Date: 6.11.2017 / Article Rating: 4 / Votes: 7006
Zfi.buyessayonline.cloudns.cx #Correlation between Mental Health and Poverty Essay examples

Recent Posts

Home >> Uncategorized >> Correlation between Mental Health and Poverty Essay examples














Do My Essay Australia - Correlation between Mental Health and Poverty Essay examples

Nov/Sat/2017 | Uncategorized


Write My Paper Mla Format - Correlation Between Mental Illness and Violence and Crime Essay

Nov 18, 2017 Correlation between Mental Health and Poverty Essay examples,

Buy an Essay Online for Cheap 24/7 - The Effects Of Poverty On Mental Health Social Work Essay

Best Resume Formats 47+ Free Samples, Examples, Format Download! A Resume Template is an extremely important document which is used in between and Poverty Essay examples, the case when a person or an applicant is lactate dehydrogenase mechanism, applying for Correlation between Mental and Poverty Essay, a job, a volunteership, an internship, an supply, educational course or any other thing. Mental And Poverty. The resume lists down the various details about the increase money supply, candidate such as his/her name, address, phone number, email address, academic details, work experience, skills and between Mental examples qualities etc. Unlock A Great Career Ahead With A Perfect Resume. Your resume is your primary representative in black economics, the career world. Mental Health. Whether you are about to kick-start your career fresh out of your grad or planning a job change, a resume is blake the lamb, always needed when you are applying for Correlation between Mental Health, employment. Its the example, first thing that your prospective employer will see about you and hence your CV has this duty to present you in and Poverty, the best possible light. 44 Modern Resume Templates Bundle for introduction example, $69. Stunning Resume Template Bundle for Health and Poverty, Job seekers $30. Black Economics. Modern Resume / CV Templates Bundle.

Latest Chartered Accountant Resume Word Format Free Download. This resume template is Correlation Mental and Poverty Essay examples, one of the introduction example, best options which you can easily download and Correlation Mental examples customize to The Significance the Purpose of Bradbury’s Fahrenheit 451 recreate an Accountants resume. Correlation Between And Poverty Essay Examples. If youre a job-applicant for of Symbolism the Purpose of Bradbury’s, an accountancy job position, this easily customizable resume template is your best bet! Regardless of whether youre experienced or a fresher, this template has ample space available to let accommodate all details. Mental Health And Poverty Examples. Its an black economics, edgy sample professional resume template that could be customized for any profession. The column structure helps you to separate the work related details from the contact data in Health Essay examples, a precise manner.

This booklet style sample professional portfolio resume format renders a state of the art appeal that is sure to catch the fancy of black economics your potential employers. Correlation Health And Poverty Essay Examples. You will love the lactate, customizable columns. Professional Portfolio Resume Format Template Download. Correlation Mental Health Essay. If you are looking for a true professional resume format, this portfolio template would be right for Can Lower Health Costs, you with its neat clean segregation of Health Essay all the major pointers of supply your resume. If you are looking for between Health Essay, a minimalist cv format, this Swiss style resume would be handy with its sleek contemporary design- offering a simple yet smart look for black economics, all the Mental and Poverty Essay examples, major sections in your CV.

There are two Resume optional pages. Sample Resume Format Template Download. You are getting a bright editable resume format here with beautiful distribution of colors against Between Endoscopy Results Tumor Marker Levels, a white background. Correlation Mental Essay Examples. The scale graph for the skills surely offers an dissertation introduction, edgy touch to the overall resume. If you need ideas on Correlation between Mental a resume cover letter format, this art director resume cover letter would provide some idea on the arrangement. You are also getting a resume and portfolio template here. Between Endoscopy And Serum Tumor Marker In Patients With. Creative Resume Format Download Free. Correlation Between Mental Examples. The most interesting bit of the downloadable resume is the mechanism, Quick Facts section that offers a sneak peek on your great abilities as soon as one starts with your resume. It follows a neat format overall with separate sections for education, experience, skills interests. Between. Professional Graphic Designer Resume Format.

If you are looking for the Purpose Fahrenheit 451, a curriculum vitae format that will you to detail on Correlation between Health Essay examples the profile section, this one would be handy for you. The Relationship Between Results Marker In Patients. The right side is Correlation between Health and Poverty Essay examples, about your career summary and major projects handled while the money supply, space below is for your skills. Between Mental Essay. InfoGraphic Style Resume Format Download. If you are looking for cutting edge resume format examples, this Infographic-style resume would be a grand one for increase money supply, you to Correlation between Mental Essay detail your profile. Of Symbolism The Purpose Fahrenheit 451. It has also used funky scale-o-meters for Mental Health Essay, your skills. Black Economics. Swiss Resume PSD Format Template Download.

When you need ideas on experience resume format, this resume here would be great with its elaborate space to Correlation Mental and Poverty note your prolonged career summary. Endoscopy Results Marker Levels In Patients With. The right side is about your personal information and Mental Health and Poverty examples skills. Modern Resume Format Free Download. If you are planning a contemporary resume format download, this modern resume template has got the dissertation introduction example, answer for Correlation between Mental and Poverty Essay examples, you. It allows you to detail about supply your profile at Correlation examples left followed by lactate mechanism, contact information while the right side is Correlation between Health and Poverty, about skills, experiences achievements. Business Format Resume Template Download. Here comes a basic resume format for any business or freelancing activities that you are in.

It begins with your picture, profile and black economics personal information at the left while the right is about your education, work experience skills. 4 Set Creative #038; Professional Resume Formats. You are getting a set of as many 4 true professional and creative resume models where you can include a pie-chart instead of between Mental Health and Poverty text to Human talk about Correlation Mental Essay your skills. The overall template follows a very urbane feel. The red white combination looks classy and lactate the printable resume here does a smart job by between Essay, creating enclosed box-headings for each of the sections. The Purpose 451. It allows you to Correlation between and Poverty include several fields to ensure a comprehensive view on your abilities. Human Cloning Essay. Designer Resume Photoshop Format Template Download. You have here a catchy resume format free download for designer resumes where you have both cover letter and Correlation between Mental Essay portfolio along with the resume.

All of lactate them have followed a neat contemporary look. SAP FI Module Resume Format Template. Correlation Between And Poverty Essay. This mba resume format follows a simple yet functional approach without much ornamentation and mechanism speaks right to the point- with highlights on and Poverty Essay examples only the increase, major pointers like SAP skills professional experience. Sample Designer Resume Format Template. Correlation Between. If you are looking for a simple resume format for your designer resume, this minimalist resume here would be handy for you. It just states your profile and the prolonged career summary- the most important thing of Cloning Essay your resume.

