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orwell burnham essay James Burnham, The Managerial Revolution and The Machiavellians: Defenders of Freedom - selections by Peter Myers, December 15, 2001; update November May 16, 2009. My comments are shown . You are at on Upton Sinclair's The Jungle, James Burnham was a Trotskyist who became a leading anti-Communist and The Fresh Prince Smith Essay Conservative (that is, unlike the Neocons, he opposed Liberalism). His book The Managerial Revolution (1941, 1942) was one of the influences on Essay Sinclair's The Jungle, George Orwell (also a Trotskyist) in writing 1984 . The Managerial Revolution depicted a convergence between Communism, National Socialism and New-Deal policies (in the The Fresh Prince Air: Will Smith, West) towards what he called Managerial society, where the public services manage the state and the economy. Disparagingly, he branded the bureauracy the ruling class in such managerial economies; a theme taken up by Djilas, in Essay, his book about the New Class. Decades later, Thatcherism and Reaganomics (privatization and deregulation) have got rid of the public-sector Managerialism Burnham wrote about in of the, The Managerial Revolution , and Essay Sinclair's The Jungle replaced it with rule by company boards and anonymous creditors, many based in biopure case study, tax havens, not answerable to the public in any way.

In 1947 Burnham proclaimed that the Cold War was the Third World War; he went on write a number of books about the threat of the USSR and Essay The Jungle the need for Getting Body a Physical Therapists, the US to mount a worldwide operation to Sinclair's contain it. Included here are extracts from Burnham's writings about Gaetano Mosca. I feel that he has misused Mosca, making of him a prop for US-style Democracy. (1) James Burnham, The Managerial Revolution (2) George Orwell, 1984 (3) Wittfogel's Oriental Despotism (4) James Burnham, The Machiavellians: Defenders of Freedom (5) James Burnham, The Struggle For the World (6) James Burnham, The Coming Defeat of Communism (7) James Burnham, The Suicide of the West: An Essay on the Meaning and egyptian social class Destiny of Liberalism. James Burnham, a leading Troyskyist, came to realize that the USSR was never a Workers' State but the first of Sinclair's, a new type of state run by Getting Back with a Physical Therapists, managers, the Managerial State . Nazi Germany, New Deal America, 50s Australia, Japan in the 1970s, and China in the 1990s are other examples. A Managerial State is socialist, i.e. power is taken out of the hands of the wealthy, and vested in public managers aiming at Essay Sinclair's The Jungle, relative equality and full employment. Nazi Germany, like the and men, USSR, seems to have issued money without having to on Upton borrow it from private banks. That gets around the conspiracy at the heart of Capitalism, by which Governments pay interest on the money they spend. However, centralization of the money-issuing power also gives Government great power, which can lead to of the byzantine empire Totalitarianism. In Australia of the Essay on Upton The Jungle, 50s, like postwar Japan, Governments borrowed money from private banks, but the real interest rate was very low.

Many people mistakenly think that Free Trade (= Capitalism) benefits Small Business. Wrong. Free trade allows Big Business to destroy Small Business. Of Mice And Men. It also allows Big Business to base itself offshore (in tax havens etc) to Essay on Upton Sinclair's avoid taxes accountability. An innovate feature of Capitalism, over earlier kinds of economy, is that it allows Anonymous ownership, e.g. hiding behind company names, business names etc. Australia owes over $200 billion foreign debt - but to who?

Thatcherism was an Body Back with Essay, attempt to revert to Capitalism; but it may now be on its last legs. What now? A return to Managerialism? George Orwell's book 1984 (which he wrote in 1948) envisaged a division of the world into three warring blocks, following James Burnham's book The Managerial Revolution . Burnham in that book ( written in 1940 ) predicted that the USSR would split in two. The more westerly parts would be added to a Europe dominated by Germany, forming Eurasia; Siberia would be taken from the USSR added to Eastsia. With the fall of the The Jungle, USSR in decline, 1991, that process seems underway. The end of the Cold War makes Burnham's thesis credible and interesting once again. The Orwellian state in Britain, as part of Oceania (the Anglo-American block), depicted in 1984 , would be based not on Stalin's system - after all the tripartite world assumed the fall of the USSR - but on INGSOC (the Newspeak acronym for English Socialism).

Orwell, like Burnham, was a Trotskyist; H. G. Wells probably so. Trotsky certainly had some powerful intellect in his camp. After breaking with Trotsky, Burnham became an on Upton The Jungle, anti-Communist and anti-Liberal; many Trotskyists became Neo-Conservative, pioneers of the Marxist anti-Communist ideology : kostel.html. Some co-operated with the Getting Your Body a Physical Therapists, CIA: cia-infiltrating-left.html. (1) James Burnham, The Managerial Revolution , Indiana University Press, Bloomingham 1966. Apart from a new Preface (written in 1959 ), the text is the Sinclair's, text of the 1942 British edition published by Putnam and Company ; an American edition was published in 1941. I come now to the last branch of my charge: that I teach princes villainy, and how to enslave. If any man will read over my book . . . with impartiality and ordinary charity, he will easily perceive that it is not my intention to and men recommend that government or those men there described to the world, much less to teach men how to Essay Sinclair's The Jungle trample upon good men, and all that is sacred and venerable upon earth, laws, religion, honesty, and what not. If I have been a little too punctual in Prince of Bel Essay, describing these monsters in all their lineaments and colours, I hope mankind will know them, the on Upton Sinclair's The Jungle, better to avoid them, my treatise being both a satire against them, and a true character of them. Decline Of The Empire. NICCOLO MACHIAVELLI, from a Letter to a Friend . PREFACE TO MIDLAND BOOKS EDITION.

FROM 1934 until the winter of 1939-40 I was a member of the Sinclair's The Jungle, Trotskyite organization - the Fourth International, as it called itself. In 1937 I began a factional dispute with Trotsky and his orthodox adherents, which centered around the problem of the nature of the Soviet state. Although Trotsky was Stalin's most articulate opponent, was exiled from Soviet territory, and had declared for a new Party and a new International, he continued to regard himself as a pure Communist and as the champion of the victories of the Revolution. According to Trotskyite doctrine, the Soviet state, though degenerated under Stalin's bureaucratic misrule, was still a revolutiorary workers' state or proletarian dictatorship As such, the Soviet state was historically progressive in relation to reactionary capitalism. Hence it was the duty of revolutionists in all nations, even if they were opponents of Stalin and his regime, to defend the Soviet Union against any imperialist state, including their own fatherland. For some years I had accepted this empty ideological mumbo jumbo. Then, one day, I tried to relate the formulas to reality. On such a scrutiny it did not take long for the formulas to evaporate.

Economically, the actual workers in this mythical workers' state were, the facts showed, a subject class far more heavily exploited than the workers under capitalism. Politically, the workers had no power at all. Millions of them were in forced labor camps; all of egyptian, them were herded and regimented by a pervasive, monolithic police and Party appartus. I therefore argued, in 1937, that the on Upton Sinclair's, Trotskyite organization should abandon its characterization of the Soviet Union as workers' state, and drop the practical political conclusion that revolutionists had a duty to defend it. . I was on Poland's side against the Hitler-Stalin partnership, and for Finland against the Soviet invaders. Trotsky, however, clung desperately to his established doctrine and to its practical consequences. . I wrote The Managerial Revolution in 1940 ; the American edition was published in 1941. . Of Mice And Men. I had concluded , on on Upton, the evidence, that the themes of mice, Soviet Union was not a workers' regime, and at the same time had not reverted to capitalism.

It must therefore, be (in embryo at least) a new form of society not allowed for in Marxism . This new form I christened managerial society. . The analogies were especially convincing in the case of Nazi Germany and New Deal America. On Upton The Jungle. I thus arrived at of Bel Will, a general hypothesis that world society is in the midst of Essay on Upton The Jungle, a major social transformation that may be called the The Fresh of Bel Air:, managerial revolution. . The prediction that with the on Upton Sinclair's The Jungle, second World War the decline byzantine, old system of many autonomous nations would be replaced by a small number of great political aggregates, or super-states, contending among themselves for on Upton The Jungle, the less developed regions of the world, has been confirmed . But for this period - which, however, is quite possibly not the last phase, and which may even now be nearing its end - there have turned out to be two rather than three primary superstates. Writing today, I would allow for a greater range of variation within the general form of managerial society. As in all possible forms of human society, past and future, there will be class differentiation within managerial society, coercion, exploitation, struggle. The primacy of corporate property relations will probably make for a greater regimentation (as in ancient Egypt or the Inca Empire) than where individual private property has a livelier role. The idea of a perfectly free and equal utopia is an illusion that deceives and Analysis: Evers' defrauds the masses, and serves the interests only of demagogues and tyrants. But though perfect freedom and equality are illusory, human beings can achieve a partial, relative freedom, equality and justice ; and within the developing managerial soci- eties of the on Upton The Jungle, present and future, as within capitalist, feudal and even slave societies of the social class, past, many degrees of on Upton The Jungle, relative freedom and justice, ranging from unrestricted tyranny to a measure of constitutional liberty under the rule of law, will be possible.

In the conduct of their social and political affairs, there will always be a better and decline a worse for human beings to choose; or at least a lesser evil . . The managers who control the Essay on Upton, great power aggregates - big industry, the governmental apparatus, the labor organizations, the military forces - can become, and decline byzantine empire indeed have already become in most great nations, the dominant class . . Milovan Djilas' book, T he New Class , which (so far as it goes) is a fairly direct application of the theory of the managerial revolution to Soviet developments, undoubtedly gives expression to Essay on Upton Sinclair's The Jungle ideas widely spread not only in Yugoslavia but elsewhere in Prince of Bel Air: Will Smith, the Communist sphere. The Managerial Revoluton has itself been extensively circulated and discussed in eastern Europe, particularly in on Upton Sinclair's, East Germany, Poland, Czechoslovakia and Russia, and has had the honor of being frequently attacked by themes of mice, the official press and radio. Continuous mass unemployment is not new in Essay on Upton, history. It is, in fact, a symptorn that a given type of social organization is Getting Back with, just about finished. It was found among the poorer citizens during the last years of Athens, among the urban proletariat (as they were called) in the Roman Empire, and very notably at Essay on Upton Sinclair's The Jungle, the end of the Middle Ages, among the biopure study, dispossessed serfs and villeins who had been thrown off the Essay on Upton, land in order to make way for capitalist use of the land. . The volume of public and private debt has reached a point where it cannot be managed much longer.

The debt, like the unemployed, sucks away the diminishing blood stream of Miss Evers' Essay, capitalism. And it cannot be shaken off. Bankruptcies, which formerly readjusted the debt position of on Upton, capitalism, hardly make a dent in it. Only the hopelessly naive can imagine that France fell so swiftly because of the The Fresh Smith Essay, mere mechanical strength of the Nazi war machine - that might have been sufficient in on Upton, a longer run but not to destroy a great nation with a colossal military establishment in Body Back, a few weeks. France collapsed so swiftly because its people had no heart for on Upton The Jungle, the war - as every observer had remarked, even through the censorship, from the beginning of the war. And they had no heart for The Fresh of Bel Will Essay, the war because the Essay The Jungle, bourgeois ideologies by which they were appealed to no longer had power to move their hearts. The managers will exercise their control over the instruments of production and gain preference in egyptian class, the distribution of the products, not directly , through property rights vested in them as individuals, but indirectly , through their control of the Essay on Upton Sinclair's The Jungle, state which in turn will own and control the instruments of production.

The state - that is, the institutions which comprise the state - will, if we wish to put it that way, be the property of the managers. And that will be quite enough to place them in the position of ruling class. In capitalist society, the role of Getting Body Back with Therapists, government in the economy is on Upton, always secondary . The government acts in Miss, the economy chiefly to preserve the integrity of the market and of capitalist property relations, and to give aid and comfort, as in war or international competition or internal disturbances, when these are needed. . The Congress of Soviets, in 1917, was made up of representatives of local soviets which, in turn, were elected primarily by workers and peasants in the various local districts. In the Congress of Soviets which met at the beginning of Essay The Jungle, November, 1917, the Bolshevik party had a majority. This Congress then declared itself to be the government : that is to say, it claimed sovereignty and declared that sovereignty was no longer possessed by the Kerensky government which was based upon the remnants of the old Duma. The Soviet Congress then proceeded to enact the chief initial measures of the new regime and to Air: Will elect an executive - the Essay on Upton Sinclair's The Jungle, Council of Commissars . It would seem, then, that sovereignty was still localized in a parliament; and, for a short time, this was more or less the themes and men, case. But this state of affairs did not last. Parliamentary sovereignty proved inappropriate for a nation that rapidly developed in the direction of managerial society. On Upton. Within a few years, well before the death of Film Miss Boys, Lenin and the subsequent exile of Trotsky, the Soviet Congress had lost, one by one, all the attributes of sovereignty . Its nominal rehabilitation in the Stalinist Constitution of 1937 changed nothing and left the Soviet Congress the mere minor propaganda instrument which it continues to be. The development was indicated at least as early as the on Upton The Jungle, so-called Kronstadt revolt, which took place in 1921 . The opposition platform of the sailors and themes of mice and men populace of the Essay on Upton, Kronstadt area had as its key plank, new elections to the soviets.

This demand was in reality an effort to return sovereignty to the soviets and the Soviet Congress and an implicit recognition that these institutions no longer possessed sovereignty. The demand was rejected by the true sovereign institutions of the soviet state, and the dissidents answered by armed suppression. In the new form of of mice and men, society, sovereignty is localized in administrative bureaus. They proclaim the rules, make the laws, issue the decrees. The shift from parliament to the bureaus occurs on The Jungle, a world scale. Viewed on a world scale, the battle is already over. The localization of sovereignty in parliament is ended save for a lingering remnant in England (where it may not last the biopure, next few months), in the United States, and certain of the lesser nations. There is no mystery in this shift. It can be correlated easily enough with the change in Essay Sinclair's The Jungle, the character of the Analysis: Evers', state's activities. Essay. Parliament was the sovereign body of the limited state of capitalism.

The bureaus are the sovereign bodies of the unlimited state of managerial society . Sovereignty for a nation implies that the nation makes laws for itself and byzantine empire recognizes no superior lawmaker . It means that the nation sets up tariffs and on Upton other import and export controls, regulates its own foreign policies and its own currency, and maintains civil, diplomatic, and military establishments. The simultaneous existence of egyptian social, many sovereign nations in the modern world necessarily means an anarchic situation in Sinclair's, world politics . This must be because, since each sovereign nation recognizes no lawmaker superior to itself, there is in the end no way except by force to mediate the deep conflicts that are bound to arise among the various nations. Experience has shown that the existence of a large number of sovereign nations, especially in Europe (and with somewhat less acuteness in Latin America), is incompatible with contemporary economic and social needs. The system simply does not work. In spite of the fact that the post-Versailles European arrangements were set up and of mice guaranteed by the most powerful coalition in history, which had achieved victory in the greatest war of history, they could not last. Essay Sinclair's The Jungle. The complex division of labour, the flow of biopure study, trade and raw materials made possible and demanded by on Upton, modern technology, were strangled in Getting Your Body Back with Therapists Essay, the network of diverse tariffs, laws, currencies, passports, boundary restrictions, bureaucracies, and independent armies . It has been clear for some while that these were going to on Upton The Jungle be smashed ; the only problem was who was going to do it and how and when. Now it is being done under the Getting Your Essay, prime initial impulse of Essay on Upton The Jungle, Germany. Even if , by Prince of Bel Air: Will Essay, a lucky chance, some one power might win what would look like a world victory , it could only prove temporary. The disintegrative forces would be sufficient to pull it rapidly to pieces. . A world state.

would presuppose a large measure of general social unity anong men: in interests, in culture, in education, in material standards of life. No such unity exists . The comparatively large number of sovereign nations under capitalism is on Upton, being replaced by a comparatively small number of great nations, or super-states, which will divide the world among them . Some of the many nations which are eliminated in fact may be preserved in form ; they may be kept as administrative sub-divisions, but they will be stripped of sovereignty . Egyptian Class. Sovereignty will be restricted to the few super-states. . Advanced industy is concentrated in three , and only three, comparatively small areas: the United States, especially its north-eastern and Essay on Upton north-central regions; Europe, especially north-central Europe (Germany, the Netherlands, Belgium, northern France, England) ; and the Japanese islands together with parts of eastern China . It is advanced industry, needless to say, which makes the goods with which modern wars are fought and won, as well as the biopure, other key goods upon which modern culture depends. The economic map suggests dramatically what is probable on many other grounds: that the world political system will coalesce into three primary super-states , each based upon one of these three areas of advanced industry . This does not necessarily mean that these three super-states will be the United States, Germany, and Essay The Jungle Japan as we know them to-day . This may well be the case, but it need not be so. In these nations there may be internal convulsions which, together with foreign military struggles, will seem to break their continity with the past. New names may be used . This would, however, be of secondary importance in the long run. It should go without saying that the mechanism whereby this new political system will be built is and egyptian will be war. From the war of 1939 are coming more major political leaps. But this is only the first, not the last, war of managerial society . Essay. There will be much still to be decided after the present struggle is over - though, since war and peace are no longer declared, it may be hard to know when this struggle is over and the themes of mice, next one begins. The immediate war will not even complete the consolidation of the managerial structure of society; and after it is completed there will still be wars, for there will remain plenty to fight about.

The fundamental theme of the wars of the future - into one of which the second world war was already evolving by the latter part of 1940 - will be the clash among. the three areas which constitute the three main strategic bases. Ostensibly these wars will be directed from each base for conquest of the other bases. But it does not seem possible for on Upton Sinclair's, any of these to conquer the others; and even two of them in coalition could not win a decisive and lasting victory . What will be actually accomplished by these wars will not be a decision as to who is to social rule the bases - for Americans are going to on Upton Sinclair's The Jungle rule here, Europeans in Europe, and Asiatics in Japan and egyptian social East China - but decisions as to what parts and Essay how much of the rest of the decline of the byzantine, world are going to be ruled by each of the three strategic centres. Essay. . This struggle among the three strategic centres for world control will be the fundamental theme of the coming wars of managerial society. . And the consolidation of the case study, three super-states, even within their immediate strategic areas, is not by any means finished. In.

Europe, for example, even if Germany were fully victorious in the present war, there would still remain Russia and Italy; and Russia is also in Asia along with Japan. Everyone knows, however, that Italy is on Upton Sinclair's, a subordinate, incapable of a really independent sovereign policy. There is every reason to Analysis: Miss Essay believe (as we shall discuss in Chapter XIV) that Russia will split apart, with the Essay on Upton The Jungle, western half gravitating toward the egyptian social, European base and the eastern toward the Essay Sinclair's The Jungle, Asiatic . But even if a coalition of the future , combined with internal disturbances, should overthrow the Germany of the present, this would be secondary to the main scheme. The result of and men, such a development would not alter the political system toward which managerial society tends. It would merely change the name and some of the leading personnel of one of the super-states . The coming years will also include wars of another type - indeed, these began several years ago: wars of the metropolitan centres against backward areas and peoples. The backward areas, which include a majority of the territory and people of the world, are not going to line up automatically behind one or another of the three centres or merely stand aside while the three fight over them. . the backward peoples will attempt to break free altogether from domination and to take their destiny into Sinclair's The Jungle, their own hands. Often such uprisings will occur in egyptian class, connection with wars among the chief managerial powers. However, it is Essay on Upton The Jungle, doubtful that any of the Film Boys, backward peoples will be able to Essay The Jungle win independence (except , perhaps, in form and title) . They do not have the egyptian class, technological resources to Essay on Upton conduct modern war successfully or to compete more or less evenly from an economic point of social class, view - which is also necessary for independence to-day. They will have to gravitate toward one or another of the Sinclair's The Jungle, great camps , even if they have some temporary success in a struggle for independence.

The United States is consolidating its strategic base in Prince of Bel Will, the northern two-thirds of this hemisphere and preparing to do battle against either or both of the on Upton Sinclair's, two great rivals - the European centre and the Asiatic centre - for its share in the new world. We already have examples, Fascism-Nazism and Leninism-Stalinism (communism or Bolshevism) are types of of the empire, early managerial ideologies which have been given organized expression and have already had great success. In this country, Technocracy and the much more important New Dealism are embyronic and less-developed types of primitive, native-American managerial ideologies . I have listed Leninism-Stalinism, but not Marxism as an example of a managerial ideology . This raises the question of the relation of Essay on Upton The Jungle, Marxism to Leninism and of Leninism to Stalinism. Historically, the social movement, which both in organization and ideas traced its source to the activities and writing of Marx, separated, through a division which started during the last years of the nineteenth century and culminated in egyptian social class, 1914, into two main streams: a reformist, social-democratic wing; and a revolutionary wing in which for the first decade after 1914 Lenin was the most conspicuous figure. I do not any longer consider it fruitful to dispute over which of these is genuine Marxism. Historically, they both spring from Marx. What happened seems to be the Essay, following: The views of empire, Marx , in their implications and Essay consequences, were historically ambiguous.

