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Nov 18, 2017 Buffer in the body,
book report journal Why do book reports strike terror in buffer in the body, the hearts of most students? Simply, writing a book report is not easy. A book report challenges students to think and write critically about what theyíve read. In the early elementary grades, extra support is given, often with book report worksheets that prompt students to write about a favorite character and cybil movie other book details. But as children progress through upper elementary, middle, and high school, they are expected to write book reports independently. At Time4Writing, we work with students on an individual basis to develop their writing skills through online writing courses.
We hope this roadmap helps your child navigate writing a school book report with a minimum amount of in the terror! How to Who Are Language Learner Students? Essay Write a Book Report. Before you write, read. In The Body? Thereís no substitute for reading the school com, book. Choose a book youíll enjoyóreading should be fun, not a chore! Read with a pen and buffer body paper at your side. Jotting down page numbers and Who Are English Language Students? notes about buffer in the significant passages will be very useful when it comes time to replay company write. Buffer? Remember, unless your book is a personal copy, donít write in the book itself. Use a Book Report Outline. After reading the replay company, book, you are ready to in the start the lying on couch, writing process. Buffer Body? When writing a book report, or when answering any writing prompt, you#8217;ll find writing easier if you follow the proven steps of the writing process: prewriting, writing, revising, editing, and publishing.
In the English Language Students?, first step, prewriting, youíll plan what you want to in the body say. Lying On Couch? An outline is in the a great prewriting tool for book reports. Cybil Movie? Start your book report outline with the in the, following five ideas. Each idea should correspond to a paragraph: 2. Summary of Book. Replay Company? 3. Book Details: Characters.
4. Book Details: Plot. 5. Evaluation and Conclusion. In organizing your thoughts, jot down a few ideas for buffer in the body each of these paragraphs. Of The Light Theme? Reminder: Every grade level (and teacher) has different requirements for book report content. Buffer In The? Review your teacherís instructions before you create your book report outline. Cybil Movie? Most book reports begin with the basic information about the buffer in the body, book: the bookís title, author, genre, and publication information (publisher, number of pages, and year published).
The opening paragraph is also your opportunity to build interest by mentioning any unusual facts or circumstances about the writing of the book or noteworthy credentials of the ethnocentrism culture, author. Was the book a bestseller? Is the buffer in the, author a well-known authority on the subject? Book reports are personal, too, so itís perfectly acceptable to state why you chose to read it. In the body of the replay company, book reportóparagraphs two, three, and buffer fouróyouíll describe what the book is system in india about. In The? This is your chance to cybil movie show youíve read and in the body understood the book.
Assuming youíve read a fiction book, below are helpful writing tips: Summary: Start this paragraph by Who Are English Learner Students? writing an overview of the in the body, story, including its setting, time period, main characters, and plot. Specify who tells the story (point of system in india view) and buffer in the body the tone or atmosphere of the cybil movie, book. Is it a creepy tale of buffer body suspense or a lighthearted adventure? Character Details: In this paragraph, describe the of the light theme, main characters and buffer in the body identify the replay company, major conflict or problem the buffer, main characters are trying to solve. You can also write another paragraph about the other characters in the book. Plot Details: In writing about the cybil movie, plot, you donít need to tell every detail of the buffer, story.
Instead, focus on the main sequence of events. You can discuss plot highlights, from the rising action to the bookís climax and Who Are English Language Essay conflict resolution. Make sure you mention the authorís use of in the any literary devices youíve been studying in class. Book Reports on the caste Non-fiction. Buffer Body? If you are writing a book report on of the theme a biography or other factual text, youíll want to devote the body of your book report to a description of the buffer body, bookís subject and the authorís points of view. Use the essays com, chapter headings to buffer body help you present the authorís ideas and arguments in an orderly manner. As with a fictional plot, you donít have to cover every argument made by the author. School Com? Instead, choose the main ideas and the ones most interesting to in the body you. Replay Company? If you read a biography, write about buffer body some of the important events in the personís life. School? Personal Evaluation and body Conclusion.
Youíll like writing the cybil movie, final paragraph because it is here that youíll be able to offer your own critique of the book. What are the body, bookís strengths and cybil movie weaknesses? Did the buffer in the body, book hold your interest? What did you learn from the lying on couch, book? If you read a work of buffer fiction, how did the book affect you?
If you read non-fiction, were you swayed by the authorís arguments? Try to be balanced in your opinions, and support your statements with examples from the system, book. Give your honest opinion of the buffer, book and whether or not you would recommend it to others. Revising, Editing, and Publishing. After youíve drafted your book report, youíre ready to follow the next three steps of the Who Are English Language Students?, writing process: revising, editing, and publishing. Begin revising by in the body reading your book report aloud or to a friend for feedback. As you edit, check your grammar and use of the lying on couch, correct guidelines for book quotes and buffer writing the book title. Give enough time to Who Are English Students? revising and buffer body editing, and your published book report will be that much better. Book Reports: A Type of woodrow points summary Expository Essay. A book report is usually written as an expository essay, although it can be written in buffer, other forms. In some cases, a teacher will ask students to replay company take a point of view when writing a book report.
Here is an buffer in the example: ďExplain why Hoot by Carl Hiiassen is the best American kidís novel of the last decade. Please use examples.Ē This type of writing prompt requires a persuasive style of lying on couch writing. Teachers may also assign book reviews, which challenge students to persuade their classmates to in the body read or not read a particular book. If writing a book review, donít reveal the cybil movie, ending! Rely on Your Writing Training to Write Book Reports. Buffer Body? Time4Writing#8217;s online writing classes and one-to-one, teacher-led instruction help in building studentsí writing skills. Woodrow Wilson Fourteen Points? When students develop strong basic skills, they can succeed at buffer in the any writing assignment, including a book report. Of The Brigade Theme? Time4Writing offers online writing courses for in the body kids in replay company, elementary, middle school, and buffer in the high school, and replay company pairs each student with a certified teacher for in the body personalized writing instruction.
Time4Writingís eight-week, online writing courses are highly effective in helping students develop their writing skills and school essays building confidence. Find out how Time4Writing#8217;s online writing classes can make a real difference in your childís writing.
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Nov 18, 2017 Buffer in the body,
resume veteran You have between 7 to 14 seconds to buffer body empress upon English Learner someone you have the talents and expertise they are seeking. A page of a resume needs to buffer body be treated as a valuable piece of the charge theme property. proof read - proof read - proof read; caps count and so does spelling. As you are a veteran and this maybe the first time you have written from transitioning from the military - Don't Scare the Civilians - if it does not apply in your resume to the career you are seeking it does not belong. Keep in mind we, as veterans, only make up less 10% of the adult population and less than half of that are veterans seeking employment.
Understand why you maybe rejected by and employer you must look through the eyes of an employer. recently released veterans have to overcome several items other than the ones stated above - Translation of military stills - Re acclimation into corporate life - and future deployments of Guard and Reservist. Not to forget you are not alone - throughout this nation their are many who are their to buffer in the body help DVOP's and LVER's at every employment office - Note: if you are a disabled veteran; you are not required to say that you are as along as you can perform the work with or without reasonable accommodations - so don't offer this information until you are higher and you require reasonable accommodations. What is a Resume? The most common answer to of the brigade theme the question, ďWhat is a resume?Ē is ó a document that aptly summarizes your experience and qualifications for a particular job. True. But a resume is in the body much more. Similar to replay company a quick-hitting advertisement, a resume is a demonstration of your organization skills, your preparedness, and your ability to market yourself.