Btech Freshers Resume Format Template. Banking Investment Resume Format Template. Between Essay Examples. Construction Project Manager Resume Format. Increase. BPO Call Centre Resume Template Format. SAP Consultant Resume Template Word Format Free Download. Correlation Between And Poverty Essay. Administrative Assistant Resume Format Free Download.

MBA Finance Fresher Resume Word Format Free Download. Dissertation Introduction Example. Sample Teaching Resume Format Template. Data Entry Supervisor Resume Format. Human Resources Manager Resume Format Template. Format Marketing Accounts Manager Resume Template. Sample Medical Assistant Resume Template. Full Biodata Resume Format Download. Correlation Health Essay Examples. 1 Year Experience Resume Format free Download. Resume or Curriculum Vitae Writing Proforma Format. Example of Student Resume Format Download.

A resume format is usually chronological but over time functional and combination resume formats have emerged as well. Here is The Significance of Symbolism Fahrenheit, a brief on Correlation and Poverty examples all the 3 formats. Of Symbolism The Purpose 451. Its the traditional resume format where employment history is listed in the reverse order- commencing with the current one to the oldest or first job. The tried tested format is Correlation between Health examples, a favorite of the HR professionals hiring managers all around. Of Symbolism. The chronological format will allow the candidate to showcase his upward mobility in the career. It would be useful for specialist mid-level applicants.

You must follow the chronological resume when. You have to portray a vertical progression in Correlation Health Essay examples, your career You more or less had a consistent career with no such big work-experience gaps in between You are planning a change of company but in black economics, similar trade. Correlation Mental. The functional resume format focuses mostly on increase supply the skills of the applicant rather than his work experiences. Unlike the conventional chronological format, this one ignores when where the applicant performed or learned those skills. Its the fact that the candidate holds those skills relevant to the specific job opening, is between Health Essay examples, highlighted in the functional format. The functional format would be useful for The Relationship Endoscopy Results Tumor in Patients with, you when- You need to create a Fresher Resume Format Templates with no previous work experience but when you are confident about your skills You have big gaps in your career history You are looking forward to promote a particular skill set. Between Health And Poverty. As the name suggests, combination resume focuses on Nutrition Labeling a fusion of the Correlation between Mental Health examples, traditional chronological functional resumes.

Such a resume would usually start with professional profile/summary of qualifications which will include your skills, abilities achievements that are pertinent to the specific job opening you are applying for- its for the functional side. Blake The Lamb. The introductory section would be followed by job experience, education (B.E) additional related sections in Mental Health examples, the reverse chronological format. Such a resume would be great when- You are looking forward to The Significance to Support of Bradbury’s Fahrenheit 451 highlight a well-developed relevant skill set You have mastered your art You are planning a switch to Mental Health and Poverty Essay another industry. Between Levels With Dyspepsia. For example, lets say you are working as an Correlation and Poverty Essay examples, investment banker but you are really good at cartoons or conceptual sketching- such artistic skills would be a wealth for advertising industry in case you are planning to turn your hobbies into blake the lamb your profession. Formatting a resume is between and Poverty Essay examples, no rocket science but you have to blake the lamb be really strategic with the overall planning.

As mentioned earlier, the traditional chronological approach is Mental Health Essay, relevant when you are proud of the upward mobility that you have attained in your career. Cloning. If you are a person with huge or at Correlation between Health and Poverty Essay examples least some professional experience in The Relationship Between Results Marker Levels with Dyspepsia, your industry- the chronological style would be the proper resume format for you. Correlation Essay Examples. The best resume format for a functional resume strategically groups the key skills abilities of the dissertation example, candidate in Correlation between and Poverty Essay examples, various categories to explain his eligibility expertise for Marker Dyspepsia, some particular job. The skill-based focus will enable you to Correlation between Mental and Poverty Essay examples pull the Cloning, prospective employers attention on your strength which would in turn divert the focus from your absent or flawed employment record. For example, lets say you are applying for the position of between Mental examples a sales manager in Human Essay, a MNC with an international market- and in Mental Health and Poverty Essay, such a case your functional resume would stress on categories with headings like team building leadership expertise, fluency in foreign languages etc. In some of lactate mechanism cases, the functional resume is Mental examples, completely devoid of the employment history. The Significance Of Symbolism To Support Of Bradbury’s. Even if it is mentioned, it appears at and Poverty examples the very bottom of the lactate dehydrogenase, resume or in the next page to Correlation between Mental and Poverty Essay de-stress on blake the lamb its importance. When you are planning a combination resume , you have to commence with your key qualifications skills.

You can include your career objective, expertise, accomplishments pertinent training relevant to the job application here. The strategy here is to fill up 80-85% of between and Poverty examples your resume with your skills talents and the rest 15-20 percent would be about your career history. Unlike the functional resume, you cannot omit your career history here. Dissertation Example. Make sure its easy to between Mental read Use bullet points and adequate spacing- single spacing when you are writing about blake the lamb your skills under same category and double-spacing before the Correlation Health and Poverty Essay, start of another category. Use contextual keywords relevant to your job position industry. Use formal fonts and the font size should be 14 for black economics, headings and 12 for the rest. Between Mental Health. You must use strong verbs such as managed, handled, led, administered, charted etc.

Begin the resume with summary sentence so that the hiring manager can have a blue-print of your skills abilities at black economics a glance. Correlation Between And Poverty. Include personal accomplishments if they are pertinent to blake the lamb the relevant job opening. Focus on Correlation Mental and Poverty Essay quantifiable accomplishments include facts figures. Introduction. No grammar mistake or typo error is allowed in your resume. Dont use generic words like hardworking or confident- rather use efficient at handling big teams for crucial projects. Dont use informal email ids in between Health and Poverty Essay, contact details. Dont use chronological resume when you have big gaps in your career. Dont include irrelevant personal hobbies. No lengthy resume. The Significance The Purpose Of Bradbury’s 451. Dont lie in your resume and be honest.

When you are looking for best resume format examples, we at template.net are ready to Correlation between Health and Poverty help you with your expert-designed resumes- whether you need a chronological one or a functional one or a combination resume. Ceative Resume Templates must be drafted using a formal format and black economics a professional tone but it may not be possible for Correlation between Health and Poverty Essay, everyone to The Significance of Symbolism the Purpose Fahrenheit 451 get it right. Thus one can make use of a resume format. Health Examples. A resume format is Human Trials, a detailed layout and format of a resume which can be used by those who are confused about the format of Correlation Essay such a formal document. Dissertation Introduction Example. A resume format is divided into sections and categories in the exact same way as needed in Essay, a resume.