In addition, he proposed a social goal - a free, classless international society - which cannot be reached in the present period of history . Real historical movements in biopure case study, practice modify goals to bring them closer to Essay on Upton Sinclair's real possibilities. The Marxist movement separated along the lines of the great division of our time, capitalist society and managerial society. Both wings of Marxism retained, as often happens, the language of Marx, though more and more modifying it under new pressures. Your Back A Physical Therapists Essay. In practice, the reformist wing lined up with the capitalists and capitalist society, and demonstrated this in all social crises. The Leninist wing became one of the organized movements toward , and expressed one of the ideologies of, managerial society . The reformist wing is Sinclair's The Jungle, a somewhat inconsistent defender of decline of the empire, capitalism, it is Essay The Jungle, true, because by its retention of much of the case, ambiguous language of Marx it also contributes to popularizing managerial concepts. But this is the on Upton Sinclair's, main line of the division. Lenin died, and Stalin headed the managerial wing. The ideology and practices were further modified. Film Analysis: Essay. There has been much dispute over whether Stalin is the legitimate heir of Lenin; and I, for Sinclair's The Jungle, some years active in the Trotskyist. political organization, long took part in of mice, that dispute. Essay On Upton Sinclair's. I have come to the conclusion, however, that the Back Essay, dispute has been conducted on a pointless basis.

The historical problem is not whether Stalin or Trotsky (or someone else, for Essay Sinclair's The Jungle, there are many other claimants) comes closer to the verbally explicit principles enunciated by Lenin. Empire. A dispute on Essay on Upton Sinclair's The Jungle, such a level has never been and of Bel Will Essay will never be settled, since Lenin said many things and did many things. It is like arguing over the legitimate interpretation of the Bible or the Koran. So far as historical development goes, there really cannot be much question; Stalinism is Essay on Upton Sinclair's The Jungle, what Leninism developed into - and, moreover, without any sharp break in the process of development. We must not make the mistake of supposing that the Russian changes were dependent merely on the presence of one or another individual, on the personal wickedness or nobility (depending on our point of view) of, for example, Stalin. If Lenin himself had lived, there is no reason to think that the process would have differed greatly . Biopure Case. After all, there is more than passing significance in the fact that, for many years, probably the most intimate colleague of Lenin's, the man with whom he exercised hidden control over the Bolshevik party underneath the party's formal apparatus, was the brilliant and successful engineer - the manager - Krassin. But the death of Essay Sinclair's The Jungle, all the early leaders was an Getting Body Back with a Physical Therapists, important ritual act in establishing the mass attitudes of managerial society and in strengthening the foundations of the managerial institutions. The pattern of the Russian way to the managerial revolution is illuminated by the history of the revolutionary concept of workers' control. Workers' control of industry has from the beginning been a slogan of the Leninist wing of Marxism . The reason why is easy to understand.

According to the formal ideology of on Upton The Jungle, socialism, private ownership (control) in industry is to be eliminated - that is, as socialism understands it, control is to be wrested by the masses as a whole. The crucial revolutionary act, therefore, would presumably be the themes, actual taking over of control in industry by the workers themselves. Hence the slogan. Now, in the course of the Russian revolution (as in the. many other attempts at Sinclair's, mass revolution which followed it during the past twenty-three years), the workers acted quite literally in accordance with the slogan of workers' control. In the factories, shops, mines, and so on, the workers, through committees elected from their own ranks, simply did take over control. They ousted not only the owners (who were seldom there to be ousted, since owners are not usually connected directly with production nowadays) but all the egyptian social, directing staff and supervisors: that is , they ousted also the managers . The workers thought, in their own way, that the Essay, revolution was designed to rid them of all rulers and exploiters. They recognized that the managers as well as the owners were among the rulers and exploiters both of the past and, above all, of the future. The workers set about byzantine empire, running the factories themselves.

This state of affairs did not , however, last long . Two issues were at stake. In the first place, the separate factories and Essay on Upton Sinclair's The Jungle other instruments of production were not run very well under workers' control exercised at Miss Evers' Essay, the source; and there were even greater difficulties in Essay The Jungle, the co-ordination of the efforts of various factories . It is themes and men, needless to speculate on exactly why this was so. Elected committees of the workers themselves, the members of which are subject to on Upton The Jungle momentary recall and who have, besides, no technical training for, or background in, the managerial tasks, do not seem to make a good job of running modern factories or mines or railroads. It is even harder for them to collaborate effectively in directing entire branches of industry or industry as a whole. Perhaps new democratic mechanisms and egyptian sufficient time to Essay on Upton gain experience would overcome the troubles. As things actually work out, time is not granted, and the mechanisms are not available. Second, the perspective of workers' control of biopure study, production at the source, if it should be proved in the end successful, would mean the elimination of all privilege, all differentials of power in society, would mean, in short, a classless organization of society. Thus the drive for class power in on Upton Sinclair's The Jungle, society needs to get rid of workers' control, and finds rational motivation in the evidences of the inefficiency of workers' control - above all, because the movement toward workers control occurs in periods of intense social crisis, or war and civil war; when efficient industrial organization seems an imperious need. If the social class, temporary workers' control is The Jungle, replaced by the old control of capitalist owners (as happened in the two revolutionary crises in Germany at the end of, and a few years after, the first world war), then society, after a crisis, has simply returned to its previous capitalist structure.

If workers' control is replaced by the de facto control of the managers backed by a new kind of state, then capitalism , after a transitional crisis, has changed into managerial society . The latter, through a series of intermediary steps, is what happened in Russia. For a while after the revolution in Russia , in many factories and other enterprises - for a very short while - the factories were run by the workers through their elected committees called Factory Committees. Then the Getting Back with a Physical Therapists Essay, technical direction of operations was turned over to Essay Sinclair's specialists (that is, managers) , with the Factory Committees remaining in study, existence and still exercising substantial control through a veto power over Essay Sinclair's the managers and jurisdiction over The Fresh of Bel Essay labour conditions. Meanwhile, bureaus and commissions and individuals appointed from above by the new (soviet) government were beginning to take over the job of co-ordinating the efforts of various factories and branches of industry . Gradually the Essay on Upton The Jungle, powers of the managers and egyptian social managerial co-ordinator, increased, necessarily at the expense of workers' control and the Factory Committees. The Factory Committee lost their veto powers . Their prerogative, labour conditions, became more and more narrowly interpreted. The Committee composition was changed to Essay Sinclair's The Jungle include one state representative, one managerial representative, and one man nominally representing the workers . Finally, even these Committees lost all their real power and remained as mere formalities, to be dropped altogether in 1938 . Workers' control had been transformed into managerial control . This development did not take place without incident, including violent incident. The workers, or some of egyptian social class, them , sensed its meaning: that the Essay Sinclair's, freedom and end of privilege, which they had thought the revolution was to bring, were giving way to a new form of biopure, class rule. They tried to prevent power from getting out of the hands of their Committees. On Upton. They refused to accept the managers, sometimes drove them out or even killed them. But at each decisive step, the state (the workers' socialist state), whether under Lenin or Stalin, backed not the workers but the managers . A wide campaign of education was undertaken to show the people why workers' rule meant, in practice, managers' rule.

Where necessary, the education by the word was supplemented with education by themes of mice, firing squad or concentration camp or forced labour battalion. Lenin and Essay on Upton The Jungle Trotsky, both, in the early years of the revolution, wrote pamphlets and speeches arguing the case of the social class, specialists, the technicians, the managers . Lenin, in his forceful way, used to declare that the manager had to be a dictator in the factory. The Jungle. Workers' democracy in the state, Lenin said in effect, was to be founded upon a managerial dictatorship in the factory . Perhaps Lenin did not realize the full irony of Getting Body Back with Therapists Essay, his position. He, as a Marxist, believed - correctly - that the roots of Essay Sinclair's The Jungle, social power lie in the control over the instruments of production . And he, as the head of the new state, helped to decline empire smash workers', popular, control over those instruments and to substitute for it control by the managers . And, of course, the managers of individual plants became subordinate to the big managers, to the boards and Essay Sinclair's The Jungle bureaus directing entire sectors of industry and governing industry as a whole . Class. Interestingly enough, these managers under the new state included many of those who had been managers under the Essay Sinclair's The Jungle, old capitalist rule. Lenin and Trotsky poured scorn on infantile leftists who were against empire, making use of the services of the Sinclair's The Jungle, bourgeois specialists (as they called them).

The workers needed them - to decline of the run the plants. Lenin regretted that there were so few left and that in Russia there had never been an adequate. staff of trained specialists. Most favourable terms were given to foreign bourgeois specialists who were willing to Essay on Upton come to work under the new regime. The class of managers that steadily rose was not altogether a new creation; it was the development and extension of the class which, as we have seen, already exists, and is already extending its power and influence, under capitalism, especially during the latter days of Getting Back with a Physical Therapists Essay, capitalism. We shall deservedly place the Essay Sinclair's, greatest stress upon what happened to workers' control. Moreover, the decline of the, Russian experience is plainly typical. There have not yet been any other revolutions just like Russia's; but there have been a dozen revolutionary situations of the same general nature. Sinclair's The Jungle. In them all, the same tendencies are displayed. In them all - Germany, the Balkans, China, Italy, Spain - the workers , in the crisis, start to themes take over control of the instruments of production , to take it over directly, into their own hands on the spot.

Always a formula is found to explain to them why this cannot continue ; and, if the formula is not enough, the guns come later. The question for us is not whether it is a good idea for the workers to take control. We are concerned merely with noticing, first, that they try to take control; and , second, that they do not succeed in maintaining control . Their inability to maintain control is one more demonstration that socialism - a free, classless society - is not now scheduled. The control , and the social rule which goes with it, when it leaves the hands of the capitalists, goes not to the workers, the people, but to Sinclair's The Jungle the managers, the new ruling class . A parallel of the Russian process can be observed with particular clarity in connection with the events in Loyalist territories during the Analysis: Miss Essay, recent Spanish Civil War, above all in Catalonia. Essay On Upton The Jungle. There, just as in Russia, the workers and peasants began taking over direct control of the factories and railroads and firms. There too, not at once, but during the course of the Getting Your Back with a Physical, first two years of the Civil War, the de facto power slipped from the workers' hands, sometimes voluntarily given up at Essay Sinclair's The Jungle, the persuasion of a political party, sometimes smashed by. arms and prison. It was not the troops of Franco who took control away from the people of of mice and men, Catalonia; they had lost control well before Franco's army conquered. These experiences have , as a matter of fact, received recognition in Leninist doctrine (both the Stalinist and Trotskyist variants) , not so much in public writings as in the theories elaborated primarily for party members. Workers' control, the doctrine now reads, is a transition slogan, but loses its relevance once the revolution is Essay, successful and the new state established.

By calling it a transition slogan it is meant that the social, slogan, and the act, of establishing workers' control are useful in Sinclair's The Jungle, arousing mass sentiment against the existing capitalist regime and in bringing about the egyptian, downfall of the capitalist order - both undoubtedly the Essay, case; but that, when the Analysis: Evers' Essay, new regime is on Upton The Jungle, functioning, workers' control must, naturally, step aside. The ideological explanation offered by Leninism for Body with a Physical Therapists, this turn-about is that, while workers must rightly defend themselves with the help of Essay The Jungle, workers' control against the enemy capitalist state, they will have no need to defend themselves against the new regime which be their own state, a workers' state busily constructing a true socialist society. This explanation is to be interpreted in the same manner we interpret all aspects of study, all ideologies. What is really involved is a very important consequence of the pattern of the Russian way to managerial society, which we are here studying. This pattern, we saw, calls for first reducing the capitalists to impotence and then curbing the masses. The masses are of course used in accomplishing the first step and workers' control is a major manoeuvre in breaking the power of the capitalists. But workers' control is not only intolerable for the capitalist state: it is, if long continued and established, intolerable for any state and any class rule in society.

Consequently, the consolidation of managerial power in the new state requires the breaking down of workers' control, which was so important an Sinclair's The Jungle, influence in Getting Back with a Physical, finishing up the old society. The Russian Revolution was not a socialist revolution - which, from all the evidence, cannot take place in our time - but a managerial revolution . Who are the rulers of Russia? They are, of course, the men who are running its factories and mines and railroads, the directing members of the commissariats and subcommissariats of heavy and Essay The Jungle light industry and biopure transportation and communication, the heads of the large collective farms, the Essay Sinclair's, expert manipulators of the propaganda mediums, the chiefs of the dozens of mass organizations, the managers in short: these and their bureaucratic and Getting Your Body with Essay military and police associates. The power and privilege are under their control. For them the capitalists at home have been got rid of or reduced to impotence; and for them the capitalists abroad were fought off and forced to an uneasy truce.

It is they who have curbed the Essay The Jungle, masses and have instituted a social. structure in which they are on top, not by virtue of private property rights in Air: Will Essay, the instruments of production, but through their monopoly control of a state power which has fused with the economy. It is they who now await the contests of the future with the other sectors of the world managers. It is Essay Sinclair's The Jungle, these managers , with their political and military associates, who have been extending their regime beyond Soviet boundaries during the course of the second world war. Getting Back Therapists. The events in the little border nations have reproduced on a laboratory, and somewhat grotesque, scale the pattern of the Russian Revolution ; and, also like a laboratory experiment, the events have done so under the firm guidance of the experimenter, not at their own sweet will. The local workers and Essay on Upton The Jungle peasants (in the Baltic nations, eastern Poland, Bessarabia), as the egyptian social, Red Army marches, begin to take control of the local industries and farms and to oust the capitalists who have not already fled. For a very short while they are encouraged in these activities by the Russian representatives. A semblance of workers' control appears . The first part of the triple managerial problem is solved - the capitalists are reduced to impotence - which is not so major a task in the tiny states concerned. Then, with hardly a breathing space, the The Jungle, solution for the second part of the managerial problem takes place under much simpler conditions than in Russia in her own time.

The masses are curbed - to-day the army and the GPU that supervise the egyptian class, curbing are large and experienced in solving this part of the problem. The new rulers - not new capitalists, naturally, but Russian managers and their representatives - walk in to run their newly acouired factories and mines and banks. Workers' control is transformed into Essay on Upton Sinclair's The Jungle, a name , and the soldiers and police back the dictates of the managers. The whole process , which took in Russia itself so many strenuous years, is completed in a couple of months. The advantages which the managerial structure gave Russia against capitalist nations disappear when Russia is confronted with other managerial or near-managerial states which are not burdened by Russia's weaknesses . There seems good reason to believe, as I stated in Chapter XII, that during the course of the next years Russia will split apart into an eastern and western section, each section gravitating toward one of the key areas which constitute the strategic bases of the Analysis: Evers' Boys, super-states of the future . Indeed, this process has already started. Siberia is so far away from Moscow and so badly connected with European Russia that it naturally swings toward the East as it has for some years been conspicuously doing. Its future brings it into always-closer integration with the East Asian central area of advanced industry . And similarly , at an increased rate since the Essay on Upton The Jungle, Nazi-Soviet pact, European Russia swings toward the central European area. Feelers move out from both sides of the border. The Russian boundaries advance toward the west. At the same time, economic and social relations with Germany increase.

German technicians, managers, move into the Russian industrial enterprises. How great the latter influx has so far been the public figures do not tell us but it is certainly much further advanced than any publicist has yet imagined. This infiltration of German managers is a large step in the road toward fusion of European Russia with the European centre . We may be sure that the completion of the biopure case, fusion, under whatever nominal auspices it comes, will find Russia subordinated to European centre, not, as the spinners of Bolshevik nightmares tell us, the other way around. The development of the fusion begins in a dozen ways, beneath the Sinclair's The Jungle, surface. Its accomplishment will, presumably, include war, one or more. of the managerial wars of social, to-morrow, the preparations for which are so plainly around us. Note. - In spite of the on Upton Sinclair's The Jungle, Russo-German war, it has seemed to me advisable to leave the text as it was written in 1940, and Back a Physical first published in the Spring of 1941 . The intent of this book is not journalistic but scientific.

From a scientific standpoint, the Essay Sinclair's The Jungle, theory of the egyptian social, managerial revolution is much better tested by its ability to The Jungle make events intelligible before they happen, rather than by the ease with which it can doctor up references to what has already occurred. The outbreak of the Russo-German war, and its course, seem to Getting Your with me a confirmation of the fundamental analysis precented in on Upton The Jungle, this chapter, and in particular of the political analysis summarized in Chapter XII. This war, to use the language of the theory, is part of the means whereby the western half of Russia is Boys Essay, being integrated into Sinclair's The Jungle, the European super-state. However, the impression that the Getting Body a Physical Therapists, text gives is of a later beginning of war between Russia and Germany than actually turned out to Essay on Upton Sinclair's be the case - and, so far as I can recall, this impression corresponds with the opinion I held in 1940. I believe that this error in time schedule resulted from a too schematic application of the biopure, sociological and economic analysis to The Jungle the problem, with insufficient attention to strictly military considerations. That a large part of Russia should be drawn within the west-European orbit, and that war would be part of the process of fusion, followed from the themes, whole course of contemporary history. Just when the war would start, however, was decided primarily by the requirements of military strategy.

her colonies, her merchant marine, and her navy; and Essay on Upton Sinclair's her army was reduced to a minimum figure. Biopure Case Study. Her people had been exhausted by the war and by the famine which occurred during its last year. She was saddled with reparations not merely in money - which she could and did pay largely through borrowings - but in kind, which latter meant the loss of material goods. Her opponents had carved up all the juiciest slices of the world in what they took to be their own interests. It is against this background that we must place contemporary Germany . Nazi Germany eliminated unemployment within a couple of years from Hitler's ascension to power. The means whereby this was done are irrelevant to our inquiry; the fact that it was done is crucial. Mass unemployment is the Sinclair's, primary indication of the collapse of a given form of society. The great capitalist powers have proved that they cannot get rid of mass unemployment under capitalist institutions. Even after a year and a half of war, after more than half a year of the Battle of Britain, there were still, according to official figures - which probably understate the facts and besides do not include so-called unemployables - nearly a million unemployed in Getting Your Back Therapists Essay, England . Nazi Germany's elimination of unemployment is, in and by itself, a sufficient proof that Germany has left the Sinclair's, basis of capitalism and entered the road of a new form of society. Everyone knows and many have stated that it is not by virtue of the capitalist elements remaining in German culture that unemployment has been got rid of, but through the introduction of non-capitalist methods.

Similarly, Germany has broken through the egyptian, restrictions of on Upton The Jungle, capitalist finance. According to all the laws of capitalism, Germany should have been bankrupt five years ago; its currency should have gone into a wild inflation; it should have been impossible tor the state to finance its vast undertakings. But, under the state control of finance, none of the laws held. Again, through state control of The Fresh Prince of Bel Air: Will Smith, imports and exports, Germany has been able to carry on foreign trade without the means, according to Essay on Upton The Jungle capitalist standards, of doing so . And huge outlets - primarily in state enterplises - have been found for the investment funds that sit idly in the banks of the great capitalist powers. We find in Germany to case study an ever-increasing degree those structural changes which we have discovered to be characteristic of the Sinclair's The Jungle, shift from biopure case study capitalism to managerial society . In.

the economic sphere, there is a steady reduction, in all senses, of the area of private enterprise, and on Upton a correlative increase of state intervention. There was a brief period, immediately following the Nazi accession to state power, when the trend seemed to be in the opposite direction, when even a few enterprises which had been under state operation in the Weimar Republic were handed back to private capitalists. But this quickly reversed. The state intervention in the economy occurs in numerous directions. Outright state ownership and operation , advancing in all fields, are particularly ascendant in the extensive areas of new enterprise opened up during the of the, Nazi rule.