It is an buffer in the, example of your value as an employee and your ability to solve problems. School Com? All of that in about ten seconds ó the average length of time each resume is looked at. And a dirty little secret that companies may not want you to know; the resume is a weed-out tool. How? Simple, ask yourself why you are submitting a resume. To help an employer get a sense of whether or not they want to interview you for a full-time position.
You know how boring it can be putting together your own resume. So imagine what it must be like to read hundreds of resumes from people you don't even know. Buffer Body? Sifting through resumes is Learner Essay rarely the top choice of buffer how a human resources manager would like to spend her day. The key ingredients in a resume that gets noticed are wording that is kept to in india a minimum and making sure each carefully chosen fact produces a lasting impression on an employer. Your tacit goal should be to make the buffer in the, most out of the lying on couch, least. If you were a professional baseball player, your resume would be your baseball card. Your employment history and accomplishments would be touted in your career statistics. As a relative new comer to the big leagues ó or the job market ó there would be a few sentences encapsulating your background in buffer body the farm system ó or the university ó and what you did there. There might be a few fun facts or some hobbies to lying on couch round you out as a person. The one difference is that a baseball card can't hide the buffer body, ugly truth that while you may have been a great power hitter, your overall batting average was lousy.
On a resume, you can control which successes you want to cybil movie talk up. And you should. The resume is the place to in the body boast about system in india, all those achievements. In other words, a C in 20th Century British Literature should not and will not necessarily put you out buffer, of the running for a banking job. What is a Cover Letter?
The cover letter is one of the most important documents you will ever write. Cybil Movie? Take a second to recall the college application process. The cover letter is the equivalent of the personal statement. It is the two-dimensional embodiment of who you are. It is the primary tool you will use to sell yourself. It is the place to highlight your strengths, proclaim your creativity, and show your organizational skills. And it can be the key to improving or seriously impeding your job hunt.
A cover letter serves three basic purposes: 1. Accompanies your resume. 2. Buffer? Introduces you and your employment qualifications. 3. Generates interest in an employer to interview you. When you write your cover letter, remember to Learner write it from the buffer in the body, perspective of English Language Learner your potential employer. She is, of course, the one who will be hiring you so put yourself in her head. What would she want to know about buffer in the, you?
What do you have that is particularly appealing? Why do you fit the replay company, position you are applying for better than every other candidate? The answers to in the body these questions are very important as they save the light theme, employer the time and the hassle of trying to figure out if you have the necessary qualifications. The cover letter should provoke an employer to say, ďNow here is buffer someone we absolutely must find out more about.Ē The cover letter is a reflection of you. If it is cybil movie sloppy and disorganized, it will suggest that you areÖ sloppy and buffer in the body disorganized (shocking!). It may also suggest that you lack focus or that you don't care about the personal impression you leave on lying on couch, other people. On the in the body, flip side, a neat, well-written cover letter implies that you are thoughtful, focused, organized ó all of the positive attributes employers thirst for. If you include good answers to her questions and coherently showcase relevant information about the Who Are English Essay, company and the position you are applying for, there is a significant likelihood that you will reach the next rung in the job ladder: the interview. Creating a Cover Letter.
A good cover letter is like a good research paper: Despite what you may think, it is not written overnight. Remember the papers you researched and wrote the night before it was due? How ill conceived and poorly organized they were? One thought here, one thought there, lame sentences all over. Now remember the papers (fine, maybe it was just one) that were written over a few weeks, a few drafts. Not only how much better they were but also how much better you felt after writing them. Buffer? Creating a cover letter is a very similar process. Your job is going to be a significant part of cybil movie your life after graduation so it pays to look into where you want to be and what you want to be doing.
This process starts with researching your cover letter. Recall from the What is a Cover Letter? section that a good letter is written with a potential employer in mind. And you, as a potential employee, have a responsibility to know all you can about each employer from in the, which you want a job. What are the strategic goals of English Students? each employer? Whom do they hire? Is there a new CEO at the helm? You certainly don't want to flub a job interview because you didn't know the big boss in charge. In The? Be sure to also know something about the the charge, industry of buffer in the body each employer. Visit the library or your handy internet browser and lying on couch find out how your potential employer and its competitors are doing.
Have there been industry-wide layoffs recently? Are companies looking to grow their infrastructure overseas? By finding out body, more about a company and an industry you can focus your cover letter on areas that are of the charge of the light important interest to the person reading it. Plus, you'll highlight your specific knowledge. The key is to find an edge, something that shows off your intelligence and attention to detail, something that no one else will include in their cover letter. Body? No matter how well organized and grammatically perfect a letter is, unless it relates directly to what an employer is the caste system in india looking for, the odds of landing an buffer body, interview are slim. Is My Cover Letter Any Good?
Good cover letters are more than perfect grammar and unblemished spelling. School? They are essentially written sales pitches of no more than a single page. In order to increase the odds of buffer body banking a sale, you need to carefully craft your language so that it includes the the charge of the, following: 1. an introduction that establishes your interest. 2. a paragraph or two that sums up your strengths. 3. a paragraph that highlights your experience and in the body education. 4. a sentence or two that establishes follow-up action. Making a Connection. Good introductions grab the reader and ensure that the rest of your letter will be read.
You don't have to automatically be cute either. In fact, a far more effective way of being noticed is to simply personalize the letter. Potential employers can spot a mass-mailed cover letter before reading the second sentence. Include a key fact about the company you are applying to. Better yet, if you met the company's recruiter at your school's job fair be sure to note it. For example, the sentence, ďDonald Watkins, your Supervisor of Information Technology, mentioned that you are looking for a web page designer. Perhaps my expertise and experience can be of help.Ē, shows an employer that you took some time and the charge brigade energy to find out about the body, firm and its open positions. Personal connections are one of the best ways to cybil movie generate an employers interest in you.
What Do You Do Well? Once you have the employer's interest, the rest is body gravy right? Sadly, no. System In India? But at in the least the rest is easier because it's about something you know ó you. After proving that you are no stranger to who a company is, the next part of the cover letter is about explaining why hiring you will be a valuable asset for the company's future.
What do you have that they want? You have a record of accomplishments, but don't organize these paragraphs like a laundry list. Be selective in your choices. You have to prove how specific contributions you've made elsewhere in the past mean you can make similar contributions at this company in the future. One fatal flaw of many student job seekers is to pick out the accomplishments they are most proud of. Bad move. You may love the pottery bowl that won first prize in the art department's end-of-year awards because you think it shows your improvisational talents. Unfortunately, a management consulting firm doesn't care. Be sure to keep in mind that you are trying to tailor your letter to the exact needs of an employer, who may care more about system, a group project in your statistics class.
Just as successful sales people focus on their customers needs, successful job hunters focus on what different companies want. There is no need to overload this section with a laundry list of body majors, minors, courses, and extracurriculars. Instead, briefly summarize the relevant portions of your background. You have plenty of space on your resume to list four years worth of courses. The final paragraph of your cover letter should either urge the employer to contact you or indicate that she'll be hearing from you soon. Include your home phone number and school essays com say what hours of the day are best to in the reach you, or say you will call her office on replay company, a certain date to buffer body determine if there is the charge of the light theme any interest. The Format of a Cover Letter. In order to buffer in the body leave a good impression with your cover letter, use your head.
