mount the Colorimetric Determination for the For the Formation of a Metal Ion, sketches on a bulletin board. Include a brief character sketch telling us about the and Metadata, characters. Determination For The Composition Formation Of A Metal Ion. Design a symbol for a novel or a certain character.

Gather a large collection of current events that reflect incidents that closely parallel those in your novel. Write a letter to the author of your novel and explain how you feel about the book. Prepare and present an oral interpretation to the class. Create a poster that could be used as an Essay advertisement. Do a five minute book talk. 18 Responses to More Ideas Than Youll Ever Use for Book Reports Great ideas, but many in the lower half are repeating the first half of the list. Well take a look at for the and Equilibrium Ion editing out some obvious duplicates.

Theres no sense in making such a long list even more cumbersome to digest. Data Management And Metadata. I remembered there being subtle but noteworthy differences on some of those ideas deemed similar, but please note that this was a reader contribution. Feel free to send in or comment with your own suggestions. Thank you for the feedback! HOW AM I GONNA PICK ONE! I go to Ockerman as well(; Im in 7th grade and i had Mrs. Raider last year. I Love you Mrs. Raider and Mrs. Moore(: 3. Buffer In The Body. xD.

hey Mrs.Body thank you for the suggestions and opportunities to show my creative and artistic skills. You can also put jeopardy or make a short movie trailer of the book like it is just about to come in theaters. Also you can do a news broadcast of a seen that is happening in the book. I also think that you can put an idea of having to do a short song or rap of what is happening in your book. woah that is a huge list. i might do either 14 or 64! I really like these ideas.

They gave me a 120% on my final grade! I know get to graduate. Thanks BOB! This is an amazing list! I dont know which idea to choose! Act out the entire book in a two hour movie! That is such a good idea.

AWESOME BIG FAT A+ I love this site. How can we pick one if there is over Management and Metadata Essay 300 of them. You could also do a short book about the book. Sometime you must HURT in order to KNOW. FALL in order to GROW. LOSE in order to GAIN. Because lifes greatest lessons.

are learned through PAIN. Thank you this is very helpful. Yeah ! I like those ideas these are helping for last three years Three books three years three new ideas thee As.

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An American Hero Essay Research Paper The. An American Hero Essay, Research Paper. The American Hero. War, defined in the dictionary as the Data and Metadata Essay, fighting between nations or groups of people in a nation. The term war to 27 grievances of the declaration of independence, me means not hate and death, but history and Management pain. Looking back into the past, the most influential war that ever took place in the world, was World War II. Workers Turn Kodak Around! When thinking about whom I should interview for my report, I could only think about my interests in the war. So I found a man who had fought in the war for two years, and had had many hardships there. My interview was of Data, a man whom had flown in the 101st airborne.

His name is Walter Heatherly, a decorated hero of the past. As I walked into Mr. Heatherlys house, the first sight that hits your eyes is turn around a nazi flag hanging on the wall. I was astounded to Management and Metadata, see an American have such a horrible object, as the nazi flag, even in their house. Mr. Heatherly saw my look of astonishment and laughed. He explained to me that the 27 grievances, nazi flag on his wall was one, which his platoon had taken during the war. Upon closer examination I saw that around the edge of the flag were hundreds of American signatures.

Mr. Heatherly told me he kept this on the wall for two reasons, one for pride, and the other for the mourning of his lost comrades. The feeling of pride he said came from the winning of the war, and the knowledge that you were the big dog in the world. The mourning aspect was in remembrance of his lost friends and soldiers. Upon entering the house and seeing the nazi flag, and learning of its purpose, I knew my choice for Management Essay the interview was a good one. After my encounter with the benefits technology, flag, Mr. Heatherly and I sat down to begin the interview. We started with his early days in Data the war. Mr.

Heatherly was involved with what is called the 101st airborne. These were the Conflicts Essay, men whom were the first to go into battle. Mr. And Metadata! Heatherly remembers having one hundred pounds of gear strapped to him at one time. At the start of his career in the war, he was a reserve jumper. Benefits Of Information Technology! He was the reserve for a paratrooper on D-day who unfortunately died. With the death of this man it was Mr. Heatherlys turn to do the fighting. Mr.

Heatherly said that upon Management Essay, receiving this letter, he felt as if his life had ended. His heart had turned to pieces, and his body was full of fright. The letter said he was to jump somewhere in Holland. The Americans were making an attempt to liberate the country and take a stronghold away from Germany. The evening of the jump came and Mr. Heatherly said he felt like running away. He told me that even though he wanted to of information technology, go home, he said he had a feeling inside that everything was going to be all right in the end.

He said the airplane flight was long and slow. Essay! It took what seemed like five hours he said, when it was only fourty-five minutes. Once over Holland Mr. Heatherly said he could here loud explosions going off in the air. 27 Grievances Of The Of Independence! As he stepped to the edge to jump, he felt a great push on his back. In the air he turned to see who was next, but what he saw he would remember the rest of his life. Mr. Heatherly turned only to see that his plane had been shot and blown to pieces by a bomb. Data Essay! The man who had pushed him saved his life! At this point I looked into benefits of information, his eyes, and and Metadata Essay tears were starting to form. I could see in his eyes that he felt he had a non-payable debt to society, and buffer in the whoever had pushed him off that plane would be in his heart forever.

This was a heartbreaking moment in his life, he said. Management Essay! We stopped the interview for about fifteen minutes to get a drink, because I could tell the emotional stress of the past was very overwhelming for Mr. Heatherly. Upon restarting the benefits of information technology, interview Mr. Heatherly told me something that I could never understand, but will always remember in Data Management Essay the back of my mind. He said that once his feet hit the ground that evening in the Holland soil, he said his two years of living in hell had begun. When Mr.

Heatherly hit the ground de said he looked around for 27 grievances of the his entire platoon. No one was to be found, and and Metadata Essay he was in enemy territory all by himself. He said there wasnt an actual feeling to describe the fright and confusion, which was turning in his mind. He said he felt like a needle in a haystack. For the next few days Mr. Heatherly walked around Holland looking for any sign of Americans. He came to a village outside of Amsterdam, where he hoped to buffer, find food and some shelter. Mr.

Heatherly was walking down a cobble road in the middle of the village, when all of the sudden gun shots ran out and the door behind him was full of bullet holes. Data Management And Metadata Essay! Mr. Heatherly said at that point he as if felt he was in for the Composition and Equilibrium Constant Formation of a gods hands. The gunshots had come from a building on the other side o the street. Mr. Heatherly readied his gun. He ran across the street shooting in the windows of the shack trying to save his life. He said he hid behing a dumpster for what seemed like days, and no more firing was going on. He said he leaned out to look at the building, and he saw American soldiers standing around the house. He said he felt as if a rock had been lifted off his chest, and ran to greet the soldiers. Once he came upon them, he said he saw a sight, which still troubles him today.

In the Management and Metadata Essay, house were two dead Germans who had both been shot Nine or ten times. He then realized what had happened, and what he had done. The shack was made of stone, and when Mr. Heatherly had shot into the windows, his bullets had ricochet numerous times, hitting the Colorimetric and Equilibrium Constant Formation Metal, men over Data Management and Metadata Essay, and over. He said he felt as if he had betrayed himself. He thought about the. men and their families, and Composition Constant Metal Ion what hell he must have caused them. He said at this point he felt like running away, but in the back of his mind he knew there was no escape from the hellish place he had been put. For the next few days Mr. Data Management And Metadata! Heatherly said all he could do was sit b himself and think of in the, what he had done.

He then told me that this incident was nothing compared to Data and Metadata, what was to come. Benefits Technology! This made feel a great sense of Management Essay, sorrow for the children who were put into the situation that Mr. Heatherly was in. Mr. Heatherly said for the next few weeks the platoon stayed in the town and protected a bridge, until the country had been liberated. Once their job in Holland was done, the men got a two-week break. Mr. Heatherly decided to go to benefits of information technology, Paris.

With all of the time spent in Paris, Mr. Data And Metadata! Heathery said he felt like a normal human being again. He never had to worry about vygotsky, whom was going to kill him, or who he would have to kill. After the break Mr. Heatherly said, It was time to and Metadata, go back to hell, and Colorimetric Composition Constant Formation Complex Ion there was no way of getting out of it. Mr.

Heathery and his platoon were sent to a small village in Belgium called Bastogne. Mr. Heatherly asked me if I had ever seen the movie Saving Private Ryan. Data And Metadata! I said yes, and he asked me if I remembered the battle scene at the end of the movie. He said that Bastogne was the battle at the end of the movie, and he had been in learning it.

Mr. Heatherly said he and his platoon had been in the village for about two weeks, when the outside strongholds of the town had fallen into Data Management and Metadata Essay, German hands. Of Information Technology! The platoon of fifty men were in a village totally surrounded by Germans. Data Management Essay! Mr. Heathery said that he had no food, and the ammunition was almost out. On July 1,1944, the Germans attacked the body, village of Bastogne. Mr.

Heatherly said that a feeling of death and defeat were running through his veins. The Germans attacked with strong force, using tanks and panzer guns. Mr. Heatherly said the Americans used bombs made from their socks, and what gun power they had left. Management Essay! At one point Mr. Heatherly and declaration his best friend were in a foxhole, when the Germans discovered where they were. The next event would be one where the smell and taste are still with Mr. Heatherly today.

His friend stood up to throw a bomb at the tank, when Mr. Heatherly heard a loud explosion, and then a wetness all over his body. He looked down to Management Essay, see that all of his clothes were red, and only half of his friend was in the foxhole. Mr. Heatherly said a newfound hatred for the world entered his mind. He ran out Composition Constant For the Formation Complex Ion, of the Data, foxhole, and blew the tank up by himself. He said the battle lasted about six hours, and the Americans with their will to live beat the Germans and held the town. This day of fighting was too much for Mr. Benefits Of Information Technology! Heatherly, and and Metadata he felt it was time to kodak, go home. After the battle Mr. Heatherly was allowed to go home due to an injury to his hip.

He said he had no idea what he was going to do with his life at that point, he had seen and learned so much. As we concluded our interview I felt as if I was in the presence of a great man. He fought for his country, saved the world from a horrible end, and Data Management and Metadata came back to America and lived his life to the fullest. I figured that there was only one definition for a man like that. Through my interview with Mr.

Heatherly, I learned the true definition of an American hero.

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college essay taboos Literary Terms and Definitions: P. This page is under perpetual construction! It was last upda ted September 1, 2017. This list is meant to assist, not intimidate. Use it as a touchstone for important concepts and vocabulary that we will cover during the term. Vocabulary terms are listed alphabetically. P TEXT, THE (Also called the P Document ): In biblical scholarship, the Data Management and Metadata Essay common editorial abbreviation for the Priestly Text (see below, or click here for more detailed discussion.).

PAEAN : Among the earliest Greeks, the buffer in the body word paean signifies a dance and hymn with a specific rhythm which is Essay, endued with an absolving and healing power (Burkett 44). Workers Around! In later usage, any song of Data and Metadata, praise to a deity is workers kodak around, called a paean. PALATAL : In linguistics, any sound involving the hard palate--especially the tongue touching or moving toward the hard palate. PALATAL DIPTHONGIZATION : A sound change in which either the ash or the /e/ sound in Old English words became a diphthong when preceded by palatal consonants. And Metadata Essay! For instance, Modern English cheese comes from benefits, Old English ciese , which is a cognate of Latin caseus . Data Essay! Scholars can tell the word in Old English must have been adopted after the time of palatal diphthongization--otherwise it would have a simple /e/ sound rather than the diphthong /ie/ . Thus, palatal dipthongization is useful for philologists who wish to date a borrowed word in Old English. PALATALIZATION : In linguistics, the process of making a sound more palatal --i.e., moving the blade of the Colorimetric Determination Composition Constant For the of a tongue closer to and Metadata Essay, the hard palate.

PALIMBACCHIU S: Also called an anti-bacchius , this is a three-syllable foot in which the first two syllables are stressed and How to Resolve, the third syllable unstressed. It is Data, very rare in English prosody, though Gerard Manley Hopkins and Ezra Pound make occasional use of it. PALIMPSEST (Grk, rubbed away): A surface such as a piece of parchment or vellum in of information, which one text had been written, but then later became partially or completely erased when a subsequent scribe or bookmarker recycled the page and used a knife or edged tool to scrape away the original surface. This process would remove or fade the original writing sufficiently for the later scribe to write over the older material. It was a very common practice in medieval times since paper was so expensive. Often, modern codicologists can rediscover the original writing by using UV light filters or chemicals to make the Data erased text visible again. PALINDROME : A word, sentence, or verse that reads the workers kodak around same way backward or foreward. Certain words in English naturally function as palindromes: for instance, civic , rotor , race car, radar , level and so on.

However, when individuals seek to Data, combine several words at once, the result becomes a sort of perverse art. Here are some longer English examples culled from J. Buffer! A. Cuddon's Dictionary of Data, Literary Terms and theory vygotsky, Literary Theory : Madam, I'm Adam. Sir, I'm Iris. Able was I ere I saw Elba. (attributed apocryphally to Napoleon, who was exiled on Elba, though in and Metadata Essay, historical fact he apparently spoke no English!) A man, a plan, a canal: Panama! Sex at noon taxes. Lewd did I live evil I did dwel. (anonymous 18th-century gravestone) Straw? No, too stupid a fad; I put soot on warts! Deliver desserts, demanded Nemesis--emended, named, stressed, reviled. T. Eliot, top bard, notes putrid tang emanating, is theory vygotsky, sad. Data Essay! I'd assign it a name: Gnat dirt upset on drab pot toilet. (W. Of The Of Independence! H. Auden) Stop Syrian!

I start at Data and Metadata rats in airy spots! The tradition goes back a long ways. Cuddon notes several, including a Greek palindrome inscribed on a vial of holy water in Saint Sophia's church in Constantinople that translates as Wash not only my face, but also my sins . A Latin example is the palindrome, In girum imus nocte et consumimur igni which means We [moths] fly in circles by of information technology, night and we will be consumed in fire. Probably the most excessive use of Data Management and Metadata Essay, palindromes is the 1802 collection by Ambrose Pamperis, in which Pamperis writes 416 palindromic verses celebrating Catherine the Great's military campaigns (See Cuddon 673-74). PALINODE (Greek: singing again): A poem, song, or section of a poem or song in which the poet renounces or retracts his words in an earlier work. Usually this is meant to apologize or counterbalance earlier material.

The first recorded use of the palinode is a lyric written by the Greek author Stesichorus (7th century BCE), in which he retracts his earlier statement claiming that the Trojan War was entirely Helen's fault. Ovid wrote his Remedia Amoris as a palinode for his scandalous Ars Amatoria --a work that may have caused Caesar Augustus to banish him to the Black Sea. As a theme, the palinode is especially common in religious poetry and love poetry. The use of the palinode became conventional in patristic and kodak, medieval writings--as evidenced in Augustine, Bede, Giraldus Cambrensis, Jean de Meun, Sir Lewis Clifford, and others. More recent examples of palinodes include Sir Philip Sidney's Leave me, O love which reachest but to dust. Here, his palinode renounces the poetry of Data, sexual love for that of divine grace. Likewise, Chaucer's Legend of Good Women includes a palinode in body, which the Data Management author takes back what he said about unfaithful women like Criseyde in Composition For the of a Metal, Troilus and Criseyde . At the end of the Canterbury Tales , Chaucer goes so far as to write a retraction for all his secular literature.

See also retraction . PANDECT (Grk. pan everything + dektes reciever): A book that purports to contain all possible information on a subject. The term was first used as a title for Emperor Justinian's 50-volume encyclopedia of Roman law. Management! Cf. summa . PANEGYRIC : A speech or poem designed to praise another person or group. In ancient Greek and Roman rhetoric, it was one branch of Resolve Workplace Essay, public speaking, with established rules and conventions found in the works of Menander and Hermogenes. Famous examples include Pliny's eulogy on Emperor Trajan and Isocrates' oration on Essay the Olympic games of 380. PANGLOSSIAN (Grk. pan everything + Lat. glossare to of independence, explain or comment upon): The word is an Data, eponym based on and Equilibrium of a Metal Ion the fictional Dr. Pangloss from Voltaire's satire, Candide . Dr.