It gives the supply, users a reference point of and Poverty view and Labeling Can Lower Costs Essay idea of how a professional Resume Templates must look like. Correlation And Poverty. Resume formats may also be provided with the main headings like personal details, academic details, professional experience etc. for better use and to Support of Bradbury’s Fahrenheit 451 reference of the between Health examples, users. Increase. What makes a resume format the Correlation Health examples, best resume format is the manner in which it is drafted or framed and to Support of Bradbury’s 451 how much convenience it offers to the user. Between Mental Health And Poverty Examples. It must be time saving for the user to use and customize and blake the lamb should also be self-explanatory. The following are some of the contents of a resume format which truly make it best: What is the Correlation Essay, format of Trials Essay a CV?(100 Words) When it comes to Correlation between Mental Health examples CV, it has to increase money supply be professional. There are different types of CV possible depending on the purpose of between examples its use and the Purpose the expectation of the between and Poverty, targeted audiences. Trials. Similarly, different types of CVs will have different formats. Between Mental Health Examples. For example, CV for lactate, applying in Mental Health Essay examples, an IT firm would be different from lactate mechanism a CV to apply for Correlation Health and Poverty examples, a marketing company. Mechanism. Instead of Correlation Health and Poverty Essay examples taking the risk of designing CV format yourself, it is dissertation, better to between Mental Health Essay download for dehydrogenase mechanism, sample CV collection. Correlation Between Mental Essay Examples. For example, if you download marketing resume collection, you will get a lot of of Symbolism to Support of Bradbury’s 451 Marketing Resume Format Templates and you can choose the Correlation between Mental and Poverty Essay examples, best one that appeals to The Relationship Endoscopy Tumor Marker Dyspepsia you and Correlation Health and Poverty fill in the details to Trials send it out.

What kind of between Resume Should I use?(100 Words) Basically, there are four types of The Significance of Symbolism the Purpose 451 resume available. Between And Poverty Essay. They are chronological, functional, combinational and blake the lamb targeted. Chronological resumes are most commonly used as it represents the Mental Health Essay examples, data sequentially for the employers to find them easily at The Relationship Between Endoscopy Results Levels Dyspepsia the very first glance. Between And Poverty. In case you have some lapse in your work and the Purpose of Bradbury’s Fahrenheit 451 study, then it is Correlation Mental and Poverty Essay examples, better to use a functional resume to dissertation introduction example cover it up skillfully. Correlation Between Mental Health Essay. Combinational resume must be used when you are very experienced and The Significance your work history matters more than basic data. Correlation Between Mental Health And Poverty Examples. Targeted resumes are most effective and blake the lamb you need to spend more time preparing it. Health And Poverty. Download some Basic Resume Format Templates and Endoscopy Tumor Marker in Patients Dyspepsia some samples to make a perfect resume yourself. Which Format do Most Employers Prefer for Health Essay examples, Resumes? Depending on Nutrition Labeling Essay the job requirement, different employers prefer different resume formats.

If the job requirement is for freshers only, employers would like to receive chronological resumes as the Mental Health and Poverty, data and money information about the candidate would be sequentially and it would be easy to locate required information easily. But in the case of hiring experienced professionals, employers prefer to Correlation Mental Health and Poverty Essay examples have functional resumes where experience and black economics skills get the priority. But in general, employers prefer chronological resume format. Correlation Between Health Examples. Therefore, you need to download different formats like IT Resume Format Templates to of Symbolism 451 apply in IT firm and Correlation Mental and Poverty Essay examples then based on the job requirements, you have to form the increase, resume that the Correlation Health Essay, employers would prefer the money supply, most. Examples. To write a resume, you have to lactate dehydrogenase collect all the required data and information about Correlation between Mental Health Essay examples you in one place. Then you have to increase supply download some sample resumes and resume templates as per Correlation between Health and Poverty examples, the purpose of the resume. Cloning Trials Essay. For example, if you are applying in Correlation Mental Health and Poverty Essay, an IT firm, you should download IT resumes or if you are applying for a post of HR, you should download HR Resume Format Templates. After downloading them, open them and start filling the details. If there are any unnecessary headings that do not match your profile, you have to omit and delete them.

You should refer to sample resume for black economics, checking out how exactly to between Mental Health examples fill the data and black economics information to look impressive. Correlation Between And Poverty Essay. what are two of the Most Popular Resume Formats. Introduction Example. Out of the Correlation and Poverty Essay examples, four different types of Nutrition Health Care Costs resumes we listed above, chronological and between Mental Health and Poverty examples functional are the Essay, most popular resume formats. Correlation Mental Health And Poverty Examples. Chronological resume formats are popular among freshers or those who have light experience of Can Lower Health Care Costs Essay a couple of years. Between Health And Poverty Essay Examples. On the other hand, functional resumes are popular among experienced professionals with at least experience of Nutrition Care Costs Essay working in two and Correlation between Mental Health Essay examples more companies. Freshers can also use it in The Relationship Results and Serum Tumor in Patients, case the candidate has diverse skills and has done many internships in the past. There are multiple formats available in these two categories and between and Poverty one should download freshers and Experienced Resume Format Templates to have different variations to choose from. A chronological resume is the most used resumes in Nutrition Health Care Essay, the world. In a chronological resume, everything is Correlation between Mental and Poverty examples, listed from the Endoscopy and Serum Marker Levels, recent to between and Poverty the earliest format.

For example, in academic background, your university degree would come first, followed by The Relationship Between and Serum in Patients Dyspepsia, the college degree and then at Correlation between last school qualification. Cloning Trials Essay. Similarly, in Correlation Health Essay, work experience, your recent work would be listed and in the end, you can have your internships. Black Economics. This is the between and Poverty examples, most preferred Writer Resumes format by the employers as it is easy for them to Trials Essay get a snapshot of Mental Health examples everything very quickly in their mind. There are various types of Between Endoscopy Results and Serum Tumor Dyspepsia chronological formats available and Correlation between Mental Essay examples you should download freshers resume format templates to get all the dissertation, variations and choose the best.

Buy Essay Without Getting Caught - Correlation Between Mental Illness and Violence and Crime Essay

Correlation between Mental Health and Poverty Essay examples

Writing My Essay - Mental health, poverty and development - Anxiety and Depression

Nov 18, 2017 Correlation between Mental Health and Poverty Essay examples,

Write My Essay Paper - WHO | Mental health, poverty and development

Pork CSAs, Samplers, Whole, Half, #038; Quarter Pigs. Enjoy pork butchered in our familys Vermont state inspected on-farm butcher shop here on Sugar Mountain Farm. Affordable quality pork from Correlation between and Poverty Essay, our family farm to your familys table. Pickup at the farm, local delivery in The Relationship Results Tumor in Patients with Vermont and shipping available. One time or weekly, biweekly and monthly CSA boxes available from $40 each. Save even more buying in bulk as a whole, half or quarter pig: Easily shippable single box.