However, to confine attention to outright ownership and on Upton Sinclair's operation with all legal formalities would be deceptive. Virtually all economic enterprise is subject to class rigid state control ; and it is control which we have seen to be decisive in relation to the instruments of production. Legal forms, even income privileges, are in the end subordinate to de facto control. Even where private owners stlll exist in Germany, the decisions about their property are not in their hands. They do not decide what to make or not to make. They do not establish prices or bargain about wages. They are not at liberty to buy the raw materials they might choose nor to Essay on Upton Sinclair's seek the most profitable markets. They cannot, as a rule, decide how to invest or not invest their surplus funds. In short, they are no longer owners, no longer effective capitalists, whatever certificates they may have in themes, their deposit boxes. The regulation of production in Essay Sinclair's The Jungle, Germany is no longer left to Analysis: Boys Essay the market . Sinclair's The Jungle. What is to Film Analysis: be produced, and how much, is decided, deliberately, by groups of men, by the state boards and bureaus and commissions . It is they that decide whether a new plant shall be built or an old plant retired, how raw materials shall be allotted and orders distributed, what quotas must be fulfilled by various branches of industry, what goods shall be put aside for export, how prices shall be fixed and credit and exchange extended . There is no requirement that these decisions of the bureaus must be based on on Upton Sinclair's The Jungle, any profit aim in the capitalist sense. If it is thought expedient, for whatever reason, to produce, for ezample, an ersatz rubber or wool or food, this will be done even if the production entails, from a capitalist point of view, a heavy loss.

Similarly, in order to accumulate foreign exchange or to stimulate some political effect in a foreign nation, goods will be exported regardless of loss . A factory may be compelled to shut down, even though it could operate at a high profit. Banks and individuals are forced to invest their funds with no reference to the private and voluntary opinions about risks from a profit standpoint. It is literally true to say that the Miss Evers' Essay, Nazi economy, already, is Essay, not a profit economy. The workers, on their side, are no longer the free proletarians of capitalism. Under Nazism the workers are indeed, free from unemployment. At the same time they cannot, as individuals or through their own independent organizations, bargain for wages or change jobs at will. They are assigned to their tasks, and their labour conditions are fixed, by the decisions of the state bureaus and commissions . Millions of biopure, them are allotted to the vast state enterprises. The minimum estimate I have seen (for 1939) gives the percentage of national income representing direct state activities as 50%. With the on Upton Sinclair's The Jungle, reduction in the area of private enterprise and the increase of state enterprise, goes also a corresponding reduction in social class, the social position of the private capitalists.

So far as control over the instruments of production goes, the capitalists are already near the bottom. As to income privilege: a recent estimate by a New York statistician gives as a mere 5% the share of the German national income going to profits and interest . This is a substantial reduction from the Essay on Upton Sinclair's, 1933 figures, in spite of a huge increase in the total national income, which, under capitalism, would normally be accompanied by a percentage increase in profits. In the United States, profits and interest are 20% of the national income , even excluding all so-called entrepreneurial profits. Moreover, of the German capitalists' 5%, the greater part is appropriated by the state as taxes and Prince of Bel Air: Will Essay contributions. The statistics, however - which are, in any case, not reliable - fail to indicate the full meaning. How strange that it has not yet been remarked how seldom we find a manager among the voluntary or forced exiles from Nazi Gerrnany! There are artists and writers among the exiles, ideologists and Essay on Upton The Jungle politicians, unassimilable foes of the new regime, storekeepers and professionals and biopure study teachers, and on Upton The Jungle not a few capitalists, both Jews and Christians. But almost never a manager. It is strange that this has not been remarked but not strange that it is the case. For the managers realize that the society which is developing is Analysis: Essay, their society. In short!

Germany is to-day a managerial state in an early stage . Structurally, it is less advanced along managerial lines than Russia; it retains as yet more capitalist elements. But, though structurally less advanced, Germany is without most of Essay Sinclair's The Jungle, those major weaknesses which we noted in egyptian social, the case of Russia. Its industrial and technological foundation is far stronger; the rising managerial class is much larger, better trained, more able . The first part of the second world war, up to the fall of France in June, 1940, was in reality the continuation of the strategic extension begun in 1935. On Upton The Jungle. This phase, the consolidation of the European base, was completed with France's surrender. Decline Of The Empire. It is completed irreversibly and can no longer be undone whatever the outcome of the succeeding phases of the Essay on Upton Sinclair's The Jungle, war, which are really other wars. This consolidation fundamental to the world politics of managerial society, is not going to be dissolved, not even if the present German regime is utterly defeated. The day of a Europe carved into byzantine, a score of sovereign states is over ; if the states remain, they will be little more than administrative units in a larger collectivity.

. a deal between Germany and Essay Sinclair's The Jungle England would be much more advantageous to the European super-state of the future than to have England conquered by Germany. With a deal in which England would necessarily be subordinate, the tendency would be for Prince Air: Will Essay, the British Empire to keep attached to the European central area. In the course of the military conquest of England, most of the Empire tends to drop off to the spheres of the Essay on Upton Sinclair's The Jungle, United States and Film Analysis: Essay the Asiatic central area. But the English capitalists weighed the costs and decided to keep on on Upton Sinclair's, fighting . Thus the second phase of the war, really a second war, goes on as I write. By the end of 1940 it was clear that the focus of the war was shifting, that the result of the European struggle was in fundamentals decided, and that a new, third, phase was beginning wherein the mighty opponents of the future - the three political structures based on the three central areas - were undertaking their first trials of decline byzantine, strength. These wars of the developing super-states will not end with the end of this war. Their results, we have noted, is sure to on Upton The Jungle be inconclusive, since none of the three central areas can firmly conquer any of the others.

From her continental base, the United States is called on to make bid for maximum world power as against the super-states to be based on the other two central areas . . First, there is the consolidation of the main strategic base. In Europe this consolidation meant smashing the Continental political system. In the Americas, most of the base is already included within the boundaries of the United States. Byzantine. . Next comes the protective extension of the base with the aim of making it invulnerable for defence and convenient for attack. This, in Essay The Jungle, current terms, is the policy of themes, modified hemisphere defence, to draw a ring around all of North America and northern South America. The second stage is already well advanced. It was prepared for by the series of Pan-American conferences and on Upton agreements and by what is propagandlsttcally referred to as tbe Good Neighbour Policy. It has gone forward through such measures as the establishment of air lanes throughout Latin America, the visits of warships and war planes, the projection of the Pan-American Highway, the strengthening of the Panama Canal, reciprocal military agreements with Latin-American nations, the defence alliance with Canada which in effect subordinates Canada's sovereignty to the United States, and the deal with Britain which secured outlying bases in the Atlantic.

Naturally, this stage wlll not stop with these moves. It will issue in a situation comparable to what Hitler aims at decline of the, in most of Essay on Upton The Jungle, Europe: the egyptian, de facto elimination of independent sovereignty in all nations and colonies of the area except the United States , and Essay Sinclair's thus the creation of a single interrelated territory so far as de fatto political sovereignty goes. There is every reason to suppose that this stage will be successfully accomplished. The third and grandiose stage, which, though it has already begun for the United States, will extend many decades into the future, and for which the first two stages are preparation, is the bid for the maximum of world power against Getting Back with Therapists, the claims of the European and Asiatic central areas. The United States is forced to Essay Sinclair's begin this third stage before the preparatory first two stages are finished.

The first great plan in Film Analysis: Boys Essay, the third stage is for the United States to become what might be called the receiver for the disintegrating British Empire . (We are not, of course, interated in Essay on Upton The Jungle, the propagandistic terms that are used in Prince Will Smith, current references to this action.) The attempt is to swing the orientation of the Empire from its historical dependence on Essay Sinclair's, Europe to dependence on and subordination to of mice the American central area. Along with the United States' receivership plan for the British Empire go still broader aims in Essay on Upton Sinclair's, connection with the rest of South America, the Prince, Far East (including conspicuously the Far Eastern colonies of formerly sovereign European states) and in fact the Essay on Upton The Jungle, whole world . Decline Empire. The struggle which has begun is the world struggle of the super-states of the Essay Sinclair's, future. This struggle, as I have remarked, is bound to be inconclusive. No one of the three central areas is able to conquer definitely the other central areas, and therefore no one state power can in of mice and men, fact rule the world. This will not, however, prevent the struggle from taking place. The new world political system based on on Upton Sinclair's The Jungle, a small number of super-states will still leave problems - more, perhaps, than a unified single world-state; but it will be enough of a solution for society to keep going. 2.1 In the Film Miss, following quotes, the page numbers in 1984 are firstly given for a hardback edition: George Orwell: Animal Farm, Burnese Days, A Clergyman's Daughter, Coming Up-Or Air, Keep the Aspidistra Flying, Nineteen Eighty-Four , Secker Warburg/Octopus, London, 1976. Page numbers are then given for on Upton The Jungle, the paperback edition: Penguin, Harmondsworth 1955. Orwell, as a Trotskyist, makes Trotsky (a Jew) the hero in both Animal Farm and 1984 . In Animal Farm , the horse Snowball is modelled on of the byzantine empire, Trotsky. In 1984 , the underground leader Goldstein is modelled on Essay The Jungle, Trotsky: . the face of Goldstein . Essay. was a lean Jewish face, wit h . a small goatee beard (p.

749; p. 13 in the Penguin paperback). Personally, I find this offensive, because Trotsky helped set up the The Jungle, Red Terror. And Men. On which see worst.html. Orwell should have known better; but his view of the USSR was being shaped by Trotsky, whose organisation Orwell was in Sinclair's The Jungle, . Burnham was in it too; but in The Managerial Revolution he shows an awareness that the USSR was NEVER the class, Workers' State Trotsky told the public it had been (before Stalin). It was ALWAYS a Managerial State. Gereralising the figure Goldstein: in the novel 1984 Goldstein (the hero who resists Big Brother) is Essay on Upton, a Jew. Today, what with the Holocaust Industry the laws against Hate speech, which define it in terms of subjective criteria (someone feels offense), it's those who criticise Judaism Jewish power who feel that they are the egyptian class, ones taking on the Thought Police . a nice reversal of roles compared to the scenario in 1984 . but more like the Sinclair's, situation in the USSR before Stalin. O'Brien's Inquisitor says to him : Later, in the twentieth century, there were the totalitarians , as they were called. They were the German Nazis and the Russian Communists. The Russians persecuted heresy more cruelly than the Inquisition had done. And they imagined that they had learned from the mistakes of the past; they knew , at any rate, that one must not make martyrs . Before they exposed their victims to public trial, they deliberately set themselves to social class destroy their dignity.

They wore them down by torture and solitude until they were despicable, cringing wretches, confessing whatever was put into on Upton The Jungle, their mouths . And yet after only a few years . Analysis: Essay. The dead men had become martyrs and their degradation was forgotten. . In the first place, because the confessions that they had made were obviously extorted and untrue. We do not make mistakes of that kind. (p. 889; pp. 203-4 in the Penguin paperback). This passage proves conclusively: Orwell is warning us NOT about the SOVIET UNION but about on Upton Sinclair's, OUR OWN SOCIETY. Here. Now.

2.2 During the Cold War, readers of 1984 in the West identified the terror with the USSR. The book was a potent weapon which made its readers fear the USSR. It shows how much Trotskyists hated Stalin. A whole swag of Anti-Communists broadly sympathetic to Marxism, or Zionism, or a World State - Jews like Arthur Koestler (koestler.html), non-Jews like Orwell, H. G. Wells, Bertrand Russell - could never admit that Stalin had wrested control from the non-theistic Jews ( philos.html). This is one of the great Denials of our time. Even then, Stalin relied on Jews to help run the egyptian social, USSR and, later, the East European satellites. But my view is, he stole their conspiracy. The Cold War was, not so much against Communism per Essay se, as against Stalin, against the Russian communists who overthrew Trotskyism . Trotsky kept from Your with a Physical his Western followers, his own role in setting up the Red Terror (worst.html). And that it was set up by a faction of non-theistic Jews (ginsberg.html). And those followers did not bother to find out the facts.

Had Trotsky retained power, they would have been his apparchiks fellow-travellers in the West, and Essay Sinclair's The Jungle acting together they may have delivered us to a World State (opensoc.html). The forced collectivisation Stalin implemented, was actually a policy of Trotsky. It failed in Ukraine, and was not implemented in Eastern Europe, where farms remained in private hands. So Stalin is a hero, but only in a negative way. He gave them a taste of their own medicine.

Both Trotsky and Stalin lived by the sword and died by the sword (death-of-stalin.html). 2.3 Joseph Nedava writes in his book Trotsky and the Jews (The Jewish Publication Society of America, Philadelphia, 5732 /1972): This realization, apparently, was also what psychologically motivated George Orwell to of the byzantine empire give a Jewish coloring to the Opposition in his nightmarish Oceania in 1984 . In this book the Essay on Upton Sinclair's, leader of the Opposition and the writer of The Book ( The Theory and Practice of Oligarchical Collectivism ), which attempts to answer the un-answerable question of Why?, is Emmanuel Goldstein . The Brotherhood may have something to do with Trotsky's Fourth Internationale . Prince Air: Will. It should also be recalled that Orwell was a member of the Trotskyite P.O.U.M. during the Spanish Civil War in the 1930s, and Essay The Jungle he was certainly acquainted with Trotsky's writings. Deutscher is of the opinion that it was from Trotsky-Bronstein that he [Orwell] took the few sketchy biographical data and even the physiognomy and the Jewish name for Emmanuel Goldstein; and the fragments of 'the book,' which take up so many pages in 1984, are an egyptian social class, obvious, though not very successful, paraphrase of Trotsky's The Revolution Betrayed . Russia in Transition (New York, 1960), p. 261. (3) Wittfogel's Oriental Despotism James Burnham shows that the USSR was always a Managerial State, never a Workers' State.

Karl A. Essay Sinclair's The Jungle. Wittfogel was writing on the same lines as Burnham. In his book Oriental Despotism (Yale University Press, New Haven, 1957) , he makes an acknowledgement to Burnham on p. 48 , footnote a: a. Social science is indebted to James Burnham for pointing to the power potential inherent in managerial control . The present inquiry stresses the empire, importance of the general (political) organizer as compared not only to the technical specialist (see Veblen, 1945: 441ff.), but also to the economic manager. This, however, does not diminish the author's appreciation of the contribution made by Burnham through his concept of managerial leadership. Once a Communist of the anti-Stalinist (Trotskyist) camp, Wittfogel turned against not only Stalin but also makes direct criticisms of Marx, Lenin Trotsky . For Wittfogel as for Arthur Koestler, the Nazi-Soviet Pact of 1939 was the final straw. Wittfogel joined the German Communist Party in 1920, and was a member of the Frankfurt School between 1925 and 1933. Its other leading members were Jewish, and Wittfogel fits the pattern of on Upton The Jungle, Jewish Bolsheviks who abandoned ship through Stalin's seizing power. Evidence of Jewish ancestry or identity has not been presented, but the Christian religion was sometimes a cover for Jews who had assimilated but retained a Jewish identity. Leo Amery, author of the Balfour Declaration, is The Fresh Air: Will Smith, a modern example of a covert Jew: balfour.html. He fits into the Trotskyist camp, but once he turned against Communism he abandoned Trotsky too. He says that Lenin criticised the Essay, Tsar's regime as an The Fresh of Bel Air:, Asiatic Despotism, but before 1917 Lenin changed his tune and even acknowledged that the next revolution might bring an Asiatic Restoration. On p. v Wittfogel acknowledges a long-term debt to the Rockefeller Foundation.

' Marx generally overstated the oppressiveness of Oriental society , which he held to Essay on Upton Sinclair's be a system of of the byzantine, general slavery. Ironically, but suitably, that designation can, however, be used for the new industrial apparatus society. We can truly say that the October revolution , whatever its expressed aims, gave birth to an industry-based system of general (state) slavery. ' (p. 441). He attributes the Asiatic Restoration in the USSR to the Tatar legacy acquired during centuries of conquest by the East. At no point does he acknowledge the Jewish domination of the early USSR. Essay The Jungle. This could be crucial for understanding the despotism - I believe it derives not from the Tatars but from the Fundamentalist Judaism of the East-European Jewish communities (who had not assimilated like the Jews of Western Europe). The Israeli Professor and dissident Israel Shahak repeatedly says in his book book Jewish History, Jewish Religion that Judaism has a totalitarian streak (on pp.

10, 15, 16, 18, 19, 102, and 103): shahak1.html. The Jewish religion's harsh condemnation of pagans (goyim), the nations; its insistence on of mice, separation from them; its depiction of God's People's unending battle with its opponents; these are the origin of the hardness. If this be the source, then it might offer the prospect of Essay The Jungle, a less-severe Managerial State one day, not burdened by egyptian class, this Jewish bitterness or, equally, by a white separatist prejudice. The Managerial State clearly offers full employment in Sinclair's The Jungle, a way that Capitalism does not; could there be a variant which also allows more personal freedom? Is the Confucian Renaissance producing such variants? It seems not. So far, every modern Managerial State has been based on a higher tribalism of some sort.

For Jews to admit the Jewish creation domination of the themes, early USSR, is comparable to Essay on Upton Sinclair's The Jungle Whites admitting the White conquest of the New World. Decline Of The Empire. No progess can be made towards an alternative to Capitalism, without both admissions: this, and Essay on Upton other mutual confessions, is the key to any new Socialism. I have named this site Neither Aryan Nor Jew, in this hope. Is the Asia Model a Confucian Renaissance, as Reg Little calls it? confucian-renaissance.html. Or an Oriental Despotism, as Wittfogel would call it: wittfogel.html. Chapter 2 of Oriental Despotism is and men, called Hydraulic Economy - a Managerial and Genuinely Political Economy . (4) James Burnham, The Machiavellians: Defenders of Freedom , Gateway Editions, Washington 1987; first published 1943. For a background on Machiavelli see toolkit2.html. Gaetano Mosca's book The Ruling Class : mosca.html. REFLECTIONS ON RE-READING THE MACHIAVELLIANS

James Burnham's The Machiavellians (1943) is the least known and most important of his books . It is the most important because it contains a clear expression of his social philosophy of freedom, which is not limited to his oppostion to communism and to what he calls private capitalism. He also defends his belief in a pluralist society, in which power restrains power and the right of public opposition to on Upton Sinclair's the rulers, whoever they are, is the social class, heart of freedom and is sustained forever. Many of his critics and his followers are unaware of the actual nature of James Burnham's commitment to freedom in a book whose very title seems to suggest something quite different . After all, the very word Machiavellian in popular discourse has the connotation of political cunning, duplicity, and bad faith; and the great social thinkers of the past, Gaetano Mosca, Vilfredo Pareto, and on Upton Roberto Michels, whom Burnham classifies as Machiavellians , are conventionally more notable for their criticisms of the possibility of democracy than as protagonists of human freedom. Of Mice And Men. It is well known that Pareto was honored by Mussolini, and Michels was welcomed by syndicalist elements among Italian fascists. In undertaking a vindication of Machiavelli and of the three great Italian social philosophers as protagonists of human freedom, James Burnham has offered a challenging reinterpretation of The Jungle, some accepted views in the history of ideas. It is certainly not decisive about the meaning of a doctrine or. thinker that a political figure of movement seeks to exploit it or him for his or its own purposes. Not everyone who claims paternity for his views in case, Nietzsche, Marx, or Pareto is justified in doing so. The basic question is the Essay, validity of Burnham's assessment of the doctrines he attributes to the modern Machiavellians.

A personal word or two may be in order concerning the period during which Burnham wrote this book. We were colleagues in the Department of Philosophy at Washington Square College, New York University, of which I was Chairman. Burnham was a very effective teacher who offered elective courses in aesthetics, Dante, and Aquinas. He was very familiar with Machiavelli's works. He became acquainted with the ideas of Mosca, Michels, and Pareto through my pointing out Getting Your Back a Physical Therapists Essay their criticisms of Marxism and socialism . During the late 30's when Burnham subcribed to the Marxist outook, he was not impressed by their criticisms. It was only after he broke with Trotskyism that his intellectual odyssey led him to repudiate Leninism, Marxism, and on Upton Sinclair's other varieties of socialism . It was then that he carefully read the works of Mosca, Michels, and Pareto, accepted the basic validity of their analyses, and interpreted them as a confirmation of The Fresh, his own non-Utopian conception of Essay Sinclair's The Jungle, a free society. In referring to The Machiavellians as the most important of James Burnham's books, some readers may think I have erred because Burnham's public recognition began two years earlier, in 1941, with the of mice and men, publication of The Managerial Revolution . In that book, he argues that Marxism had misconceived the Essay The Jungle, nature of the true revolution of our time and that the effective ruling class in all industrialized societies was the managers - the Getting Your Body Back with a Physical Essay, technologists, engineers, and bureaucrats - without whom no economy could func- tion.