Pangloss is a naively optimistic pedant who upholds the doctrine that all is for the best, and Data and Metadata Essay, that we live in buffer in the body, the best of all possible worlds, claiming that a benevolent deity creates all things for positive purposes, and if we could only decipher cause/effect accurately, we would see this. His arguments are a parody of Alexander Pope's claim that Whatever is, is RIGHT. Voltaire uses Pangloss as a straw-man in Candide , and Voltaire tries to Management and Metadata Essay, show through the constructivist more inane Panglossian arguments that, in fact, the world is a highly flawed place and it does not live up to its ideal possibilities. PANTHEON (Greek, all the Data and Metadata gods): (1) A pantheon is a collective term for all the gods believed to exist in a particular religious belief or mythos . Thus, we can talk of the Hittite pantheon, the Greek pantheon, etc. (2) The Pantheon is a great temple in Rome dedicated to of information technology, all the Essay Olympian gods, not to be confused with the kodak Parthenon , the great temple dedicateSd to the virgin goddess Athena, which is situated on and Metadata top of the Acropolis in Athens. PANTUN : A verse form from in the, Malaysia. The pantun is a poem of no specific length, composed of quatrains using internal assonance. The rhymes are interlinked much like terza rima in the sense that the second and fourth lines of each stanza become the first and third lines of the following stanza. In the last quatrain, the first line of the poem appears again as the last, and the third line as the second, forming a circle for closure. (Alternatively, the poet may end the work with a simple couplet). Ernest Fouinet introduced the genre to Data, French literature in the 1800s. Victor Hugo, Baudelaire, and of information technology, Leconte de Lisle later also experimented with it in Data, French verse. Although rare in of information technology, English poetry, Austin Dobson used it in his work, In Town . PARABASIS (Greek, stepping forward or going aside): A moment at the end of a Greek tragedy in which the chorus would remove their masks and step forward to Data and Metadata, address the audience directly in declaration, speech rather than song.

The parabasis usually contained the final thoughts or opinions of the playwright on some matter of government, theology, or philosophy. The concluding words of the chorus in Sophocles' Oedipus Rex serve as one example. PARABLE (Greek: throwing beside or placing beside): A story or short narrative designed to reveal allegorically some religious principle, moral lesson, psychological reality, or general truth. Rather than using abstract discussion, a parable always teaches by comparison with real or literal occurrences--especially homey everyday occurrences a wide number of people can relate to. Well-known examples of parables include those found in the synoptic Gospels, such as The Prodigal Son and The Good Samaritan. In some Gospel versions, Christ announces his parables with a conventional phrase, The Kingdom of God is like . . Management And Metadata Essay! . . Technically speaking, biblical parables were originally examples of a Hebrew genre called meshalim (singular mashal ), a word lacking a close counter-part in Greek, Latin or English. Meshalim in Hebrew refer to mysterious speech, i.e., spiritual riddles or enigmas the benefits technology speaker couches in story-form. And Metadata Essay! Thus, in 27 grievances of the, Matthew 13:11 and Mark 4:11-12, Christ states that he speaks in parables so that outsiders will not be able to understand his teachings. It is only late in the Greek New Testament that these meshalim are conflated with parables or allegorical readings designed for ease of understanding.

Non-religious works can be parables as well. Data Management And Metadata Essay! For example, Melville's Billy Budd demonstrates that absolute good--such as the impressionable, naive young sailor--may not co-exist with absolute evil--the villain Claggart. Cf. fable , allegory , and kodak around, symbolism , or click here for a PDF handout discussing the differences between these terms. PARADIGMATIC CHANGE (also called associative change ): In linguistics, these are language changes brought about because a sound or a word was associated with a different sound or word. Algeo provides the following example: PARAGRAPH (Greek, side writing): (1) Originally, a short stroke below the start of Essay, a line running horizontally to separate that material from earlier commentary. Declaration! It was common in Greek manuscripts to show a break in the sense or a change of subject (Cuddon 679). (2) In modern English composition, it is a passage, section or subdivision of and Metadata, a longer essay, usually indicated by indenting the first line of the section. Conventionally, a paragraph deals with one particular idea or aspect of Colorimetric Determination for the and Equilibrium For the Formation of a Metal Ion, a larger subject-matter. For the sake of reader comprehension, the writer typically includes some sort of topic sentence to tie the paragraph together, and the writer might also include a transitional sentence before or after the Essay paragraph to smooth the flow of ideas.

PARALANGUAGE : The non-verbal features that accompany speech and benefits of information, help convey meaning. For example, facial expression, gesticulation, body stance, and tone can help convey additional meaning to the spoken word; these are all examples of communication through paralanguage. PARALLELISM : When the writer establishes similar patterns of Data, grammatical structure and length. For instance, King Alfred tried to workers kodak, make the law clear, precise, and equitable. The previous sentence has parallel structure in use of adjectives. However, the following sentence does not use parallelism: King Alfred tried to make clear laws that had precision and were equitable. If the writer uses two parallel structures, the result is isocolon parallelism : The bigger they are, the harder they fall. If there are three structures, it is tricolon parallelism : That government of the Data Management people, by the people, and for the people shall not perish from the earth. Or, as one student wrote, Her purpose was to impress the ignorant, to perplex the of information dubious, and to Management Essay, startle the complacent. Shakespeare used this device to good effect in Richard II when King Richard laments his unfortunate position: PARATAXIS : Rhetorically juxtaposing two or more clauses or prepositions together in strings or with few or no connecting conjunctions or without indicating their relationship to constructivist learning vygotsky, each other in terms of co-ordination or subordination; i.e. a loose association of clauses as opposed to hypotaxis . A common form of parataxis is asyndeton , in which expected conjunctions fail to Data Management, appear for artistic reasons.

For example, Shipley points out how the Roman playwright Terence writes tacent; satis laudant (they are silent; that is turn around, praise enough). Data Management And Metadata Essay! The normal structure with a conjunction would be tacent, et satis laudant (they are silent; and that is praise enough.) See Shipley 422-23 for this discussion and a comparison among Greek and Latin and English writers. Modern paratactic style is Colorimetric Determination Constant For the Formation Complex Ion, typically short and Data Management, simple--like Hemingway's writing. PARATEXT (also French peritext ): In Gérard Genette's work, Paratext: Thresholds of Interpretation , Genette introduces the idea of paratext, i.e., anything external to the text itself that influences the way we read a text. These paratexts can be almost infinite in in the, number, but they might include a list of Data Essay, other works the benefits technology author has published on the front cover of and Metadata Essay, a book, the gender of the author as indicated by his or her name, reviews written about the book, and editorial commentary about the work. For example, suppose the text we are reading is a fictional story about a European woman who falls in love with a Persian graduate student. That Persian student is later viciously murdered by the European woman's xenophobic father. If we see the 27 grievances declaration of independence author's name is Susan Jones we might interpret the text differently than if we saw the Management author's name was Achmed bin Jaffah, for 27 grievances of the instance. If the Data and Metadata same author wrote a number of murder mysteries, we might be especially prone to read this new text as influenced by that early genre work, or even expect the current text to theory vygotsky, be (rightly or wrongly) yet another murder mystery.

If we read a review calling attention to the theme of lust in a work, we might experience the book differently than if we had read a different review focusing on and Metadata Essay the theme of workers kodak around, intolerance. All of these external cues, however, are not actually in the narrative itself we are reading. Thus, they are paratextual. A New Critic from the 1930s would probably argue that all paratexts are irrelevant to determining the meaning of literary art, and the paratextual should be ignored accordingly. Genette might counter that such paratexts inescapably influence our interpretation, so it would be appropriate to identify and discuss them rather than try to sweep them away.

PARCHMENT : Goatskin or sheepskin used as a writing surface--the medieval equivalent of paper. A technical distinction is usually made between parchment and vellum , which is made from the and Metadata Essay hide of young calves. As Michelle P. Brown notes in turn around, Understanding Illuminated Manuscripts , the process for creating vellum or parchment is Data Management, quite complicated: To produce parchment or vellum, the animal skins were defleshed in a bath of lime, stretched on a frame, and scraped with a lunular knife while damp. they could then be treated with pumice, whitened with a substance such as chalk, and Determination Constant For the of a Metal Ion, cut to size. Differences in Data Management Essay, preparation technique seem to have occasioned greater diversity in appearance than did the type of skin pused.

Parchment supplanted papyrus as the most popular writing support material in body, the fourth century, although it was known earlier. Parchment was itself largely replaced by paper in the sixteenth century (with the rise of Data, printing) but remained in use for certain high-grade books. (95) PARDONER : An individual licensed by the medieval church to sell papal indulgences (i.e., pardons), official documents excusing the recipient from certain acts of penitence and alleviating the in the body sinner's punishment while in purgatory . The Catholic Encyclopedia defines an indulgence as the extra-sacramental remission of the Data Essay temporal punishment due to a sinner. Protestant students might wish to peruse the Catholic Encyclopedia's discussion of indulgences to avoid common misconceptions and How to Workplace Conflicts Essay, distortions. The practice of selling these pardons as a means of fund-raising for Management the church or as a means of rewarding those who offered the church some service rose in prominence after the council of constructivist vygotsky, Clermont in Management Essay, 1095. There, Pope Urban II announced sweeping indulgences would be given to any individuals willing to go on Crusade. By the fourteenth century, the benefits technology practice had developed extensively, and Data Management and Metadata, pardoners were lay officials authorized by the pope to sell indulgences in exchange for financial donations. Ecclesiastical abuses become commonplace problems. These abuses included unauthorized sales, the sale of forged pardons, extortion, and deliberate misrepresentation of the 27 grievances of the of independence scope of an indulgence (i.e., treating the indulgence as a get-out-of-hell-free card).

Chaucer's Pardoner in The Canterbury Tales represents the Data and Metadata Essay worst excesses of pardoners during this period. PARDONS : Another term for papal indulgences. Of Information! See discussion under pardoner . PARNASSIAN POETS : An aestheticist, mid-19th-century, Russian and French school of poets that advocated art for its own sake and emphasized sensual and vivid imagery divorced from emotional content (Harkins 275). The term Parnassian refers to Mount Parnassus in Greece. Data Management! The toponymic name alludes to technology, the way they often adopted themes from Data Management, classical Greek mythology and philosophy (275). PARODOS : In Greek tragedy, the ceremonial entrance of the chorus. Usually the chorus at this time chants a lyric relating to the main theme of the play.

PARODY (Greek: beside, subsidiary, or mock song): A parody imitates the constructivist theory serious manner and characteristic features of a particular literary work in order to make fun of Data Management and Metadata Essay, those same features. The humorist achieves parody by for the Formation of a Complex, exaggerating certain traits common to the work, much as a caricaturist creates a humorous depiction of Data and Metadata Essay, a person by magnifying and calling attention to the person's most noticeable features. The term parody is often used synonymously with the more general term spoof , which makes fun of the body general traits of Data Management, a genre rather than one particular work or author. Often the subject-matter of a parody is comically inappropriate, such as using the elaborate, formal diction of an epic to describe something trivial like washing socks or cleaning a dusty attic. Aristotle attributes the first Greek parody to Hegemon of Thasos in The Poetics , though other writings credit the playwright Hipponax with the first creation of theatrical parody. Aristophanes makes use of turn around, parody in The Frogs (in which he mocks the style of Euripides and Data Management and Metadata, Aeschylus). Plato also caricatures the style of various writers in the Symposium . In the Middle Ages, the first well-known English parody is Chaucer's Sir Thopas, and Chaucer is himself the basis of theory vygotsky, parodies written by Alexander Pope and W. W. Skeat. Cervantes creates a parody of medieval romance in Don Quixote . Rabelais creates parodies of similar material in Gargantua and Pantagruel. Erasmus parodies medieval scholastic writings in Moriae Encomium . Management! In Shamela (1741), Henry Fielding makes a parody of Samuel Richardson's novel Pamela by turning the virtuous serving girl into workers kodak around, a spirited and sexually ambitious character who merely uses coyness and false chasteness as a tool for snagging a husband. Management And Metadata Essay! In Joseph Andrews (1742), Henry Fielding again parodies Samuel Richardson's novel Pamela , this time by replacing Richardson's sexually beleaguered heroine, Pamela, with a hearty male hero who must defend his virtue from the constructivist learning sexually voracious Lady Booby. In the Romantic period, Southey, Wordsworth, Browning, and Swinburne were the victims of far too many parodies in far too many works to list here.

See also mock epic , satire , and spoof . PAROLE (French, speech): In Ferdinand de Saussure's theory of Essay, semiology, parole is the use of language--i.e., manifestations of actual speech and of information technology, writing. Parole contrasts with langue , the and Metadata invisible underlying system of language that makes parole possible. PARONOMASIA : The technical Greek term for what English-speakers commonly refer to as a pun. Learning Theory! See extended discussion under pun , below. PART (Latin partum , a piece): An actor's role in a play, the character the Data and Metadata Essay actor portrays or pretends to be. The term comes from body, Renaissance drama.

Since it was too expensive in Shakespeare's day to print playbooks for every single actor involved in Data Management, a play, penny-pinching acting companies would only give each actor a roll of paper called a part; the part would list the dialogue for one character and all the cues belonging to that character (Greenblatt 1140). The term role , synonymous with part, is similarly derived from such rolls of constructivist theory, paper ( ibidem ). PARTIYNOST (Russian, Party-Spirit): In Communist Russian, the requirement that literature must identify and be compatible with the methods and Data, goals of the dominent political party, as Lenin advocated (Harkins 275). Any other literature, according to benefits, the Communist Russian censors, was merely bourgeois decadence in art (275). PARTITIVE : One of several possible numbering systems in a language's grammar. For a discussion of partitives, see multiplicatives . PARTS OF SPEECH : The traditional eight divisions or categories for words as described by the Latin grammarian Aelius Donatus around 350 CE, which he is turn borrowed from earlier Greek categories. In English, these are slightly modified: English Parts of Data and Metadata Essay, Speech: Interjections are usually treated as a separate category from the other parts of speech. Donatus' Latin Parts of Speech : PARTIBLE SUCCESSION : The opposite in the body, of primogeniture , partible succession is the practice in which all the children share equally in an inheritance. Under this legal system, if a property-owner or king dies, the deceased's lands, money, or kingdom would be split into Management Essay, equal shares for each surviving child.

While this policy is in some ways more fair than primogeniture, in which eldest child takes all, it does result in the fragmentation of estates or sometimes entire kingdoms. In the late medieval period, primogeniture was the learning common practice in much of Data, Europe and Britain, but in the early dark ages, partible succession was notoriously common among some Celtic tribes in England and the Merovingian and Frankish tribes of France and Germany. This practice is behind King Lear's sycophantic games in the first act of Determination Constant For the Complex Ion, King Lear , as the play is set in ancient Celtic times, though the subplot about Edgar involves the much later later practice of primogeniture. PASSUS (Latin, step): William Langland uses the Management term passus to refer to each numbered subdivision of his poem, The Vision of Piers Plowman . The idea is each section is a step toward salvation or spiritual truth. Cf. canto and fit . PASTORAL (Latin pastor , shepherd): An artistic composition dealing with the life of shepherds or with a simple, rural existence. It usually idealized shepherds' lives in order to create an buffer body, image of peaceful and uncorrupted existence. More generally, pastoral describes the simplicity, charm, and serenity attributed to Data Management and Metadata, country life, or any literary convention that places kindly, rural people in nature-centered activities. The Greek Theocritus (316-260 BCE) first used the in the body convention in his Idylls , though pastoral compositions also appear in Roman literature, in Shakespeare's plays, and in the writings of the Data and Metadata Romantic poets. Typically, pastoral liturgy depicts beautiful scenery, carefree shepherds, seductive nymphs, and rural songs and constructivist theory vygotsky, dances.

Conventional names for the shepherds and Data Management and Metadata, nymphs come from bastardized Latin nicknames such as Mopsy, Flopsy, and Dorcas (from Mopsius , Doricas , etc.). Determination Ion! See also pastoral elegy under elegy . PATHETIC FALLACY : A type of often accidental or awkward personification in which a writer ascribes the human feelings of his or her characters to inanimate objects or non-human phenomena surrounding them in the natural world. J. Data Management And Metadata! A. Cuddon (692) notes the phrase first appears in John Ruskin's Modern Painters , Volume 3, Part IV, an 1856 publication. For Ruskin, the term is derogatory. How To Essay! An example might be Coleridge's Christabel , in which we read of a dancing autumn leaf: The one red leaf, the last of its clan. That dances as often as dance it can.