You are writing to a boss, not your best friend. Letters must be free of school com grammatical and spelling errors, well-spaced, well-organized and have a clean design that properly showcases your qualifications. The three most commonly used formats are: Full Block, Block, and Modified Block. Buffer Body? We are including an example of one letter in all three formats. The most formal letter is the full block; it is the charge of the theme also the most commonly used. The casual style is the modified block; it is the least commonly used. As a general rule of thumb, the better you know the person you are writing, the more casual you can afford to be with the format of in the body your letter. Unless you've actually met the person to whom you are writing, stick with either the the caste system in india, full block or block format.
Some other general rules to keep in in the mind when writing the perfect cover letter: 1. Each Word in school the Address Line Begins With a Capital Letter. 2. The date is positioned on the very next line below the address and can be written in body the following two ways: August 21, 1980 or 21 August 1980. 3. The name of the individual to whom you are addressing the cover letter should be preceded by a courtesy title (Dr., Mr., Ms., Mrs., etc.). English Students?? Male attorney names should be superseded by Esq. and all medical doctors by in the body M.D. 4. Use ďDearĒ in the opening of your letter.
5. The most common closing is ďSincerelyĒ followed by ďSincerely YoursĒ. 6. Two lines below the signature block (see one of the sample letters) flush with the left margin include initials of your name, in lower case. If your name is David Maldov Carnegie, write ďdmc.Ē Known as the replay company, typist identification, it is not required but including it is a signal to employers that you have mastered the buffer body, art of cover letter formats. 7. In India? The chances are that your cover letter will include a resume. In the line directly below the typist identification write the word ďEnclosure.Ē If you are enclosing more than one document put the number you are including in parentheses immediately after the ďEnclosure.Ē So for four documents, you would write ďEnclosure (4)Ē. Uh Oh, my Cover Letter Has Problems. You've finished your cover letter and everything seems perfect. Not so fast. In The Body? Even Ernest Hemingway never got it right on a first draft. The most basic problems with a cover letter are poor organization, bad spelling, and grammatical errors. School Essays? Frequently students try to pack their cover letter with as much information as the can.
Often they shrink the margins or delete spaces in buffer between paragraphs. Unless you proofread your draft, you're likely to system in india miss little typographical and spelling errors. These may seem like minor points but they are the quickest way of ending your job hopes. In The? The impression they give is one of carelessness, sloppiness, and lack of education. Most employers won't even bother reading to lying on couch the end of a letter with these mistakes. There are other blunders to watch for as you go over in the body, your cover letter. Cybil Movie? Are you rambling?
Maybe you've just rehashed your entire four years at school without explaining why you want to work at this particular company. Buffer Body? Make sure to school essays com keep your letter focused on a few key points. Are you focusing the letter on yourself too much? As we noted in previous advice columns, the key to landing a job is satisfying the needs of your employer not yourself. Does your letter come across as too aggressive, or even worse, as if you are bragging? Do you look like a self-absorbed grumbler who is likely to irritate her co-workers? Employers are turned off quickly by a candidate who over-inflates her skills and unnecessarily embellishes her past experience. Buffer Body? There is essays a fine line between being assertive and being an obnoxious show-off. Is your writing style boring and tedious?
Cover letters are more than a place to summarize your credentials. They should be a window into buffer, your creativity and resourcefulness. They should give someone a taste of the work - and the spirit - you plan to bring to a new firm. Example: Contact Information. Unless the situation dictates, you should never volunteer personal information such as age, ethnicity, religion, marital status and physical attributes on replay company, your resume. All contact information to include current phone and/or fax number (s), your postal address, and your email address at the top of your resume, and leave it at that. For example: SCOTT GREAT 100 Scott's Kando Drive, Freeport, Illinois 61032. Cellular: (815) 555?1223. Any additional page(s) should at minimally contain name and body address.
Example: Objective [this is replay company optional] An objective statement should be direct and show employers that you know what you want and you know how to get it. An objective should be targeted, professional, and buffer in the body free of personal pronouns words such as ( I,,my, and me). Avoiding other colorful word or flowery details. Objective: Industrial sales position capitalizing on 15 years' experience in retail management and commercial administration. Of course, your objective can be longer or shorter than this example. School Essays Com? Ultimately this depends on your situation, your level of body experience, and your desired position. Example: Summary of Skills. Use the summary statement to cybil movie emphasize the most important qualities, achievements and abilities you have to offer an employer.
Include professional characteristics that could help you later during the interview; for example, team?oriented, skilled at problem?solving, committed to in the excellence. Then, during the interview, be prepared with anecdotes so you can elaborate on each of these statements. Here's an replay company, example: Sales professional with proven background in retail management and hospital administration. Design, coordinate and enhance sales and in the body marketing activities and relationships to identify business customers. Effective communicator, able to develop comprehensive networks for continuing organization visibility and sales revenues. Desire career growth based on performance and the caste system accomplishments. Go back 10?15 years, and list every position you've held in reverse chronological order. Buffer? Even though age discrimination is lying on couch illegal, many candidates with substantial experience worry about falling victim to buffer it. System In India? So, if you've been in the field for more than 15 years, you can add a section titled Prior Relevant Experience and just refer to your additional important jobs without mentioning specific dates.
If you've held multiple positions within the same company, list every positionóyou'll want to show that you've progressed. Finally, concentrate on the description of each positionóthe meat and potatoes of this sectionóto show that you've gotten results and solved problems within the organization. For example: 2/93 ? Present: East Coast Business Systems, New York, New York. Hospital Marketing Representative Represent. major expanding medical diagnostic reference laboratories testing program to buffer in the body hospitals and health systems in system in india the sales of services and buffer body information systems. Create marketing and strategic selling plans.
Establish network within hospital marketplace for upstart division. Comprehensive knowledge of managed care and physician group, and clinical trials market. Bennett offers these examples: Instead of. Experience working in fast-paced environment Try. Registered 120+ third-shift emergency patients per night Instead of. The Charge Of The Light Theme? Excellent written communication skills Try.
Wrote jargon-free User Guide for 11,000 users Instead of. Team player with cross-functional awareness Try. Collaborated with clients, A/R and in the Sales to cybil movie increase speed of receivables and prevent interruption of service to clients. Instead of. Demonstrated success in analyzing client needs Try. Created and implemented comprehensive needs assessment mechanism to help forecast demand for services and staffing. It's good to be hard-working and ambitious, right?
The hiring manager won't be convinced if you can't provide solid examples to back up your claims. Buffer In The Body? Bennett suggests being extra-careful before putting these nice-sounding but empty words in your resume. Include the institution's name and location, along with your degree and the year you obtained it. Beyond that, you can include. Educational honors, seminars and certifications, and list achievements such as projects, awards, and grade?point averages. (A GPA of 3.0 or above is worth mentioning.)
After you've finished the professional experience and replay company education areas of your resume, you can add additional sections for additional pertinent information, such as professional honors, awards and in the affiliations. While you might need to provide your recruiter with professional references, it's not necessary to essays com include these on your resumeóafter all, if you're in the middle of buffer in the a career search, it's pretty clear that you've developed some professional relationships along the way. However, if you do add a references section, make sure it says more than References available upon request. Who Are English? Also, check with your references beforehand to make sure you can include them on your resume. You don't want anyone to be surprised when the recruiter calls. You may also wish to in the body include professional skills, such as languages spoken and of the light theme proficiencies with computer software or hardware, in this section.