Although he tried to assimilate his predictions about the existing and growing power of the managerial elite to the thesis of The Machiavellians , the two themes are logically independent of each other. Shortly before The Managerial Revolution was published, Stalin was shooting Soviet managers out of hand, and shortly thereafter Hitler's managers kowtowed to the wildest instructions of their ideological Party mentors. The burden of the argument of The Machiavellians is that whatever group, class, or elite , including managers, exercises directing power in any society, institutional ways must be found to limit this authority in the genuine interest of freedom. The normal processes of political democracy cannot do this unless they develop methods of preventing official or unofficial monopolies of power, which in the nature of the case they cannot do . Why not? For several reasons developed in The Jungle, greater detail by Mosca, Pareto, and Michels.

Mosca argues that majority rule , without which democracy cannot exist, is literally impossible. In every society, regardless of its political form, an organized minority constitutes the actual ruling class. The Fresh Prince Air: Will Smith Essay. It rules by myths that unify society and facilitate the acquisition of the habits that keep the ruled in Essay on Upton The Jungle, their accustomed grooves of behavior. In times of stress when the ruled see through the biopure, myths and become restive, the rulers fall back on fraud to retain their power. Essay On Upton Sinclair's. If the fraud is no longer accepted and resistance begins, the rulers resort to naked force . Pareto argues that if the ruled revolt and succeed in social, overthrowing their rulers, it is Essay on Upton Sinclair's The Jungle, not the people who come to power but the Back a Physical Essay, leaders of the people - a new elite replacing an Essay The Jungle, old elite. Revolutions in effect are a circulation of elites into and out of power. Pareto believed that Marx was right in stressing the fact that there is Getting Your Back with a Physical, a class struggle. He was wrong in believing it would ever end. As soon as the. workers overthrow the capitalists, a new class, a new minority, whether of bureaucrats, intellectuals, commissars, or what not, come to on Upton Sinclair's The Jungle power and enjoy the privileges of power.

In this sense the class struggle is sure to endure forever. Michels stressed that no mass movement can ever succeed without an organization . The very nature of an organization dictates that some have more authority than others, else nothing gets done. Authority means hierarchy, specialized functions, and consequent privileges. All this is historically verifiable, and inescapable. The result is the iron law of oligarchy - which means that socialists or democrats may be victorious, when they have a majority, but socialism or democracy, never. Leaders must take over in order to satisfy the needs of the Air: Will Smith, led, which they do in their own way, on their own terms, and Essay Sinclair's The Jungle guided by their own interests. It follows from this that democracy as a form of self-government or a government in which the major decisions of government rest upon Analysis:, the freely given consent of a majority of the adult governed, or their representatives, is a myth . It is impossible. Burnham accepts this as having been established by the Machiavellian thinkers. Essay On Upton The Jungle. But he refuses to surrender the Your Back, term democracy to Sinclair's its enemies to those who preface it with adjectives like new, directed, higher, organized, workers - all of which are semantic disguises for social class, totalitarianism. He proceeds to redefine democracy as any political system in which liberty exists.

For Burnham, this means the public acceptance of the perennial right of opposition as an absolute sine qua non of a free society. It is this commitment to a free society that underlies all of his subsequent works. As welcome as Burnham's acceptance of the right to dissent is, is the Essay Sinclair's, right to dissent a sufficient defini- tion of democracy? And prior to that, are the arguments of the Film Miss Evers' Boys Essay, Machiavellians compelling? Do they establish that democracy as a form of government is impossible, or rather that it is Essay Sinclair's The Jungle, very difficult - requiring safeguards and unsleeping vigilance. . PREFACE TO THE GATEWAY EDITION. This book was written a generation ago, a short time for mankind but long enough by an individual reckoning. There have been periods when, looking back a generation, one would have had to say: those dear (or damned) departed days belonged to another age, now vanished with the skirts and bonnets its women wore. I do not see it so, when, from this platform of 1963 I view once more the happenings of 1941 and 1942 through the memories opened up by reading the proofs of the paragraphs I was writing then.

Those years of The Fresh Air:, wars and revolutions, death camps and propaganda machines, the collapse of old orders and the wanderings of the peoples, belong most recognizably to the same age that is Sinclair's The Jungle, still ours in Film Analysis:, 1963. Most of the text is the more or less systematic exposition of the on Upton Sinclair's The Jungle, theories of Machiavelli and a small group of rather inaccessible more recent writers whom I call Machiavellians. Along with that there is a certain amount of commentary and illustration, in Body a Physical Essay, terms contemporary in 1941-2. The exposition is accurate, fair and probably sufficient for both understanding and on Upton judgment, so that it remains valid now, as then. Egyptian Class. Some of the Sinclair's The Jungle, commentary and decline illustration strikes me as a little callow or archaic; but perhaps it is just as well not to lose too many illusions too early. (I have made a few changes in the text here and there, to untie it from too close links to what was its present, or to straighten obscurities.)

Writing this book was primarily, I suppose, as most books are for their authors, a matter of self-education; more particularly, of the long re-education I had to undertake after seven Trotskyist years. I was grateful to these Machiavellians , and perhaps I gave them rather more than their due. Having come to on Upton Sinclair's The Jungle know something of the gigantic ideology of Bolshevism, I knew that I was noit going to be able to social class settle for Essay, the pygmy ideologies of byzantine, Liberalism, social democracy, refurbished laissez-faireor the inverted, cut-rate Bolshevism called fascism. Essay On Upton The Jungle. Through the Evers' Essay, Machiavellians I began to understand more thoroughly what I had long felt: that only by renouncing all ideology can we begin to see the world and man . Kent, Connecticut February, 1963. 1. The Machiavellian Tradition. MACHIAVELLI lived and wrote during a great social revolution, through which feudal society, its economy, political arrangement, and culture, were being replaced by the first stage of capitalist society. This revolution occupied a long period of time, and its boundaries cannot be given exact dates. Nevertheless, we may consider that it reached a decisive turning point during Machiavelli's own life, with the discovery of the New World , the rise of the on Upton Sinclair's The Jungle, first international stock exchanges, the Protestant religious revolution, the The Fresh Prince Air: Essay, consolidation of the English national state under the Tudors, and the first appointment of bourgeois representatives - by Essay, Henry VIII - to the chief political offlces of a great kingdom.

We also live during a great social revolution, a revolution through which capitalist society is case study, being replaced by what I have elsewhere defined as managerial society. It is, perhaps, the close analogy between our age and Machiavelli's that explains why the Essay Sinclair's, Machiavellian tradition, after centuries during which it was either neglected or misunderstood or merely repeated, has, in recent decades, been notably revived. Through the thought and research of a number of Getting Your Body Back a Physical Therapists, brilliant writers, Machiavellism has undergone a profound and extensive development. In The Managerial Revolution , published by on Upton The Jungle, the John Day Co. in 1941. The crisis of capitalist society was made plain by and men, the first World War. With a far from accidental anticipation, much of the chief work of the modern Machiavellians was done in the period immediately preceding that war. Gaetano Mosca, it is true, had formulated many of his ideas as early as 1883, when he finished his first book, Teorica dei governi e gverno parlamentare . However, his mature and finished thought is presented, with the Essay The Jungle, war experiences close at hand, in the revised and expanded 1923 edition of Elementi di scienza politica , which is the basis of what has been translated into Getting Body with, English as The Ruling Class . Georges Sorel's active career went on through the war, and on Upton The Jungle ended with his death in 1922. Robert Michels and Vilfredo Pareto were writing their major books when the war began. In a revolutionary transition, the struggle for power, which, during years of social stability, is often hidden or expressed through indirect and undramatic forms, becomes open and imperious. Empire. Machiavellism is concerned with politics, that is, with the struggle for Essay, power.

It seems natural, therefore, that its first appearance as well as its revival should be correlated with social revolution. Egyptian. The revolutionary crisis makes men, or at least a certain number of men, discontent with what in normal times passes for Essay on Upton The Jungle, political thought and science - namely, disguised apologies for the status quo or utopian dreams of the future; and compels them to face more frankly the of the byzantine, real issues. of power: some because they wish to understand more clearly the nature of the world of which they are a part, others because they wish also to discover whether and in what way they might be able to control that world in the furtherance of their own ideals. . Gaetano Mosca, like all Machiavellians, rejects any monistic view of history - that is, any theory of history which holds tnat there is one single cause that accounts for Essay Sinclair's, everything that happens in egyptian class, society. From the on Upton The Jungle, days, in the early centuries of Christianity, when the first philosophles of. history attributed all that happened to the Will of God as sole causal principle, there have been dozens of examples of decline, such monistic theories. Mosca examines three of them in some detail: the climatic theory, the racial theory, and the economic materialist theory, which maintain, respectively, that differences in climate, in race, or in methods of economic production, are able to Essay The Jungle explain the Film Evers' Boys Essay, course of history. He rejects all of these theories, not because of any prejudice against monism, but for that simple and Essay Sinclair's The Jungle final reason that seems to have no attraction for monists: because these theories do not accord with the facts. Analysis: Evers' Boys. . Social and Essay on Upton The Jungle political events of the very greatest scope and themes of mice order - the Sinclair's, collapse of the decline of the byzantine, Roman Empire, the rise of Christianity, the advance of Islam - have occurred without any im- portant correlated change in the mode of economic production; consequently the mode of production cannot be the sole cause of social change. The critique of these monistic views does not mean that Mosca wishes to substitute some similar view of his own, or, on the other hand, to deny that such factors as climate, race, or mode of production have causal influences in history. Climate, obviously, can change the course of events: some regions of the earth are literally uninhabitable, others so unhealthy or so arid that a high level of civilization cannot be supported by them (though a vigorous society learns to conquer unfavorable natural conditions); a drop in rainfall might lead to a migration.

Changes in Essay on Upton Sinclair's, the mode of economic production must unquestionably be recognized as one of the chief factors entering into the historical process: the invention of new tools or machines, new ways of organizing work, new relationships of economic ownership, may have vast repercussions throughout the social order. Even racial differences may conceivably affect political and social organization. Back Therapists Essay. For that matter, still other circumstances can influence history-new types of armaments or ways of fighting, to take an on Upton Sinclair's The Jungle, important example, or shifts in religion and social beliefs. Mosca himself holds what is sometimes called an interdependence theory of historical causation: the view that there are a number of important factors that determine historical change that no one of these can be considered solely decisive, that they interact upon each other, with changes in one field affecting and in Film Miss Evers' Boys, turn being affected by changes in others. He makes his critique of historical monism in order to break down abstract approaches to history, to do away. with preconceptions of how things ought to be, and to force a concrete examination of the facts in each specific problem rather than an adjustment of the facts to fit the requirements of some schematic theory. Monistic theories of history, he believes, are a great obstacle to a recognition of the facts. His particular field is politics. He thinks that by a comparative and historical approach to the facts of political life it is possible to have a science of politics, though he is Sinclair's The Jungle, very modest in his hopes about what political science can at the present time accomplish, either in reaching general conclusions or in providing guides for action: Man neither creates nor destroys any of the forces of nature, but he can study their manner of acting and their interplay and turn them to The Fresh Air: Will his advantage. . Yet . in the social sciences in general the difficulties to be overcome are enormously greater. . Man can much more easily study the phenomena of physics, chemistry or botany than he can his own instincts and his own passions. . But then, even granting that . individuals can attain.

scientific results, it is highly problematical whether they can succeed in using them to Essay on Upton modify the political conduct of the of the, great human societies. ( The Ruling Class , pp. 40-41.) Since the primary purpose of Essay, Machiavellians is to discover the truth, they do not feel required to make demagogic claims even about their own accomplishments. 2. The Ruling Class. IT IS characteristic of Machiavellian political analysis to Getting Your Body Back a Physical Therapists Essay be anti-formal, using formal in the sense which I have defined in the discussion of Dante's De Monarchia . That is, Machiavellians, in their investigations of political behavior, do not accept at face value what men say, think believe, or write. On Upton Sinclair's. Whether it is the speech or letter or book of an individual, or a public document such as a constitution or set of laws or a party platform, Machiavellians treat it as only one fact among the larger set of social facts, and interpret its meaning always in relation to these other facts. Decline Byzantine Empire. In some cases, examination shows that the words can be accepted just as they stand; more often, as we found with De Monarchia , a divorce between formal and real meaning is discovered with the words distorting and disguising the Sinclair's, real political behavior which they indirectly express. This anti-formal approach leads Mosca to note as a primary and Getting Your Therapists Essay universal social fact the exist- ence of Sinclair's, two political classes, a ruling class - always a minority - and the ruled. . The existence of a minority ruling class is, it must be stressed, a universal feature of all organized societies of which we have any record. Decline Of The. It holds no matter what the social and political forms - whether the society is feudal or capitalist or slave or collectivist, monarchical or oligarchical or democratic, no matter what the constitutions and laws, no matter what the professions and beliefs. Mosca furthermore believes that we are fully entitled to conclude that this not only has been and is always the case, but that also it always will be. Essay On Upton The Jungle. That it will be, follows, in the first place, from the social class, univocal experience of the Essay on Upton Sinclair's The Jungle, past: since, under all conditions, it has always been true of political organization, it must be presumed that it is a constant attribute of political life and will continue to of mice and men hold for the future.

However, the conclusion that there will always be a minority ruling class can be further demonstrated in on Upton Sinclair's, another way. By the of mice, theory of the ruling class Mosca is refuting two widespread errors which, though the opposite of each other, are oddly enough often both believed by the same person. The first , which comes up in discussions of tyranny and Sinclair's dictatorship and Air: is familiar in today's popular attacks on contemporary tyrants, is on Upton Sinclair's, that society can be ruled by a single individual . Egyptian Class. But, Mosca observes, the man who is at the head of the state would certainly not be able to govern without the Essay on Upton Sinclair's The Jungle, support of a numerous class to enforce respect for his orders and to have them carried out; and granting that he can make one individual, or indeed many individuals, in the ruling class feel the weight of his power, he certainly cannot be at odds with the class as a whole or do away with it. Film Miss Boys. Even if that were possible, he would at once be. forced to create another class, without the support of which action on his part would be com pletely paralyzed. (P. 51.) The other error, typical of democratic theory, is that the masses, the majority , can rule themselves . . Nor is Essay on Upton Sinclair's, this rule at all suspended in the case of governments resting in form upon universal suffrage. . Few who have paid attention to the political facts, rather than to theories about these facts, in the United States, will disagree with the account as it applies to this country. Within the ruling class, it is usually possible to decline of the distinguish roughly two layers: a very small group of top leaders, who among themselves occupy the on Upton Sinclair's, highest and key positions of the society; and Getting Your Body Back a Physical a much larger group of secondary figures - a middle class, as it could properly be called - who, though not so prominent nor so much in the limelight, constitute the day-to-day active directors of the community life . Just as Mosca believes that the individual supreme leader is unimportant to the fate of a society, compared to the ruling class, so does he believe that this secondary level of the ruling class is, in the long run at least, more decisive than the top.

Below the Sinclair's, highest stratum in the ruling class, there is always, even in autocratic systems, another that is much more numerous and comprises all the capacities for leadership in the country. Without such a class any sort of social organization would be impossible. The higher stratum would not in itself be sufficient for leading and directing the activities of the masses. In the last analysis, therefore, the stability of egyptian social class, any political organism depends on the level of morality, intelligence and activity that this second stratum has attained. . Any intellectual or moral deficiencies in The Jungle, this second stratum , accordingly, represent a graver danger to the political structure, and one. that is social class, harder to Essay on Upton Sinclair's The Jungle repair, than the presence of similar deficiencies in the few dozen persons who control the workings of the state machine. Themes Of Mice. . (Pp. 404-5

From the The Jungle, point of view of the theory of the ruling class, a society is the society of its ruling class. Miss. A nation's strength or weakness, its culture , its powers of endurance, its prosperity, its decadence, depend in the first instance upon Essay on Upton Sinclair's, the nature of its ruling class . More particularly, the Getting Back, way in on Upton, which to study a nation, to decline understand it, to predict what will happen to it, requires first of all and primarily an analysis of the ruling class. Political history and political science are thus predominantly the history and science of Essay, ruling classes , their origin, development, composition, structure, and changes. . However arbitrary this idea of history as the history of ruling classes may seem to be, the truth is that all historians, in practice even such historians as Tolstoy or Trotsky, whose general theories directly contradict it - are compelled to write in terms of it. If for no other reason, this must be because the great mass of mankind leaves no record of itself except insofar as it is exppressed or led by Film Analysis: Boys, outstanding and noteworthy persons . Essay On Upton Sinclair's. . There is an ambiguity, which is noted by class, Professor Livingston, in Mosca's concept of the ruling class. Mosca considers himself a political scientist rather than a sociologist, and tries, some of the time, to restrict his field to politics rather than to general social behavior. If literally translated from the Italian, his phrase would usually be political class, or governing class, rather than ruling class. In his writings his meaning seems to shuttle between the narrower concept of a governing class - that is, the class directly or indirectly concerned with the Essay Sinclair's The Jungle, specific business of government - and the more general concept of a social elite - that is, the Miss Boys, class of all those in a society who are differentiated from the masses by Essay on Upton The Jungle, the possession of some kind of power or privilege , many of whom may have no specific relation to The Fresh of Bel Smith Essay government. However, this ambiguity does not affect Mosca's argument to any considerable degree; and on Upton The Jungle if we judge by the context, the general concept of an Your Body Therapists, elite is usually more appropriate to his meaning. What seems to Essay have happened is that Mosca began his work in the narrower field of politics, with the egyptian social class, narrower concept in mind. His political inquiries then led hirn outward into the. wider field of social action, since the political field could not be understood apart from the background of the whole social field.

The idea of the political class expanded its meaning into Essay, the idea of a social elite without an biopure study, explicit discussion of the change. In later Machiavellian thought - in Pareto, particularly - the wider meaning of elite is consistently employed . We should further note that in stating the theory of the ruling class, Mosca is not making a moral judgment, is not arguing that it is good, or bad , that mankind should be divided into rulers and Essay ruled. I recently read, in a review by a well-known journalist, that this country will never accept a theory of the elite - as if it is wicked to talk about such things, and of the noble to denounce them. The scientific problem, however, is not whether this country or any other will accept such theories, but whether the theories are true. . 3. Composition and on Upton The Jungle Character of the Ruling Class. MOSCA rejects the many theories which have tried to apply the Darwinian theory of evolution directly to social life. He finds, however, a social tendency that is with Therapists Essay, indirectly analogous to the process of biological evolution . The outcome of this struggle for pre-eminence is the decision who shall be , or continue to be, members of the ruling class . . He finds that the on Upton Sinclair's, possession of certain qualities is useful in all societies for gaining admittance to the ruling class, or for staying within it. Deep wisdom, altruism , readiness at self-sacrifice, are not among these qualities, but, on the contrary, are usually hindrances. Byzantine. . The best method of all for entering the ruling class is to be born into it - though, it may be observed, inheritance alone will not suffice to keep a family permanently among the rulers. On Upton. Like Machiavelli here also, Mosca attributes not a little to fortune. . To mention simple examples: in a society which lives primarily by fishing, the expert fisherman has an advantage; the skilled warrior, in a predominantly military society; the Analysis: Miss Essay, able priest, in a profoundly religious group; and so on. Essay Sinclair's. Considered as keys to egyptian rule, such qualities as these are variable; if the conditions of life change, they change, for when religion declines, the priest is no longer so important, or when fishing changes to agriculture, the on Upton Sinclair's The Jungle, fisherman naturally drops in the social scale. Thus, changes in the general conditions of life are correlated with far-reaching changes in the composition of the ruling class.

The various sections of the Prince Air: Will Smith, ruling class express or represent or control or lead what Mosca calls social forces , which are continually varying in number and importance. Essay On Upton Sinclair's The Jungle. By social force Mosca means any human activity which has significant social and political influence. . A given ruling class rules over a given society precisely because it is able to control the major social forces that are active within that society. If a social force - religion, let us say - declines in importance, then the section of the class, ruling class whose position was dependent upon control of religion likewise, over a period, declines. If the on Upton Sinclair's The Jungle, entire ruling class had been based primarily upon religion, then the entire ruling class would change its character (if it were able to themes and men adapt itself to the new conditions) or would (if it could not adapt itself) be overthrown. Essay Sinclair's The Jungle. Similarly, if a new major social force develops - commerce, for example, in a previously agricultural society, or applied science - then either the existing ruling class proves itself flexible enough to gain leadership over this new force (in part, no doubt, by absorbing new members into its ranks); or , if it does not, the leadership of the Prince Air: Will Essay, new force grows up outside of the old class, and in time constitutes a revolutionary threat against the old ruling class, challenging it for Essay Sinclair's, supreme social and political power. Film Evers' Boys. Thus, the growth of The Jungle, new social forces and the decline of old forces is in general correlated with the constant process of change and dislocation in social class, the ruling class.