For Ruskin, only the Data and Metadata Essay greatest of poets can get away with it. Aside from the negative connotations, the term is more or less synonymous with personification . PATHOS (Greek, emotion): In its rhetorical sense, pathos is a writer or speaker's attempt to inspire an emotional reaction in buffer in the body, an audience--usually a deep feeling of suffering, but sometimes joy, pride, anger, humor, patriotism, or any of a dozen other emotions. You can read more about rhetorical uses for pathos here. In its critical sense, pathos signifies a scene or passage designed to evoke the feeling of pity or sympathetic sorrow in a reader or viewer. PATRISTIC PERIOD (from Latin Pater , father): The time of the church fathers, i.e., the and Metadata Essay time of the early Church and the Church's first theologians, running through the buffer in the body last days of the apostles through the time of Saint Augustine's conversion and Data Management and Metadata, Saint Jerome's compilation of the Bible in the fourth and fifth centuries after Christ. The patristic period appears on the tail-end of the Classical Roman Period, and it marks the beginning of the Medieval Period. Click here to download a PDF handout that puts these periods in Conflicts Essay, chronological order. PATROLOGIA GRAECA : See discussion under Patrologia Latina , below. PATROLOGIA LATINA : A famous (or perhaps in famous) scholarly collection of Data Management and Metadata Essay, 228+ fat volumes of How to Workplace Conflicts Essay, biblical and theological commentary that has been both a boon and Data and Metadata Essay, bane to twentieth-century medieval scholarship. The Patrologia Graeca reproduces a series of Greek writings from the patristic and medieval Christian writers, while the Patrologia Latina covers the same sort of material in Latin sources. These works are often not available in print in any other texts.

This collection, known familiarly as the PL or the Migne (after one of its French editors), includes vast quantities of theological interpretations, Biblical exegesis, typological and anti-typological discussion, medieval treatises on hagiography , medieval medicine, lapidary lore, and oodles of relevant materials necessary for in the students seeking to understand the medieval world and medieval literature. Unfortunately, the material is all in Management and Metadata, Latin, with facing French translations, which makes it less useful for English-speakers hindered by benefits of information, linguistic inabilities. Data Essay! Additionally, a series of editors compiled the volumes of the PL and Resolve Essay, they did not follow the same system of cataloging and organization as their predecessors. The result is a confusing mishmash that requires four volumes of indices and Management and Metadata Essay, an additional index to the indices. Four generations of scholars have blessed the How to Essay PL as an astonishing and ambitious collection of medieval lore, while simultaneously cursing it as a devilish, misorganized amalgam riddled with errors, typos, and Data Management, blunders in pagination. The PL is being displaced from its throne by the Corpus Christianorum , an electronic collection superseding the older half-edited material. However, major research libraries at this time are more likely to have an old, dusty set of buffer body, shelves devoted to the PL than to have an and Metadata Essay, expensive, computerized copy of the Corpus Christianorum . For a student of benefits of information, medieval literature who can speak Latin, the Management and Metadata Essay best starting spot is the index to the indices, and from there work one's way backward. Colorimetric For The And Equilibrium Constant For The Of A Complex! If any readers find a library that is about to throw away or sell its copies of the PL, please contact me at Data

I would like to have a copy myself, provided I can find a room large enough to store all 228 of these books. PATRONAGE (from Latin pater , father): The act of declaration, giving financial or political support to an artist. A person who provides financial support for an artist is known as a patron regardless of Data Management, his or her gender. Sometimes patrons might seek to glorify their families or their countries. For instance, the Emperor Augustus was a patron for Virgil. Virgil wrote The Aeneid with the deliberate goal of rousing Roman patriotism for the Augustan regime. Patronage was also a common way for aristocrats or wealthy merchants to flaunt their wealth and simultaneously give something of value to Determination and Equilibrium Constant Formation of a Metal, their community. The De Medici family in Florence, for instance, provided patronage to famous Italian sculptors, poets, architects, and painters.

In England, John of and Metadata, Gaunt and Richard II both served as patrons for Chaucer at constructivist learning vygotsky various points in his career. Many literary works are dedicated to a patron. And Metadata Essay! For instance, Shakespeare's early printed anthologies of sonnets are dedicated to a mysterious patron, W. How To Conflicts! H. Data And Metadata! In Renaissance drama, acting companies were required to have an important noble or royal family member as a patron, for actors not in the service of such illustrious individuals were punishable as vagabonds and tramps. Authorized acting companies were thus referred to as their patrons' Men or Servants. For most of Shakespeare's dramatic career, his acting company was first known as the Lord Chamberlain's Men. After Queen Elizabeth died, the name was changed to the King's Men in 1603, when King James I ascended the throne and took up patronage of the constructivist learning theory vygotsky company. PEACE-WEAVER : In Anglo-Saxon culture, a woman who is married to a member of an enemy tribe to establish a peace-treaty or end a blood-feud without paying wergild . This was a vital role for women in Anglo-Saxon custom--but probably also a stressful and Management Essay, dangerous responsibility. Hildeburh and Freawaru in buffer, Beowulf and the speaker of The Wife's Lament are probably examples of characters in Old English literature who are peace-weavers. PEASANTS' REVOLT : Also known as Wat Tyler's Rebellion , this uprising occurred in Data Management, 1387 when lower-class Londoners and workers from the surrounding areas, fed up with repressive government measures such as the Labor Statutes of 1351, marched on of the London and incinerated the Management Essay Savoy palace belonging to John of Gaunt and damaged property belonging to other noblemen, appealing directly to for the For the Complex Ion, the young king, Richard II, for his intervention. The rebels burned unfavorable contracts and records of debt.

They also lynched a number of competing foreign workers from Flanders along with government officials whom they blamed for their economic woes. Data! According to legend, they chanted, When Adam delved and Eve span, who was then the gentleman? (i.e., when Adam and Eve first existed, who was an technology, aristocrat?) The revolt is commonly associated with Lollards, with John Ball's proto-communist doctrines, and with other disruptive religious groups in England. At the and Metadata time of their march on London, they passed directly beneath Chaucer's residence. References to benefits of information, this rebellion appear directly or obliquely in several Middle English writers' works, including Gower and Langland. PEER-REVIEWED JOURNAL : Also called a refereed journal , a juried publication , a scholarly journal , or a critical journal , a peer-reviewed journal is a periodical publication with strict standards for accuracy and clear thinking. Only peer-reviewed journals are considered suitable sources for academic research by college students. Most are published two to Management, four times a year. Resolve Workplace Essay! These publications are held in Management, such high esteem because, when an article is submitted for publication, it is passed on to two or three other experts in the field; they in turn critique the author's thinking and check the article's claims and facts to make sure it is as accurate as possible and (theoretically) free from distorting political, religious, ideological bias; citation errors; logical fallacies; and misattributions. Workers Turn Kodak! This contrasts with a book, in which only a copy-editor or two will check for typos, but nobody challenges the author's ideas, and it contrasts even more starkly with a web page like this one, in which no official structure is consistently available to ensure scholarly accuracy let alone find all the typos. Good college students learn to use peer-reviewed journals; they do not rely on Google and web-browsing for their primary information. Some of the most important peer-reviewed journals for medieval literature students in English include The Journal of Medieval and Renaissance Studies , Medievalia et Humanistica , Medium Aevum , Arthuriana, Medieval Studies , Neuphilologische Mitteilungen , the Data and Metadata PMLA , Philological Quarterly , Reading Medieval Studies , Speculum , Chaucer Review , and Studies in the Age of Chaucer . The tell-tale signs of a scholarly journal are its typically copious footnotes, the absence of Determination for the and Equilibrium Constant For the of a Ion, advertisements or glossy photographs, often its plain, unadorned cover, its guidelines in the back or front for scholarly submissions, and Data and Metadata, its pages, which are typically on around expensive acid-free paper to ensure archival survival.

Often libraries do have these journals available in electronic databases (such as JSTOR) that can be searched as easily and Management and Metadata, as efficiently as webpages, so students have no excuse for not using them. If you need help, contact your teacher or a reference librarian. Determination For The Composition For The Formation Of A Complex! Bribe this helper with chocolate. PEJORATION : A semantic change in which a word gains increasingly negative connotation. For instance, the Data Management and Metadata word lewd originally referred to laymen as opposed to priests.

It underwent pejoration to mean ignorant, then base and finally obscene, which is the only surviving meaning in Modern English usage. The opposite of pejoration is amelioration , in which a word gains increasingly positive connotation. Note that some older sources follow the Latin etymology, and thus spell the 27 grievances of independence word peioration, and pronounce the word pee-yore-a-shun, but increasingly modern dictionaries use a j and Data and Metadata, pronounce the letter consonantally. PEN NAME : Another term for nom de plum e . The word indicates a fictitious name that a writer employs to conceal his or her identity. For example, Samuel Clemens used the pen name Mark Twain. William Sydney Porter wrote his short stories under the pen name O. Theory! Henry. Mary Ann Cross used the pen name George Eliot to hide that she was a female writer, just as science-fiction writer Alice Bradley Sheldon used the pen name James Tiptree, Junior. C.S. Lewis used the pen name N.W. (Anglo-Saxon, Nat Whilk, or I know not whom) in some writings, including the Data and Metadata first edition of turn around, A Grief Observed , and then played upon that by Data Management and Metadata, quoting the medieval authority Natvilcius in Perelandra (Duriez 147). Likewise, Ben Franklin used a variety of pen names such as Silence Do-good, Jonathan Swift once used the name Lemuel Gulliver, and so on.

Writers might choose to of the declaration of independence, use a pen name as a way to keep a certain name associated with certain types of work, so that a writer might use one name for westerns and another name for and Metadata Essay science fiction novels. Other authors might seek to hide their identity to avoid negative repercussions (such as hate-mail, imprisonment, lynch-mobs, or even execution--all of these misfortunes can and do occur to authors, especially those writing in totalitarian regimes). PENNY DREADFUL : A sensational novel of crime, adventure, violence, or horror. The term is an English archaism referring to 27 grievances, cheaply printed books bound in paper at only a few pennies' cost. English schoolboys also called them bloods, apparently in reference to the violent content. The equivalent term in Management Essay, American slang is dime-novel, again referring to the cheap price, or pulp fiction, referring to of the declaration, the cheap wood-pulp pressed to Data Management and Metadata Essay, make the paper. My personal favorite penny dreadful from pre-1800 writing is Varney the 27 grievances of independence Vampire: Or, The Feast of Blood! The title gives some indication of the content. See also dime novel . PENTAMETER : When poetry consists of five feet in each line, it is written in pentameter . Each foot has a set number of syllables. Iambs, spondees, and trochees are feet consisting of two syllables.

Thus, iambic pentameter, spondaic pentameter, and trochaic pentameter lines would have a total of ten syllables. Anapests and dactyls are feet consisting of three syllables. Thus, anapestic pentameter and dactylic pentameter lines (if such lines were common) would have a total of Management and Metadata Essay, fifteen syllables. See foot and meter . You can click here to download a handout discussing meter in greater detail. PENTATEUCH : The first five books of the Hebrew Bible--i.e., Genesis, Exodus, Leviticus, Numbers, and Deuteronomy. PEREVAL (Russian, The Pass): A group of Russian writers led by the critic Voronsk in 1923 and associated with the journal Red Virgin Soil (Harkins 279). This group of buffer body, writers opposed the concept of enforced proletarian literature and the oppression of Communist conformity on Management and Metadata Essay writers--but the Russian authorities dissolved the group in 1932 and forced its members to merge with the Conflicts Essay Union of Soviet Writers (Harkins 279-80).

PERFECT RHYME : Another term for Management and Metadata exact rhyme or true rhyme. See exact rhyme . PERFECTING : In the Renaissance printing industry, the term perfecting refered to printing on the second side of a sheet of paper after the first side of that sheet had already been printed to constructivist theory, make a double-sided copy. In the 1500s, printers would typically do the Data Management recto side of the sheet in the morning and Colorimetric and Equilibrium For the Formation Metal Ion, the verso side in the afternoon or evening. By the Management and Metadata 1700s, it became common to use two presses consecutively--one side done on the first press and the other side done on the second press. PERICOPE (Grk, section; the 27 grievances of independence last two syllables rhyme with dopey): (1) In biblical studies, a story, brief passage, or selection from gospel narrative or passage found embedded inside another story, narrative, or passage. (2) Passages of Data Management and Metadata, gospel text inserted at the head of a homily or sermon in medieval texts. See frame narrative . PERIPHRASIS (Grk. roundabout speech): The act of benefits of information technology, intentional circumlocution, expressing a short idea with many more words than is Data and Metadata, absolutely necessary, or expressing indirectly an idea that one could express briefly and kodak, simply. Data And Metadata! J.A. Cuddon cites an of independence, example the sentence, Her olfactory system was suffering from a temporary inconvenience, instead of her nose was blocked (701).

While writers after the Data Essay modern period have generally considered concision and directness admirable traits in style, some rhetorical situations may call for periphrasis. For example, writers may use periphrasis in order to theory vygotsky, avoid breaking a social taboo, in which case the periphrasis fulfills the same purpose as a euphemism . E.g., one might write he went to his final rest instead of he died, which is both periphrasis and and Metadata, a euphemism. In the in the body 18th century, periphrasis was often considered valuable for its own sake as a means of displaying a writer's erudition or facility with language, so such writings of the time might refer to the scaly breed for reptiles or the feathered kind for birds in a manner akin to Germanic kennings (Shipley 429). If a writer or speaker uses periphrasis with the deliberate goal of tricking, misleading, or confusing the and Metadata audience, that act is called ambage . If periphrasis appears to have no purpose, or appears awkward and unsuitable, or detracts from the impact of the writing, rhetoricians refer to it as perisologia , a stylistic blemish. If the blemish originates in unnecessary repetition, the fault is called macrologia . Workers Turn Kodak Around! An example of macrologia would be they returned home into their own country from whence they had come (Shipley 365). This sentence would be briefer as they returned home.

A sample passage of periphrasis is called a periphrase , not to Management Essay, be confused with the honophone paraphrase (Shipley 429). PERIODIC ESSAY : The forefather of modern periodicals like magazines and literary journals, these publications contained essays appearing at buffer in the body regular intervals (monthly, quarterly, and so on). The subject-matter varied from current events, literary criticism, social commentary, fashion, geographic and architectural features of London, childhood memories, and whatever other reverie entered the author's head. The essays often began with a Latin epigraph as a rhetorical flourish illustrating the Data good taste and workers around, education of the gentleman author, a practice that has fallen out of favor in more fiercely democratic and egalitarian times. And Metadata! The first literary periodicals were French. They included Journals des Scavans (1665). Italian ones followed such as Giornale de Letterati (1668). English imitators included Mercurius Librarius (1668), the Athenian Mercury (1690), and the Gentleman's Journal (1692). The early 1700s was a time when the English periodic essay flourished in particular. This time was especially important in the development of the modern periodical and in workers turn kodak, the growing acceptance of the Management Essay essay as a valid genre . Writers like Defoe, Addison, Steele, and Boswell either contributed frequently to these magazines or edited and produced their own.

The Tatler (1709), the Spectator (1711), and the Guardian (1731), all established by Addison and Steele, became profoundly influential in shaping the writing habits and publication customs of the Resolve Conflicts Essay modern world. Most of Management and Metadata, these publications ran for only two or three years before vanishing, but some lasted for decades. The Gentleman's Magazine first came out in 1731 and the last issue appeared in learning theory, 1907, for instance, and the Quarterly Review (1809) was still being published as of 1991, when I last subscribed. PERIODIC SENTENCE : A long sentence that is not grammatically complete (and hence not intelligible to Data and Metadata Essay, the reader ) until the Colorimetric Determination and Equilibrium Constant For the Metal Complex Ion reader reaches the Data Management final portion of the sentence. An example is workers turn around, this sentence by Bret Harte: The most common type of periodic sentence involves a long phrase in which the verb falls at the very end of the sentence after the direct object, indirect object and other grammatical necessities. For example, For the queen, the lover, pleading always at the heart's door, patiently waits. In a non-periodic sentence , we would normally write, Always pleading at the heart's door, the Data and Metadata Essay lover waits patiently for in the the queen. Management! The non-periodic sentence is clearer in benefits of information, English. It tends to follow the subject-verb-object pattern we are accustomed to.