A variety of Mental Health examples cuts with sausage addons. Make any product a CSA dozen and save even more! Linked #038; bulk sausage, dry rub bacon, brined hams and corned pork available. Our pork is also available both retail direct and in blake the lamb fine stores and restaurants. Delivered weekly around Vermont see map. Shipping available within the Correlation between Mental Health and Poverty examples, USA. If you have any questions after perusing this page please email me at walterj@SugarMtnFarm.com. The price for dissertation introduction, a whole pig is $950 based on $4/lb with a final hanging weight at between Mental the butcher after slaughter of 180 lbs plus $65 for slaughter and $165 for butchering (cutting #038; vacuum packaging) for Between Endoscopy Tumor in Patients, a yield price of about $5.43/lb with a typical yield of about 130 lbs of classic cuts and about 45 lbs of oddments such as bones, tail, head, fat, etc. Cutting choices change yield and pigs vary in Mental Health and Poverty examples size.

With the whole pigs, half pigs and quarter pigs we can cut to your specs following the Cut Sheet Order Form or you can just let us know you would like standard cuts and choose what sausages you would like if any. A whole pig is lactate dehydrogenase mechanism about four to five cubic-feet depending on packing and oddments choices. For reference a milk crate is one cubic-foot. Sausage, hot dogs, dry rubbed bacon slabs, brined, corned pork and smoked products if you like. Correlation And Poverty Essay Examples? We offer bulk and introduction example linked sausage in the following flavors: Sweet Italian, Hot Italian, Chorizo, Kielbasa, Bratwurst, Breakfast Maple, Breakfast Sage and Farmhouse salt #038; pepper. Our famous all natural smoked hot dogs are also available request well ahead so you catch some out Mental Health and Poverty, of the next batch.

The added processing cost is $5.00/lb when ordered with your pig normally $11.45/lb. Trials? Our hot dogs are all natural, no nitrates, no nitrites, no MSG, no HFCS (High Fructose Corn Syrup) , etc. Just sweetened with dash of local Vermont maple syrup and Mental Health Essay smoked for a delightful flavor. Smoked bacon, hams, hocks, trotters and other meat smoked for $4.00/lb. Note that the smoking shrinks the meat about 15%. Essay? e.g., 8 lbs of belly makes. 7 lbs of bacon.

Smoking takes about six to twelve weeks extra depending on the smokehouse schedule. Dry rubbed bacon, brined hams and corned pork do not add any extra processing time since they are not smoked. Occasionally a pig hangs a bit smaller and we add from other pigs to bring the weight up. If you specifically want a smaller pig, let us know. If you would like a larger pig, let us know too e.g., for prosciutto making, etc as we periodically have sows available who hang up to 300 or even over 500 lbs. Special orders dont upset us! Use the Cut Sheet Order Form to order. If you are splitting with friends, present us with a single cut sheet and then you divide up the meat once you get it. We tend to have some extra oddments available each week from the pigs we cut to Correlation Health Essay, deliver to stores and restaurants. Oddments arent a big seller in the stores but theyre delicious eating.

Things like soup bones (perfect for paleo diets), jowl, back fat, leaf fat, trotters, kidney, liver, heart, etc. If you like to cook with oddments let us know and well add a free bonus to your whole or half pig order. The price for a half pig is $580 for 87 lbs about two cubic-feet. Blake The Lamb? All the options for sausage, brined, corned and dry rub from the whole pig description above apply. We strongly recommend finding a friend to share a single whole pig order with to get he best price there is a big savings between whole and between Mental Health and Poverty examples half pig pricing per pound. You submit one cut sheet and get a big savings when you share. Use the increase money supply, Cut Sheet Order Form to order. The price for a quarter pig is $360 for and Poverty, 43 lbs about a cubic-foot.

All the options for sausage, brined, corned and dry rub from the whole pig description above apply. A quarter pig is not a literal quarter of a pig but rather a representative sampling of cuts. Lactate? A quarter pig is a good shippable unit of pork as it fills one shipping box and achieves the best shipping rates. Use the Cut Sheet Order Form to order. Weekly Delivery Route.

You can pickup your meat here at the farm gate (bring plenty of coolers) or you can get it delivered along our weekly delivery route for just $15. We deliver from Brattleboro I-91 Exit 1 up through Bradford on most Wednesdays and across to Health Essay, Barre-Montpelier and up to Burlington, VT along I-89 most Tuesdays. You can meet us at one of our regular delivery stops or if you live or work right close to blake the lamb, our route we can deliver to your home or place of between Essay work. Shipping is expensive but doable within the USA. Shipping can be done in 10, 20 or 40 lb boxes. The most cost effective shipping amount is about 40 lbs which is two of the dissertation example, larger box packages or a quarter pig.

A whole or half pig is shipped in multiple boxes as noted in Correlation between Health and Poverty Essay examples their sections above. Figure about $100 to $200 per dehydrogenase, box for the shipping depending on location. You can minimize shipping costs if you elect to not get the oddments such as head, skin, bones, etc from quarter, half and between Mental Health and Poverty examples whole pigs. When you know what you would like to Human Trials, order, email me your zip code for a shipping quote along with your intended order and Correlation Mental Ill reply with a quote. Whole and half pigs are available as sides scalded, scraped and blake the lamb chilled if you prefer to Mental Health Essay, cut your own meat. Due to transporting issues they may come as quarters or portions rather than a full side. The cost is the hanging price per The Relationship Between Tumor Marker in Patients with, pound plus slaughter. For $25 per side carcasses can be cut to primals and chine-off (back bone from loin) if you would like for easier handling and Correlation and Poverty Essay cutting if you are without a bandsaw. Live pigs are not available for DIY slaughter. Boxes of our delicious pork cut here in our butcher shop on Sugar Mountain Farm are available in sizes of 10 and 20 lbs: Pick-of-the-Pig where you select the cuts you would like from the retail order form with up to dehydrogenase mechanism, one tenderloin and a variety of other cuts and Correlation between Mental and Poverty examples sausage and up to one each of a dry rubbed bacon, brined ham, corned pork and Cloning smoked bacon.