Other possibilities include professional training, appointments and licenses. Body? However, you should never include hobbies (e.g., I like to read) or list personal interests (e.g., music, books, art) anywhere on your resume. Tips from Recruiters. Recruiters have highlighted 12 of the career accomplishments that most interest employers. The Caste System In India? It's possible that you've accomplished some of these in your current jobóthink of how you might include them on body, your resume. Approach each one from the viewpoint of cybil movie a recruiter: How can this past accomplishment benefit a potential employer? Improved workplace safety. New products/new lines. Improved record?keeping process. Successful advertising campaign.
What Job Seekers Need to buffer Know. I n an information age, technology drives most interactions, resumes sent via E-mail and traditional paper are likely to be scanned for key information by a machine, not a human being. Human are limited by time to lying on couch view a resume and you must at all times put your best foot forward within 7 - 14 seconds. A text-searching - artificial intelligence software. The software searches for skills that match a job description. Such systems are important because they significantly lessen the time it takes to buffer search for light theme qualified applicants to fill a job. They also help employers create a resume pool. Every word in a resume is important in the selection process, because computers are programmed to buffer search for keywords. This software can also reads important information to include your name, address, work history, experience and skills. Who Are Students?? A clear and buffer in the clean resume allows the scanner to obtain a good image to maximize the the caste, matches.
To Prepare a for Scanning. Use a standard typeface such as Courier, Helvetica, Futura, Optima, Universe or Times with a point size of 10-14. Use black ink on buffer in the, white 8 1/2 x 11 inch paper. (Not Colored Paper) Use only capital letters or boldface to emphasize important information. Do not use italics, underlining, boxes, graphics, or horizontal or vertical lines. Avoid a two-column format or resumes that look like newspapers or newsletters.
Use only a laser-quality printer. Do not fold or staple pages. If faxing, use fine resolution and follow up with a mailed original. Avoid formatting peculiarities. If you use E-mail, save your file as text only or ASCII to avoid the cybil movie, possibility that your word processor and your prospective employer's word processor are incompatible. E-mail a copy of your resume to yourself to in the body make sure it looks the way you meant it to look. Use key-words phrases, terms, jargon, and titles to describe your abilities. Describe your experience with concrete words rather than vague terms.
Be sure to use state-of-the-art terminology to describe yourself. Always look to cybil movie the company and buffer mimic their words in the help-wanted ads. Be concise and cybil movie truthful. Buffer In The? Use more than one page if necessary to get the attention of robotic and cybil movie human readers. A resume only gets you to the interview you do the rest.
Use keywords: if you are uncertain about keywords look to the advertisement and other advertisements of the same job titles. BS in XXXX - Management - Team work - Leadership - Internships experience - AutoCAD. J ob search you may choose to have two versions of your resume:
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Nov 18, 2017 Buffer in the body,
12 Ways To Make Your Resume Stand Out. Buffer In The Body! For any given job opening, HR personnel and hiring managers are deluged with resumes. Lying On Couch! Since they donÄôt have the time or resources to interview everyone, they are always looking for in the body ways to weed out candidates as quickly as possible. In fact, some merely glance at each resume before deciding whether to toss it in English Learner Students? the yes or no pile. So, it's imperative that you make those few seconds count. Here are 12 ways to make your resume stand out: 1. Incorporate industry keywords and buzzwords into your resume, but donÄôt overdo it. Use words and phrases like a ccomplished, developed, managed, and team player in the natural language of the document, says Lisa Rangel, managing director of ChameleonResumes.com. Body! ÄúIf your resume makes it through the filtering system, but it is evident to the reader that you were successful because of 'keyword stuffing,' the reader will feel you just gamed the system and will place your resume in the ÄėnoÄô pile.ÄĚ.
But executive coach Stever Robbins says using the right buzzwords sparingly doesn't guarantee you anything. ÄúYou could still end up in the resume black hole if you don't have sufficient differentiation once those keywords are met,ÄĚ he says.. That's why it's important to follow the next 11 steps.. 2. Tailor your resume to the job. ÄúTune your resume to this specific role, with substantiating detail that shows why you are a great fit for the position,ÄĚ says Laura Smith-Proulx, a certified executive resume writer and LinkedIn profile expert. One way to do this is by Who Are English Language Students?, including all of your skills and experience that are relevant to buffer in the body, the job you're applying for. 3. Use a modern, professional format.
Format your resume so that it is pleasing to the eye but doesn't focus more on visuals than content. Cybil Movie! Here's an example of a nicely formatted resume. 4. Make sure it is error-free and easy to read. HR reps equate typos and errors with laziness, says Greg Faherty, a certified professional resume writer and owner of a-perfect-resume.com. Buffer In The Body! Make sure itÄôs perfectly polished and error-free ÄĒ and the caste in india donÄôt forget to put the most important information on page one.. 5. Buffer In The Body! Use a header. Include a clear, hard-hitting statement at the very top of the resume that effectively defines who you are, keeping the Language Learner, specific position in mind, says Ann Baehr, a professional resume writer and body founder of Best Resumes of Who Are English Language Students? Essay, New York. ÄúDo not use an objective. Think of it like a billboard.ÄĚ. Baehr says the header is a branding statement that is body, typically all caps going across the top of the page, usually sitting under your name and school essays contact info. Body! (555) 555-5555 | 123 Main Street | email@example.com. The Charge Light Theme! GLOBAL BUSINESS DEVELOPMENT STRATEGIST.
6. Keep things professional. Don't include negative information about buffer, previous jobs or employers. Don't discuss your hobbies or personal qualities or politics. Simply stick to your career facts. 7. Include metrics.
ThereÄôs no better way to the charge light brigade theme, demonstrate how youÄôll add to the bottom line or cut costs than to show quantifiable achievements, Smith-Proulx says. Buffer! ÄúPlus, employers often assume past performance is indicative of future results.ÄĚ. Faherty agrees. He says a majority of resumes fail because all they provide are job descriptions. ÄúThe HR rep knows the basic duties of your job. What he or she wants to see is how you made a difference to previous employers. In a piece Marc Cenedella wrote for replay company TheLadders earlier this year, he says you should always c ount the number of $ signs and % signs on your resume, and then double them. 8. Keep the readerÄôs needs or industry requirements front and center.
You need to know what they are looking for in your candidacy. Instead of developing your resume and buffer in the then conducting a job search, it is wise to research the requirements of several opportunities to get a sense for how you should be presented in terms of branding, focus, and keywords, Baehr explains. 9. Customize your resume to replay company, tell a story. Your resume should bring the reader through your professional experiences, accomplishments, skills, and knowledge. It should show how youÄôve advanced over the years, and what you can bring to the table. ÄúMake your resume long enough to body, tell your story, but short enough to skim in essays a single sitting, Smith-Proulx says. The key is readability and relevance to the job youÄôre targeting.ÄĚ.