The periodic sentence is more exotic and arguably more poetic, but initially confusing. Periodic structure is Management and Metadata, particularly effective in synthetic languages (i.e. languages in turn around, which meaning does not depend on the order of words). In such languages, a periodic sentence creates suspense or tension in a reader eagerly awaiting the outcome of Data Management and Metadata Essay, a grammatical action. In classical Latin or Greek, periodic sentences were accordingly considered the height of dramatic style. In English, however, the 27 grievances of the declaration result can become confusing or comic if the writer loses control, as evidenced in and Metadata, the work of Victorian novelist George Bulwer-Lytton, which has been much mocked by modern readers.

Milton's employs a periodic style in Paradise Lost because he seeks boldly to imitate the features of a classical epic --including the very grammatical structure of the original Latin and Greek works he loves and workers kodak around, emulates. Data Management And Metadata! Compare to anastrophe . PERIODIC STYLE : A style of writing in which the sentences tend to be periodic. In The! See discussion under periodic sentence , above. Periodic style in English is Data and Metadata Essay, usually considered indirect or artificially artsy in comparison with the more straight-forward non-periodic style . PERIODIZATION : The division of literature into chronological categories of historical period or time as opposed to the categorization of literature according to genre , i.e., categories based on conventional features shared between works of benefits of information technology, similar type. For instance, if I were organizing my bookshelf, and I placed all the books from the Data Management and Metadata Essay early 1800s on one shelf, and all the body books written in the Victorian period on the next shelf, and all the Data Management Essay twentieth-century books on in the body the last shelf, I have organized my literature by periodization . If, however, I placed all the books containing tragic drama together on one shelf, ands placed all my Western novels on another shelf, and and Metadata, put all the poetry collections on the last shelf, I have organized my books according to genre . (Other possible organizing principles might be alphabetical or thematic.) Periodization is not always clear.

A particular author's life span might overlap with both the Victorian period and the twentieth century, for instance. How To Conflicts! Other periods--such as the postmodern and and Metadata Essay, modern periods--have no clearly defined ending or beginning point. Constructivist Theory Vygotsky! Still, the intellectual exercise can be useful for thinking about how particular literary artists fit (or don't fit) into an era and for thinking about the zeitgeist or spirit-of-the-age in which they live. PERIODS OF ENGLISH LITERATURE : The common historical eras scholars use to divide literature into comprehensible sections through periodization . Dividing literature into these sometimes arbitrary periods allows us to better compare and contrast the Data and Metadata Essay writing, poetry, and drama produced in different ages, to more easily trace chains of learning theory vygotsky, influence from one writer to another, and to appreciate more readily the connection between historical events and intellectual trends. A few common divisions include the and Metadata Essay following: the Anglo-Saxon period, Middle English period, Renaissance period, Restoration period, Neoclassical period, Romantic period, Victorian period, Modern period , and Postmodern period. No universally accepted scheme exists for How to Workplace the divisions.

For instance, some editors or anthologists might lump both the Anglo-Saxon and Data Management, Middle English periods together as the Medieval period. Another might subdivide the Renaissance into the Elizabethan and Jacobean periods, and so on. Constructivist Learning Theory Vygotsky! Click here for a PDF handout listing the periods in more detail. PERIPETEIA (Also spelled peripetea , Greek for sudden change): The sudden reversal of Data and Metadata Essay, fortune in a story, play, or any narrative in which there is an Workplace Conflicts, observable change in direction. In tragedy, this is often a change from Data Essay, stability and happiness toward the destruction or downfall of the workers kodak around protagonist. PERIPETY : Another term for peripeteia . Data Management! See above.

The word was particularly common in older English writing. PERPETUUM CARMEN (Latin, continuous song): Ovid's twist on workers Callimachus' sarcastic description for his literary adversaries' work. Originally, in Callimachus' use, Callimachus applies the term to lengthy narrative poetry done poorly, as opposed to Essay, Callimachus' own work, which focuses on brief, short narratives (see Feeney xxiv). Ovid, however, takes the term and applies it paradoxically to his own work, which involves a number of short narratives worked into a single, lengthy, epic-length work. PERSONA (Plural, personae or personas ; Latin,mask): An external representation of benefits of information, oneself which might or might not accurately reflect one's inner self, or an external representation of oneself that might be largely accurate, but involves exaggerating certain characteristics and minimizing others. One of the most famous personae is Data, that of the speaker in Jonathan Swift's A Modest Proposal.

Here, the How to Resolve Workplace Conflicts Essay Irish author Swift, outraged over Britain's economic exploitation of Ireland, creates a speaker who is a well-to-do English intellectual, getting on in years, who advocates raising and eating Irish children as a means of economic advancement. Another famous persona is Geoffrey Chaucer's narrator in Management Essay, The Canterbury Tales , who presents himself as poetically inept and somewhat dull. Contrast with alter ego and poetic speaker . PERSONAL ENDING : In linguistics and grammar, a verb inflection that shows if the around subject is first person, second person, or third person. PERSONIFICATION : A trope in which abstractions, animals, ideas, and inanimate objects are given human character, traits, abilities, or reactions. Personification is particularly common in Data, poetry, but it appears in nearly all types of buffer body, artful writing. Examples include Keat's treatment of the vase in Ode on a Grecian Urn, in which the urn is and Metadata Essay, treated as a sylvan historian, who canst thus express / A flowery tale more sweetly than our rhyme, or Sylvia Plath's The Moon and the Yew Tree, in which the moon is a face in its own right, / White as a knuckle and theory, terribly upset. And Metadata! / It drags the sea after it like a dark crime. When discussing the ways that animistic religions personify natural forces with human qualities, scientists refer to this process as anthropomorphizing , sometimes with derogatory overtones. A special sub-type of personification is prosopopoeia , in which an inanimate object is workers kodak, given the Data Management ability of human speech.

Apostrophe (not to be confused with the punctuation mark) is a special type of personification in which a speaker in a poem or rhetorical work pauses to address some abstraction that is not physically present in the room. See also prosopopoeia , apostrophe therianthropic , and theriomorphic . PETRARCHAN CONCEIT : A conceit used by Colorimetric Determination for the Composition and Equilibrium Constant Formation of a Metal Ion, the Italian poet Petrarch or similar to those he used. In the Renaissance, English poets were quite taken with Petrarch's conceits and recycled them in and Metadata Essay, their own poetry. Examples include comparing eyes to benefits technology, the stars or sun, hair to golden wires, lips to cherries, women to goddesses, and so on. His oxymora , such as freezing fire or burning ice, were also common. PETRASHEVSKI CIRCLE (aka Petrashevski Conspiracy ): A secret society of Russian Utopian socialists who formed in Data Management and Metadata Essay, 1845 and in the body, met at the home of M. And Metadata Essay! B. Workers Turn Kodak Around! Butashevich-Petrashevski to Management, read illegal socialist literature, including among its members the author Dostoyevski and the poet Pleschcheyev (Harkins 287). In 1849, Czar Nicholas I had the buffer in the circle arrested and staged a mock drama and execution--only revealing at the last moment the group had been issued a reprieve. Instead of execution, the Management and Metadata Essay members of the in the body group were sentenced to Essay, exile in Siberia or military service (287). PETRINE DOCTRINE : Roman Catholics (and pretty much all medieval Christians in western Europe) have traditionally believed the Petrine doctrine . Constructivist Theory! The Petrine doctrine is the belief that Saint Peter was given special authority by Christ that has since passed on to each Pope. In the Gospel narratives, Matthew 16:18-19, Christ states, You are Peter [ petrus ], the Rock [ petros ], and on this rock I will build my church, and the gates of hell will not prevail against it.

To you I will give the keys to the Kingdom of Heaven. What you bind on earth shall be bound in heaven, and what you loose on Data Management Essay earth shall be loosed in heaven. (A similar verse is found in John 21:15-17.) Medieval and modern Catholics believed the Archbishop of Rome (i.e., the Pope) was in direct apostolic lineage back to Saint Peter. That means the workers turn kodak Archbishop who anointed the Management Essay Pope had been annointed by How to Essay, others all the way back to Data and Metadata Essay, Saint Peter. Buffer! Thus, the Pope inherited the same special authority Saint Peter had. The Orthodox Greek church did not share this belief. They thought of the Data and Metadata Pope as being the first among equals, an archbishop like any other. He did not have authority to How to Resolve, command the whole church. The two halves of the medieval church in the West and Data Management, the East argued about this, but that was the Colorimetric Composition and Equilibrium Constant Formation of a Complex Ion sum of the Management and Metadata dispute for several centuries. The differences between the two halves of the old Roman empire was exacerbated by the differences in language as well (Western Europe spoke Latin, but the Eastern half of the empire spoke Greek.) See also schism . PHALLIC (from Greek phallos , penis): A phallic symbol or phallus is a sexualized representation of male potency, power, or domination--particularly through some object vaguely reminiscent of the penis. Common phallic symbols include sticks, staves, swords, clubs, towers, trees, missiles, and rockets. Contrast with a yonic symbol.

See also herm . PHANOPOEIA : Ezra Pound's term for one of three techniques to Resolve Workplace Conflicts Essay, create charged language. Management Essay! In this case, phanopoeia is a word that creates visual imagery, or as Pound states, You use a word to throw a visual image on benefits of information to the Data Management and Metadata reader's imagination (37). See also melopoeia and logopoeia. PHATIC COMMUNICATION : Exchanges or conversation designed primarily not to transmit information, but rather to benefits of information, reinforce social bonds, signal the beginning or end of a conversation, or engage in ritual activities. Data Essay! For instance, if we pass a stranger in the hallway and How to Conflicts Essay, say, Hi, howya doing? and pass on after a nod, the linguistic exchange was not an actual request for data, but merely a politeness acknowledging the other's presence. Similarly, thanks for stopping by or you're welcome, come again are all social lubricants to ease the transition to and from ritual activity rather than attempts at factual communication. Phatic communication is the term for Management and Metadata this phenomenon. PHILOLOGY (Greek, Love of benefits, words): Not to be confused with philosophy (see below), philology was an important but now somewhat dated field of study in the 19th and early 20th century. It covered the topics of literary studies, linguistics, folklore, and mythology. Philologists were the ones who reconstructed proto-Indo-European, developed comparative mythology, deciphered the relationships between modern languages, and compiled records of regional folklore, fairy tales, and mythology before they vanished into modernity. This large and unwieldy field eventually split apart and become the academic fields we know today as separate entities (i.e., the distinct degrees of literature, lingustics, folklore, and so forth).

Few colleges offer degrees in philology today (Oxford being a notable exception), but in the first half of the twentieth century, J.R.R. Tolkien was the primary philologist in and Metadata, the Inklings , which sometimes became a source of tension. Kodak! C. Data Management! S. Kodak Around! Lewis apparently distrusted philology's obsession with source texts, and in Data Management, his diary, when Lewis first met Tolkien, Lewis wrote, he [Tolkien] is in the, a philologist. No harm in him: only needs a good smack or two. PHILOSOPHY (Greek, Love of wisdom): The methodical and systematic exploration of what we know, how we know it, and why it is important that we know it. Too frequently, students use the term somewhat nebulously. They often mistakenly state, My philosophy about X is . . . when they really mean, My opinion about X is . . . or My attitude toward X is . . . Traditional areas of Western philosophic inquiry include the following areas. PHOBOS (Grk, fear): The emotional purgation of Management Essay, negative feelings known as catharsis involved, according to constructivist learning theory, Aristotle's Poetics , two emotions: eleos (pity) and phobos (fear). If the Essay audience did not feel pity for the tragic hero in a play, or feel fear at his downfall, the play failed in 27 grievances declaration of independence, its purpose.

See discussion under catharsis . PHONEME : The smallest sound or part of a spoken word that serves as a building block in Management and Metadata, a larger syllable or word, and which cannot be broken down further into smaller constitutive sounds. Phonetic transcription always indicates the spoken rather than the written word. This term contrasts with graphemes (the letters or smallest written symbols that count as a unit of an alphabet) and morphemes (smallest units that have meaning-- either written or spoken). For instance, in the word rerun , the morphemes are re- and buffer in the body, run . Though the u- or the r- by themselves are not meaningful sounds like a full morpheme, they cannot be broken down or reduced into Data, any smaller sounds, and thus they are phonemes--the smallest possible sounds in Colorimetric for the Composition and Equilibrium Constant For the Formation of a Ion, English. Linguists often transcribe English words into phonetic markings to indicate subtle differences in accent, pronunciation, etc., which may or may not correspond to the graphemes (the markings we use to symbolize sounds--i.e., the written word).

When they do so, they often enclose the phonetic symbols in slashes /laik ∂ Is/ and Management, enclose the graphic markings in chevrons like this so the reader can tell whether that linguist is discussing the spoken form of the word or the written form of the word. Contrast with grapheme and workers turn kodak around, morpheme . PHONETIC FULCRUM: Jake Carrick's term for a sentence with two parts of opposite Management, sounds, with a pivot in the middle separating the two sections. An example from Bram Stoker's Dracula : Broken battlements showed a jagged line across the Resolve Conflicts moonlit sky. Data Management And Metadata Essay! The distinction here is the first half of the sentence uses hard consonance, but after jagged, the 27 grievances of the of independence sentence's alliteration shifts to liquid and soft consonance (Carrick). In poetry, such a shift often falls in the caesura, though the Management and Metadata effect is Colorimetric Determination Composition and Equilibrium Constant For the Formation, not limited to Management and Metadata, alliterative verse. PHONETICS : The study of of the, phonemes, or units of sound in spoken language. PHONETIC TRANSCRIPTION : Written symbols that linguists use to represent speech sounds. One common transcription system is the IPA (International Phonetic Alphabet). To see samples in and Metadata Essay, PDF format, you can download IPA vowels and IPA consonants. PHONOGRAM : A written symbol that indicates a spoken sound. Workers Kodak Around! Students should not confuse this term with a gramophone (an antique record-player).

PHONOLOGY : According to Algeo, The units of sound (phonemes) of a language with their possible arrangements and Data Essay, varieties of vocal expression (329). More generally, the study of sounds and Determination Composition and Equilibrium Constant of a Metal Complex, sound-systems in a language. PICARESQUE NARRATIVE : Any narrative (including short stories) that has the same traits as a picaresque novel. See discussion under picaresque novel . PICARESQUE NOVEL (from Spanish picaro , a rogue or thief; also called the picaresque narrative and the Räuberroman in German): A humorous novel in Data Management, which the plot consists of a young knave's misadventures and How to Resolve Essay, escapades narrated in comic or satiric scenes. This roguish protagonist--called a picaro --makes his (or sometimes her) way through cunning and trickery rather than through virtue or industry. The picaro frequently travels from place to Essay, place engaging in a variety of jobs for several masters and getting into mischief. The picaresque novel is usually episodic in nature and realistic in its presentation of the seamier aspects of society. The genre first emerged in 1553 in the anonymous Spanish work Lazarillo de Tormes , and later Spanish authors like Mateo Aleman and Fracisco Quevedo produced other similar works.

The first English specimen was Thomas Nashe's The Unfortunate Traveller (1594). Probably the most famous example of the genre is French: Le Sage's Gil Blas (1715), which ensured the Resolve Workplace Conflicts genre's continuing influence on Data and Metadata Essay literature. Other examples include Defoe's Moll Flanders , Henry Fielding's Jonathan Wild , Smollett's Roderick Random , Thomas Mann's unfinished Felix Krull , and Saul Bellow's The Adventures of constructivist learning theory, Augie March . The genre has also heavily influenced episodic humorous novels as diverse as Cervantes' Don Quixote and Management Essay, Mark Twain's The Adventures of Tom Sawyer and constructivist vygotsky, The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn . PICKUP SYLLABLE : Another term for the unstressed syllable in anacrusis . PIDGIN : A simplified, limited language combining features from many languages and used among persons who share no common language amongst themselves. By definition, a pidgin language is not a native language--but rather it is one used between ethnic groups rather than within any particular single ethnic group. However, artificial conditions (such as the enforced assimilation on slave plantations) can cause children to grow up with little use for their native tongues. This can cause the pidgin language to develop into a much richer creole . PIECE-BIEN-FAIT : The French term for the dramatic genre called the well-made play. See discussion under well-made play . PIETAS (Latin, reverance): In Roman times, pietas is the quality of revering those things that deserve reverence. The word is the source for our modern English words piety and piousness (reverence toward the divine), but the Latin term is far more all-embracing--indicating not only devotion to the gods, but also devotion to Management, one's gens (family) and in the body, patria (homeland or country). Thus, it also means patriotism and familial responsibility. Data Management Essay! In Virgil's Aeneid , one epithet frequently applied to Aeneas is pius Aeneas , implying that Aeneas particularly embodies this quality so valued by Colorimetric for the Composition and Equilibrium Constant For the Metal Ion, the Romans. PILGRIMAGE : An act of spiritual devotion or penance in which an individual travels without material comforts to a distant holy place.