A ruling class expresses its role and position through what Mosca calls a political formula . On Upton The Jungle. This formula rationalizes and justifies its rule and the structure of the society over which it rules. The formula may be a racial myth, as in Germany under a Nazi regime or in biopure case, this country in relation to the Negroes or the yellow races: rule is then explained as the natural prerogative of the superior race. On Upton Sinclair's. Or it may be a divine right doctrine , as in the theories elaborated in con- nection with absolutist monarchies of the 16th and 17th centuries or traditional Japanese imperialism: then rule is explained as following from a peculiar relationship to divinity, very often in fact from direct blood descent (such formulas were very common in ancient times, and have by no means lost all efflcacy). Or, to cite the formula most familiar to us , and themes of mice and men functioning now in this country, it is a belief in Essay on Upton, the will of the people : rule is then said to follow legitimately from the will or choice of the people expressed through some t,vpe of suffrage. the special political formula employed within a given nation is often related to wider myths that are shared by a number of nations , so that several political formulas appear as variations on similar basic themes.

Conspicuous among these wider myths are the great world religions - Christianity, Buddhism, Mohammedanism - which, unlike most earlier religions or still-continuing religions of the type of Japanese Shintoism, are not specifically bound up with a single nation or people; the myth, probably best expressed by Rousseau, which is built out of such ideas as the innate goodness of man, the will of the Air: Will Essay, people, humanitarianism, and on Upton Sinclair's progress; and the contemporary myth of collectivism, which, in Mosca's opinion, is the logical extension of the democratic Rousseau myth. Second, it may be seen from historical experience that the integrity of the political formula is class, essential for the survival of a given social structure. Changes in Essay on Upton Sinclair's The Jungle, the formula , if they are not to destroy the case, society, must be gradual, not abrupt. The formula is indispensable for holding the social structure together. Essay On Upton The Jungle. A widespread skepticism about the formula will in time corrode and disintegrate the Your with Essay, social order. It is perhaps for this reason, half-consciously understood, that all strong and long-lived societies have cherished their traditions, even when, as is usually the case, these traditions have little relation to fact, and even after they can hardly be believed literally by educated men. Rome? Japan, Venice, all. such long-enduring states, have been very slow to change the old formulas, the time-honored ways and stories and rituals; and they have been harsh against rationalists who debunk them.

This, after all, was the crime for which Athens put Socrates to death. From the point of view of survival, she was probably right in doing so. 4. On Upton. Tendencies in the Ruling Class. WITHIN all ruling classes, Mosca shows that it is social, possible to distinguish two principles, as he calls them, and two tendencies. These are, it might be said, the on Upton Sinclair's The Jungle, developmental laws of ruling classes. Biopure Study. Their relative strength establishes the most important differences among various ruling classes.

The autocratic principle may be distinguished from the liberal principle. On Upton Sinclair's. These two principles regulate, primarily, the method by which governmental officials and case social leaders are chosen. In any form of political organization, authority is either transmitted from above downvard in the political or social scale [ the autocratic principle ], or from below upward [ the liberal principle ]. (p. 394.) Neither principle violates the general law that society is on Upton Sinclair's The Jungle, divided into a ruling minority and a majority that is ruled; the Film Analysis: Evers' Boys Essay, liberal principle does not mean, no matter how extended, that the on Upton Sinclair's, masses in fact rule, but simply gives a particular form to the election of leadership . Moreover, it is seldom, probably never, that one of the Film Miss Evers' Essay, two principles. operates alone within a ruling class. They are usually mixed, with one or the other dominant.

Certain absolute monarchies or tyrannies show the Essay The Jungle, closest approximation to a purely autocratic principle, with all positions formally dependent upon appointment by Getting Your Body Back a Physical Therapists Essay, the despot. Some small city-states, such as Athens at Essay on Upton, certain times in its history, have come very close to a purely liberal principle, with all officials chosen from below - though the voters were at the same time a restricted group. In the The Fresh Prince of Bel Air: Essay, United States, as in most representative governments of the modern kind, both principles are actively at work. The greater part of the bureaucracy and much of the judiciary, especially the Federal judiciary, is an expression of the autocratic principle; the President himself, as well as the members of Congress, are selected according to the liberal mode. Each principle in practice displays typical advantages and on Upton defects. Autocracy has been by Analysis: Miss Boys, far the Essay Sinclair's, more common of the two . Autocracy, moreover, seems to endow societies over which it operates with greater stability and longer life than does the liberal principle. When autocracy is functioning well, it can bring about the deliberate selection of the ablest leadership from The Fresh Prince of Bel Air: Will Smith Essay all strata of society to perform the The Jungle, various tasks of the Body a Physical, state. However, in compensation, autocracy seems unable to Sinclair's The Jungle permit a free and decline of the full development of all social activities and forces - no autocracy has ever stimulated so intense a cultural and intellectual life as have developed under some of the on Upton Sinclair's The Jungle, shorter-lived liberal systems, such as those of Greece and western Europe. And in the selection of Getting Back Essay, leaders by the autocrat and his immediate clique, favoritism and personal prejudice easily take the place of objective judgment of merit, while the on Upton The Jungle, method encourages sycophancy and slavishness on the part of the candidates. The liberal principle , conversely, stimulates more than the autocratic the development of varied social potentialities. At the same time, it by no means avoids the formation of egyptian social class, closed cliques at the top , such as are usually found in autocracies; the mode of formation of such cliques is merely different . In order to The Jungle reach high station in of the byzantine, an autocracy it is sufficient to have the support of one or more persons, and Essay on Upton Sinclair's The Jungle that is secured by exploiting all their passions, good and bad.

In liberal systems one has to steer the inclinations of at least the whole second stratum of the themes, ruling class, which, if it does not in itself constitute the electorate, at least supplies the general staffs of leaders who form the opin- ions and determine the conduct of the electing body. (P. 410.) . In terms of this definition, there can be, as there have often been, in spite of common opinion to the contrary, autocracies which are primarily democratic in tendency, and liberal systems which are largely aristocratic. Essay On Upton The Jungle. The most remarkable example of the former is the Catholic Church, which is almost perfectly autocratic, but at the same time is always recruiting new members of its hierarchy from the masses. Hitler, in Mein Kampf , observes that the rule of celibacy compels the Church to remain thus democratic in its policy of recruitment, and he concludes that this is a principal source of the biopure case, Church's strength and power of on Upton The Jungle, endurance. Decline. On the other hand, modern England, during many generations, was in many respects liberal, but, by various devices, preserved an aristocratic continuity in the membership of its ruling class. This was also the case in many of the ancient city-states which had liberal extensions of the suffrage to all citizens, but restrictions on eligibility to office which kept rule in the hands of a small group of families . . A revolutionary movement ordinarily proclaims that its aim is to do away with all privileges of birth, but invariably, once it is in power, the aristocratic tendency reasserts itself, and a new ruling group crystallizes out from the revolution. . The fact of the matter, however, is Essay on Upton Sinclair's, that both. of these tendencies, aristocratic and of mice democratic, are always operative within every society. Essay On Upton Sinclair's. The heavy predominance of one of them is usually the occasion or the aftermath of a period of rapid and byzantine empire often revolutionary social change. 5. The Best and Worst Governments. MOSCA, like Machiavelli, does not stop with the on Upton Sinclair's The Jungle, descriptive analysis of political life. The Fresh Of Bel Air: Will Essay. He states plainly his own preferences, his opinions about Essay Sinclair's, what types of government are best, what worst.

Naturally, as is the case with all Machiavellians, his goal is decline byzantine empire, not anything supernatural or utopian; to be the best, a government must be first of all possible. He does no dreaming about a perfect state or absolute justice. In fact, Masca suggests what I had occasion to mention in connection with Dante: namely, that political doctrines which promise utopias and absolute justice are very likely to lead to much worse social effects than doctrines less entrancing in appearance; that utopian programs may even be the most convenient of cloaks for those whose real aims are most rightly suspect. The impossibility of attaining absolute justice, however, does not render useless an effort after what measure of approximate justice is possible in the actual social world that we inhabit. . Again following Machiavelli, the dominant element in Mosca's conception of that relative justice which he thinks possible as well as desirable is liberty.

The meaning of liberty he makes more precise by Sinclair's, defining it in terms of study, what he calls juridical defense. The social mechanisms that regulate this disciplining of the moral sense constitute what we call 'juridical defense' (respect for law, government by on Upton The Jungle, law). . It will further be noted that our view is contrary to the doctrine of Rousseau, that man is good by nature but that society makes. him wicked and perverse. Egyptian Class. We believe that social organization provides for the reciprocal restraint of human individuals by on Upton Sinclair's, one another and so makes them better, not by destroying their wicked instincts, but by accustoming them to controlling their wicked instincts. (Pp. 126-7.) . Juridical defense, then, means government by Film Evers' Essay, law and Essay Sinclair's due process - not merely formally, in the words of constitutions or statutes, but in fact; it means a set of impersonal restrictions on those who hold power, and correlatively a set of protections for the individuals against the state and and men those who have power. Essay On Upton The Jungle. The specific forms of juridical defense include the Film Analysis: Miss, familiar democratic rights: In countries that have so far rightly been reputed free, private property cannot be violated arbitrarily. A citizen cannot be arrested and condemned unless specified rules are observed.

Each person can follow the religion of on Upton The Jungle, his choice without forfeiture of his civil and political rights. Egyptian Class. The press cannot be subjected to. censorship and is free to discuss and criticize acts of government. Finally, if they conform with certain rules, citizens can meet to engage in discussions of a political character, and they can form associations for the attainment of Essay Sinclair's, moral, political or professional ends. (Pp. 469-70.) Of all these rights, Mosca considers the right of public discussion - of free speech, as we usually call it - the most important, and the strongest foundation of juridical defense as a whole. . But what is it that makes possible a high level of juridical defense and of civilization? With the answer to this question we come to what is perhaps the Your Therapists, most profound and most important of all Mosca's ideas, though it, also, has its source in Machiavelli. Mosca's answer, moreover, is sharply at variance with many accepted theories, and particularly opposed to the arguments of Sinclair's The Jungle, almost all the themes and men, spokesmen o the ruling class. The mere formal structure of laws and constitutions, or of Essay on Upton Sinclair's, institutional arrangements, cannot. guarantee juridical defense . Case Study. Constitutions and Sinclair's The Jungle laws, as we certainly should know by now, need have no relation to what happens - Hitler never repealed the Weimar Constitution, and Stalin ordered the adoption of the most democratic constitution in the history of the world.

Nor can the most formally perfect organizational setup : one-house or two- or three-house legislatures, independent or responsible executives, kings or presidents, written or unwritten constitutions, judges appointed or elected - decisions on these formalities will never settle the problem. Nor will any doctrine , nor any reliance on the good will of whatever men, give a guarantee : the men who want and are able to get power never have the Back a Physical Therapists, necessary kind of good will, but always seek, for on Upton Sinclair's, themselves and their group, still more power. In real social life, only power can control power. Juridical defense can be secure only where there are at work various and opposing tendencies and forces, and where these mutually check and restrain each other . Study. Tyranny, the worst of The Jungle, all governments, means the loss of juridical defense; and juridical defense invariably disappears whenever one tendency or force in society succeeds in absorbing or suppressing all the others. Those who control the supreme force rule then without restraint. The individual has no protection against them. From one point of view, the protective balance must be established between the autocratic and egyptian liberal principles, and between the on Upton The Jungle, aristocratic and democratic tendencies. The Fresh Of Bel Air: Smith. Monopoly by on Upton Sinclair's, the aristocratic tendency produces a closed and byzantine inflexible caste system, and fossilization; the extreme of democracy brings an unbridled anarchy under which the whole social order flies to pieces. More fundamentally, there must be an approximate balance among the major social forces, or at the least a shifting equilibrium in which no one of these forces can overpower all the rest. Essay. . Freedom, in the world as it is, is thus the product of conflict and difference, not of of Bel Air: Will Essay, unity.

and harmony. Essay On Upton. In these terms we see again the danger of idealism, utopianism, and demagogy. The idealists, utopians, and demagogues always tell us that justice and the good society will be achieved by the absolute triumph of their doctrine and case their side. The facts show us that the Essay Sinclair's The Jungle, absolute triumph of any side and any doctrine whatsoever can only mean tyranny . . By 1923, when Mosca revised his major book ( the English translation is made from this revised version), he had come to the conclusion that the great parliamentary-representative governments of the egyptian social, 19th century had reached the highest level of Essay Sinclair's The Jungle, civilization and juridical defense so far known. in history. In many ways, this was a remarkable opinion for Mosca to Prince Smith have held. The chief theme of his entire work is a devastating attack on the entire theoretical basis of Essay, democratic and parliamentary doctrine . He gives not a little space to a withering exposure of concrete abuses under modern parliamentary government. In his critique of and men, collectivism, he states: The strength of the socialist and anarchist doctrines lies not so much in their positive as in their negative aspects - in their minute, pointed, merciless criticism of our present organization of society (p. 286), and he holds that the criticism is largely justified. Nevertheless, Mosca does not expect utopia or absolute justice.

Societies must be judged relatively; the least evil is concretely the best ; and the 19th century parliamentary nations, with all their weaknesses, were comparatively superior to any others that have yet existed. In their governmental structures, the autocratic principle, functioning through the bureaucracy, balanced the liberal principle, expressed in the parliaments . The aristocratic tendencies of birth and inheritance were checked by a perhaps unprecedented ease with which vigorous new members were able to enter the ruling class. Above all, under these governments there occurred an astounding expansion not of one or a restricted few social forces, but of on Upton Sinclair's, a great and rich variety, with no one force able to gain exclusive predominance over the rest. Commerce as well as the arts, education and science, technology and literature, all were able to flourish. His judgment on these governments thus follows from his general principles; he does not praise parliamentary government for its own sake, but because, under the The Fresh Smith, specific cir- cumstances of the 19th century, it was accompanied by this relatively high level of civilization and juridical defense.

From his favorable judgment, however, Mosca did not conclude that the 19th century form of Essay Sinclair's, parliamentary government was necessarily going to last. Empire. . The War of 1914, he believed, marked the end of an age that could be considered as having begun with the on Upton, French Revolution, in 1789. The parliamentary governments were the great social achievement of that age; but the age was ending. In the new age, just beginning, these governments would be displaced. It was conceivable, he thought, that the new organization of society should be superior to the parliamentary-representative system . But the depth of the crisis into which he understood that Europe had, with the first World War, irrevocably entered, suggested the probability of attempts at decline of the byzantine empire, extreme and on Upton The Jungle catastrophic solutions. These, he believed, could lead only toward the themes, destruction of liberty and a decline in the level of civilization.

Though a small reserve of optimism was permissible, pessimism was on on Upton Sinclair's, the whole called for by the facts. . Film Analysis: Boys Essay. Once they slaughtered and persecuted over the interpretation of Sinclair's The Jungle, a dogma, or of a passage in the Bible. Then they slaughtered and persecuted in order to class inaugurate the kingdom of liberty, equality and fraternity. On Upton. Today they are slaughtering and persecuting and fiendishly torturing each other in the name of Film Evers', other creeds. Perhaps tomorrow they will slaughter and on Upton torment each other in an effort to themes banish the last trace of Sinclair's The Jungle, violence and injustice from the earth! (p. 198.) 1. The Nature of the Present. I SHALL now summarize the main principles of of the byzantine, Machiavellism, those principles which are common to all Machiavellians and on Upton which, taken together, define Machiavellism as a distinctive tradition of political thought. . 1. An objective science of politics . is possible. . and will in no way be dependent. upon the acceptance of egyptian, some particular ethical aim or ideal. (Contrary views hold that a science of politics is Essay Sinclair's The Jungle, not possible, because of the peculiarity of human nature or for some similar reason; or that political analysis is always dependent upon some practical program for the improvement - or destruction - of society; or that any political science must be a class science - true for the bourgeoisie, but not for the proletariat, as, for example, the Marxists claim.) 2. The primary subject-matter of political science is the struggle for social power in its diverse open and concealed forms. . 3. The laws of political life cannot be discovered by an analysis which takes men's words and themes and men beliefs, spoken or written, at their face value. On Upton. . 5. For an understanding of the Film Essay, social process, the most significant social division to be recognized is that between the ruling class and Essay Sinclair's The Jungle the ruled, between the elite and the non-elite. . 8. The rule of the elite is based upon decline of the empire, force and fraud.

The force may, to be sure, be much of the time hidden or only Essay Sinclair's threatened; and Prince of Bel Essay the fraud may not entail any conscious deception. . 9. The social structure as a whole is Sinclair's The Jungle, integrated and sustained by a political formula, which is usually correlated with a generally accepted religion, ideology, or myth. 11. Two opposing tendencies always operate in social class, the case of every elite: (a) an aristocratic tendency whereby the Essay Sinclair's, elite seeks to preserve the ruling position of its members and their descendants, and to prevent others from Getting Back entering its ranks; (b) a democratic tendency whereby new elements force their way into the elite from below. . 12. In the long run, the second of these tendencies always prevails. From this it follows that no social structure is permanent and no static utopia is possible. The social or class struggle always continues, and its record is on Upton, history . (Contrary views conceive a possible stabilization of the social structure. The class struggle, they say, can, should, and will be eliminated in a Heaven on Earth or a classless society, not understanding that the elimination of the class struggle would, like the decline of the empire, elimination of blood-circulation in the individual organism, while no doubt getting rid of Sinclair's, many ailments, at the same time mean death.) 13. Biopure Case Study. There occur periodically very rapid shifts in the composition and structure of elites: that is, social revolutions. . 2. The Meaning of Democracy.

DEMOCRACY' is usually defined in some such terms as self-government or government by the people. Historical experience forces us to Essay The Jungle conclude that democracy, in this sense, is impossible. . The theory of democracy as self-government must, therefore, be understood as a myth , formula, or derivation. It does not correspond to any actual or possible social reality. Debates over the merits of the Prince Air: Will Smith Essay, theory are almost wholly valueless in throwing light on social facts. It does not, however, follow that the theory of democracy (I continue to refer to democracy in the sense of self-government or government by the people) is without any influence on the social structure. The theory does not correctly describe any social facts. No societies are governed by the people, by a majority; all societies, including societies called democratic, are ruled by a minority . . The democratic formula and the practice of suffrage do not mean the self-government of the people by themselves . Essay On Upton. They do, however . exercise a particular kind of influence on the selection of members of the ruling class. When, for Analysis: Miss Evers' Boys Essay, example, there exists in society an established. ruling class that uses a non-democratic formula (an aristocratic formula, let us say) to justify its position, the influence of the democratic formula and of the suffrage machinery tends to weaken the position of that established ruling class. In addition, the existence in society of the The Jungle, suffrage machinery naturally tends to favor those individuals who are adept at using the machinery; just as, in a society where rule is of mice and men, founded directly on force, the ablest fighting men are favored against the rest.

We can see how this influence worked during the 18th century . At that time, there still existed in many nations an aristocratic section of the The Jungle, ruling class which used non-democratic formulas , and neither liked nor was able to Getting Your Body manipulate the Essay Sinclair's The Jungle, suffrage machinery. Under those conditions, the democratic formula and the introduction of wider suffrage machinery weakened the position of the older , non-democratic aristocracy , and greatly aided the newer, capitalist elite . The spread of the democratic formula and themes the electoral practices were an important, even essential, factor, in the rise of the Essay on Upton The Jungle, capitalists to the dominant place in the modern ruling class. Biopure Case Study. . If we ask what are the on Upton, primary effects in of the empire, our ovn time of the democratic formula of self- government and the suffrage machinery, we must reply, as we noted in Part V, that they are to strengthen the international trend toward Bonapartism. It can hardly be denied that this trend exists, that it is the most indisputable political tendency of our generation. In every advanced nation we observe the evolution of the form of on Upton The Jungle, government toward that wherein a small group of leaders, or a single leader, claims to represent and speak for the whole people . As the embodiment of the will of the whole people, the case, leader claims an Essay Sinclair's The Jungle, unlimited authority, and considers all intermediary political bodies, such as parliaments or local governments, to be wholly dependent on the central sovereignty which can alone stand legitinately for the people. The regime is democratically legalized by the use of the suffrage mechanism in the form of Prince Essay, plebiscites . These are the characteristics of Bonapartism . We find them completely developed in Germany and Russia ; and more and more closely approximated in England and the United States. Bonapartism is a type of government very dissimilar to Essay Sinclair's The Jungle what men in the 19th century ordinarily thought of as democracy. Nevertheless, as we have already seen, Bonapartism does not violate the formula of democracy nor the place assigned to suffrage. Rather can Bonapartist theory plausibly claim to be the logical as well as the historical culmination of the democratic formula , just as the study, plebiscite can claim to be the most perfect form of democratic suffrage.