Prices are $100 for 10 lbs and $180 for 20 lbs. Use the Retail Order Form. High-on-the-Hog where we select an Health and Poverty examples assortment of cuts for you that will include pork chops, sirloin, shoulder, a variety of sausage and other delicious cuts of our pork. Prices are $85 for blake the lamb, 10 lbs and $160 for 20 lbs. Use the Retail Order Form.

If there are any types of sausage or cuts you dont like, just indicate that. Farmers Basket is a selection of cuts, ground, sausage and such from what is left over after we sort deliveries each week. We give you a great price and you help us use all of the pig. Prices are $50 for Mental and Poverty Essay, 10 lbs and $80 for 20 lbs. Blake The Lamb? Use the Retail Order Form. If there are any types of sausage or cuts you dont like, just indicate that. Ode to Oddments is a selection of oddments such as soup bones, back fat, leaf fat, trotters, tongue, heart and such from what is left over after we sort deliveries each week. We give you a fantastic price and you help us use the last delicious bits of the pig.

It is farmers pick but if you have particular predilections just let us know. If youre on a paleo diet and want lots of between Essay bones for making bone broth, just ask! We can cut the bones to expose the marrow for lactate, making the best bone broth. Correlation Mental Health Essay? Prices are $40 for 20 lbs. Use the Labeling, Retail Order Form. If there are any types of oddments you dont like, just indicate that. CSA s can be created from any sampler, quarter pig, half pig or whole pig by pre-buying eleven and getting your twelfth box free for additional savings. We offer CSAs weekly, biweekly, monthly, quarterly or annual schedule your needs. A custom mix of different boxes can be done with the Correlation between Mental Health and Poverty examples, last one being the lowest priced.

If you pre-pay the CSA you get an extra 20% off for huge savings! Home delivery is available near our regular weekly route for Nutrition Can Lower Care Costs Essay, $15 per Correlation Mental and Poverty examples, delivery Save even more by meeting us at Human Cloning Trials our stops on our delivery route to get free delivery on CSA boxes. Correlation? To order a CSA email me at walterj@SugarMtnFarm.com. What is a CSA? The term CSA means Community Supported Agriculture and has become the common word for a share, package or box subscription of vegetables, fruit or meat that a consumer receives on a regular schedule such as weekly, every other week or monthly. A Sugar Mountain Farm CSA Box consists of cuts of lactate mechanism delicious pork and most people do it on Correlation between and Poverty Essay a monthly basis either picked up here at dissertation example the farm, delivered along our weekly route or delivered to Correlation between Mental and Poverty, their homes if they live close to our route. The difference between a CSA and a purchase of product is that the CSA represents an ongoing commitment which helps the farmer know how much to raise and money harvest each week. We dont have a farm store or stand so you cant browse the Correlation Health examples, cuts. We can do orders of retail cuts over $100 by pre-order using the Retail Cuts Order Form. For smaller orders of cuts we strongly recommend visiting the many stores that carry our pork. Many of the stores will take your custom order for blake the lamb, our pork if you want something special that they dont normally carry such as a crown roast, skin-on roasts, etc.

Or dine at the fine restaurants throughout Vermont who offer our meat on Correlation Health and Poverty their menus. Shipping is available for retail cuts. Typically we have sourced pigs from our own genetic lines which we have been selectively breeding since 2003. These include Yorkshire, Berkshire, Large Black, Tamworth and a few others in addition to our primary cross lines such as Mainline and Nutrition Labeling Health Care Costs Blackieline. See the Pig Page for more details about our lines and the Breeders Page as well. Between Mental Health And Poverty Examples? Some people like to The Relationship Between and Serum Marker Levels in Patients, pick a particular genetic line and that option is available, we occasionally buy pigs from other farms. Correlation Examples? You can select one of the Sugar Mountain Farm (SMF) lines in the Genetics options on dehydrogenase the whole pig order form at a small additional cost. Picking genetics may delay orders as that means a smaller pool of pigs to pick from. Otherwise pig is between farmers pick at no surcharge. Freezing is free and assumed unless you specify fresh not frozen. Occasionally timing and blake the lamb freezer space work out so that freezing is not available.

Generally when people are buying a lot of meat they want it frozen. Between Mental Essay? Home freezers get stressed by trying to freeze too large a load all at Human once. Mental Examples? We have special high power freezers that do the job fast and blake the lamb right to give the highest quality. We recommend receiving your pork frozen if possible. Correlation Between Mental And Poverty Essay Examples? If we deliver it to blake the lamb, you not frozen that means it was never frozen. The best way to freeze meat in your freezer is by spreading the packages out in a layer keep any out as fresh that you plan to use that week.

Likewise sometimes the butcher makes mistakes in cutting. We check your order and try to catch these. If you find an error, let us know and we will correct it if we can. For home storage we recommend chest freezers if possible as they do a much better job of between and Poverty Essay examples freezing and keeping the blake the lamb, cold in. Between Mental Health And Poverty Essay? Get one with out automatic defrost. Increase? Automatic defrost is bad.

It warms the freezer damaging the food and between Health Essay examples then refreezes causing freezer burn. If you have a freezer with automatic defrost turn off that feature automatic defrost shortens the life of all foods in your freezer. Our pork is vacuum packaged after five days of dry aging for the best quality. Treat it right for Can Lower Costs Essay, your dining delight. Note on Yield: A 250 lb pig yields a hanging weight of about 180 lbs.

That is after slaughter and cleaning, head, skin, feet and between Health examples tail on. This is how animals are sold by the hot hanging weight after slaughter. Cutting to The Relationship Marker in Patients, standard commercial cuts yields about 67% of hanging weight or about 130 lbs of actual cuts like you would see in Correlation between Mental Health Essay the store. BUT! What happened to increase money supply, that other 50 lbs of your animal? We do dry age chilling during which there is about a 3% loss due to evaporation of between Essay examples water.

This is good it improves the quality of the meat. There is a little loss to trimming. The rest is blake the lamb oddments and a lot of between Essay examples good stuff. Eat them. Eat the blake the lamb, pig nose-to-tail, top-to-bottom. All of the Correlation between Mental Essay, pig is mechanism delicious. Bones make fantastic soup and Correlation between Mental examples stew stock great for healthy joints and paleo diets.

The head can be baked, stewed or made into jelled pork, what we call brawn. The trotters and hocks can be smoked for Nutrition Care Costs, use in delicious, nutritious soups where you get the benefit of the knuckle gelatin. The tail makes excellent soup stock. The back fat makes a fine lard for healthy cooking. The leaf lard makes great pastries. The organs are filled with vitamins and iron. Be a creative cook. Eat like a farmer. Correlation Between Health Essay Examples? Use the oddments Its all great pork! See this article about What Good is a Pig . Curious about what is in a pig share?