10. Don't overuse fancy fonts and colors. While you donÄôt want to overdo it, you can use color in a conservative manner to make your resume visually differentiated from the sea of documents the recruiter will review, Rangel says. In The Body! For example, a subtle navy blue border can be very effective. These effects can draw the theme, recruiterÄôs eye to buffer in the, the document and make it stand out against the many black and white documents theyÄôve received, she says. But know that using color on the caste in india, your resume is more acceptable and in the body appropriate in some industries than others. 11. Make it longer than one page if it needs to be. Use the appropriate amount of cybil movie, space for your experience. ÄúIf youÄôve been in the workforce for 15-plus years, do not feel forced to trim information about your achievements to keep to an arbitrary one-page resume rule,ÄĚ Rangel says.
Use what you need to, but do not make it unnecessarily long.. In The Body! 12. Supplement your resume with a cover letter. About half of all HR reps say they won't even read a resume if the candidate hasnÄôt submitted a cover letter. So, unless the Who Are English Learner Students?, employer explicitly says they donÄôt want a cover letter, write one.
SEE ALSO: Top 9 Resume Mistakes To Avoid. Recommended For You Powered by Sailthru. 12 Ways To Make Your Resume Stand Out. Buffer! For any given job opening, HR personnel and. Get the cybil movie, best of Business Insider delivered to your inbox every day.
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Essay: English language teachersí perceptions of an activity to body elicit beliefs. In this small-scale study six English teachers working at a Turkish private middle school elicited their own teacher beliefs using an adapted version of a repertory grid as proposed by Donaghue (2003). The repertory grid was introduced and used in a session in which the participants individually generated their constructs and compared them with another teacher. The participants were asked to write an evaluation of the activity as an instrument to elicit beliefs. Furthermore a semi-structured interview was conducted which aimed to detect the participantís perceptions of the activity and to shed further light on system, the value of this instrument.
Conclusions about the applicability of the buffer repertory grid technique and, in particular, the instrument used in this study in second language teacher education and teacher development are drawn. Key words: Teacher beliefs, ELT, Elicitation Technique, Teacher Education, Professional Development. It is widely accepted that peopleís beliefs have an impact on their behaviour. Thought and action are interactively related: ĎWhat people think, believe, and feel affects how they behaveí (Bandura, 1986, p. 25). Reviewing the the caste system relevant literature, Gabillon (2012) has recently explicated the of nature foreign language teacher beliefs and their influence on in the body, teaching practice in a set of five dichotomies: (1) teacher beliefs are personal as they represent an individual understanding and interpretation of teaching practice and social, as the understanding and replay company, interpretation is buffer in the body shaped in a social and com, cultural context; (2) teacher beliefs are practical and theoretical in a way that theoretical knowledge (e.g. teaching methods or learning theories) is interpreted and buffer in the, modified in the light of practical knowledge (i.e. Replay Company. experienced knowledge) to fit it to teacher beliefs; (3) there are teacher beliefs that are implicit, i.e. unconscious and difficult to buffer verbalise, and those ones being explicit, i.e. teachers are able to verbalize them, to replay company provide a rationale and to relate them to previous experience (professional or life experience); (4) teacher beliefs are dynamic, i.e. open to change; however, it is uncontested that teacher beliefs are not easily changed and deep-rooted key beliefs or core beliefs might be resistant; (5) teacher beliefs are systematic, i.e. there are belief factors that are organised around themes rather systematically so that practice is linked to the belief system, while other belief factors are complex organised and indeed contain conflicting perceptions which cause a mismatch between beliefs and buffer body, practice. Borg (2006; 2003) has coined the term teacher cognition referring to the Ďunobservable cognitive dimension of teaching Ď what teachers know, believe and thinkí (ibid, p. Cybil Movie. 81). As such, teacher cognition plays an essential role in the practice of teaching and teacher education. In The. It is shaped by schooling (the teacherís experience gained when she was a pupil/student) and lying on couch, professional coursework (the teacherís experience gained in teacher education programs). Furthermore, teacher cognition is in dependence to contextual factors (physical conditions, material, curriculum etc. faced in the institutional context the teacher is employed in), and own classroom practice (which shapes cognition unconsciously, or consciously through reflection). Teacher cognition stands in in the body, an interactional relation to teacher learning and practice as it both informs them and is informed through them.
It is English Language Learner Essay important to uncover teachersí beliefs in order to initiate reflection on own teaching and, consequently, to facilitate professional development. When teacher beliefs remain undetected or are ignored, teacher training and professional development programs are likely to be ineffective because input (e.g. Buffer Body. new approaches or techniques) cannot be connected to replay company existing teacher beliefs; consequently, new content is unlikely to be transferred into classroom practice (Freeman, 2002; V??lez-Rend??n, 2002). Uncovering beliefs and assumptions is, however, difficult since they might be subconscious or it might be challenging to articulate them (Donaghue, 2003). Buffer Body. Furthermore teacher beliefs might consist of espoused theories which are in contrast to theories in action (Williams Burden, 1997). Among other instruments, the use of belief inventories (e.g. Richards Lockhart, 1996, pp. 48-51) or awareness raising activities (e.g. Taggart Wilson, 2005; Roberts, 1998; Wallace, 1991) have been suggested to school essays explore teacher beliefs. Donaghue (2003) has introduced an adapted version of the repertory grid technique to elicit teacher beliefs and assumptions (see Appendix A).
Instead of using given constructs (as in questionnaires), in repertory grids participants develop and articulate their own, personal constructs. The instrument developed by Donaghue is loosely based on Kellyís (1991) theory of personal construct, according to buffer which an individual makes sense of the world by generating constructs which shape an individualís personal theory. Constructs are viewed as Ďdichotomous abstractionsí (ibid., p. 75), i.e. individuals perceive elements of their experience in such a way that they Ďnever affirm anything without simultaneously denying somethingí (Fransella, Bell Bannister, 2004, p.7). For example, an com effective teacher might be considered as someone who motivates students, while an ineffective teacher might be considered to be teaching without motivating students (example taken from Roberts, 1998, p. 31). Accordingly, in the repertory grid activity proposed by Donaghue (2003) the participants are asked to compare three different people and to affirm a construct in which two persons are alike, and the third is different.
The adapted version of the repertory grid was developed as an instrument to be used as an awareness-raising activity at the beginning of courses in teacher training or professional development. It aims at informing participants about their (often covert) beliefs and assumptions about language teaching. Differently from other repertory grids it does not contain a scale through which participants indicate how near a construct is related to an element. For this reason, conclusion from results of the instrument must be drawn with caution. Body. It is rather Ďa catalyst to thought and cybil movie, reflectioní (Donaghue, 2003, p. 350) than a research tool to gain generalisable results. Consequently, this study is in the body concerned with the applicability of the instruments and not with the gained beliefs themselves.
The study sought to find out how the cybil movie adapted repertory grid by Donaghue (2003) was perceived as an instrument to elicit teacher beliefs by six teachers at a Turkish middle school. For this reason, the participants were asked to evaluate the in the body instrument and it was intended to find out to what dimensions of teacher cognition the participants related their own beliefs to. It was assumed that the participantsí comments might be understood as an indicator for evaluating in school com, how far the instrument is capable of initiating reflective thinking. No less importantly, the participantsí perceptions might contribute to developing the instrument. Following these considerations the buffer study sought to answer the following questions: 1. How do the participants evaluate the replay company elicitation technique used in this study? 2. How do the participants perceive the elicitation technique for their professional development? The participants in this study were six teachers at a private middle school in a southeastern city in Turkey. The pupils attending the school come from families belonging to buffer body the middle and replay company, upper middle class. In order to get some background information, the participants were asked to fill in repertory grid evaluation form (Appendix B), which requested besides an evaluation of the activity some biographical information.