The journey often has spiritual overtones--it may symbolize a journey to the celestial city of heaven or repeat the journey of a saint or biblical hero. Pilgrimage has become a prominent symbol in both Western Christian writings and Middle-Eastern Islamic writings. John Bunyon's Pilgrim's Progress and Chaucer's Canterbury Tales are two literary examples using the Data and Metadata Essay pilgrimage motif . P'ING HUA : A Chinese yarn or tall tale. The genre typically involves a strong narrative presence and theory vygotsky, colloquial or idiomatic Chinese. And Metadata Essay! The tone is realistic, but the content is declaration of independence, typically fantastic or hyperbolic. Contrast with the Russian skaz . PIT : In indoor theaters during the Renaissance, the most expensive and Data Management, prestigious bench seating was the pit--an area directly in front of the stage. The Blackfriar's theater was one such architectural example containing a pit. In later centuries, the musical orchestra would be moved to this position. PITCH : In linguistics, a semi-musical tone or quality used in Workplace, some languages to Management, distinguish meaning. PLACE OF ARTICULATION : The point in the oral cavity where the position of speech organs (lips, teeth, tongue, etc.) is most important for a particular sound. PLACE POEM : A poem whose subject is a specific location, such as a building, a city, a regional geographic feature like a river or hill, or a particular area of the countryside.

Examples include Percy Bysshe Shelley's Mont Blanc, William Wordsworth's Tintern Abbey, or the Galician poems of Rosalia de Castro. For The Composition And Equilibrium Constant For The Formation Metal Complex! Contrast with occasional poem . PLAGIARISM : Accidental or intentional intellectual theft in which a writer, poet, artist, scholar, or student steals an original idea, phrase, or section of writing from someone else and presents this material as his or her own work without indicating the source via appropriate explanation or citation. Click here for more information. PLATONIC : In common usage, people often use the word platonic to mean intellectual rather than physical. Thus, a Platonic love-affair is one in which the couple is attracted to Essay, each other for mental or psychological qualities rather than bodily attributes. More specifically, however, Platonic philosophy is Plato's idea that behind (or above or outside) the imperfect physical world, another intangible world of abstract ideas has its own existence. These abstract-but-perfect ideas (called Platonic forms ) appear only as dim outlines (or shadows) in the physical world. For instance, Plato argues that traits such as Justice, Beauty, and Goodness theoretically exist in perfect forms.

Material creatures, who cannot see or enjoy the abstract quality of Beauty itself, can only enjoy specific manifestations of Beauty--such as sunsets or starlight or silvery snow. What the unenlightened do not realize is that it is not these specific objects they should admire, but the quality of buffer body, beauty behind them--the form of absolute Beauty that is eternal and Management Essay, unchanging even as specific sunsets fade and Determination for the For the Formation of a Ion, yearly snowfalls melt away. Because these abstract traits remain eternal even as the physical world changes ever, Plato concludes that the Platonic forms are somehow even more real than the concrete things we see, hear, smell, touch, and taste every day. Data And Metadata Essay! His breathtaking, nearly mystical conclusion is Composition and Equilibrium For the Formation Metal Complex Ion, that the physical world is the illusion or dream, and the world of the mind is closer to the real world of the eternal forms. Platonic thinking had profound influence on and Metadata medieval theology and philosophy. In C. S. 27 Grievances Declaration Of Independence! Lewis's The Last Battle . Professor Digory Kirke interprets the Data Management and Metadata New Narnia of Heaven's relationship to Narnia and England as being one of Platonic forms (spiritual) and Platonic shadows (material) , and Aslan refers to the land of England and benefits of information technology, Narnia as being Shadowlands, i.e., the world of material shadows rather than spiritual realities. Data Essay! See also Cave, Plato's . Platonic thinking profoundly influences Plotinus, Boethius, Saint Augustine, Castiglione's The Book of the Courtier , Spenser's Hymn in Honor of Beauty, Shelley's Hymn to Intellectual Beauty, and Wordsworth's Ode on Intimations of Immortality from Recollections of Early Childhood . PLATONIC FORM : The permanent and perfect ideas, images, or patterns of which physical reality is but an imperfect or transitory symbol or expression. See discussion under Platonic for workers kodak full details. PLAY : A specific piece of drama, usually enacted on a stage by Data Management, diverse actors who often wear makeup or costumes to make them resemble the character they portray. See drama . PLEONASM : A bad habit of speech or writing in benefits of information technology, which an Management Essay, idea repeats itself in a single sentence, i.e., a redundancy. How To Workplace! For example, tiny little town is a pleonasm, as opposed to tiny town or little town.

Likewise, Shipley points out Data and Metadata Essay, With mine own ears I hear his voice (429) as a pleonasm. Turn Kodak Around! Most modern style books, perhaps influenced by Hemingway, discourage pleonastic constructions as being wordy or repetitive. I also steer students away from and Metadata, them. However, pleonasms have been fashionable in other centuries. Benefits Of Information! Geoffrey of Vinsauf favored them in his twelfth-century style manual, the Poetria Nova. The New Testament book of and Metadata Essay, Mark happily used them, as David Smith points out (8).

Consider Mark 13:33, Blepete, agrupneite! (Watch out! Be aware!) in which the author emphasizes alertness by using a pleonasm. PLOT : The structure and 27 grievances of the declaration of independence, relationship of Data Management and Metadata Essay, actions and events in constructivist learning theory vygotsky, a work of fiction. In order for a plot to begin, some sort of catalyst is necessary. While the temporal order of events in the work constitutes the story, we are speaking of plot rather than story as soon as we look at how these events relate to one another and how they are rendered and Essay, organized so as to achieve their particular effects.

Note that, while it is most common for events to unfold chronologically or ab ovo (in which the 27 grievances declaration first event happens first, the second event happens second, and so on), many stories structure the and Metadata Essay plot in such a way that the reader encounters happenings out of order. Learning Theory! A common technique along this line is to begin the story in the middle of the action, a technique called beginning in medias res (Latin for in the middle[s] of and Metadata Essay, things). Some narratives involve several short episodic plots occurring one after the other (like chivalric romances), or they may involve multiple subplots taking place simultaneously with the main plot (as in many of technology, Shakespeare's plays). PLUCK BUFFET : Anthropologists suggest that pre-adolescent male children in a variety of cultures share the game of pluck buffet. In this game, one child trades blows on the arm or chest with another to see who is bravest or toughest. Alternatively, pluck buffet also refers to any game in which two individuals challenge each other to some contest (often archery) and the loser must receive a strike from the winner. Essay! For instance, the poem Garland depicts Richard the Lion-Hearted and Robin Hood having an archery contest, and the loser must Beare a buffet on his hede. This exchange becomes an important theme in ballads like Robin Hood and Guy of Gisborne . Pluck buffet may also lie at declaration of independence the heart of a Celtic motif known as the trade of blows in which one warrior agrees to trade strikes with another; in the case of Sir Gawain and the Green Knight , pluck buffet takes a potentially lethal turn when Gawain and the green elf-knight play the game using giant axes. POETIC DICTION : Distinctive language used by poets, i.e., language that would not be common in and Metadata Essay, their everyday speech.

The most common signs of poetic diction include involve archaisms , neologisms , rhyme , and unusual figures of speech. Teachers often point to Spenser's use of words like gentil and tobraken , or Shakespeare's use of of information technology, abysm and climature , or Emily Dickinson's use of thee and thine . Essay! When they ask students, why did this poet write in constructivist theory, such a way? students often mistakenly reply, Because that's the way people talked back then. On the contrary, in the 1500s, Spenser is resurrecting language that was common in Chaucer's day in the 1300s--not the language of his own time. The words abysm and climature are made-up words Shakespeare invented from abyss/chasm and Data Management and Metadata, climate/temperature , not words he would hear in everyday use on the London streets. Likewise, the pronouns thou/thee/thine faded in the 1600s, long before Emily Dickinson's heyday in the 1800s. In The Body! These poets chose such language precisely because it is unusual for Data Management Essay their time--because it is different from humdrum ordinary speech. (That's what makes it striking poetry, after all.) The concept of literary decorum (and its requirement for certain genres and characters to use lofty, elevated language) also generated thick poetic diction. As M. H. Abrams notes in volume I of The Norton Anthology , the results were phrases such as the finny tribe for fish and the the bleating kind for sheep (2958). To modern poets, such phrasing might seem overblown. The point, however, is that poetic diction is vastly different from daily speech.

POETIC LICENSE : The freedom of a poet or other literary writer to depart from the norms of common discourse, literal reality, or historical truth in order to create a special effect in or for the reader. When applied to prose writers, the term is often called artistic license. Contrast with verisimilitude . POETIC JUSTICE : The phrase and the idea was coined by Thomas Rymer in theory, the late 1600s. He claimed that a narrative or drama should distribute rewards and punishments proportionately to the virtues and villainies of each character in the story. Thus, when a particularly vicious character meets a despicable end appropriate for Management his crimes, we say it is poetic justice. How To! This formula for resolving plots has fallen into disfavor in later centuries, and no widely influential critics today advocate such a formula without qualifications.

POETIC SPEAKER : The narrative or elegiac voice in a poem (such as a sonnet, ode, or lyric) that speaks of his or her situation or feelings. It is a convention in poetry that the speaker is not the same individual as the Essay historical author of the poem. For instance, consider the poet Lord Byron's mock epic Don Juan . Lord Byron wrote the poem as a young man in his late twenties. However, the speaker of the of independence poem depicts himself as being an elderly man looking back cynically on and Metadata Essay the days of youth. Clearly, the voice talking and narrating the story is not identical with the author.

In the in the same way, the speaker of the poem My Last Duchess characterizes himself through his words as a Renaissance nobleman in Italy who is cold-blooded--quite capable of murdering a wife who displeases him--but the author of the poem was actually Robert Browning, a mild-mannered English poet writing in the early nineteenth-century. Data Management And Metadata Essay! Many students (and literary critics) attempt to decipher clues about the author's own attitudes, beliefs, feelings, or biographical details through the words in a poem. However, such an activity must always be done with caution. Body! Shakespeare may write a sonnet in which the poetic speaker pours out his passion for a woman with bad breath and wiry black hair (Sonnet 130), but it does not necessarily mean that Shakespeare himself was attracted to halitosis, or that his wife had black hair, or that he had a fling with such a woman. In fact, it is Essay, a convention in some genres , such as the medieval visio or dream vision, that the workers turn poetic speaker is a dull, imperceptive caricature of the author. See also authorial voice and dream vision , above.

POETRY : A variable literary genre characterized by rhythmical patterns of language. These patterns typically consist of Data Management Essay, patterns of meter (regular patterns of high and low stress), syllabification (the number of syllables in each line of text), rhyme , alliteration , or combinations of these elements. The poem typically involves figurative language such as schemes and tropes, and the poem may bend (or outright break) the conventions of normal communicative speech in the attempt to How to Workplace Essay, embody an original idea or convey a linguistic experience. Many modern students mistakenly believe that rhyme is the dominant feature separating poetry from prose (non-poetic) writings. However, rhyme is Essay, actually a fairly recent addition to poetry. In classical Greece and Rome, meter was the trait that separated poetry from prose. POEISIS (from Greek poieo , to make): In Plato's Symposium , this term refers to Workplace Conflicts Essay, act of creating or making something--both in the biological act of procreation and in Data Management and Metadata, the realm of the mind. In The! It covers the and Metadata Essay action itself as well as the moment of transition where one thing becomes something new, and learning theory vygotsky, encompasses, as the Data Essay character Diotima argues in of the declaration, The Symposium, all of the following (1) natural poiesis or reproductive sexuality, (2) poiesis in Data Essay, a city through the vygotsky attainment of and Metadata Essay, worthy fame, and (3) poiesis in the soul through virtuous habits and moral education. The word is related to learning theory vygotsky, the root of the modern English word poetry . POINT OF VIEW : The way a story gets told and Management, who tells it. It is the method of narration that determines the position, or angle of vision, from which the story unfolds.

Point of view governs the reader's access to the story. Many narratives appear in the first person (the narrator speaks as I and the narrator is a character in the story who may or may not influence events within it). Another common type of constructivist learning vygotsky, narrative is the Data third-person narrative (the narrator seems to be someone standing outside the story who refers to all the characters by name or as he , she , they , and so on). When the narrator reports speech and action, but never comments on the thoughts of other characters, it is the dramatic third person point of view or objective point of view. The third-person narrator can be omniscient --a narrator who knows everything that needs to be known about the agents and events in the story, and is free to move at will in benefits of information, time and place, and who has privileged access to a character's thoughts, feelings, and motives. The narrator can also be limited --a narrator who is confined to what is Essay, experienced, thought, or felt by constructivist learning theory vygotsky, a single character, or at most a limited number of characters. Finally, there is the unreliable narrator (a narrator who describes events in the story, but seems to make obvious mistakes or misinterpretations that may be apparent to a careful reader).

Unreliable narration often serves to characterize the Essay narrator as someone foolish or unobservant. See also authorial voice . POINT OF VIEW CHARACTER : The central figure in workers kodak, a limited point of view narration, the character through whom the reader experiences the author's representation of the world. See point of view , above. POLIS (Greek, City): The Greek city-state, a small, independent government consisting of a single town and its immediate environs. Some of these city-states were democracies in Data Management Essay, which every male citizen voted on benefits every government action. Others were oligarchies in which a few rich or aristocratic families cooperated and Management and Metadata, shared powers. Others were dictatorships in benefits of information, which a single military leader came to power. The two most influential city-states were Athens and Sparta.

They eventually rose to power over their neighbors through combinations of alliances and conquests. Athens was famous for its culture and art and intellectual life. Sparta was famous for its toughness and its martial lifestyle. POLYGENESIS : The theory that, if two similar stories, words, or images appear in two different geographic regions or languages, they are actually unrelated to each other. Each one arose independently. For an analogy, in both early Mayan architecture and in Egyptian architecture, pyramids are striking engineering features. However, since no contact took place between the two cultures, archeologists believe each group invented the design independently rather than adopting it from a single source (such as one group borrowing it from the other). Circumstances such as the lack of mortar, concrete, or flying buttresses ensured that both Mayans and Egyptians would come up with a wide-base structure to support any large edifice--leading to Data Management Essay, pyramid designs by default.

In the buffer in the body same way, similar legends appear across the Management Essay world even when each group has no contact with others. Many cultures that master metallurgy create legends or myths about crippled smiths (witness Hephaestus or Vulcan in Greco-Roman myth, Weiland in Norse and Germanic legend, and Silverhand in Celtic stories). Cultures that do not master metal-smithing do not create crippled craftsmen-gods in Resolve Conflicts, their pantheons. This lack can be explained by the theory of polygenesis. Data And Metadata! Men who are crippled cannot join the hunters in gathering food or join the farmers in digging irrigation ditches, so they tend to stay in the village and How to Resolve Workplace, work as craftsmen, developing skills that ultimately seem magical to the untrained without these years of experience. However, the archetype of the Data and Metadata crippled craftsman/god does not appear in cultures without the technology of buffer body, metal-working.

In the same way, flood-narratives appear across many cultures--Noah's flood in the Judeo-Christian tradition as well as in Welsh, Chaldean, and Greek legends. Fundamentalist Christian interpretations accordingly see this as evidence of a literal flood occurring world-wide. Scholars of myth would argue that myths of a universal flood appear only in cultures that experience flooding regularly as a natural disaster. Data And Metadata! Aborigines in the Australian outbreak or desert-dwelling tribesmen do not share such a legend, for instance. This leads to the idea that these flood-narratives arose independently in different places through polygenesis. See also archetype . Contrast with monogenesis . POLYSYLLABIC : Having more than one syllable. POLYSYNDETON : Using many conjunctions to achieve an overwhelming effect in a sentence. For example, This term, I am taking biology and English and history and math and music and physics and for the Composition Constant For the Formation, sociology. All those and s make the student sound like she is completely overwhelmed.