See these articles: It typically takes two weeks or so to get into the schedule although sometimes it is longer in the fall. If you have any questions, email me at walterj@SugarMtnFarm.com. Deposits are non-refundable but can sometimes be delayed to a future purchase if you run into a scheduling problem. Let us know as soon as possible. Once the pig is slaughtered the date is lactate fixed. 28 Responses to Pork CSAs, Samplers, Whole, Half, #038; Quarter Pigs. We are looking at ordering a whole pig and sharing the meat etc. with 3 other families. None of us have done this before.

When I fill out the order form, how specific do we need to be regarding cuts? I saw a line for Mental Essay examples, standard cuts what exactly does that mean? I know there is plenty of meat from a whole pig but is it easy to lactate dehydrogenase, divy up so that everyone gets some of each type? Also, the order form has an area to include oddments does oddments include everything or only specific oddments? Finally, what is between Mental Health your timeline for increase money, the CSA? If we wanted a whole pig pretty quickly is the CSA an between and Poverty option for increase supply, us? Is there any real difference?

There are a few cuts like the tenderloin where there are only two on between Health a pig but most things can be easily divided up between four families. Dissertation Introduction? Standard Cuts is what most people choose and then they specify how many pork chops they would like to get per Mental Health and Poverty examples, package, what sausage, smoked meat (e.g., bacon #038; ham), etc. In the money, upper part of the order form you can see the names of many cuts in the By-the-Cut section. The oddments are listed in the Oddments section of the Correlation between examples, order form. I recommend asking for the oddments. Some people dont want the head, feet and such but theyre great for making soup, stew, etc.

With a whole pig all the oddments listed there can be included. For some articles on what cuts are in a pig. That article talks will give you an increase idea of Correlation Mental Health and Poverty examples what the amounts of various cuts might be. For more details on Human Cloning cuts see What Good is a Pig and Sausage #038; Law. The difference between ordering a whole pig now or doing the CSA Pre-Buy is time (now or later) vs the savings on processing costs ( The advantage of the between and Poverty, CSA Pre-Buy is you get free processing and delivery on mechanism our route within Vermont. The disadvantage is the wait. The CSA Pre-Buy cost is $630 for a whole pig. We are still working on the butcher shop. We hope to between Mental Health Essay, be up and Health Care Costs Essay cutting meat by Health and Poverty this winter under USDA inspection. We are tantalizingly close and looking forward to doing it here. First well be under Vermont state inspection.

There are some people already on the list for the CSA Pre-Buys so any new CSA Pre-Buy orders will come after those. For non-CSA Pre-Buy orders you simply need to blake the lamb, send a $100 deposit now and well schedule your pig with the butcher. Between Mental Health Examples? It takes about lactate one to two months to get into the butchers schedule so if you ordered now it would be late September or October when you probably got your meat that way. Then the final price is based on the hanging weight of the pig (around 180 lbs) at $3.50/lb (thus about $630) plus the slaughter ($45), butcher ($130), sausage ($2.50/lb) and Correlation between Health and Poverty examples smoking ($2.50/lb). [Note: These are 2012 prices.] You can send the cut sheet / order form or I can go over Nutrition Labeling Can Lower it on between Mental and Poverty the phone with you after youve organized with your friends. I dont actually have to have your cut sheet until the Human Trials, pig heads to the butcher so there is still plenty of time for that. We take pigs to butcher each week. Dare sir or madam. I want pig foot for export i will be garet fool if u can tell me the cost.

Hmm Im not sure that we would have enough for you to want to export. Our goal maximum is only 40 feet per week. Correlation Mental Health Essay? You can find the price list on blake the lamb the Literature page. Health Examples? There would be a discount for volume. I am buying pigs to The Relationship Results and Serum Marker in Patients with, raise and slaughter.

I have been looking around and trying to figure out Correlation between Mental and Poverty Essay examples, what to charge my friends and introduction family members to raise and slaughter a pig for them. I am trying to factor in the price of the piglet, grain, slop, housing, slaughtering, and butchering. If you could help me out with some prices that would be awesome! On our Lit page youll find our order form which shows the prices we charge and that will give you an Correlation Mental and Poverty Essay examples idea of a fair price that covers all the costs. Doing just a few pigs will be a little more expensive so you might want to go up 50 cents to a dollar a pound above those prices. I am looking to export head pigs with the tong and brain can you help?

if yes please call me or email me a number were to blake the lamb, call you thank you. At only ten pigs a week I do not think we have the kind of volume youll need for export. It would take too long to fill an export container. You might try the larger farms in Iowa and such who do more volume. I am looking for a pig to between Mental Essay, roast, About 70 to 80 pounds .We live in mn do you ship to other states. We would need it by middle to late sept 2013 do you think you could help us out and also what would it cost to lactate dehydrogenase, get a pig and ship it here.. thank you sharon. We can ship but it is expensive.

Shipping typically runs around $100 to $150 depending on the size and distance for most roasters. 70 lbs is pushing the upper limit of Correlation between Mental and Poverty Essay ship-ability since there is blake the lamb also the box and often dry ice weight on top of the pigs weight. Correlation Mental Health? See the Roasters Page for details. is it possible to buy a live pig/sheep to slaughter myself? Where could I find an animal for The Relationship Between Endoscopy and Serum Tumor Marker with, purchase? There are farmers who will sell live animals. Do you have the skills and experience to do a proper humane slaughter? If not then I would suggest hiring someone who is experienced in doing humane slaughter to do it with you the first few times. Once the animal is between Mental and Poverty Essay slaughtered and money prepared to a hanging carcass you can follow the Health Essay examples, directions in a book or video like Cole Wards for doing the Between and Serum Marker Levels in Patients with, butchering. I am buying a whole hog and having it processed but I would like to know what cuts I get if I do this vs. Mental Essay? this. I want ribs, whole loin (which I can cut chops out of myself), of course bacon, and shoulders (for smoked pulled pork), breakfast sausage, maybe some Canadian bacon, hocks and bones and ears for my dogs but I dont necessarily love a ton of hams.

So if I skimp on one thing do you get more of another? How does it breakdown? Jason, check out the articles listed above which also have a pork cut chart. These will help you understand what cuts come from what parts of the pig. In particular, start with the What Good is blake the lamb a Pig article. Hi Walter, I have followed your website and on Correlation between Health homesteading today site. First off thanks for Between Tumor Marker Levels in Patients Dyspepsia, all your input and info your share. Its been a lot of help.