Background of the Participants in the Study. Participant Sex Age Qualification Teaching experience. 1 female 33 bachelor 11 years. 2 male 45 bachelor 17 years. 3 female 27 bachelor 4 years. 4 female 29 bachelor 7 years.
5 female 29 bachelor 4 years. 6 male 32 bachelor 6 years. Table 1 shows that all participants have a bachelorís degree in ELT and vary in teaching experience as evidenced by the years of teaching. Participants 1, 3 and 5 have had exclusively worked at buffer in the private schools while participant 4 had worked at English Learner Students? a private teaching institution (dershane) for five years and participant 6 at a public school for three years before they started their current job at the private school. Participant 2 is of Syrian nationality. He had worked at state schools abroad (e.g. Kuwait), and has been working at body the private school for two years.
Data Collection Procedures and Tools. The participants were invited to a session in which the activity was carried out. The activity procedure followed these steps (cf. Donaghue, 2003, p. 347f.): 1. The researcher introduces the aim of the study and explains all steps. He also introduces the repertory grid activity and explains the concept of personal constructs. 2. The Caste. Participants are divided into pairs. Each pair receives one set of in the, cards containing the the charge of the brigade elements of the grid (cf.
Appendix A). Buffer Body. They think of a real person that matches the element best. Participant A writes the name of the person at the top of the card, participant B writes it at the bottom. For confidentiality, the participants are allowed to write a pseudonym if the partner knows the person. The Caste System. An example is given in Figure 1. A teacher you learned well with. Figure 1. Card used in repertory grid activity (sample) 3. Cards are shuffled. Each participant is given a grid (Appendix A). Pairs choose three cards at random, and individually think how two persons are similar and one is different writing their personal constructs in body, the Ďconstructí column. Participants put a tick to the elements that are the Who Are English Language Students? Essay same and a cross to the one that is different.
4. Pairs compare their constructs and discuss. 5. Pairs return the cards, shuffle them and repeat steps 3 and 4 (Donaghue, 2003, suggests 6 turns). Repertory Grid Evaluation. At the end of the in the body session, the participants were asked to system in india evaluate the repertory grid by buffer in the, completing the lying on couch Repertory Grid Evaluation Form (see Appendix B). Each participant was interviewed separately. The aim of the semi-structured interview was to find out if the in the body repertory grid activity had initiated a reflective process in each of the participants.
For this purpose, the lying on couch participants were invited to comment on their beliefs (see questions in Appendix C). In The. The interviews were hold in English and audio-recorded. The interviews were then transcribed to prepare them for the data analysis. During the repertory grid activity the researcher took field notes in order to document how the participants responded to the activity. Four types of data were collected during the replay company study: the repertory grids, the field notes, the repertory grid evaluation and the transcription of the semi-structured interview. The repertory grids were not analysed in order to detect the participantsí beliefs; it was not assumed that they were valid tools to research the participantsí teacher beliefs (cf. the related remarks in the introduction of this paper). Buffer In The. The data gained from the other data collection tools were analysed through content analysis in order to answer the research questions. For this purpose, coding categories were established after initial coding (Saldana, 2009). The coding categories were attributed to six themes: repertory grid evaluation, schooling, professional coursework, contextual factors, classroom practice and suggestions. This section is organised as follows: It starts with the participantsí general evaluation of the repertory grid activity using data both from the replay company repertory grid evaluation form and the interview as there were overlaps in in the body, the data coming from lying on couch both collection tools. Then, it is reported how the teachers related the activity to their learning experience (schooling and buffer in the body, professional coursework) as well as past and current contexts and classroom practices.
The participantsí views on how to use the elicited beliefs and lying on couch, suggestions on how to buffer in the develop the instrument conclude this section. How did the participants evaluate the repertory grid activity in Who Are English Language Essay, general? All the participants gave positive comments on the activity in buffer in the body, the repertory grid evaluation form, and these perceptions were repeated and accentuated in the interviews. Cybil Movie. The evaluations can be summarised under three categories: its usefulness as an elicitation tool, its (potential) value as part of professional development, and buffer body, its quality as an enjoyable activity. The activity as an Elicitation Tool. The participants regarded the lying on couch tool as a powerful instrument to elicit beliefs as the elicitation process is based on real people the body participants are familiar with. Participant 1, for example, stated that she was not aware of the importance of social skills for school com teaching before the buffer in the body activity: I didnít think about some of the qualities of my teachers, my colleagues (Ö) I didnít think that my colleagues are cheerful persons or friendly persons. (Ö) For teaching being helpful, being kind to the students, listening to them carefully [are important] (Interview, participant 1).
Two participants emphasised that that the procedure helped them to formulate honest answers; a teacher noted: I felt that I was giving away my experiences about my job (Repertory Grid Evaluation Form, participant 6). Two participants pointed to the part during the activity when the teachers shared their constructs with a partner. They recognised sharing beliefs as a central point of the Language Students? Essay activity as the following excerpt from the interview illustrates: I learned much from the activity because one of my colleagues wrote interesting constructs and by buffer in the, the way I learned them and I think this activity is lying on couch something like a psychological test, but not individual-psychological, itís just prepared for the profession and our experiences (Interview, participant 6). While the responses in the previous paragraph indicate the usefulness of the activity as an elicitation tool, the activity was also perceived as incentive to in the reflection, i.e. it was perceived as going beyond a mere verbalisation of beliefs and, thus, as potentially contributing to cybil movie professional development:
You think, you remember and body, you evaluate yourself and the other person (Interview, participant 3). Since the elicitation of constructs is combined with comparison of three teachers (the elements), the activity forced the participants to challenge ideas. Participant 2 illustrates this by discussing a personality trait that is cybil movie negatively connoted, but in fact might be valuable as a quality of in the, a teacher: In my point of view I think I have to think again and again of so many things; for example one of the characteristics of the teacher I ticked Ď a strict teacher, for example, I learned a lot from a strict teacher in the past; he never laughed, but really I loved him very much, although he was not so friendly with the students, but as a teacher he was a good teacher. So, sometimes like parents, I think there doesnít have to be laughing all the replay company time with the kids in order to in the teach them. Sometimes we have to English Language Learner Students? Essay be strict a little bit. Of course, we have to be patient, kind, friendly and so on.
But some of the characteristics we will consider as bad characteristics, they are very useful for us teachers (Interview, participant 2). Participant 1 pointed to buffer in the a further advantage of the activity: She said that she had difficulties to criticise other people or to be criticised. As the light theme activity helped her to find own weaknesses, she concluded that it might be suitable for people having problems with criticism. Two participants perceived the activity as enjoyable, as expressed in this excerpt: Also it was enjoyable because it made me think of the past and sometimes I laughed at those days (Repertory Grid Evaluation Form, participant 1). The enjoyment the in the body participants found can be confirmed by the researcherís observations of the teachersí active participation in essays, the activity and the willingness to buffer body elaborate on their constructs in the interviews; the following comment indicates that the feeling of enjoyment was linked to the perception of contributing to professional development: It was enjoyable. I liked being a participant in such an activity. I want to English Language make another one, not just repertory grid, another scientific one. Buffer In The Body. I want to lying on couch be a participant for my profession (Interview, participant 6).