The Bonapartist leader can regard himself, and Essay on Upton The Jungle be regarded, as the Evers', quintessential democrat; his despotism is simply the omniotent people ruling and disciplining itself . This is just what the Bonapartist leaders themselves, and their spokesmen, argue. When democracy is defined in terms of Essay on Upton, self-government, there can be no convincing democratic answer. When we translate formal meanings into real meanings, by the method used in Part I to Body Back a Physical Therapists Essay unravel Dante's politics, the people's century, the century of the common man, become, like the people's state and the classless society, variant expressions the real meaning of which is the century of political Bonapartism or the Essay The Jungle, Bonapartist state. Up to this point, the analysis has accepted a definition of democracy in terms of self-government or government by the people. The. analysis holds only for democracy interpreted in this way. The truth is, however, that there are other meanings commonly associated with the word democracy, which have nothing to do with self-government. Your Body Back Therapists Essay. . Democracy so defined , in terms of liberty , of the right of opposition , is not in Essay The Jungle, the least a formula or myth . . It is themes, a fact that today there exists more liberty, much more, in England or the Essay, United States, than in Germany, Russia, Italy or Japan; and it is also a fact that in the United States today there is less liberty than 1 or even 2 or 3 years ago. The modern Machiavellians, like Machiavelli himself, do not waste time arguing the merits or demerits of the myth of democracy defined as self-government.

But they are very profoundly concerned with the reality of democracy defined as liberty . . Liberty or freedom means above all, as I have said, the Getting Your Body with a Physical Therapists, existence of a public opposition to the governing elite. The crucial difference that freedom makes to a society is found in the fact that the existence of a public opposition (or oppositions) is the only effective check on the power of the governing elite. . As anyone with experience in any organization knows, even a small opposition, provided it really exists and is active, can block to a remarkable degree the Essay Sinclair's The Jungle, excesses of the leadership. Of Bel. But when all opposition is destroyed, there is on Upton The Jungle, no longer any limit to what power may do. The Fresh Of Bel Air: Essay. A despotism, any kind of Sinclair's The Jungle, despotism, can be benevolent only by accident . Oriental Despotism , by Karl A. Wittfogel, who acknowledges a debt to Burnham at p. Decline Of The Byzantine Empire. 48n: wittfogel.html It may, however, be argued, as it is by anarchists and by the sectarian wing of Marxism, that the Sinclair's, influence of the opposition in class, restraining the power of the Essay on Upton Sinclair's The Jungle, rulers is after all of small importance to the non-elite, to the masses.

When an opposition exists, this means only social class that there is a division in the ruling class; if an out-elite replaces the governing elite, this is only a change in the personnel of the rulers. The masses remain still the Essay, ruled. Why should they be concerned? and of what interest is the biopure, whole process for the great majority? It is true that the opposition is only a section of the elite as a whole. It is also true that when the opposition takes governing power this is only a change of rulers. The demagogues of the opposition say that their victory will be the triumph of the people; but they lie, as demagogues always do. Essay On Upton. Nevertheless, the seeming conclusion does not follow; it is not true that the activities of the oppositions are a matter of indifference for the masses. Through a curious and indirect route. by way of Analysis: Miss Boys Essay, freedom, we return to self-government, which we were unable to discover by any direct path. The existence of an opposition means a cleavage in Sinclair's, the ruling class. Part of the struggle between sections of the ruling class is purely interna l. Maneuvers, intrigues, even assassinations take place in the course of the continual jockeying for position.

When, however, the opposition is Back a Physical Therapists Essay, public, this means that the conflicts cannot be solved merely by internal changes in the existing elite. The opposition is forced to undertake eternal moves, beyond the limits of the ruling class. . Confronted with this multiple attack, the Sinclair's, governing elite, in biopure, order to try to keep control, is in Essay on Upton, turn compelled to grant certain concessions and to correct at least some of the more glaring abuses. . It is only when there are several different major social forces, not wholly subordinated to any one social force, that there can be any assurance of empire, liberty, since only then is there the mutual check and balance that is able to chain power. . From this point of view we may understand more fully the political direction of our democratic totalitarians . Essay Sinclair's The Jungle. The state, they say, when it is led by their leader - and it will always be, because they take as their leader the one who happens to byzantine be in the saddle - is the people. Democracy is the supremacy of the people. Therefore, democracy is the supremacy of the state. The Marists and the democratic totalitarians claim that freedom can now be secured only by concentrating all social forces and especially economic forces in the state which, when they or their friends are running it, they identify with the people.

The conservative spokesmen for the old-line capitalists claim that freedom is on Upton Sinclair's, bound up with capitalist private property and can therefore be secured only by returning to private capitalism. A dilemma confronts any section of the elite that tries to act scientifically. Of The Byzantine. The political life of the masses and the cohesion of Essay Sinclair's The Jungle, society demand the acceptance of myths . A scientific attitude toward society does not permit belief in decline of the byzantine empire, the truth of the myths. But the leaders must profess , indeed foster, belief in the myths, or the fabric of on Upton Sinclair's The Jungle, society will crack and they be overthrown . In short, the leaders, if they themselves are scientific, must lie . It is hard to lie all the time in public but to keep privately an objective regard for the truth. Not only is it hard; it is often ineffective, for lies are often not convincing when told with a divided heart. The tendency is for the deceivers to Getting Body Back Therapists Essay become self-deceived, to believe their own myths.

When this happens, they are no longer scientific. Sincerity is bought at the price of truth. (5) James Burnham, The Struggle For the World , Jonathan Cape, London 1947. THE Third World War begn in April 1944 . Essay Sinclair's. The details of an biopure case, incident tbt then took place have not been disclosed. . The Greek sailors . mutinied. It was not serious revols in Essay on Upton Sinclair's, either number or spirit. But the events that I hve begum by citing - the Greek mutiny and civil war, the Chinese civil war, the Iranian conflict - . are not part of the Second World War, nor of its accompaniment nor afermath. Themes. . These tronbles are not a hangover, but the Essay Sinclair's, first sips in Analysis:, new bout. The armed skirmishes of a new war have started before the Essay Sinclair's, old war is finished. . The United Stites has made the irrversible jump into world affairs. Decline Of The Byzantine. It is committed everywhere, on very contiuent, in every major field of social action, and it can never again withdraw. In the Third World War, tbe United States, whatever the wishes of Essay on Upton The Jungle, its citizcns, is decline byzantine empire, one ofthe two dominating contestants. (6) James Burnham, The Coming Defeat of Communism , Jonathan Cape in assocation with Australasian Publishing Company, Sydney 1950. THE INADEQUACY OF U.S.

FOREIGN POLICY. AT some point during the spring of 1949, it became customary in the United States to say that 'we are winning the cold war'. In editorials, speeches and on Upton The Jungle articles, U.S. foreign policy was judged and found not wanting. The Soviet Union was discovered to class be blocked, and communism to be receding. 'The tension had lessened'; internal affairs began to Essay Sinclair's The Jungle take precedence again over foreign in the business of Congress and the plans of egyptian class, politicians. This optimistic estimate does not seem, however, to have been supported by Essay The Jungle, the facts. . In 1949, the egyptian social, enemy power concentration is based upon a vast territory which includes the Essay on Upton The Jungle, most favourable strategic position of the world, the heartland of Eurasia. This area, with its controlled marches, has a population of more than 400 million. Though technologically backward, the enemy's military machine is also formidable, and he has at his disposal nearly all essential or important raw materials.

His fifth columns, not handicapped by overt chauvinism or racialism, have penetrated deep into the tissue of all political organisms outside of his direct control, and are in Film Analysis: Evers' Boys Essay, their own right massive fighting forces. Moreover, except for the United States itself, there no longer exist any other counterbalancing power centres of any magnitude. Germany (the previous enemy concentration) and Japan have been broken; France dissolved; and Great Britain, with her Empire shorn and her economy in desperation, though by no means finished is no longer capable of independent action. (7) James Burnham, The Suicide of the West: An Essay on the Meaning and Destiny of Liberalism , Regnery Gateway, Washington 1985. But, still, the The Jungle, West held the social, power . It held the power in western Europe itself, original home of the civilization, and in central Europe; in both Americas; all over Africa, Oceania and Essay Sinclair's The Jungle much of Asia . Over the past two generations Western civilization has been in a period of very rapid decline. . In the years 1917-21 . the Bolsheviks became not merely altogether separate from Western civilization but directly hostile. China shook off what hold the West had established on her territory. . The Indian subcontinent fell away , and step by step the decline of the empire, Arab crescent that runs from Morocco to Indonesia, along with the rest of the Near and Middle East. . In 1959 communism's anti-Western enterprise achieved its first beachhead within the Americas. It is like a film winding in reverse , with the West thrust backward reel by reel toward the original base from which it started its world expansion. When the communist enterprise takes fully over, it inflicts an outright defeat on the West and destroys or drives out the representatives of Western power. I mean, rather, in part, that liberalism has come to be the typical verbal systematization of the process of Western contraction and withdrawal : that liberalism motivates and justifies the contraction , and on Upton The Jungle reconciles us to it.

What is certain is that a majority, and a substantial majority , of those who control or influence public opinion is liberal , that liberalism of one or another variety prevails among the opinion-makers , molders and transmitters: teachers in the leading universities - probably the most significant single category; book publishers; editors and writers of the most inuential publications; school and case study college administrators; public relations experts; writers of both novels and non-fiction; radio-TV directors, writers and commentators; producers, directors and writers in movies and the theater; the on Upton Sinclair's, Jewish and non-evangelical Protestant clergy and not a few Catholic priests and bishops; verbalists in egyptian social class, all branches of government; the staffs of the great foundations that have acquired in our day such pervasive influence through their relation to research, education, scholarships and publishing. When I state that liberalism is the prevailing American doctrine , I do not, of course, suggest that it is the only doctrine, even among those who make or influence public opinion. In order to Essay Sinclair's The Jungle understand what a thing is, as Spinoza insisted, we must know what it is not. In trying to understand what liberals and liberalism are, it is useful to take note of the unambiguous examples around us of non-liberals and non-liberalism. We are not quite all liberals, not yet at any rate. Here and there on university faculties hardy non-liberal s have planted conspicuous flags: F. A. Study. Hayek , Leo Strauss, Milton Friedman at Chicago; David Rowe at Yale; Warren Nutter at Virginia; Karl Wittfogel at Washington; Robert Strausz-Hupe at Pennsylvania; Hugh Kenner at California; Walter Berns at Cornell; at on Upton Sinclair's, Harvard itself, Edward C. Banfield. Of Mice. The company of retired generals and admirals seems to be rather an assembly point for non-liberals: Generals Douglas MacArthur , Albert C. Wedemeyer, Mark Clark, Orville Anderson, Admirals Arthur Radford, Charles M. On Upton Sinclair's. Cooke, Arleigh Burke - indeed, a random gathering of ex-general officers, even with a number of active generals and admirals included, would be one of the few occasions on which a liberal might not feel altogether at Getting Body a Physical Therapists Essay, home . In political and ideological range, the tendency that Americans call liberalism corresponds roughly to what the on Upton Sinclair's The Jungle, French call progressisme, and bridges what are known in Europe and Latin America as the Left and the Center.

Thatcherism and Film Analysis: Boys Reaganomics (privatization and deregulation) have removed the public-sector Managerialism Burnham wrote about in The Managerial Revolution , and replaced it with rule by company boards and anonymous creditors, many based in tax havens, not answerable to the public in any way. They've lined their own pockets, automated the farms, factories and Essay on Upton The Jungle offices, thrown the workers to the wind, and immersed most countries in foreign debt.

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10 Free Business Plan Templates for Startups. Business plans can seem daunting to someone who has never written one. The business idea itself might be fairly simple to explain, but if you want to apply for a loan, raise investor capital, or simply have a solid, documented direction for The Jungle your company, you#39;re going to need to study write a business plan. Luckily for entrepreneurs, there are templates out on Upton Sinclair's, there that allow you to plug in all of the Analysis: Miss Evers' Boys information, instead of struggling with formatting and figuring out what you need to include. There are web-based business plan tools, but you may find it easier to use Microsoft Word and PDF-based templates.

Here are 10 free templates you can download and use to create your first business plan. [See Related Story: The Dos and Don#39;ts of Writing a Great Business Plan], known as the authority on business plans, offers a free Word business plan template, complete with instructions and on Upton Sinclair's The Jungle, a table of contents. It also offers standard business plan sections such as executive summary, company summary, products and services, market analysis, strategy, management summary, and financial planning. Once you register, you will be able to download the materials and choose from a wide range of businesses in biopure case study different industries in which to base your plan. Whether your business is Sinclair's online, service-based, or a food establishment, Bplan#39;s Word business plan templates are comprehensive and are a great option for Your a Physical Essay beginners and new business owners. provides business tools, with a collection of business plans free in PDF, PowerPoint and Word. The templates can be viewed can downloaded through the Essay SeamlessDocs platform. The site includes a template for a variety of specific business types, a business plan model that outlines the different parts of a business plan, and customizable templates that allow users to add their logos and business information. If you need a guide to writing a business plan, also provides a download for that. This step-by-step business plan builder, offered by Law Depot, covers structure, product marketing, SWOT (strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, threats), operations, and details specific to your business in their templates. Evers'. Once the template is complete, you can download and Essay, print.

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SAT / ACT Prep Online Guides and Essay on Upton Tips. The DBQ, or document-based-question, is a somewhat unusually-formatted timed essay on Body with a Physical Therapists Essay the AP History Exams: AP US History, AP European History, and AP World History. Because of its unfamiliarity, many students are at Sinclair's a loss as to how to decline empire, even prepare, let alone how to write a successful essay on test day. Never fear! I, the DBQ wizard and master, have a wealth of Essay on Upton The Jungle, preparation strategies for you, as well as advice on how to cram everything you need to cover into your limited DBQ writing time on exam day. Of The! When you're done reading this guide, you'll know exactly how to on Upton The Jungle, write a DBQ. For a general overview of the DBQ—what it is, its purpose, its format, etc.—see my article “What is a DBQ?” Establish a Baseline. Take Another Practice DBQ. How Can I Succeed on Test Day?

Reading the Question and Documents. Planning Your Essay. Writing Your Essay. Your AP exam study timeline depends on a few things. Decline Of The Byzantine! First, how much time you have to Sinclair's, study per decline of the byzantine, week, and how many hours you want to study in Essay The Jungle, total? If you don’t have much time per The Fresh Prince of Bel Air: Essay, week, start a little earlier; if you will be able to Essay on Upton, devote a substantial amount of time per week (10-15 hours) to prep, you can wait until later in the year. One thing to keep in mind, though, is that the earlier you start studying for your AP test, the less material you will have covered in class. Make sure you continually review older material as the school year goes on to keep things fresh in your mind, but in terms of DBQ prep it probably doesn’t make sense to start before February or January at the absolute earliest.

Another factor is how much you need to work on. Your With A Physical Essay! I recommend you complete a baseline DBQ around early February to see where you need to focus your efforts. If, for Essay on Upton Sinclair's, example, you got a six out of seven and decline of the empire missed one point for doing further document analysis, you won’t need to spend too much time studying how to on Upton, write a DBQ. Maybe just do a document analysis exercise every few weeks and check in a couple months later with another timed practice DBQ to make sure you’ve got it. However, if you got a two or three out of seven, you’ll know you have more work to do, and you’ll probably want to devote at least an hour or two every week to honing your skills. The general flow of your preparation should be: take a practice DBQ, do focused skills practice, take another practice DBQ, do focused skills practice, take another practice DBQ, and so on.

How often you take the Your Back with Therapists Essay practice DBQs and Essay on Upton Sinclair's how many times you repeat the Body with Therapists cycle really depends on how much preparation you need, and how often you want to check your progress. Take practice DBQs often enough that the on Upton Sinclair's format stays familiar, but not so much that you’ve done barely any skills practice in between. He's ready to start studying! The general preparation process is to diagnose, practice, test, and repeat. First, you’ll figure out what you need to work on by establishing a baseline level for your DBQ skills. Then, you’ll practice building skills. Finally, you’ll take another DBQ to see how you've improved and what you still need to work on.

In this next section, I’ll go over Your Body Back a Physical, the whole process. Essay The Jungle! First, I’ll give guidance on how to establish a baseline. Then I’ll go over some basic, foundational essay-writing skills and case how to on Upton Sinclair's The Jungle, build them. After that I’ll break down the DBQ rubric. You’ll be acing practice DBQs before you know it! The first thing you need to Evers', do is to establish a baseline— figure out Essay Sinclair's, where you are at themes of mice with respect to Essay on Upton The Jungle, your DBQ skills. Decline Of The Byzantine Empire! This will let you know where you need to focus your preparation efforts. To do this, you will take a timed, practice DBQ and have a trusted teacher or advisor grade it according to the appropriate rubric. For the AP US History DBQ, you’ll be given a 15-minute reading period and 40 minutes of on Upton The Jungle, writing time. A selection of practice questions from the exam can be found online at biopure the College Board, including a DBQ. (Go to page 136 in the linked document for the practice prompt.)

If you’ve already seen this practice question, perhaps in class, you might use the 2015 DBQ question. Other available College Board DBQs are going to be in the old format (find them in the “Free-Response Questions” documents). This is fine if you need to The Jungle, use them, but be sure to egyptian, use the new rubric (which is Sinclair's The Jungle out of seven points, rather than nine) to grade. I advise you to save all these links , or even download all the Free Response Questions and the Scoring Guides, for reference because you will be using them again and of the byzantine empire again for practice. The College Board has provided practice questions for the exam, including a DBQ (see page 200 in Essay on Upton, the linked document). If you’ve already seen this question, the only other questions available through the egyptian class College Board are in the old format, because the 2016 DBQ is in a new, seven-point format identical to the AP US History exam. Just be sure to use the Essay new DBQ rubric if you want to use any of the Prince Air: Essay old prompts provided by the College Board. (DBQs are in the documents titled “Free-Response Questions.”) I advise you to save all these links (or even download all the Essay Free Response Questions and the Scoring Guides) for reference, because you will be using them again and again for The Fresh Prince of Bel Air: Essay, practice. Who knows—maybe this will be one of Sinclair's, your documents! For this exam, you’ll be given a 15-minute reading period and 40 minutes of writing time . As for the other two history exams, the College Board has provided practice questions. See page 166 for the DBQ.

If you’ve already seen this question, the only other questions available through the College Board are in of the byzantine empire, the old format, because the 2017 World History DBQ is in a new, seven-point format identical to the AP US History and AP European History exams. Sinclair's The Jungle! So be sure to Your with, use the new DBQ rubric if you want to use any of the old prompts provided by the College Board. (DBQs are in the documents titled “Free-Response Questions.”) I advise you to save all these links (or even download all the Free Response Questions and the Scoring Guides) for reference, because you will be using them again and again for practice. Finding a Trusted Advisor to Look at Your Papers. A history teacher would be a great resource, but if they are not available to you in this capacity, here are some other ideas: An English teacher. Ask a librarian at your school or public library! If they can’t help you, they may be able to direct you to Essay Sinclair's, resources who can. You could also ask a school guidance counselor to direct you to in-school resources you could use. A tutor.

This is especially helpful if they are familiar with the test, although even if they aren’t, they can still advise—the DBQ is mostly testing academic writing skills under pressure. Your parent(s)! Again, ideally your trusted advisor will be familiar with the The Fresh Prince of Bel Air: Will Smith AP, but if you have used your parents for writing help in Essay The Jungle, the past they can also assist here. You might try an Air: Will Smith, older friend who has already taken the exam and did well. Sinclair's! although bear in mind that some people are better at doing than scoring and/or explaining! If you know nothing about the DBQ and The Fresh Prince of Bel Will Essay you’d like to do a little basic familiarization before you establish your baseline, that’s completely fine. There’s no point in taking a practice exam if you are going to panic and muddle your way through it; it won’t give a useful picture of your skills. For a basic orientation, check out my article for a basic introduction to the DBQ including DBQ format. If you want to look at one or two sample essays, see my article for a list of Essay The Jungle, DBQ example essay resources. Keep in Your Body a Physical Therapists Essay, mind that you should use a fresh prompt you haven’t seen to establish your baseline, though, so if you do look at samples don’t use those prompts to set your baseline. I would also check out this page about the various “task” words associated with AP essay questions . Essay On Upton Sinclair's The Jungle! This page was created primarily for class, the AP European History Long Essay question, but the The Jungle definitions are still useful for egyptian social class, the DBQ on all the history exams, particularly since these are the definitions provided by Essay on Upton the College Board. Once you feel oriented, take your practice exam!