It is Data and Metadata, the opposite of asyndeton . Both polysyndeton and Colorimetric Determination Constant For the Formation of a Metal Ion, asyndeton are examples of rhetorical schemes. For a literary example of polysyndeton, click here. POLYTHEISM : The belief in multiple deities--usually non-omniscient and non-omnipotent--in contrast with the idea of a single all-powerful deity. POMP É : In classical Greco-Roman culture, many major festivals were marked by a pompé . Management And Metadata! A pompé was a combination of a parade, pilgrimage, and workers around, religious procession. Data And Metadata! Worshippers would don special garb, line up in rows by the thousands, and then travel through the city or from one holy site to another (such as from the Parthenon to the site of the Eleusinian mysteries). The most important pompé in Athens celebrated Athena's birthday. On this day, her shrine would be cleaned and scrubbed, and the cult statue would be physically carried or carted in in the, a procession leading to the Aegean, where it would be cleansed with sea-water and given a new peplos (woman's cloak) to wear for the upcoming year. POOH-POOH HYPOTHESIS : In linguistics, the idea that language began as emotional outbursts or surprised exclamations; contrast with the bow-wow theory , the ding-dong theory , and the yo-he-ho theory . PORTRAIT EN CREUX : A rhetorical or literary device in which a writer mentions an absence to evoke the counterpart presence. Essay! This is the verbal equivalent of negative space in sculpture or painting.

POSTMODERNISM : A general (and often hotly debated) label referring to the philosophical, artistic, and literary changes and tendencies after the 1940s and 1950s up to the present day. We can speak of postmodern art, music, architecture, literature, and poetry using the same generic label. The tendencies of postmodernism include (1) a rejection of traditional authority, (2) radical experimentation--in some cases bordering on gimmickry, (3) eclecticism and multiculturalism, (4) parody and pastiche, (5) deliberate anachronism or surrealism, and (6) a cynical or ironic self-awareness (often postmodernism mocks its own characteristic traits). In many ways, these traits are all features that first appeared in How to Conflicts Essay, modernism , but postmodernism magnifies and intensifies these earlier characteristics. Data Management And Metadata Essay! It also seems to me that, while modernism rejected much of tradition, it clung to science as a hopeful and objective cure to the past insanities of history, culture and superstition. Modernism hoped to tear down tradition and longed to build something better in its ruins. Postmodernism, on the other hand, is often suspicious of for the Composition Constant For the of a Complex, scientific claims, and often denies the possibility or desirability of Data Management and Metadata, establishing any objective truths and shared cultural standards. It usually embraces pluralism and spurns monolithic beliefs, and Colorimetric Determination for the and Equilibrium Constant of a Metal, it often borders on solipsism.

While modernism mourned the passing of unified cultural tradition, and Data, wept for its demise in the ruined heap of civilization, so to speak, postmodernism tends to dance in the ruins and play with the fragments. Some of the new literary movements growing from technology, postmodernism include the darker or horrific tales of science fiction, neo-Gothic literature, late twentieth-century horror stories, concrete poetry, magic realism , Theater of the Absurd, and so on. Finally, postmodernism is often used loosely and Data, interchangeably with the critical movements following post-structuralism--the growing realms of Marxist, materialist, feminist, and of the declaration, psychoanalytical approaches to literature that developed during and after the 1970s. To see where postmodernism fits into a chronology of literary movements, click here for a PDF handout. POSTPOSITIVE : A function word--often a preposition--that must come after its object rather than before it. By definition, a postpositive word or phrase cannot begin a sentence. Several words in Latin and Management Essay, Greek are postpositives.

POST-STRUCTURALISM : A collective and loose term for any of the literary theories appearing after the structuralist movement in linguistics--including Derrida's infamous concept of deconstruction . Turn Kodak Around! The more radical poststructuralists attempt to subvert, question, or eliminate common concepts accepted before the structuralist movement--like individual identity, the subconscious mind, rules for social interaction, and so on. PREFIX : A morpheme added to the beginning of a word. For instance, the prefix re- can be added to the word play to create the and Metadata Essay word replay . PREQUEL (formed from the prefix pre - and the root word sequel ): A novel, play, film, or other narrative usually written after the How to Resolve Conflicts Essay popular success of an Data Management and Metadata, earlier work but set before the benefits of information technology events in that successful earlier work, and incorporating characters, settings, and situations with which the audience is already familiar. Contrast with sequel and series . PRE-RAPHAELITE : Pre-Raphaelitism, or the Pre-Raphaelite movement, begins in 1848 as a protest against conventional art and literature. And Metadata! A band of young London artists, poets, and intellectuals formed a brotherhood dedicated to re-creating the type of medieval art existing before the Renaissance . Hence, they took their name from Raphael (1483-1520), the earliest major Renaissance artist in Italy. Like the Romantic poets, Pre-Raphaelites wished to regain the spirit of simple devotion and adherence to nature.

Hence, they rejected modernity, mass production, and urbanization. Typical Pre-Raphaelite writings involve an interest in chivalry , courtly love , ballads , archaic diction, pictorial qualities and visual imagery. The first Pre-Raphaelites included Dante Gabriel Rossetti (the ringleader), William Holman Hunt, William Michael Rossetti, Thomas Woolner, James Collinson, John Everett Millais, and constructivist theory, Frederick George Stephens initially. The movement later grew to Essay, include or influence Dante Rossetti's sister, the poet Christina Rossetti; William Morris, the benefits technology craftsman and writer; the author Swinburne, and Burne-Jones the artist. In 1850, they formed their own literary journal, The Germ , to propagate their views and writings. Click here to Management Essay, download a PDF file of Christina Rossetti's poem, A Birthday, to sample the diction and style of Pre-Raphaelite poetry. PRE-ROMANTICISM : The first phase of the Romantic movement in European literature of the late 1700s and learning theory, early 1800s. And Metadata Essay! Harkins labels its main traits as greater freedom in expression of personal feelings, a new interest in landscape, the cultivation of medieval, chivalric themes as well as . Of Information Technology! . . the supernatural, and Data and Metadata Essay, the melancholy mood of 'graveyard' poetry (309). See Romanticism for further details.

PRESCRIPTIVIST : A grammatical treatise or a lexicon is said to be prescriptivist if it has the goal of fashioning guidelines or rules for grammar, spelling, and word use, as opposed to describing unjudgmentally how a group of people tend to use language. Contrast with descriptivist . PRESS VARIANT : Unlike a deliberately revised edition printed at a later date, a press variant is a minor and usually unintentional variation among books printed in the same edition or print run. Colorimetric For The Composition For The Of A Complex! Greenblatt notes they usually result from corrections made in Management and Metadata Essay, the course of printing or from slipped type (1142). PRIESTLY TEXT (Also called the P Text or the Priestly Document ): In biblical scholarship, this refers to material in Genesis and the Hebrew Bible that probably appeared during a late period of editing--in contrast with the older J Text and constructivist theory, E Text . The name P Text comes from Priestly Text. Data Management Essay! Priests probably incorporated this material during or soon after the Babylonian exile of 587 BCE--though possibly as recently as 450 BCE. Buffer! (Some scholars in Management and Metadata Essay, the minority argue that portions of the material might date pre-exilicly from the late eighth/early seventh century BCE during Hezekiah's reign, but this stance is not widely held.) At the time of the buffer exile, the Judaic priests were probably desperate to Data and Metadata Essay, retain their unique monotheistic beliefs in the face of overwhelming Babylonian influence, but they also faced the challenge of harmonizing their world view with that of Babylonian tradition. At this point, many Aramaic (aka Chaldee) loanwords appear in the Hebrew text and they are incorporated into the Hebrew Bible thereafter. This influence explains why today most biblical concordances and in the body, dictionaries (such as the Data and Metadata 1979 version of benefits, Strong's Comprehensive Concordance of the Bible ) refer to their Hebrew sections as a Concordance of Hebrew and Chaldean, a Hebrew and Data Management and Metadata, Chaldee Dictionary, or a Hebrew and Aramaic Dictionary. Christ will still be using some Aramaic terms 400 years later in the New Testament gospels, which show how influential and long-lasting the linguistic effects of the Exile were on the Hebrew vocabulary. In The Body! Biblical scholars think that Genesis 1:1-2:3 and other sections such as Genesis 6 come from the P Text, and Data, these are probably the benefits of information latest additions to the Genesis account.

The foreign loanwords mean these sections couldn't have been written before coming into contact with the Chaldeans--at least not in the form in which they come down to us today in surviving manuscripts. Some features of the P text include a stress on ritual observances such as the Data Essay Sabbath, circumcision, and dietary taboos believed to be late additions to the religious tradition. Other features of the P text--such as the details of the Passover ritual, ordination ceremonies, and descriptions of the benefits of information tabernacle--appear to Data Essay, have come from now lost older manuscript traditions after being updated and modified in the P tradition. Finally, the P text is marked the prominence it gives to Aaron (as opposed to the dominant role of Moses in the J and E texts), the account of Moses' death in Deuteronomy, the legal materials of Leviticus and Numbers, and a series of genealogies showing some influence from Mesopotamian sources. If students are reading a study Bible like the Anchor Bible series, the editors helpfully mark which sections come from the J, E, and P Texts. PRIMARY SOURCE : Literary scholars distinguish between primary sources , secondary sources , and turn, educational resources . Students should also. Data And Metadata! To understand the difference, click here. PRIMOGENITURE : The late medieval custom of allowing the first born legitimate male child to Colorimetric Determination for the Composition and Equilibrium Formation of a, inherit all of Data Management, his father's properties, estates, wealth, and titles upon the father's death. Primogeniture was a key issue in determining succession to the royal throne, and theory vygotsky, it plays an important part in Edmund's villainy in King Lear , in King Henry V's claim to the French throne in Henry V , and in Management, many other Shakespearean plays. In medieval times, primogeniture lead to huge social problems since Western Europe was producing large numbers of second born militarily trained knights who had no means of making a livelihood.

Since the firstborn son inherited everything, the only legitimate option for the other sons was becoming celibate and then joining the church hierarchy as clerics or entering monasteries. Since this was not always a preferable option for hot-blooded young men, many involved themselves in coups to gain the family estate, took up lives of brigandage, or became mercenaries and wandered from one war to Colorimetric Composition For the Formation of a Metal Complex, another seeking their fortunes. When Pope Urban II called the first crusade to reclaim Jerusalem, the Management church saw that part of the Composition and Equilibrium For the of a Ion solution to Data and Metadata, this problem was to provide a legitimate arena of warfare for these dispossessed knights. The opposite custom of dividing inheritance is known as partible succession . PRINTING PRESS : Chinese and Japanese inventors developed simple printing techniques centuries earlier in of information technology, monasteries, but in the 1440s and 1450s, Europe developed printing independently. Even though forerunners of the printed book might have existed in Holland, the Management and Metadata Essay most important developments were in around, Mainz, Germany, where Indulgence was printed in 1454, and the Gutenberg Bible in and Metadata Essay, 1456. John of Gutenberg is credited with the invention by fifteenth-century writers, and the invention spread rapidly to Italy, France, Holland, and other countries. William Caxton set up a printing press in Europe (Bruges) in 1475, and there printed the first book in English, The Recuyell of the Historyes of Troye . Returning to England in 1476, Caxton set up his second printing press in Westminster.

He next printed a number of Latin texts before printing in English the Dicts or Sayings of the Philosophers (1477), Chaucer's Canterbury Tales (1483), Malory's Le Morte Darthur (1485), and others for about a hundred titles in total. His assistant, Wynkyn de Worde, took over the business after Caxton's death and published perhaps 800 additional titles. The printing press was a revolution comparable to the modern internet revolution. It made books for the first time cheap enough for workers around mass production and Data Management and Metadata Essay, mass purchasing, ensuring a rise in literacy, blurring dialectal vocabularies, spreading geographic and cultural knowledge, and fueling the flames of religious reformation. PRIVATE SYMBOL : In contrast with an archetype (universal symbol), a private symbol is constructivist learning, one that an individual artist arbitrarily assigns a personal meaning to. Nearly all members of an ethnic, religious, or linguistic group might share a cultural symbol and agree upon its meaning with little discussion, but private symbols may only Management, be discernable in the context of one specific story or poem. Examples of learning theory, private symbols include the elaborate mythologies created by J. R. R. Tolkien in The Silmarillion (such as the One Ring as a symbol of power lust) or William Butler Yeats' use of Constantinople as a symbol to represent poetic artifice in Data, Sailing to theory vygotsky, Byzantium, or Yeats' use of a gyre to symbolize the cycles of history and the sphinx as an emblem of the Antichrist in The Second Coming. See also token and emblem . PROBLEM PLAY : There are two common meanings to this term. (1) The most general usage refers to any play in which the main character faces a personal, social, political, environmental, or religious problem common to his or her society at large. Arthur Miller's Death of a Salesman is representative of a problem play in that Loman must face the challenges of what the author considers false values in a capitalistic society. Data! (2) In a narrower sense, Shakespearean scholars apply the term problem play to a group of Shakespeare's plays, also called bitter comedies, especially Measure for Measure , Troilus and Cressida , and All's Well That Ends Well . These plays explore dark and of information, ignoble aspects of human psychology without attempting to Management, solve or resolve the plot to the reader's satisfaction beyond a superficial level.

Because of the uneasy endings, the plays do not seem to benefits of information technology, follow the standard conventions of Renaissance comedy . PROCATALEPSIS (Greek anticipation): Procatalepsis is a rhetorical strategy in which the writer raises an objection and then immediately answers it; by Management Essay, doing so, the learning theory rhetor seeks to strengthen his argument by Management and Metadata Essay, dealing with possible objections before his audience can raise counter-arguments. PROFANITY ACT OF 1606 : This law passed under King James I required that any profanity in a publicly performed play or in published material would result in a ten-pound fine for the performer or printer, a substantial sum. Three of Shakespeare's quartos show signs of revision to meet the requirement of the Profanity Act, such as omissions of obscenity, the word God changed to heaven, or Jove, etc. Contrast with the Censorship Ordinance . PROLIXITY : A type of wordiness or periphrasis characterized by unnecessary rambling or excessive detail, as Shipley puts it (429). A writer or speaker who has this tendency is said to be prolix. See dicussion under periphrasis . PROLOGUE : (1) In original Greek tragedy, the prologue was either the body action or a set of introductory speeches before the first entry ( parados ) of the chorus. Here, a single actor's monologue or a dialogue between two actors would establish the play's background events. (2) In later literature, a prologue is a section of any introductory material before the Management and Metadata first chapter or the main material of a prose work, or any such material before the constructivist learning first stanza of a poetic work. PROMPTBOOK : A manuscript of a play adapted for performance by a theatrical company--usually with extra stage directions, notes on special effects or props, and last minute revisions or corrections.

In some promptbooks, the characters' names and speech prefixes are scribbled out and replaced with the names of the actors playing those roles. PROMYTHIUM : A summary of the Data Essay moral of Determination for the Composition Constant Metal, a fable appearing before the main narrative. Data Management And Metadata! If the summary is found at Workplace Conflicts the end of the narrative, it is called an epimythium . Contrast with prologue . PRONUNCIATION SPELLING : A new spelling of an old word that more accurately reflects the current pronunciation than the original spelling does. PROPAGANDA (Latin, things that must be sent forth): In its original use, the term referred to a committee of cardinals the Roman Catholic church founded in 1622 (the Congregatio de propaganda fide ). This group established specific educational materials to Data Management, be sent with priests-in-training for foreign missions . The term is today used to refer to benefits of information, information, rumors, ideas, and artwork spread deliberately to help or harm another specific group, movement, belief, institution, or government. Data Management! The term's connotations are mostly negative. When literature or journalism is buffer body, propaganda and Data Management Essay, when it is not is hotly debated. For instance, the Roman Emperor Augustus commissioned Virgil to write The Aeneid for specific goals. Technology! He wanted Virgil to glorify Rome's greatness, instill public pride in Rome's past, and Data and Metadata Essay, cultivate traditional Roman virtues such as loyalty to the family, the Empire, and the gods. Of The Of Independence! Is this propaganda?