What did the participants relate their beliefs to? A major aim of the interview was to find out to what areas in their past experience and/or current situation the participants would relate their beliefs to. It was assumed that areas mentioned by the participants would match those in the framework suggested by Borg (2003, p. 82), who sees teacher beliefs (as a subcategory in the all-embracing notion of teacher cognition) generated through schooling, professional coursework, contextual factors and classroom practice. The second question of the interview asked for the sources of the beliefs, but did not direct the participants to any of the areas teacher cognitions are located in. Table 2 displays to what areas the participants attributed their beliefs of their own accord. Participantís Initial Attribution of Beliefs to Areas. participant area mentioned initially.
1 professional coursework. 2 contextual factors. 3 contextual factors. 5 contextual factors. 6 professional coursework. Table 2 shows that different teachers came up with different references for their beliefs when asked initially. This does not mean that there were not any other sources for their beliefs, but those ones were asked directly in the course of the interview; it can be assumed that particularly contextual factors mentioned by participants 2, 3 and 5 were foregrounded for in the body these teachers as they focused on them extensively during the interview.
The participantsí perceptions are reported in more detail in the following sections. Schooling was mentioned by using a concrete example by participant 4, who said that her belief that teachers should be friendly was generated by lying on couch, her 7th grade English teacher who made her like learning English. Body. She also talked about one of her teachers who the pupils made fun of because of her glasses. The participant concluded that physical appearance played a role in cybil movie, teaching. Two participants argued that the view of schooling experience had been changed as they now appreciated teacher practice (observed in their teachers in body, childhood) they had not appreciated when they were children. These responses suggest that schooling experience can be modified through teaching experience; in a way, the teachers critically reflected their own beliefs they had when they were younger. Even though mentioned, professional coursework was not highlighted in the interviews; on the charge light brigade, enquiry, the participants did not deny an buffer in the body influence of teacher education on the caste, their beliefs but they did not exemplify it, for example by referring to their constructs in the repertory grid. In The Body. Participant 4 mentioned the name of one of her academic teachers at university who. taught a lot of things, he taught me to teach, he taught me how to behave towards the students.
We learned by living, by acting (Interview, participant 3). This response, particularly the cybil movie last sentence, indicates the importance of not only content but also of method in teacher education. In the interviews, contextual factors were most prominently elaborated on. The participants claimed that their beliefs and assumptions were shaped by cultural norms and their immediate environment (parents, friends, colleagues), and that the context of private school had an influence on teacher behaviour and, consequently, teaching practice. Two participants addressed the impact of culture; in their explanations they did not only refer to buffer in the the teacher profession.
The following excerpt summarises the responses: I think our beliefs come from replay company our experiences, this is one of the sources Ď one of them is our home. That is very important: How did our parents teach us in the past? The morals, the ethics and something like that; one source is our experience in life in general; one of them is in the our culture. School Essays Com. For example, we are Muslims, our culture is different from that of buffer in the, others, from Jews or Christians or other people; one of them comes from our close friends Ď the people we love. Sometimes we find good beliefs we didnít believe in the past (Interview, participant 2). The excerpt illustrates that the emergence of Who Are English Learner, teacher beliefs is perceived as not restricted to the immediate school context.
Virtually all areas of life can contribute to professional beliefs. A further contextual factor mentioned by the participants was the buffer context of private school which was contrasted with public schools. Of The Brigade Theme. Participant 5 said that state school teachers were sometimes ineffective, and in the, she linked her belief to a variety of Who Are English Language Learner, conditions. According to her, public school teachers do not care about their studentsí success as they rather transmit knowledge, i.e. grammar, than teaching the four language skills; they are not supervised by principals and body, parents do not come to cybil movie school and ask about their childrenís progress; additionally, public school teachers are Ďrelaxedí as concerns salary, which contributed to their attitude of body, indifference towards their profession. In a similar vein participant 3 pointed to the reduced amount of class hours and restricted use of material in public schools on the one hand and the willingness of private school students to of the brigade theme learn English on the other hand. Body. Participant 1 said that she tried to do her best because she worked at a private school. What all these voices have in common is the conviction that contextual factors influence teacher beliefs and it can be concluded that beliefs generated through contextual factors affect teaching practice. Similar as for schooling and professional coursework, the participants did not come up with concrete examples how their beliefs interacted with their own classroom practice. From a general perspective, participant 1 (a rather experienced teacher) described classroom practice as having an ongoing impact on beliefs and assumptions and consequently on teaching practice. She claimed she adapted her beliefs as a response to the charge of the change in student behaviour: I change my ideas because every generation is different (Ö) I have to change my style, my ideas, my behaviour almost every year.
So I have to be careful about everything during the lesson, after lesson and before lesson. So, they change my ideas, I can say day by day (Interview, participant 1). What suggestions did the participants make on how to use the elicited beliefs and to develop the activity? The participants did not come up with ideas on how to use the elicited beliefs in a separate follow-up activity; however, they stated that this activity would help them as a reminder of what to do and how to in the body behave in Who Are Language Students? Essay, the teacher profession. The participants mainly saw the buffer in the activity as a starter to reflect and to cybil movie challenge own teacher beliefs. Some of the in the body suggestions to develop the activity in the next section can also be understood as follow-up activities to be carried out in school, the session. Participant 1 suggested adding a task in which the participants summarise their strengths and weaknesses after the activity in a sentence. As mentioned above she perceived herself as a person that has difficulties in criticising and being criticised, and she linked her suggestion to buffer in the body that perception. Cybil Movie. She also suggested applying an instrument to elicit learner beliefs to get the view from the other side of the classroom. Similarly, participant 4 suggested finding out about beliefs of public school teachers and even people from other than school contexts to get outsider views.
To elicit beliefs of teachers coming from different contexts was also suggested by participant 3 who held strong beliefs that the contextual factors at public school had the potential to Ďproduceí ineffective teachers. Participant 2 reflected how outcomes of the activity could be utilised in the classroom: Maybe we could add something to it [the activity], for in the body example how to make your students better, how to of the make them better students every day (Ö). You can improve yourself, but you also have to body think of the other part, I mean the students. How can we attract our students more? Sometimes some teachers are excellent teachers, but unfortunately they cannot attract the attention of all of cybil movie, their students, so maybe the suggestions of the buffer colleagues can help us to do this (Interview, participant 2). Obviously, he referred to the part of the activity in which the partners share their beliefs. His comment indicates the light need to work with the beliefs, not only by confirming or questioning them but also by transforming reflection on teacher beliefs into instructional practice.
As regards the procedure, participant 6 suggested carrying out the activity not in written form by writing down constructs and putting ticks and buffer, crosses, but orally as interviews. That means teachers research their colleaguesí beliefs and elicit beliefs in dialogic form, and write their constructs afterwards. This suggestion is replay company remarkable as the participant recognised the repertory grid technique as a form of interview (cf. Fransella et al, 2004, p. 5: ĎThe grid is perhaps best regarded as a particular form of structured interviewí). So far the participantsí perceptions of the repertory grid have been reported. Buffer. In the following section, conclusions are drawn and cybil movie, implications for second language teacher education are discussed. This study was carried out to buffer in the body explore the elicitation process six middle school teachers at cybil movie a Turkish private school went through. The participants evaluated the elicitation tool and buffer in the, reflected on cybil movie, their beliefs and the elicitation process. The elicitation tool, which was an adapted version of the repertory grid, was positively evaluated as the participants perceived it as capable of eliciting beliefs and acting as incentive to reflection about own beliefs. This is in line with the participant feedback reported in the study by Donaghue (2003).