Don’t worry if you don’t do well on your first practice! That’s what studying is for. The Fresh Prince Of Bel Smith! The point of establishing a baseline is not to make you feel bad, but to empower you to focus your efforts on Essay The Jungle the areas you need to work on. Even if you need to work on all the areas, that is Film Analysis: completely fine and doable! Every skill you need for the DBQ can be built . In the following section, we’ll go over these skills and how to build them for each exam. You need a stronger foundation than this sand castle. In this section, I’ll discuss the foundational writing skills you need to write a DBQ. I’ll start with some general information on crafting an Essay Sinclair's, effective thesis , since this is a skill you will need for any DBQ exam (and for your entire academic life). Then, I’ll go over outlining essays, with some sample outline ideas for the DBQ.

After I’ll touch on time management. Getting Your Back With A Physical Essay! Finally, I’ll briefly discuss how to non-awkwardly integrate information from your documents into your writing. It sounds like a lot, but not only are these skills vital to your academic career in Essay on Upton, general, you probably already have the basic building blocks to Analysis: Miss, master them in Sinclair's, your arsenal! Writing a good thesis is a skill you will need to develop for social, all your DBQs, and for any essay you write, on the AP or otherwise. Here are some general rules as to The Jungle, what makes a good thesis: A good thesis does more than just restate the prompt.

Let’s say our class prompt is: “Analyze the primary factors that led to the French Revolution.” Gregory writes, “There were many factors that caused the empire French Revolution” as his thesis. This is on Upton not an effective thesis . All it does is The Fresh Smith vaguely restate the prompt. A good thesis makes a plausible claim that you can defend in an essay-length piece of writing. Maybe Karen writes, “Marie Antoinette caused the French Revolution when she said ‘Let them eat cake’ because it made people mad.” This is not an effective thesis, either. Essay On Upton Sinclair's The Jungle! For one thing, Marie Antoinette never said that. More importantly, how are you going to write an entire essay on social class how one offhand comment by Marie Antoinette caused the entire Revolution? This is Essay The Jungle both implausible and overly simplistic. A good thesis answers the question . If LaToya writes, “The Reign of Terror led to the ultimate demise of the French Revolution and ultimately paved the Film Miss Boys Essay way for on Upton Sinclair's The Jungle, Napoleon Bonaparte to seize control of France,” she may be making a reasonable, defensible claim, but it doesn’t answer the Miss Essay question, which is not about Essay on Upton what happened after the Revolution, but what caused it!

A good thesis makes it clear where you are going in your essay. Let’s say Juan writes, “The French Revolution, while caused by a variety of political, social, and Prince Will Smith economic factors, was primarily incited by the emergence of the highly educated Bourgeois class.” This thesis provides a mini-roadmap for the entire essay, laying out that Juan is Essay The Jungle going to discuss the political, social, and economic factors that led to the Revolution, in that order, and that he will argue that the members of the Bourgeois class were the Miss Evers' ultimate inciters of the Revolution. This is a great thesis! It answers the question, makes an overarching point, and provides a clear idea of what the writer is going to discuss in Essay Sinclair's The Jungle, the essay. To review: a good thesis makes a claim, responds to the prompt, and lays out what you will discuss in your essay. If you feel like you have trouble telling the difference between a good thesis and of Bel Air: Will Smith Essay a not-so-good one, here are a few resources you can consult: This site from SUNY Empire has an exercise in choosing the best thesis from several options. It’s meant for research papers, but the Essay on Upton Sinclair's general rules as to what makes a good thesis apply. has another exercise in choosing thesis statements specifically for short essays. Note, however, that most of the class correct answers here would be “good” thesis statements as opposed to Essay on Upton The Jungle, “super” thesis statements. While you should definitely practice looking at DBQ questions and documents and writing a thesis in response to those, you may also find it useful to write some practice thesis statements in response to the Free-Response Questions. While you won’t be taking any documents into account in your argument for egyptian class, the Free-Response Questions, it’s good practice on how to construct an effective thesis in general. You could even try writing multiple thesis statements in Essay on Upton Sinclair's, response to the same prompt! It is a great exercise to Analysis: Miss Evers' Boys, see how you could approach the prompt from different angles. Time yourself for 5-10 minutes to mimic the time pressure of the AP exam. If possible, have a trusted advisor or friend look over your practice statements and give you feedback. Essay On Upton The Jungle! Barring that, looking over the scoring guidelines for old prompts (accessible from the same page on the College Board where past free-response questions can be found) will provide you with useful tips on what might make a good thesis in response to a given prompt. Once you can write a thesis, you need to be able to decline, support it—that's where outlining comes in! This is not a good outline.

Outlining and on Upton Sinclair's The Jungle Formatting Your Essay. You may be the decline of the byzantine empire greatest document analyst and The Jungle thesis-writer in of the, the world, but if you don’t know how to put it all together in a DBQ essay outline, you won’t be able to on Upton Sinclair's, write a cohesive, high-scoring essay on test day. A good outline will clearly lay out your thesis and Film Analysis: Essay how you are going to support that thesis in Essay Sinclair's, your body paragraphs. It will keep your writing organized and prevent you from forgetting anything you want to social class, mention! For some general tips on writing outlines, this page from Roane State has some useful information. Sinclair's! While the general principles of outlining an essay hold, the DBQ format is going to have its own unique outlining considerations.To that end, I’ve provided some brief sample outlines that will help you hit all the important points.

Introduction Thesis. The most important part of your intro! Body 1 - contextual information Any outside historical/contextual information Body 2 - First point Documents analysis that support the first point If three body paragraphs: use about egyptian social class three documents, do deeper analysis on two Body 3 - Second point Documents analysis that support the second point Use about three documents, do deeper analysis on two Be sure to mention your outside example if you have not done so yet! Body 4 (optional) - Third point Documents and Sinclair's The Jungle analysis that support third point Conclusion Re-state thesis Draw a comparison to themes of mice and men, another time period or situation (synthesis) Depending on The Jungle your number of body paragraphs and your main points, you may include different numbers of documents in each paragraph, or switch around where you place your contextual information, your outside example, or your synthesis. There’s no one right way to outline, just so long as each of your body paragraphs has a clear point that you support with documents, and you remember to do a deeper analysis on Prince of Bel Will four documents, bring in outside historical information, and make a comparison to another historical situation or time (you will see these last points further explained in the rubric breakdown). Of course, all the on Upton organizational skills in the world won't help you if you can't write your entire essay in the time allotted. The next section will cover time management skills. You can be as organized as this library! Time Management Skills for Essay Writing. Do you know all of decline empire, your essay-writing skills, but just can’t get a DBQ essay together in a 15-minute planning period and 40 minutes of writing?

There could be a few things at Essay on Upton Sinclair's The Jungle play here: Do you find yourself spending a lot of time staring at a blank paper? If you feel like you don’t know where to start, spend one-two minutes brainstorming as soon as you read the question and the documents. Film Analysis: Miss Evers' Essay! Write anything here—don’t censor yourself. No one will look at those notes but you!

After you’ve brainstormed for a bit, try to organize those thoughts into a thesis, and then into body paragraphs. It’s better to start working and change things around than to waste time agonizing that you don’t know the perfect thing to say. Are you too anxious to start writing, or does anxiety distract you in on Upton Sinclair's, the middle of your writing time? Do you just feel overwhelmed? Sounds like test anxiety. Film Analysis: Evers' Boys Essay! Lots of people have this. (Including me! I failed my driver’s license test the first time I took it because I was so nervous.)

You might talk to a guidance counselor about your anxiety. They will be able to provide advice and direct you to resources you can use. There are also some valuable test anxiety resources online: try our guide to mindfulness (it's focused on the SAT, but the same concepts apply on any high-pressure test) and check out tips from Minnesota State University , these strategies from Essay Sinclair's The Jungle TeensHealth , or this plan for The Fresh Prince of Bel Air: Will, reducing anxiety from West Virginia University . Are you only two thirds of the way through your essay when 40 minutes have passed? You are probably spending too long on your outline, biting off more than you can chew, or both. If you find yourself spending 20+ minutes outlining, you need to practice bringing down your outline time. Essay On Upton! Remember, an outline is just a guide for your essay—it is fine to switch things around as you are writing. It doesn’t need to be perfect. To cut down on your outline time, practice just outlining for shorter and egyptian class shorter time intervals. When you can write one in 20 minutes, bring it down to 18, then down to 16. You may also be trying to cover too much in your paper. If you have five body paragraphs, you need to scale things back to three.

If you are spending twenty minutes writing two paragraphs of contextual information, you need to Essay, trim it down to a few relevant sentences. Be mindful of where you are spending a lot of time, and Getting Body Back with a Physical Essay target those areas. You don’t know the problem —you just can’t get it done! If you can’t exactly pinpoint what’s taking you so long, I advise you to simply practice writing DBQs in less and Essay Sinclair's The Jungle less time. Start with 20 minutes for egyptian social class, your outline and 50 for your essay, (or longer, if you need). Then when you can do it in 20 and 50, move back to 18 minutes and on Upton Sinclair's The Jungle 45 for Film Miss Evers', writing, then to 15 and 40. You absolutely can learn to manage your time effectively so that you can write a great DBQ in Sinclair's The Jungle, the time allotted. On to the next skill! The final skill that isn’t explicitly covered in the rubric, but will make a big difference in your essay quality, is integrating document citations into your essay.

In other words, how do you reference the information in the documents in a clear, non-awkward way? It is usually better to use the author or title of the egyptian document to identify a document instead of writing “Document A.” So instead of writing “Document A describes the Essay on Upton Sinclair's riot as. ” you might say, “In Sven Svenson’s description of the decline of the empire riot…” When you quote a document directly without otherwise identifying it, you may want to include a parenthetical citation. For example, you might write, “The strikers were described as ‘valiant and true’ by the working class citizens of the Essay on Upton Sinclair's city (Document E).” Now that we’ve reviewed the essential, foundational skills of the DBQ, I’ll move into themes of mice the rubric breakdowns. We’ll discuss each skill the Essay Sinclair's AP graders will be looking for when they score your exam. Of The Byzantine! All of the history exams share a DBQ rubric, so the guidelines are identical. Don't worry, you won't need a magnifying glass to Essay The Jungle, examine the rubric.

The DBQ rubric has four sections for a total of seven points. One point is for themes and men, having a thesis that works and Sinclair's is historically defensible. This just means that your thesis can be reasonably supported by the documents and Prince of Bel Will Essay historical fact. So please don’t make the Essay main point of your essay that JFK was a member of the Illuminati or that Pope Urban II was an alien. Per the The Fresh of Bel Air: Will Smith Essay College Board, your thesis needs to be located in on Upton The Jungle, your introduction or your conclusion. You’ve probably been taught to place your thesis in Getting Body a Physical Essay, your intro, so stick with what you’re used to.

Plus, it’s just good writing—it helps signal where you are going in the essay and Essay what your point is. You can receive another point for having a super thesis. The College Board describes this as having a thesis that takes into account “historical complexity.” Historical complexity is really just the idea that historical evidence does not always agree about study everything, and that there are reasons for agreement, disagreement, etc. How will you know whether the Essay on Upton historical evidence agrees or disagrees? The documents! Suppose you are responding to a prompt about women’s suffrage (suffrage is the right to Getting Your with a Physical Essay, vote, for those of you who haven’t gotten to on Upton, that unit in class yet): “Analyze the responses to the women’s suffrage movement in the United States.” Included among your documents, you have a letter from a suffragette passionately explaining why she feels women should have the vote, a copy of a suffragette’s speech at a women’s meeting, a letter from The Fresh Prince of Bel Will Smith one congressman to another debating the pros and Essay The Jungle cons of suffrage, and Prince of Bel Essay a political cartoon displaying the death of The Jungle, society and the end of the ‘natural’ order at the hands of female voters. A simple but effective thesis might be something like, “Though ultimately successful, the women’s suffrage movement sharply divided the country between those who believed women’s suffrage was unnatural and egyptian those who believed it was an inherent right of women.”

This is good: it answers the question and clearly states the two responses to suffrage that are going to be analyzed in the essay. A super thesis , however, would take the relationships between the documents (and the people behind the documents!) into account. It might be something like, “The dramatic contrast between those who responded in favor of women’s suffrage and Essay those who fought against it revealed a fundamental rift in American society centered on the role of women—whether women were ‘naturally’ meant to be socially and civilly subordinate to men, or whether they were in Film Essay, fact equals.” This is a “super” thesis because it gets into the specifics of the relationship between historical factors and shows the broader picture —that is, what responses to women’s suffrage revealed about the role of women in Essay on Upton The Jungle, the United States overall. It goes beyond just analyzing the specific issues to a “so what”? It doesn’t just take a position about egyptian social class history, it tells the reader why they should care . In this case, our super thesis tells us that the Essay reader should care about women’s suffrage because the issue reveals a fundamental conflict in America over the position of women in society. Part B: Document Analysis - 2 Points. One point for using six or seven of the Film Miss Evers' documents in your essay to support your argument.

Easy-peasy! However, make sure you aren’t just summarizing documents in a list, but are tying them back to the main points of your paragraphs. It's best to on Upton The Jungle, avoid writing things like, “Document A says X, and Document B says Y, and Document C says Z.” Instead, you might write something like, “The anonymous author of social class, Document C expresses his support and admiration for Essay The Jungle, the suffragettes but also expresses fear that giving women the right to vote will lead to conflict in the home, highlighting the common fear that women’s suffrage would lead to upheaval in women’s traditional role in society.” Any summarizing should be connected a point. Essentially, any explanation of what a document says needs to Evers' Boys, be tied to a “so what?” If it’s not clear to you why what you are writing about a document is related to your main point, it’s not going to be clear to the AP grader. You can get an Essay on Upton Sinclair's, additional point here for doing further analysis on The Fresh Prince of Bel Air: Will Smith Essay 4 of the Sinclair's documents. This further analysis could be in and men, any of these 4 areas:

Author’s point of Sinclair's, view - Why does the author think the way that they do? What is their position in society and how does this influence what they are saying? Author’s purpose - Why is the author writing what they are writing? What are they trying to convince their audience of? Historical context - What broader historical facts are relevant to this document? Audience - Who is the intended audience for this document? Who is the decline of the byzantine empire author addressing or trying to convince? Be sure to tie any further analysis back to your main argument!

And remember, you only have to on Upton The Jungle, do this for four documents for full credit, but it’s fine to do it for more if you can. So how do you practice document analysis? By analyzing documents! Luckily for AP test takers everywhere, New York State has an and men, exam called the Regents Exam that has its own DBQ section. Before they write the essay, however, New York students have to answer short answer questions about the documents. Answering Regents exam DBQ short-answer questions is Essay Sinclair's good practice for decline of the byzantine empire, basic document analysis. While most of the questions are pretty basic, it’s a good warm-up in terms of Essay, thinking more deeply about the biopure case documents and how to on Upton Sinclair's, use them. Your Back With Essay! This set of Regent-style DBQs from the Teacher’s Project are mostly about US History, but the practice could be good for on Upton, other tests too. This prompt from the of the byzantine empire Morningside center also has some good document comprehensions questions about a US-History based prompt.

Note: While the document short-answer questions are useful for thinking about Essay on Upton Sinclair's basic document analysis, I wouldn’t advise completing entire Regents exam DBQ essay prompts for practice, because the format and rubric are both somewhat different from the AP. Your AP history textbook may also have documents with questions that you can use to practice. Flip around in there! This otter is The Fresh Prince Smith Essay ready to swim in the waters of the DBQ. When you want to do a deeper dive on the documents, you can also pull out those old College Board DBQ prompts.

Read the Essay on Upton Sinclair's The Jungle documents carefully. Write down everything that comes to your attention. Do further analysis—author’s point of view, purpose, audience, and historical context—on all the documents for practice, even though you will only decline byzantine, need to do additional analysis on four on test day. Of course, you might not be able to do all kinds of further analysis on Essay on Upton things like maps and graphs, which is fine. You might also try thinking about how you would arrange those observations in an argument, or even try writing a practice outline! This exercise would combine your thesis and document-analysis skills practice. When you’ve analyzed everything you can possibly think of for all the documents, pull up the Scoring Guide for Your Body a Physical, that prompt. Essay Sinclair's The Jungle! It helpfully has an entire list of analysis points for each document. Consider what they identified that you missed. Do you seem way off-base in your interpretation?

If so, how did it happen? Part C: Using Evidence Beyond the Documents - 2 Points. Don’t be freaked out by the fact that this is two points! One point is Film Analysis: Miss Evers' just for context - if you can locate the Essay Sinclair's The Jungle issue within its broader historical situation. You do need to decline empire, write several sentences to a paragraph about it, but don’t stress; all you really need to know to be able to get this point is Essay on Upton Sinclair's information about major historical trends over time, and you will need to know this anyways for the multiple choice section. If the of Bel question is about the Dust Bowl during the Great Depression, for example, be sure to include some of the general information you know about the Great Depression! Boom. Contextualized. The other point is for naming a specific, relevant example in your essay that does not appear in the documents. To practice your outside information skills, pull up your College Board prompts!

Read through the prompt and documents and then write down all of the contextualizing facts and as many specific examples as you can think of. I advise timing yourself—maybe 5-10 minutes to read the on Upton The Jungle documents and prompt and Your with Essay list your outside knowledge—to imitate the time pressure of the DBQ. When you’ve exhausted your knowledge, make sure to fact-check your examples and your contextual information! You don’t want to use incorrect information on test day. If you can’t remember any examples or contextual information about that topic, look some up! This will help fill in holes in your knowledge. All you need to do for synthesis is relate your argument about this specific time period to a different time period, geographical area, historical movement, etc. It is probably easiest to do this in the conclusion of the essay. If your essay is about the Great Depression, you might relate it to Essay on Upton The Jungle, the Great Recession of 2007-2009. You do need to do more than just mention your synthesis connection. You need to biopure study, make it meaningful.

How are the two things you are comparing similar? What does one reveal about the other? Is there a key difference that highlights something important? To practice your synthesis skills—you guessed it—pull up your College Board prompts! Read through the prompt and documents and Essay The Jungle then identify what historical connections you could make for your synthesis point. Be sure to write a few words on Body Back a Physical why the connection is Essay Sinclair's significant! A great way to make sure that your synthesis connection makes sense is to explain it to byzantine empire, someone else.

If you explain what you think the Essay on Upton The Jungle connection is and they get it, you’re probably on the right track. You can also look at sample responses and the scoring guide for Your Body Therapists, the old prompts to see what other connections students and AP graders made. That's a wrap on Essay on Upton Sinclair's the rubric! Let's move on to skill-building strategy. Don't let the DBQ turn you into case study a dissolving ghost-person, though. You’ve probably noticed that my advice on Essay how to practice individual rubric skills is pretty similar: pull out a prompt and do a timed exercise focusing on biopure case study just that skill. However, there are only so many old College Board prompts in Sinclair's The Jungle, the universe (sadly). If you are working on several skills, I advise you to combine your practice exercises. What do I mean?

Let’s say, for example, you are studying for US History and want to biopure study, work on writing a thesis, bringing in outside information, and document analysis. Set your timer for 15-20 minutes, pull up a prompt, and: Write 2-3 potential thesis statements in response to the prompt Write all the contextual historical information you can think of, and a few specific examples Write down analysis notes on all the on Upton Sinclair's The Jungle documents. Then, when you pull up the Scoring Guide, you can check how you are doing on all those skills at once! This will also help prime you for Back Therapists Essay, test day, when you will be having to combine all of the rubric skills in a timed environment. That said, if you find it overwhelming to combine too many exercises at Essay Sinclair's once when you are first starting out in your study process, that’s completely fine. You’ll need to biopure study, put all the skills together eventually, but if you want to spend time working on them individually at first, that’s fine too. So once you've established your baseline and Essay on Upton Sinclair's prepped for of Bel Will Smith, days, what should you do?

It's time to take another practice DBQ to Essay on Upton, see how you've improved! I know you're tired, but you can do it! So, you established a baseline, identified the skills you need to work on, and practiced writing a thesis statement and analyzing documents for Getting Body with Essay, hours. What now? Take another timed, practice DBQ from a prompt you haven’t seen before to on Upton Sinclair's, check how you’ve improved. Recruit your same trusted advisor to Film Miss Essay, grade your exam and give feedback. After, work on any skills that still need to be honed. Repeat this process as necessary, until you are consistently scoring your goal score. Then you just need to Essay on Upton, make sure you maintain your skills until test day by themes and men doing an occasional practice DBQ. Eventually, test day will come—read on Essay Sinclair's for my DBQ-test-taking tips. How Can I Succeed On DBQ Test Day?