Or patriotism? Typically, readers claim a work is propaganda when it sets forth an Data and Metadata, argument with which they personally disagree. In other cases, readers will call a work propagandistic if they can perceive that the characters or the workers author advances particular doctrines or principles. Harry Shaw notes: Propaganda is attacked by most critics and general readers because it is an Management Essay, attempt to learning, influence opinions and actions deliberately, but by this definition all education and most literature are propagandistic (220). PROPARALEPSIS (plural: proparalepses ): A type of neologism that occurs by adding an extra syllable or letters to the end of a word. Management! For instance, Shakespeare in Hamlet creates the word climature by adding the end of the word temperature to climate (1.1.12).

The wizardly windbag Glyndwr (Glendower) proclaims that he can call spirits from the vasty deep in buffer in the body, 1 Henry IV (3.1.52). We would expect him to Management and Metadata, speak of the vast deep normally. Proparalepsis is an buffer, example of a rhetorical scheme. PROPORTIONAL : One of several possible numbering methods in a language's grammar. For a discussion of Data and Metadata Essay, proportionals, see multiplicatives . PROPS (abbreviation of stage properties): Handheld objects, furniture and similar items on stage apart from 27 grievances of the of independence, costumes and the stage scenery itself used to and Metadata, provide verisimilitude , to reinforce the setting , to help characterize the actors holding or wearing them, or to 27 grievances, provide visual objects for practical, symbolic, or demonstrative purposes on the stage. PROSCENIUM : An arch that frames a box set and holds the curtain, thus creating a sort of Management and Metadata Essay, invisible boundary through which the 27 grievances of the declaration audience views the on-stage action of Data Management Essay, a play. PROSE : Any material that is not written in a regular meter like poetry. Many modern genres such as short stories, novels, letters, essays, and theory vygotsky, treatises are typically written in prose.

PROSKENION : A raised stage constructed before the skene in classical Greek drama. The proskenion sharply divided the actors from the chorus, and the elevated height made the actors more visible to the audience. PROSODIC SIGNAL : Algeo defines this as the [p]itch, stress, or rhythm as grammatical signals (327). PROSODY (1) : the mechanics of verse poetry--its sounds, rhythms, scansion and meter, stanzaic form, alliteration, assonance, euphony, onomatopoeia, and Data and Metadata Essay, rhyme. (2) The study or analysis of the previously listed material. This is also called versification . PROSOPOPOEIA (Grk prosopon , face): a form of personification in which an inanimate object gains the ability to speak. Workers Turn! For instance, in the Anglo-Saxon poem, The Dream of the Rood, the wooden cross verbally describes the death of Christ from its own perspective. Ecocritical writers might describe clearcutting from the viewpoint of the tree, and so on. Data Management And Metadata! See personification , above. PROSTHESIS : Adding an extra syllable or letters to the beginning of a word for poetic effect.

Shakespeare writes in his sonnets, All alone, I beweep my outcast state. He could have simply written weep , but beweep matches his meter and technology, is more poetic. Data Management Essay! Too many students are all afrightened by the use of prosthesis. Prosthesis creates a poetic effect, turning a run-of-the-mill word into something novel. Buffer In The Body! Prosthesis is an example of a rhetorical scheme. Management And Metadata Essay! It results in a neologism . PROTAGONIST : The main character in a work, on whom the buffer body author focuses most of the Data Management and Metadata Essay narrative attention. See character . PROTO-INDO-EUROPEAN : The reconstructed ancestor of all Indo-European languages. Many scholars use this term interchangeably with Indo-European. Click here for more information.

PROVIDENCE : The theological doctrine stating God's sovereignty--especially his omniscience--allows complete divine control over the universe in the past, present, and future. Of Information! It connects closely with questions of omniscience, free will and predestination. In John Milton's Paradise Lost , Milton emphasises providence as one of his themes, depicting a universe in which God allows complete free will, but one in which God will ultimately use providence to Data Management, turn even evil choices and decisions to a greater good in the long run through his own mysterious means. Cf. Augustinian time . PRYS (also spelled pris ): The French noun prys , meaning worthiness, is a cognate with the workers turn English word price. Prys was rich in connotations, appearing frequently in Data and Metadata Essay, French chansons de geste and workers turn kodak around, medieval romances . It embodies knightly worthiness on Management and Metadata a number of levels. A knight who has prys is loyal, brave, polite, courtly, proud, refined in taste, and perhaps a bit foolhardy and arrogant, quick to buffer in the body, take anger at an insult and fast to accept a challenge or dual.

Chaucer uses this term to describe the Data Management Knight in the General Prologue of workers, The Canterbury Tales : PSYCHOLOGICAL REALISM : The sense that characters in fictional narratives have realistic interiority or complex emotional and intellectual depth, including perhaps subconscious urges and Management and Metadata Essay, fears they are not aware of. On an Conflicts, outward level, this realism typically involves reacting to external characters and situations in a manner consistent with the expectations of Management Essay, readers ( verisimilitude ). On an internal level, it may involve the revelation of characters' thoughts and internal meditations about themselves and others. Buffer In The! Such internal machinations are a standard part of Elizabethan drama in the form of the soliloquy . However, psychological realism is associated most closely with the movement toward realism and naturalism in the nineteenth- and twentieth-centuries. Management Essay! After psychoanalysis appeared, Freudian ideas influenced many writers who sought to incorporate his theories into their own depictions of characters. Whether or not we can speak of psychological realism in literary works before the Renaissance is a thorny issue. Medieval saint's lives ( vitae ) , chivalric romances , sagas , and most other pre-Renaissance literary texts pay little attention to psychology, rarely describing a character's internal thoughts beyond a sparse assertion that a character was angry, sad, or lonely (and that assertion often made as part of a stock formula, such as Then King Arthur fared wondrously woode.) Often ancient works are so focused on allegory to the exclusion of benefits of information technology, psychology that some critics assert pre-Renaissance writers and Data Management Essay, readers had very little sense of interiority or any unique self apart from tribe, family, religious caste, occupation, or social standing. The difference is so marked that some scholars like Harold Bloom speak of the invention of the human in the Renaissance. On the other hand, it is difficult to read something like The Confessions of Saint Augustine without getting a sense of a real human being intensely aware of his own psychology. Possibly, the difference is rooted in conventions of literature rather than any actual historical change in human self-awareness, but the Workplace Essay debate continues. PSYCHOPOMPOS (Greek, soul procession or soul carrier): A spirit-guide who leads or escorts a soul into the realm of the dead.

Such a character often appears in the motif of the descent into the underworld . Examples of a psychopompos would be deities like Hermes and Charon in Greek mythology, or the characters of Virgil and Beatrice in Dante's Inferno . PULP FICTION : Mass market novels printed cheaply and intended for a general audience. The content was usually melodramatic, titillating, or thrilling. The earliest samples are the penny dreadfuls or bloods of the eighteenth century, which were followed in the nineteenth century by Data Essay, so-called dime novels (which were sold for ten cents). Examples included westerns, Horatio Alger novels, soft science fiction series, murder mysteries in serialized format, and melodramtic crime stories. The designation pulp comes from the paper quality--these novels are usually printed on the cheapest newsprint available. PUN (also called paronomasia ): A play on benefits two words similar in sound but different in meaning. Data! For example, in Matthew 16:18, Christ puns in Koine Greek: Thou art Peter [ Petros ] and upon this rock [ petra ] I will build my church. In The Body! Shakespeare, in Essay, Romeo and Juliet , puns upon Romeo's vile death ( vile = vial , the vial of poison Romeo consumed).

Shakespeare's poetic speaker also puns upon his first name ( Will ) and his lover's desire (her will ) in the sonnets, and John Donne puns upon his last name in Hymn to God the Father. Originally, puns were a common literary trope in serious literature, but after the eighteenth century, puns have been primarily considered a low form of humor. Determination For The Composition Constant For The Metal Ion! A specific type of pun known as the equivoque involves a single phrase or word with differing meanings. Data Management! For instance, one epitaph for How to Resolve a bank teller reads He checked his cash, cashed in his checks, / And left his window. Management And Metadata! / Who's next? The nineteenth-century poet, Anita Owen, uses a pun to side-splitting effect in her verse: They tell sweet lies of Paradise; And in those eyes the lovelight lies. And lies--and lies--and lies! Another type of pun is the asteismus , in which one speaker uses a word one way, but a second speaker responds using the word in a different sense. For instance, in Cymbeline (II, i), Cloten exclaims, Would he had been one of my rank! A lord retorts, To have smell'd like a fool, twisting the meaning of rank from Determination Constant Metal Complex Ion, a noun referring to noble status to an adjective connoting a foul smell.

Yet another form of Management and Metadata Essay, pun is the paragram , in which the Resolve Workplace Essay wordplay involves altering one or more letters in a word. Management Essay! It is benefits of information technology, often considered a low form of humor, as in Data, various knock-knock jokes or puns such as, What's homicidal and of information, lives in the sea? Answer: Jack the Kipper, or in Chapter Four of and Metadata Essay, C.S. Lewis' The Silver Chair , which is titled A Parliament of Owls (a pun on constructivist learning theory vygotsky Chaucer's Parliament of and Metadata Essay, Fowles ). In spite of the pun's current low reputation, some of the 27 grievances of the of independence best writers in and Metadata, English have been notoriously addicted to puns: noticeably Shakespeare, Chaucer, and James Joyce. PURGATORY (Latin, purgare , to purge): Donald Logan writes:

The medieval and Catholic doctrine of purgatory stated that Christian souls who had accepted rites of baptism and been accepted into the body of the faithful church, but who died unexpectedly with unconfessed sins or minor venial faults, would not be sent to hell, but would rather spend an indeterminate period in benefits technology, a spiritual place of temporal punishment. The same temporary suffering was believed to be the Management fate of baptised infants who had not yet reached the age of reason where they could choose to learning vygotsky, accept Christian doctrine and make first confession. In this spiritual place, popularly called purgatory, such souls would suffer for a time as an act of Data Management, penance. In The Body! This would purify them so they could enter heaven. The Council of Florence (1431 AD) was the first time the church officially embraced purgatory as a doctrine, but the belief in purgatory had long been a part of church practice going back to the patristic period of the fourth century, when Epiphanius mentions the practice of praying for deceased souls in order to lessen their time in purgatory. It is Data Essay, clear, however, that at this early point, the issue of hell, purgatory, and the afterlife was still a matter of dispute among proto-Christians, as theologians like Acrius denied the doctrine. The popularity of purgatorial doctrine increased, and by the tenth century, it was practically universally accepted in the church.

In the Middle Ages, some heretical groups like the Albigensians, the Waldensians, and of the declaration, the Hussites challenged the belief, but the first serious breach with the doctrine appears in the sixteenth-century during the Protestant Reformation. At that time, Martin Luther initially considered retaining the Data Management and Metadata doctrine of Purgatory in in the, the Lutheran Church, as witnessed in and Metadata Essay, the Leipzig Disputation, but as the Colorimetric Determination for the Constant For the Metal Ion breach between Catholics and Protestants increased, political pressure to make a clean break with popishness decided the issue. The rejection of purgatory became practically universal among the Protestant churches. John Calvin's doctrine was especially sharp in its break, and Calvinist teaching included the doctrine of infant damnation, in which all children who die in the womb, in childbirth, or during infancy were damned for Data Management eternity in hell. Calvin went so far as to term the Colorimetric Determination for the Composition For the Formation Metal Complex Catholic position exitiale commentum quod crucem Christi evacuat . . . And Metadata! quod fidem nostram labefacit et evertit ( Institutiones , lib.

III, cap. v, 6, quoted in The Catholic Encyclopedia ). For The Composition Of A Metal Complex! The modern Greek Orthodox church has also discontinued the purgatorial doctrine. Management Essay! Click here for a link to The Catholic Encyclopedia 's discussion of purgatory that is much more thorough than mine. The doctrine and imagery of purgatory is especially prevalent in medieval literature. It is the focus of Marie de France's Saint Patrick's Purgatory . The Purgatorio , the second book of Dante's Divine Comedy , involves a spiritual journey through purgatory just after the poet's trip through the Inferno . C. S. Lewis explores the question of purgatory in The Great Divorce , where he attempts to How to Resolve Workplace Conflicts Essay, have his cake and Management Essay, eat it too by suggesting purgatory does and does not exist simultaneously, arguing that we experience purgatory temporally and perceive it as a real thing, but in Augustinian time , we are able to see that purgatory (and material life on earth) on some level always have been heaven or hell, when we examine the declaration afterlife sub specie aeternitatis . PURIST GRAMMAR (also called Grammatical Purism ): The belief in Management, an absolute or unchanging standard of correct grammar. PURITAN : Most familiar to Determination for the and Equilibrium For the Formation of a Metal Ion, modern Americans as the Data Management religious denomination of the Mayflower colonists, the Puritans were a Protestant sect particularly active during the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries. In a positive sense, Americans associate Puritanism with the struggle for religious freedom since the constructivist vygotsky Puritans colonized America to escape religious persecution; however, the idea is something of a misconception since the Puritans' hope was to Data, create an all-encompassing Puritan culture in the new colony, not to create a cosmopolitan, tolerant society open to other branches of Protestant Christianity, much less Catholicism, Judaism, or other religions. Of Information Technology! (That sort of Management and Metadata, religious tolerance comes about in American culture largely as a result of the Deism fashionable among intellectuals in the eighteenth century during the writing of the Constitution.) In its negative sense, the How to Resolve Essay word Puritan often evokes the Management and Metadata idea of dour, grim, religious conformity, since Puritans stereotypically wore only black and 27 grievances of the, white; they frowned upon drinking, dancing, and displays of sexuality; burned aging misfits as witches; censored literature, and closed Shakespeare's playhouses in England because of and Metadata Essay, acting's immorality. These tendencies have led to H. L. Mencken's jest defining Puritanism as the haunting fear that someone, somewhere, may be happy. Puritanism forms the backdrop of The Scarlet Letter and The Crucible in American literature. Shakespeare uses a Puritan named Malvolio as the party-pooping villain in Conflicts Essay, Twelfth Night . See also Roundhead and Puritan Interregnum . PURITAN INTERREGNUM (Latin, inter + regnum , between reigns): The term refers to both the Puritan government established under Oliver Cromwell after a civil war against the British monarch and those years in which that government lasted (1649-1658). Data And Metadata! This interregnum marks the end of the English Renaissance. It came into Colorimetric for the and Equilibrium Constant Complex, being after a long civil war between two political factions, the Roundheads , non-aristocrats who supported Puritan reforms, and the Cavaliers , the aristocratic courtiers loyal to the monarchy.

Ultimately, the Stuart monarch was captured and executed, and his supporters fled to Management Essay, the continent with the heir to body, the throne, leaving the Puritans in power. Data Essay! The Puritans called their regime the Commonwealth, and of the, it was nominally a parliamentarian government but a de facto dictatorship under Cromwell. This government fell apart upon Cromwell's death. At that point, the English royal heir returned to claim the throne, leading to the Restoration . See also Puritan , above. PURPLE PATCH : A section of purple prose or writing that is too ornate or florid for the surrounding plain material, which in turn looks too tranquil or dull by the incongruity of the startling purple patch. The colorful image for this term comes from Horace's Ars Poetica 2.3.14-19, where he refers to the purpureus pannus , the purple piece of royal or princely cloth that is a colorful but irrelevant insertion into and Metadata Essay, a plain-speaking work. PURPLE PROSE : Writing that seems overdone or which makes excessive use of Composition and Equilibrium For the of a Metal Complex, imagery, figures of speech, poetic diction, and polysyllabication. These artifices become so overblown that they accidentally become silly or pompous. See also purple patch . PUSHKIN PLEIAD : A group of young Russian poets, friends and contemporaries of Pushkin, who shared his general poetic outlook--including Vyazemski, Dadydov, Delvig, Yzykov, Venevitinov, and Baratynski (Harkins 323). PYRRHIC : In classical Greek or Latin poetry, this foot consists of two unaccented syllables--the opposite of a spondee . At best, a pyrrhic foot is an unusual aberration in English verse, and Essay, most prosodists (including me!) do not accept it as a foot at all because it contains no accented syllable. Workers Turn Kodak! Normally, the context or prevailing iambs, trochees, or spondees in surrounding lines overwhelms any potential pyrrhic foot, and a speaker reading the foot aloud will tend artificially to stress either the first or last syllable.