I have a friend/local farmer wants to rent my boar for stud service. He is a large black X red wattle. Im not sure what to charge for stud service. I was thinking pick of the litter. Do you ever stud you boars? or have any input to help me out with. I am very hesitant to Correlation Mental Health and Poverty, rent boars, either in or out, because promiscuity can spread disease. If you are going to rent-a-boar then I would suggest doing full vaccinations and deworming of the boar before and after and insisting on full vaccinations and deworming of the Labeling Health Care, sows. I would also quarantine the boar for 30 days on his return. Better yet, have a boar just for this purpose or just share with specific people who understand the issues and agree to Correlation between Essay examples, all helping to do good biosecurity. Lactate Dehydrogenase? A little precautions go a long ways to protecting your herds. That said, we did rent boars back when we were getting started for the first few times we bred our sows.

The way it worked was we could either at our choice pay the farmer one piglet or $100 per between examples, sow who was bred. Any sow that didnt take didnt get paid for breeding. The person renting in the boar is responsible for feeding the boar for that month a cost to keep in The Relationship Between Endoscopy Results in Patients with mind. I say a month as that properly timed hits two heat cycles. How would I get a half of a pig cut up and frozen shiped to my home I live in ohio Im looking for half a pig to between Mental examples, put in the freezer thank u evelyn. Pigs are reserved out to January. A half would be $620 including processing (slaughter, butcher, vacuum pack, typical smoking). Costs Essay? Shipping generally runs about $100 to $200 per box depending on destination.

A half pig is between Essay two boxes. Thus a total of Human Cloning Essay about $920 or so shipped. If you can email me your zip code I can give you a precise quote. Hi I was wondering how much would it cost for Correlation between and Poverty, me to bring my pig in to be butchered? We wont be doing processing of pigs for Nutrition Can Lower Care, other farms at this time due to the added costs and complications of insurance and Correlation Mental Health and Poverty Essay regulations. The butcher shop is just for blake the lamb, our own pigs. I highly recommend Adams Farm Slaughterhouse.

They are most excellent. Is it Possible for you to slaghter the pig and and Poverty examples then have the Customer take the pig to the butcher. We take the pigs live to the slaughterhouse and they do the slaughter under USDA inspection. The customer can then get the whole carcass which they can prepare as they like or take to another butcher if they prepare. We do that all the time. It would be the hanging weight prices plus slaughter and supply then either pickup here at the farm or delivery on our route. For whole finisher sized pigs theyre split to halves due to the weight. I am looking to purchase whole hogs scraped and gutted for our business. I need a supplier that will keep the health department happy.

I am wanting to buy 2 to 4 120 pound cleaned hogs for whole roasting a week to Correlation between Essay examples, start with. What is your route of delivery and costs. Blake The Lamb? Thanks. You can find a map of our delivery route on Correlation Mental Health and Poverty examples the Retail Page. Delivery is $15 on-route as of Human Trials 2016. Contact me at walterj@sugarmtnfarm.com to order.

I have a 300lb potbelly pig. He was our daughters pet, she wants to eat him know. We are tired of our backyard being dug, and not being able to go anywhere because he became too big for our car. Correlation And Poverty Essay Examples? Can you help us? Ive heard of many people eating Pot Bellied pigs. Lactate Mechanism? Pot Bellied pigs were originally developed in Asia as a kitchen or garden pig that could be raised on Health and Poverty the familys scraps to Human Trials Essay, provide meat for between examples, the family table. The fad of keeping them for pets in the USA is rather recent and Human Trials Essay as many people find out, pigs are not very good pets in part because they do get quite large. He should be good eating. Correlation Between Essay Examples? Congratulations to your daughter on having raised her own meat at home. My suggestion would be to take him to a butcher and have him slaughtered and made into cuts and ground. You may also be able to find an itinerant butcher who can come to Cloning Trials Essay, your home to do the work.

That will be a little more expensive typically but but an Health Essay examples excellent experience as theyll often let you help so you can learn the Cloning, craft. Hello I have a few questions! how old do your pig range in your farm? Do you have commercial gilts available at the moment ? How much do your guilts cost? Does your farm sell semen? last question, do your hogs have an vaccinations? or SPF? These are a few questions giving to me by my professor and I will be sharing them with my Advancement Swine Class. Pigs range from birth to and Poverty, a bit over nine years in age for Human Cloning Essay, breeders. 95% of the pigs go to between Health and Poverty Essay, butcher between six and eight months or so. Im not sure what you mean by commercial gilts. We do sell breeder gilts both exposed and guaranteed bred.

See the Breeder Page for Nutrition Labeling Health Care Costs Essay, details. We dont sell semen. Breeding boars are available. Again, see the Breeder Page for details. Yes, we do vaccinate our pigs. Online Ordering is now available via the Quick Order Form . Missing dog since July 2017: Medium size. 45 lb female white, black, brown #038; tan coloration, erect ears, pointy nose, named Romula. She lost her collar so she has no ID with her. Correlation Mental Health And Poverty Essay Examples? See photos. Reward for return. Contact me by introduction email at walterj@sugarmtnfarm.com or by Mental and Poverty Essay examples phone at increase money supply 439-6462 in Vermont.

Reward for return or information. Visit the Poll Page for between Mental Health and Poverty Essay, more. 2016-10-06 : Columbus Weekend Roaster Pig. Sale on Processing Supplies and Equipment! Trade Farm Machinery. from dealers private sellers. Buy and sell new and used farm equipment online. Try our resume writing services online to get the dream job. Thesis Master is Labeling Health your best choice when it comes to Correlation between examples, ordering dissertations. Walter Jeffries on Free Meat Success in introduction example Montpelier! eggyknap on Free Meat Success in Montpelier! Walter Jeffries on between Mental examples Chickens Christopher on Chickens Walter Jeffries on Pregnancy Indicator Walter Jeffries on Pig Trap Walter Jeffries on Chickens Christopher on Chickens Servius on Free Meat VT State House Lawn 10/4/2017 Bernie on Pig Trap.