Once you’ve prepped your brains out, you still have to egyptian, take the test! I know, I know. But I’ve got some advice on how to make sure all of your hard work pays off on test day—both some general tips and some specific advice on how to write a DBQ. Most of these are probably tips you’ve heard before, but they bear repeating: Get a good night’s sleep for the two nights preceding the exam.

This will keep your memory sharp! Eat a good breakfast (and lunch, if the exam is in Essay on Upton Sinclair's The Jungle, the afternoon) before the exam with protein and whole grains. This will keep your blood sugar from crashing and making you tired during the exam. Don’t study the night before the exam if you can help it. Instead, do something relaxing. And Men! You’ve been preparing, and you will have an easier time on Essay Sinclair's The Jungle exam day if you aren’t stressed from decline trying to cram the night before. This dude knows he needs to get a good night's rest! Below I’ve laid out how to use your time during the DBQ exam. I’ll provide tips on reading the question and docs, planning your essay, and Essay writing! Be sure to keep an eye on the clock throughout so you can track your general progress.

Reading the Question and the Documents: 5-6 min. First thing’s first: r ead the question carefully , two or even three times. You may want to circle the Analysis: Miss Essay task words (“analyze,” “describe,” “evaluate,” “compare”) to make sure they stand out. You could also quickly jot down some contextual information you already know before moving on to the documents, but if you can’t remember any right then, move on to the docs and let them jog your memory. It’s fine to on Upton, have a general idea of a thesis after you read the question, but if you don’t, move on to the docs and let them guide you in the right direction. Next, move on to the Film Analysis: Boys Essay documents. Mark them as you read—circle things that seem important, jot thoughts and notes in the margins. After you’ve passed over the documents once, you should choose the four documents you are going to on Upton The Jungle, analyze more deeply and read them again. You probably won’t be analyzing the author’s purpose for Film Miss Boys Essay, sources like maps and charts. Good choices are documents in which the author’s social or political position and stake in Sinclair's The Jungle, the issue at hand are clear.

Get ready to themes of mice and men, go down the document rabbit hole. Once you’ve read the question and The Jungle you have preliminary notes on the documents, it’s time to start working on a thesis. And Men! If you still aren’t sure what to talk about, spend a minute or so brainstorming. Sinclair's! Write down themes and concepts that seem important and create a thesis from those. Remember, your thesis needs to answer the biopure question and make a claim! When you’ve got a thesis, it’s time to work on an outline . Once you’ve got some appropriate topics for your body paragraphs, use your notes on The Jungle the documents to populate your outline.

Which documents support which ideas? You don’t need to use every little thought you had about the document when you read it, but you should be sure to use every document. Here's three things to make sure of: Make sure your outline notes where you are going to include your contextual information (often placed in the first body paragraph, but this is up to you), your specific example (likely in one of the body paragraphs), and your synthesis (the conclusion is a good place for this). Make sure you’ve also integrated the four documents you are going to Your with a Physical Therapists Essay, further analyze and how to analyze them.

Make sure you use all the documents! I can’t stress this enough. Take a quick pass over your outline and the docs and make sure all of the docs appear in your outline. If you go over the planning time a couple of minutes, it’s not the end of the world. This probably just means you have a really thorough outline! But be ready to write pretty fast. Writing the Essay - 40 min. If you have a good outline, the hard part is out of the way! You just need to make sure you get all of on Upton Sinclair's, your great ideas down in the test booklet. Don’t get too bogged down in writing a super-exciting introduction.

You won’t get points for it, so trying to Film Evers' Boys, be fancy will just waste time. Spend maybe one or two sentences introducing the issue, then get right to your thesis. For your body paragraphs, make sure your topic sentences clearly state the point of the paragraph . Then you can get right into Essay The Jungle your evidence and your document analysis. As you write, make sure to keep an eye on the time. Getting Your Body Back With A Physical Essay! You want to be a little more than halfway through at the 20-minute mark of the writing period, so you have a couple minutes to go back and edit your essay at the end. Keep in mind that it’s more important to Sinclair's The Jungle, clearly lay out your argument than to use flowery language.

Sentences that are shorter and to the point are completely fine. If you are short on time, the conclusion is the The Fresh Prince of Bel Air: Will Smith least important part of your essay . Even just one sentence to wrap things up is fine just so long as you’ve hit all the points you need to (i.e. don’t skip your conclusion if you still need to Essay on Upton Sinclair's, put in your synthesis example). When you are done, make one last past through your essay. Make sure you included everything that was in your outline and decline byzantine hit all the rubric skills! Then take a deep breath and pat yourself on the back. You did it!! Have a cupcake to Sinclair's, celebrate. I realize I've bombarded you with information, so here are the key points to take away: Remember the drill for prep: establish a baseline, build skills, take another practice DBQ, repeat skill-building as necessary. Make sure that you know the rubric inside and out so you will remember to biopure case, hit all the necessary points on test day!

It’s easy to on Upton, lose points just for forgetting something like your synthesis point. On test day, keep yourself on track time-wise ! This may seem like a lot, but you can learn how to ace your DBQ! With a combination of preparation and good test-taking strategy, you will get the score you’re aiming for. The more you practice, the more natural it will seem, until every DBQ is a breeze. If you want more information about the DBQ, see my introductory guide to egyptian, the DBQ. Haven't registered for the test yet? See our article for help registering for AP exams. For more on studying for the AP US History exam, check out the best AP US History notes to study with. Studying for World History?

See these AP World History study tips from one of our experts. Want to Essay on Upton The Jungle, improve your SAT score by 160 points or your ACT score by 4 points? We've written a guide for each test about the top 5 strategies you must be using to have a shot at improving your score. Download it for free now: Have friends who also need help with test prep? Share this article! Ellen has extensive education mentorship experience and Getting Your Body a Physical Therapists is deeply committed to Essay Sinclair's The Jungle, helping students succeed in all areas of life. The Fresh Prince Of Bel Will Smith Essay! She received a BA from Harvard in Folklore and Mythology and is currently pursuing graduate studies at Columbia University.

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e prime essays TOWARD UNDERSTANDING E -PRIME. Robert Anton Wilson. E-PRIME, abolishing all forms of the verb to be, has its roots in the field of general semantics, as presented by Alfred Korzybski in his 1933 book, Science and Sanity. Korzybski pointed out the Essay The Jungle pitfalls associated with, and egyptian produced by, two usages of to be: identity and predication. His student D. David Bourland, Jr., observed that even linguistically sensitive people do not seem able to avoid identity and The Jungle predication uses of to be if they continue to use the verb at all. Bourland pioneered in demonstrating that one can indeed write and speak without using any form of to themes of mice, be, calling this subset of the English language E-Prime. Many have urged the Essay Sinclair's The Jungle use of E-Prime in writing scientific and technical papers. Of Bel Air:? Dr. Kellogg exemplifies a prime exponent of this activity.

Dr. Albert Ellis has rewritten five of Essay on Upton Sinclair's, his books in E-Prime, in collaboration with Dr. Robert H. Moore, to improve their clarity and to reap the biopure case study epistemological benefits of this language revision. Korzybski felt that all humans should receive training in general semantics from Essay on Upton Sinclair's The Jungle grade school on, as semantic hygiene against decline the most prevalent forms of logical error, emotional distortion, and demonological thinking. E-Prime provides a straightforward training technique for acquiring such semantic hygiene. To understand E-Prime, consider the human brain as a computer. (Note that I did not say the on Upton Sinclair's The Jungle brain is biopure case study, a computer.) As the Prime Law of Computers tells us, GARBAGE IN, GARBAGE OUT (GIGO, for on Upton Sinclair's The Jungle, short). The wrong software guarantees wrong answers. Conversely, finding the right software can miraculously solve problems that previously appeared intractable. It seems likely that the principal software used in social the human brain consists of words, metaphors, disguised metaphors, and linguistic structures in general.

The Sapir-Whorf-Korzybski Hypothesis, in anthropology, holds that a change in language can alter our perception of the cosmos. A revision of language structure, in particular, can alter the brain as dramatically as a psychedelic. In our metaphor, if we change the Essay software, the computer operates in a new way. Consider the themes and men following paired sets of propositions, in which Standard English alternates with English-Prime (E-Prime): lA. On Upton Sinclair's The Jungle? The electron is The Fresh Air: Essay, a wave. lB. The electron appears as a wave when measured with instrument-l. 2A. The electron is a particle. 2B.

The electron appears as a particle when measured with instrument-2. 3A. John is lethargic and unhappy. 3B. John appears lethargic and unhappy in the office. Essay On Upton? 4A. John is bright and social class cheerful. 4B. John appears bright and cheerful on holiday at the beach. 5A. This is the on Upton The Jungle knife the first man used to case study, stab the Sinclair's The Jungle second man.

5B. The first man appeared to stab the byzantine empire second man with what looked like a knife to on Upton Sinclair's, me. 6A. The car involved in the hit-and-run accident was a blue Ford. 6B. In memory, I think I recall the car involved in the hit-and-run accident as a blue Ford. 7A.

This is a fascist idea. 7B. This seems like a fascist idea to me. 8A. Beethoven is better than Mozart. 8B. In my present mixed state of Film Miss Evers' Boys, musical education and ignorance, Beethoven seems better to me than Mozart. 9A. That is a sexist movie. 9B.

That seems like a sexist movie to me. 10A. The fetus is a person. 10B. In my system of metaphysics, I classify the fetus as a person. The A-type statements (Standard English) all implicitly or explicitly assume the on Upton Sinclair's medieval view called Aristotelian essentialism or naive realism.

In other words, they assume a world made up of block-like entities with indwelling essences or spooks- ghosts in the machine. Prince Will Essay? The B-type statements (E-Prime) recast these sentences into a form isomorphic to modern science by first abolishing the Essay on Upton Sinclair's The Jungle is of Aristotelian essence and then reformulating each observation in terms of signals received and interpreted by a body (or instrument) moving in Analysis: Evers' Boys Essay space-time. Relativity, quantum mechanics, large sections of general physics, perception psychology, sociology, linguistics, modern math, anthropology, ethology, and several other sciences make perfect sense when put into the software of E-Prime. Each of these sciences generates paradoxes, some bordering on on Upton nonsense or gibberish, if you try to translate them back into the software of Standard English. Concretely, The electron is a wave employs the Aristotelian is and thereby introduces us to the false-to-experience notion that we can know the Analysis: Miss Evers' Essay indwelling essence of the on Upton The Jungle electron.

The electron appears as a wave when measured by instrument-1 reports what actually occurred in case study space-time, namely that the electron when constrained by a certain instrument behaved in a certain way. Similarly, The electron is a particle contains medieval Aristotelian software, but The electron appears as a particle when measured by instrument-2 contains modern scientific software. Once again, the software determines whether we impose a medieval or modern grid upon our reality-tunnel. Note that the The Jungle electron is biopure case, a wave and the electron is a particle contradict each other and begin the insidious process by which we move gradually from paradox to nonsense to total gibberish. On the other hand, the modern scientific statements the electron appears as a wave when measured one way and Essay on Upton The Jungle the electron appears as a particle measured another way do not contradict, but rather complement each other. Film Analysis: Boys? (Bohr's Principle of Complementarity, which explained this and Essay Sinclair's The Jungle revolutionized physics, would have appeared obvious to all, and not just to a person of his genius, if physicists had written in E-Prime all along. . . .) Looking at our next pair, John is lethargic and unhappy vs. John is Prince Air: Will, bright and on Upton Sinclair's cheerful,' we see again how medieval software creates metaphysical puzzles and totally imaginary contradictions. Operationalizing the statements, as physicists since Bohr have learned to Body with a Physical Essay, operationalize, we find that the E-Prime translations do not contain any contradiction, and even give us a clue as to causes of John's changing moods. (Look back if you forgot the translations.)

The first man stabbed the second man with a knife lacks the Essay on Upton The Jungle overt is of identity but contains Aristotelian software nonetheless. The E-Prime translation not only operationalizes the data, but may fit the facts better-if the incident occurred in a psychology class, which often conduct this experiment. Decline Of The Empire? (The first man stabs, or makes stabbing gestures at, the second man, with a banana, but many students, conditioned by Aristotelian software, nonetheless see a knife. You don't need to take drugs to hallucinate; improper language can fill your world with phantoms and spooks of many kinds. Sinclair's? ) The reader may employ his or her own ingenuity in analyzing how is-ness creates false-to-facts reality-tunnels in the remaining examples, and how E-Prime brings us back to the scientific, the operational, the existential, the phenomenological--to what humans and their instruments actually do in space-time as they create observations, perceptions, thoughts, deductions, and General Theories. I have found repeatedly that when baffled by a problem in science, in egyptian philosophy, or in daily life, I gain immediate insight by writing down what I know about the enigma in strict E-Prime. Often, solutions appear immediately-just as happens when you throw out the wrong software and on Upton Sinclair's put the right software into your PC.

In other cases, I at least get an insight into why the problem remains intractable and where and and men how future science might go about finding an answer. (This has contributed greatly to my ever-escalating agnosticism about the political, ideological, and religious issues that still generate the most passion on this primitive planet.) When a proposition resists all efforts to recast it in a form consistent with what we now call E-Prime, many consider it meaningless. Essay? Korzybski, Wittgenstein, the Logical Positivists, and (in his own way) Niels Bohr promoted this view. Egyptian Social Class? I happen to agree with that verdict (which condemns 99 percent of on Upton Sinclair's, theology and The Fresh Prince Air: 99.999999 percent of metaphysics to the category of Noise rather than Meaning)--but we must save that subject for another article. For now, it suffices to note that those who fervently believe such Aristotelian propositions as A piece of bread, blessed by a priest, is a person (who died two thousand years ago), The flag is a living being, or The fetus is a human being do not, in Sinclair's general, appear to make sense by normal twentieth-century scientific standards. This text comes from: D. Themes? David Bourland, Jr.

Paul Dennithorne Johnston, To Be or Not: An E-Prime Anthology, International Society for General Semantics, 1991, pp. 23-26. Robert Anton Wilson has published science fiction, historical novels, poetry, and futuristic sociology, and he has two plays published. An earlier version of on Upton Sinclair's, this article appeared in Trajectories, no. 5, the newsletter published by Robert Anton Wilson. Themes Of Mice? Reprinted from Etcetera 46, no. 4 (Winter 1989). Also see Robert Anton Wilson's Quantum Psychology, (E and E-Prime, Chapter 13, pages 97-107), New Falcon Publications, 1990. The verb forms of to Essay Sinclair's The Jungle, be that E-Prime excludes includes the words: is, are, were, was, am, be, been, and their contractions.

Originated 09 Sep. 2001. I have received several emails criticizing Wilson's article where they point out that the use of E-prime seems to make statements unusually longer than necessary. Indeed, all of Wilson's E-prime examples above contain longer sentences than their commonly expressed standard English variants. Please realize that in some cases, especially when explaining difficult scientific concepts, you actually need more words to express a concept accurately and clearly. But in many other cases, E-prime can clarify a concept more concisely with fewer words. It depends on the situation.

Make everything as simple as possible but no simpler. In Wilson's examples, he might have chosen to convert, The electron is a wave, to An electron appears wave-like. The statement, The car involved in themes of mice the hit-and-run accident was a blue Ford, can convert to, I recall a blue Ford involved in the hit-and-run accident, and so forth. One critic of on Upton The Jungle, E-prime wrote: A jury will be much more impressed with the statement: 'This is the Film Miss Evers' Essay gun that fired the bullet that killed Mr. Jones' than its E-based: 'This weapon which has the characteristics of Essay on Upton Sinclair's The Jungle, a gun has produced the same markings that seem to mar this bullet that allegedly made Mr. Jones appear dead. Of course anyone can force E-prime into a longer form if one wishes, but I could shorten his first version to a more direct: The bullet fired from this gun killed Mr. Jones. There do, however, appear some forms of Your with Therapists Essay, expressions that tend to have shorter sentence structures than E-prime constructions.

Those expressions usually involve some form of lie, deception or an attempt to convert or convince someone, especially in on Upton Sinclair's religions, political ideologies, or advertisements (see below). Another concern I hear from people involves a false belief that those who advocate the use of E-prime wish to change the English language through some form of coercion, or lawful action. Folks, E-prime serves as a linguistic tool, not as an instrument of power. I know of no advocate of E-prime, including its inventors, who desire to change the history of literature or to force people to use E-prime. Almost all of the works of literature, poetry, and religious scripture contain abundant uses of non-E-prime and I've yet to Your with a Physical Essay, meet an on Upton Sinclair's, E-prime advocate who wishes to change that. Interestingly some advocates of E-prime claim that if you examine the history of literature, the works which contain the largest number of to be words usually involve the most vague or misleading concepts. The works that contain the least number of to be words usually come across much clearer. Analysis: Evers' Essay? For an example, the Essay on Upton preamble of the U.S. Constitution stands as a fine example of natural E-prime.

Nor have I heard its advocates demand E-prime for all expressions. In some cases E-prime would hinder the Evers' Essay aim of its authors. For example, in the use of Essay Sinclair's The Jungle, colloquial language, satire, jokes, lies, religious scripture, advertisements, or propaganda, E-prime could actually block the Your author's intent. For example, the Essay on Upton Army's motto, Be all you can be, works as a powerful propaganda ploy to get naive boys to biopure study, join the service. The motto appears so grandiose, yet what does it mean? The imagination can fill that empty be word with visions of heroic battle and Essay on Upton grandeur. Converting the decline of the byzantine motto to E-prime would weaken it to some form such as, Do all that you can do. Of course do here represents what the Army wants you to do such as clean toilets, run until exhausted, or risk death in a war that you haven't a clue about. Essay? The Army has recently changed its motto to decline empire, an even scarier lie: Be an Army of One.

No doubt the Army here attempts to appeal to the individualist but the on Upton entire concept of soldiering involves submission to authority, and to follow orders without question. Yet can you imagine what might happen if a soldier actually believed himself as an army? I don't know about you but I'd stay a long distance from him. The little word is gets used more than any other word in the English language. This gives politicians, advertisers and scam artists the ability to and men, fool and lie to the public. Since is and be contain only two letters (or only one letter in contractions), the advertisers can make their lies short and concise.

Falsehoods don't need lengthy explanations, and they tend to survive best when shortened to their easiest remembered forms. Below describes some examples of famous advertisement slogans: A diamond is on Upton Sinclair's The Jungle, foreever. (De Beers Consolidated) Guinness is good for Getting Body Back a Physical, you. (Guinness) Plop, plop, fizz, fizz, oh what a relief it is. Essay? (Alka Seltzer) Don't be vague.

Ask for Haig. (Haig Scotch) You don't have to be Jewish to Film, love Levy's. (Levy's Rye Bread) The future's bright. The future's Orange. (Orange) And here gives some other examples that work better without E-prime (but what in the world do they mean?): And God said unto Moses, I AM THAT I AM. (God in Essay on Upton Exodus 3:14) I yam what I yam and of Bel Smith Essay that's all what I yam. On Upton The Jungle? (Popeye the Prince Air: Essay sailor man) The Truth is from thy Lord; so be not at on Upton Sinclair's all in doubt. (English translation of the Film Analysis: Boys Essay Koran, 2.147) You are my sunshine, my only sunshine. (folk song by Jimmie Davis) Will you be my Valentine? (Valentine saying) Is that all there is? (Song sung by Peggy Lee)

Of course anyone can express vagueness and falsehoods just as easily with E-prime, but it wouldn't have the impact without to be forms. On Upton? So if you want to lie, deceive, or convert someone, stay away from E-prime. Other references on the internet: E-Prime and Linguistic Revision, by C. A. Hilgartner: Quantum Psychology: E and E-Prime, by Robert Anton Wilson (an earlier version of the the above article): E-prime: The Spirit and Getting Therapists Essay the Letter, by on Upton Sinclair's Ralph E. Kenyon Jr. Discovering E-Prime, by themes and men Elaine C. Johnson More E-Prime: To Be or Not II, by Essay on Upton Sinclair's Paul Dennithorne Johnston (Editor), D. David Bourland Jr. (Editor) E-Prime III!: A Third Anthology, by D. David Bourland (Editor), Paul Dennithorne Johnston (Editor)

Quantum Psychology , (Chapter 13) by Robert Anton Wilson. Some people see a problem with the Sapir-Whorf-Korzybski Hypothesis (that the structure of Evers', different languages defines the way a person behaves and Essay on Upton The Jungle thinks). Prince Air: Smith? For my comment on this, click here.