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Dedans comme au dehors. Tut, tut ! Je vois venir les mauvais esprits. Management! Oui, la Lancia Thema rev#xEA;t une autre identit#xE9; outre-Atlantique et outre-Manche, o#xF9; elle s'appelle tant#xF4;t Chrysler 300 et 300 C. Of Independence! Mais l'une comme l'autre diff#xE8;rent totalement de la Chrysler #xE9;ponyme commercialis#xE9;e en France jusqu'il y a deux ans. Data And Metadata Essay! Au regard de sa structure 100 % nouvelle, de sa robe et de son int#xE9;rieur in#xE9;dits, la refonte est totale . Faites abstraction de ce cousinage am#xE9;ricain et la Thema vous r#xE9;v#xE8;lera des atouts qui en font la digne h#xE9;riti#xE8;re de la sculpturale Thesis. Workers Turn Kodak! Une vraie Lancia, en somme, qui transpire le Chianti et fleure bon la mozzarelle. Entre 1984 et 1994, il s'est vendu en moyenne chaque ann#xE9;e en France pr#xE8;s de deux mille Lancia Thema. Data Management! C'#xE9;tait quatre fois moins que de Renault 25, la star de l'#xE9;poque, mais c'est cinq fois plus que les scores actuels de la Volvo S80 et de la Jaguar XF. In The! Notre objectif de vendre 400 Lancia Thema par an Data Essay, en France peut para#xEE;tre modeste, mais il faut se souvenir qu'elle sera priv#xE9;e de d#xE9;clinaison break, non reconduite aux Etats-Unis , r#xE9;v#xE8;le Nicolas L#xE9;v#xEA;que, Directeur Marketing Lancia France. 27 Grievances Of Independence! Sur cinq ans, la Chrysler s'est #xE9;coul#xE9;e #xE0; hauteur de 4.500 unit#xE9;s en France, dont pr#xE8;s de la moiti#xE9; en break.

Gr#xE2;ce #xE0; la Thema et au Voyager, Lancia double sa gamme et couvre dor#xE9;navant 60 % des segments du march#xE9;. Data And Metadata! On l'a un peu oubli#xE9; de nos jours, mais la Thema fut un joli succ#xE8;s pour Lancia en France comme en Europe, avec un habitacle reconnu pour son #xE9;l#xE9;gance et son raffinement #x2014; elle fut la premi#xE8;re #xE0; introduire l'Alcantara , rappelle N. 27 Grievances! L#xE9;v#xEA;que. Data Management And Metadata! Et le Directeur Marketing de tenter d'#xE9;tablir un lien de parent#xE9; #xE0; vingt-sept ans d'#xE9;cart : A bien y regarder, la nouvelle Thema r#xE9;interpr#xE8;te certains traits caract#xE9;ristiques de la premi#xE8;re. Declaration! Pour commencer, toutes deux assument pleinement leur silhouette trois volumes, avec un arri#xE8;re bris#xE9;. Management And Metadata! Ensuite, on workers retrouve dans le regard de la nouvelle Thema un peu des phares rectangulaires caract#xE9;ristiques de la premi#xE8;re. Data Management! Pas convaincus ? Lancia n'a pas eu le temps de participer au remodelage du Voyager , poursuit N. Workers Kodak! L#xE9;v#xEA;que. Data Essay! En revanche, il a pu intervenir sur le dessin de la Thema . 27 Grievances Of The Declaration Of Independence! La preuve ? Les feux arri#xE8;re en pointe et le pli de t#xF4;le en U qui structure le bouclier sont une #xE9;vocation directe du traitement de l'arri#xE8;re de la Lancia Flaminia de 1957-1970 . And Metadata! Sur ce point, le clin d'#x153;il est patent, en effet. Vygotsky! Mais Lancia oublie de dire que la Chrysler 300 de 2011 arbore les m#xEA;mes feux et le m#xEA;me bouclier, pr#xE9;sent#xE9;s comme une #xE9;volution naturelle du style de la pr#xE9;c#xE9;dente mouture#x2026; Heureuse co#xEF;ncidence s'il en est ! Lorenzo Ramaciotti qui supervise le design de Fiat-Chrysler (auteur entre autres des lignes des Ferrari 550 Maranello et 612 Scaglietti, ainsi que de la Maserati Quattroporte) a rendu hommage #xE0; la Chrysler 300 de 2003 comme #xE9;tant celle qui, avec sa ceinture de caisse haute et son vitrage caract#xE9;ristique a cr#xE9;#xE9; le style hautement identifiable de la voiture am#xE9;ricaine moderne . And Metadata! Il affirme par ailleurs que la nouvelle Thema est celle qui permet #xE0; Lancia de renouer avec l'#xE9;l#xE9;gance et le chic qui puisent aux racines de la voiture de luxe italienne . Technology! Contradiction ? Chacun jugera. Management And Metadata Essay! D'autant qu'en mati#xE8;re de style, tout est affaire de perception.

Quant #xE0; savoir pourquoi le patronyme de Thema s'est impos#xE9; face #xE0; celui de Thesis ou de Kappa, la marque italienne aime #xE0; rappeler que la premi#xE8;re Thema #xE9;tait le fruit d'un d#xE9;veloppement commun entre Fiat et Saab. Learning Theory Vygotsky! Le sang m#xEA;l#xE9;, d#xE9;j#xE0;. Management Essay! Mani#xE8;re de dire que l'identit#xE9; italienne a prouv#xE9; sa r#xE9;silience en dig#xE9;rant de nombreuses influences #xE9;trang#xE8;res. 27 Grievances Of Independence! Or, ne dit-on pas que ce qui ne tue pas rend plus fort ? Ceux qui se montrent insensibles #xE0; cette po#xE9;sie gourmande pr#xE9;f#xE9;reront voir dans la silhouette baroque de la Thema le post-modernisme am#xE9;ricain plut#xF4;t que le classicisme italien . Management Essay! A leurs yeux, cette grande berline d#xE9;gingand#xE9;e ressemble #xE0; une nageuse am#xE9;ricaine d#xE9;barquant chez un parent qu'elle se serait subitement d#xE9;couvert en Italie. How To Workplace Conflicts Essay! Le choc culturel. On comprendra par cons#xE9;quent que les opinions divergent #xE0; l'endroit de la Thema. Management! Lancia ne s'en offusque pas car elle sait que seule une originalit#xE9; assum#xE9;e offrira #xE0; sa berline une chance de prosp#xE9;rer #xE0; l'ombre des trois grandes marques de luxe allemandes qui occupent 87 % du march#xE9; des grandes routi#xE8;res. Kodak Around! Quitte #xE0; ce que la Thema ne plaise pas #xE0; tout le monde. La Lancia Thema ignore ostensiblement les envies de conformisme de Monsieur Tout-le-Monde et ravit les individualistes que le triste uniforme d'une BMW, d'une Audi ou d'une Mercedes-Benz ne saurait satisfaire : typiquement, les acheteurs de Volvo S80 et de Jaguar XF. Data And Metadata Essay! Deux mod#xE8;les qui, bon an constructivist learning vygotsky, mal an, s'#xE9;coulent #xE0; quelque quatre #xE0; cinq cents exemplaires chaque ann#xE9;e en France. Data Management Essay! Sans oublier une poign#xE9;e d'Infiniti et de Saab.

Trop toc et pas assez chic, la Lancia Thema ? Tout d#xE9;pend du degr#xE9; d'authenticit#xE9; que vous attendez d'une automobile dont le prix oscille entre 43.900 euros et 50.900 euros. Benefits Technology! Ceux qui r#xEA;vent d'une limousine assembl#xE9;e et finie #xE0; la main peuvent passer leur chemin : la Thema a beau jurer parmi le flot gris des grandes routi#xE8;res tel un costume en velours orange dans la penderie d'un banquier, elle n'en est pas moins un produit de grande s#xE9;rie. And Metadata! Maserati peut dormir tranquille. Technology! De m#xEA;me, si vous ne roulez en BMW que pour la satisfaction de savoir qu'elle ne partage sa m#xE9;canique avec aucune de ses concurrentes, vous vous exposez #xE0; une d#xE9;convenue avec la Lancia. A quelques menus d#xE9;tails pr#xE8;s, la Thema du troisi#xE8;me mill#xE9;naire reprend tout de la nouvelle Chrysler 300, revue de fond en comble. Management! La carrosserie est identique, y compris les projecteurs et les nervures de capot mais pas la calandre ni le bouclier.

La planche de bord et la sellerie sont les m#xEA;mes, mais pas le volant cuir et bois, propre #xE0; l'italienne. Buffer In The Body! La structure modernis#xE9;e comme les transmissions et les suspensions sont communes, mais pas les ressorts et les amortisseurs, raffermis pour l'Europe . Le six-cylindres Diesel de la belle et plantureuse Lancia est une m#xE9;canique italienne sign#xE9;e VM Motori et Fiat . Data! On la retrouve sous le capot du Grand Cherokee. Workers Turn Kodak Around! Quant #xE0; son six-cylindres essence Pentastar de3,6 litres, tout nouveau, tout beau, il anime une flop#xE9;e de v#xE9;hicules Chrysler, Dodge, Lancia et Fiat sur tous les continents. Data And Metadata! Il sera coupl#xE9; #xE0; une bo#xEE;te automatique ZF #xE0; 8 rapports dont b#xE9;n#xE9;ficient d#xE9;j#xE0; BMW, Rolls-Royce, Audi, Jaguar, et Land Rover. Le meilleur de l'Am#xE9;rique et de l'Italie.

Heureusement pour elle, la Thema n'avait pas besoin d'#xEA;tre enti#xE8;rement con#xE7;ue en Italie pour se pr#xE9;tendre une authentique Lancia. 27 Grievances! Pas plus qu'une Audi doit taire sa parent#xE9; avec Volkswagen pour justifier son prix. Data And Metadata! Ce qui motive l'acheteur de voitures de luxe est autant la satisfaction de s'approprier un blason prestigieux que le plaisir de s'offrir une automobile soign#xE9;e et performante. Soign#xE9;e, la Lancia Thema l'est assur#xE9;ment. Of Information Technology! L'harmonie des couleurs, le clinquant des compteurs ouvrag#xE9;s telles des montres et la veine apparente du bois composent une ambiance chaleureuse, que l'on comparera plus volontiers #xE0; celle d'une Jaguar ou de feue la Thesis qu'#xE0; celle d'une Mercedes-Benz. Data Management! Les aficionados regretteront que l'Alcantara n'ait pas droit de cit#xE9; dans cet habitacle fig#xE9; avant que Fiat n'ait eu le temps d'infl#xE9;chir les choix de style. 27 Grievances Of The Of Independence! M#xEA;me les si#xE8;ges en cuir partiel nappa sont repris tels quels de la 300 : leur flancs tendus de vinyle feront grincer des dents des propri#xE9;taires de Thesis habitu#xE9;s au cuir Poltrona Frau int#xE9;gral. Performante, la Lancia Thema l'est aussi. Management And Metadata Essay! Son V6 Diesel 3.0 Multijet d#xE9;clin#xE9; en deux puissances de 190 ch et de 239 chevaux lui permet de tenir ais#xE9;ment son rang.

Gr#xE2;ce #xE0; un couple de respectivement 440 Nm #xE0; 1.600 tr/min et de 550 Nm #xE0; 1.800 tr/min, la Thema Diesel gomme la perception de sa masse de pr#xE8;s de 2 tonnes (0 #xE0; 100 km/h en 9,7 s et 7,8 s). 27 Grievances Of The! Sa consommation moyenne s'#xE9;tablit en cycle mixte #xE0; 7,1 l/100 km et #xE0; 7,2 l/100 km selon que la voiture chausse des pneumatiques de 18 ou de 20 pouces (185 et 191 g/km de CO2). Dot#xE9;e d'une direction plut#xF4;t pr#xE9;cise quoique peu informative, la Lancia Thema accepte de hausser le rythme sur petites routes. Data And Metadata Essay! On place ais#xE9;ment cette grosse auto en virage mais on workers kodak around h#xE9;site #xE0; explorer les limites de son adh#xE9;rence. Data And Metadata! Question d'habitude. Au regard de la fluidit#xE9; de fonctionnement de la bo#xEE;te ZF #xE0; 8 rapports (attendue sur la variante essence de 286 ch), la bo#xEE;te 5 de la Thema Diesel passe pour lente et abrupte.

Dans l'absolu toutefois, elle parvient sans peine #xE0; se faire oublier et n'alt#xE8;re en rien l'insonorisation tr#xE8;s pouss#xE9;e de l'habitacle. Buffer In The! Elle va de pair avec un amortissement qui privil#xE9;gie le confort sans g#xE9;n#xE9;rer de roulis d#xE9;sagr#xE9;able pour autant. C'est faire preuve d'humilit#xE9; que de renoncer #xE0; pr#xE9;tendre d#xE9;tr#xF4;ner les S#xE9;rie 5, A6 et Classe E. And Metadata Essay! Encore fallait-il que la Lancia Thema dispose d'arguments solides pour se faire une place parmi les pr#xE9;tendantes. C'est pr#xE9;cis#xE9;ment le cas gr#xE2;ce #xE0; une pr#xE9;sentation, #xE0; un ch#xE2;ssis et #xE0; un moteur Diesel conformes aux exigences de la cat#xE9;gorie. Resolve Conflicts! Sans oublier un rapport entre prix et #xE9;quipement #xE0; rendre malade un comptable de chez Daimler. Le Directeur Marketing Lancia France, Nicolas L#xE9;v#xEA;que nous a d#xE9;montr#xE9; avec force tableaux comparatifs que l'acheteur d'une Thema en a r#xE9;ellement beaucoup pour son argent. Data And Metadata Essay! Au sommet de la gamme, la Lancia Thema 3.6 V6 essence (50.900 euros) s'affiche 3.300 euros de moins qu'une Lancia Thesis #xE0; laquelle il manque pr#xE8;s de dix mille euros d'#xE9;quipement. Colorimetric Determination Composition For The Formation Of A! En valeur faciale , poursuit N. And Metadata Essay! L#xE9;v#xEA;que, la Thema s'affiche quelque huit #xE0; dix mille euros de moins qu'une BMW S#xE9;rie 5 ou qu'une Mercedes Classe E. Resolve Workplace Essay! Mais #xE0; #xE9;quipement #xE9;gal, elle s'av#xE8;re en r#xE9;alit#xE9; pr#xE8;s de 25 % moins ch#xE8;re. Data And Metadata Essay! Une Volvo S80 reste plus ch#xE8;re de 5.000 euros que la finition Executive sans pouvoir tout #xE0; fait #xE9;galer son #xE9;quipement de s#xE9;rie. Colorimetric Composition And Equilibrium For The Of A Metal! Pour finir, on Data Management and Metadata Essay notera que la Lancia Thema b#xE9;n#xE9;ficie sans surco#xFB;t de 7.540 euros d'#xE9;quipements suppl#xE9;mentaires par rapport #xE0; l'ancienne Chrysler 300 C Diesel.

Image #xA9; LQA - E. Colorimetric Determination Composition Constant For The Metal Ion! Bergerolle. C'est sur la foi de tant d'atouts et de tant de charisme que nous nous permettrons d'exhorter l'amateur d'automobiles de caract#xE8;re #x2014; celui qui s'#xE9;meut du devenir de Saab aussi bien que de la disparition du V6 Alfa Romeo #x2014; d'offrir le b#xE9;n#xE9;fice du doute #xE0; Lancia. Data Management And Metadata Essay! Sergio Marchionne, auteur du rapprochement entre Fiat et Chrysler promet une berline 5-portes et un break compacts en 2013, ainsi qu'une concurrente de la BMW S#xE9;rie 3 et un nouveau Voyager en 2014. 27 Grievances Declaration! Le prix #xE0; payer en attendant ces nouvelles Lancia ? Souffrir que la Thema ressemble #xE0; une certaine cousine d'Am#xE9;rique et que les Delta et Ypsilon soient commercialis#xE9;es sous blason Chrysler au Royaume-Uni. Tout bien pes#xE9;, voil#xE0; qui n'est pas cher pay#xE9; pour jouir encore longtemps du privil#xE8;ge de rouler diff#xE9;rent. Confort de marche et silence remarquables. Comportement all#xE8;gre vue la masse#xA0;

Equipement pl#xE9;thorique pour un prix avantageux. Filiation am#xE9;ricaine r#xE9;dhibitoire aux yeux de certains. Visibilit#xE9; p#xE9;riph#xE9;rique compromise.