It qualifies the instrument for further application, e.g. in buffer, pre-service or in-service. The fact that the activity was perceived as enjoyable is of particular relevance as the willingness of teachers to lying on couch participate in buffer, professional development is not a matter of course (Karaaslan, 2003). It was seen that the of the brigade theme participants in this study gave a variety of buffer in the, explanations and references while they were talking about the activity and their beliefs. However, some participants had more to say than others and different participants focused on different issues. This is cybil movie not surprising when the Ďinconsistencyí of teacher beliefs as a personal construct (that is buffer in the body e.g. strongly linked to an experienced anecdote or mentally presented as an abstract idea) is taken under consideration, and lying on couch, it is also not surprising that, independently from each other, participants related their beliefs to the same issues (e.g. culture or private school context) as beliefs do not emerge in a void but in a context that teachers share (Pajares, 1992; Gabillon, 2012). Donaghue (2003) addresses the question of in the, what to do with the elicited beliefs as a crucial point. She reports that a trainer in her study had the cybil movie participants sort the constructs into positive and negative ones. One of the participants in the current study suggested writing in a sentence what own strengths and weaknesses emerged from the activity.
From my own considerations, which however emerged not before the buffer in the data analysis, participants could classify beliefs and label the emerging categories (labels might be Ďinterpersonal traitsí, Ďclassroom managementí, Ďapproachesí. These labels, or themes, then, can be operationalised in a following course to trace changes in constructs under a theme or, for instance, in order to research in how far beliefs match teaching practices (cf. Who Are Students? Essay. Farell Bennis, 2013, who summarise statement beliefs under themes). From my personal experience I have gained in buffer, this study, I believe it is cybil movie inevitable to contrast the beliefs with what research has to buffer in the body say about them. There has been an ongoing discussion on to what extent second language teacher education should provide a theoretical knowledge basis and to what extent it should be guided by reflective practice (Thompson Pascal, 2013; Lawes, 2003; Day, 1993). In fact, reflective practice is necessary to make theoretical knowledge accessible and theoretical knowledge is necessary to evaluate practical reflection.
The instrument dealt with in this study can contribute to the charge bring reflection and body, theory together. Bandura, A. (1986). Social foundations of thought and action: A social cognitive theory. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall. Borg, S. (2003). Teacher cognition in language teaching: A review of research on what language teachers think, know, believe and do. Language Teaching 36(2), 81-109. Borg, S. (2006). Replay Company. Teacher cognition and in the, language education. Research and practice. London: Continuum.
Day, R. (1993). Models and the knowledge base of second language teacher education. University of Hawaiiís Working Papers in ESL, 11(2), 1í13. Donaghue, H. (2003). An instrument to elicit teachersí beliefs and assumptions. ELT Journal 57(4), 344-351. Fransella, F. Bell, R., Bannister, D. (2004).
A manual for repertory grid technique. (2nd ed.), West Sussex: John Wiley Sons, Ltd. Freeman, D. Who Are Language Students? Essay. (2002). The hidden side of the buffer in the body work: Teacher knowledge and learning to teach. Language Teacher 35(1), 1-13. Gabillon, Z. (2012).
Revisiting foreign language teacher beliefs. Frontiers of Language and Teaching 3, 190-203. Karaaslan, A. D. (2003). Teachersí perceptions of self-initiated professional development: a case study on Ba??kent University English language teachers (Unpublished MA dissertation.) Ba??kent University, Ankara. Retrieved 21 January, 2014 from: http://etd.lib.metu.edu.tr/upload/1217736/index.pdf. Kelly, G. A. (1991). The psychology of personal constructs (Vol. 1: A theory of personality).
London: Routledge. Lawes, S. (2003). Brigade Theme. What, when, how and buffer body, why? Theory and foreign language teaching. Language Learning Journal 28, 22-28. Pajares, M. F. (1992). English Learner. Teachersí beliefs and educational research: cleaning up a messy construct. Review of Educational Research 62(3), 307-332. Roberts, J. (1998). Buffer. Language teacher education. Who Are English Language Learner Students? Essay. New York: Arnold.
Saldana, J. Buffer Body. (2009). The coding manual for the caste system qualitative researchers. Los Angeles, CA: Sage. Taggart, G.L., Wilson A.P. (2005). Promoting reflective thinking in buffer in the body, teachers. 50 action strategies. Thousand Oaks, California: Corwin Press.
Thompson, N. Pascal, J. (2012). The Charge Light. Developing critically reflective practice. Reflective Practice: International and buffer in the body, Multidisciplinary Perspectives 13(2), 311-325. V??lez-Rend??n, G. (2002). Second language teacher education: A review of the literature. Foreign Language Annals 35(4), 457-467. Wallace, M. J. (1991). Training foreign language teachers. A reflective approach.
Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. William, M., Burden, R.L. (1997). Lying On Couch. Psychology for language teachers: a social constructivist approach. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Appendix A: Repertory Grid. Construct A colleague you consider a good teacher A colleague you consider ineffective A teacher you learned well with A teacher you didnít learn well with Your present self as a teacher Your ideal self as a teacher. Appendix B: Repertory Grid Evaluation. Repertory Grid Evaluation.
The aim of body, this study is to have you evaluate a tool to elicit your beliefs and assumptions. Please fill in cybil movie, the requested information. Your responses and biographical information will remain anonymous and they will be used for in the body this research only. Thank you for your cooperation. Academic qualification: Ö..
Bachelorís degree Ö.. Masterís degree. Ö.. Com. Doctorate degree Other; please specify. Number of years of teaching experience: Ö.. years. Number of years teaching at private/state school: Ö.. years. Please evaluate the body repertory grid activity by answering this question: What do you think of this activityí?
Appendix C: Semi-structured interview. 1. Did this activity help you uncover and reflect on your attitude and beliefs about teaching? 2. School. Do you have an buffer in the body idea where your beliefs come from?/What are the sources for your beliefs? 2.1. Can you identify beliefs coming from your own experience as a pupil/student? 2.2. Can you identify beliefs coming from the caste in india your teacher education? 2.3. Can you identify beliefs coming from body your own classroom experience? 2.4. Theme. Can you identify beliefs coming from your experience as a teacher at in the (name of the school)?
3. What do we do with the constructs after they have been elicited? (Explanation: The activity was originally developed to elicit teacher beliefs at lying on couch the beginning of a development course) 4. Do you have any suggestions on how the in the body activity could be changed or modified? Search our thousands of essays: If this essay isn't quite what you're looking for, why not order your own custom Education essay, dissertation or piece of coursework that answers your exact question? There are UK writers just like me on hand, waiting to help you. Each of us is qualified to a high level in our area of expertise, and we can write you a fully researched, fully referenced complete original answer to your essay question. System. Just complete our simple order form and you could have your customised Education work in your email box, in buffer in the body, as little as 3 hours.
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