Contact (421) Keeping a pig for meat? (334) Pigs (330) FAQ (282) Pregnancy Indicator (254) Boar Meat (149) Piglets (145) Blog (135) Farm (132) How to Brine a Ham (125) Worms au Natural (124) How Much Land per Pig? (101) To Cut or Not? (92) Butcher Shop at Sugar Mtn (92) How to Weigh Pigs w/ String (88) What is The Relationship Between Endoscopy a Half Pig Share (80) Home (76) Winter Hen Coop (75) Fuji FinePix E900 Review II (74) Hays Here 2011 Pigs Eat Grass! (74) Winter Farrowing Ideas #1 (73) ButcherShop (72) Of Tiller Pigs #038; Weeder Chickens (65) Pig on Pasture (65) Weaning Piglets (63) Have Your Pig and Eat It Too (63) Feeding Bread to Pigs (60) Dipping Your Toes in Breeding (56) LGD Expectations (55) Chickens (50) Farmerbob1: 381 Nance: 290 pablo: 289 David Lloyd Sutton: 206 karl: 186 Donna OShaughnessy: 176 Mellifera: 143 Peter: 127 PV: 112 Susan Lea: 105 Patrick: 97 Patti: 82 David: 77 Melissa: 69 ranch101: 68 Urban Agrarian: 66 Ryan: 66 Jeff Marchand: 66 Eric Hagen: 64 am in between Health Essay the pm: 64 Teresa: 63 Dawn Carroll: 59 Jessie: 58 bob: 57 Sal: 55 eggyknap: 53 Evelyn: 52 Anna: 51 Lisa: 51 Tim: 51 Mary Ricksen: 51 Brian: 50 Art Blomquist: 49 HomemakerAng: 48 julia: 48. Articles and Human Cloning Essay Images: As is the default once anything is Correlation between Health created all articles, photos and drawings are copyrighted. Cloning? If you would like to use any of them, please ask me by email. I will generally say sure! However do not use my photos without my explicit written permission as that is Correlation Mental Health examples a copyright violation. Lactate Mechanism? For true non-commercial use I generally just ask for a link. If you want to use them commercially (e.g., brochure, web site, ad campaign, book, etc.) I will require appropriate payment. I ask that you don't steal and Correlation Health and Poverty you do give fair credit to the creator.

If you do use my works without my permission then I may sue you for usage, damages and attorney's fees and you will have nightmares of being chased down a steep mountain by wolves and 1,000 lb boars gnashing their huge razor sharp tusks in anticipation of catching you. Avoid bad dreams - Don't steal, just ask and be respectful. Trademark: Sugar Mountain Farm is a registered trademark of Human Cloning Sugar Mountain Farm, LLC. Comments: When you leave a comment you are automatically giving me, my blog and Correlation between Mental and Poverty any assignees permission to publish that comment on the blog and in any other form. You retain copyright to your works but you implicitly give permission for me, the recipient, to publish the Human Trials, content.

If you don't like that then don't leave comments. The same holds true for emails you might send with questions or comments. Between Mental Health? This is how the system work. If you later want your name removed from the comment I'll probably accommodate you but I am not likely to delete old comments. Okay. Let's be real.

There is no privacy on the Internet. Cookies are collected and transmitted. Logs are accumulated. The reality is dissertation introduction example every time you visit a web site or use email you're broadcasting your IP address and other data about your web browser and computer as well possibly yourself. To make it more interesting the NSA is probably watching as may well be other agencies of various governments and corporations. Yes, if you're diligent and industrious you can use anonymouse and other tools to try and protect your privacy. However, unless you actively do that, and even then, don't expect privacy on Correlation between Health the web. Remember that email is increase money a postcard open to all who want to read it as it passes through their servers. Between Mental Examples? That said, I am not making any conscious effort to use all that data for evil so take a deep breath and Human don't worry about between and Poverty Essay examples it since there isn't a lot you can do about supply it.

If you're under 13 realize that animal sex does get discussed on this site - we're a farm. Correlation Between Mental Health Essay? If your parents haven't had that discussion about the Nutrition Labeling Health Care Costs Essay, facts of life with you yet I suggest you explain it to them. Wiki might help. Other than that this site is completely child and Correlation Mental Health and Poverty adult safe as far as I know. Sustainably Humanely Raised Our family raises pastured pigs on Sugar Mountain in dissertation introduction example northern Vermont, delivering our fresh pork and roaster pigs to stores, restaurants and individuals weekly.

Look for our label in stores throughout Vermont. Pastured pork, piglets, roasters, half whole pigs available direct via our CSA and at local stores restaurants. Online Ordering is now available via the Quick Order Form .

Buy Essay Online - Poverty and Mental Health: Can the 2-Way Connection Be Broken

Nov 18, 2017 Correlation between Mental Health and Poverty Essay examples,

Essay Service - Poverty and Mental Health: Can the 2-Way Connection Be Broken

farm resume New Memoryhole story : Reinventing Big Brother [8 June,2003] A couple of days ago a new story has been added to the Memoryhole. Between! Read more. 1984 opera [4 May,2005] On May the 3rd the opera adaption of George Orwell's 1984 received its premiere in the Royal Opera House (Covent Garden) in London. Read more. I saw the vision that he was seeing. Dissertation Example! And it wasn?t at all the kind of vision that can be talked about. What he?s saying is merely that Hitler?s after us and we must all get together and have a good hate.

Doesn?t go into details. Correlation! Leaves it all respectable. But what he is seeing is something quite different. It?s a picture of himself smashing people?s faces in with a spanner. , George Orwell, Coming up for Air. Summary, characters, interpretation. Summary, plot, characters, interpretations. Work : Summaries Interpretations : Animal Farm.

The story takes place on a farm somewhere in England. The story is told by an all-knowing narrator in blake the lamb, the third person. Between And Poverty Essay Examples! The action of this novel starts when the oldest pig on blake the lamb the farm, Old Major, calls all animals to a secret meeting. He tells them about his dream of a revolution against the cruel Mr Jones. Three days later Major dies, but the speech gives the more intelligent animals a new outlook on life. The pigs, who are considered the most intelligent animals, instruct the other ones.

During the period of preparation two pigs distinguish themselves, Napoleon and Snowball. Napoleon is big, and although he isn't a good speaker, he can assert himself. Snowball is Correlation between and Poverty examples a better speaker, he has a lot of ideas and he is very vivid. Increase Money! Together with another pig called Squealer, who is Correlation between Mental Health and Poverty Essay examples a very good speaker, they work out the theory of Animalism. The rebellion starts some months later, when Mr Jones comes home drunk one night and forgets to feed the animals. They break out of the barns and run to the house, where the food is stored. When Mr Jones sees this he takes out his shotgun, but it is too late for him; all the animals fall over him and drive him off the farm.

The animals destroy all whips, nose rings, reins, and all other instruments that have been used to Labeling Costs suppress them. Between Mental Health And Poverty Essay! The same day the animals celebrate their victory with an extra ration of food. The pigs make up the seven commandments, and they write them above the Human Cloning Trials door of the big barn. They run thus: Whatever goes upon Mental Essay two legs is an Human Cloning, enemy. Whatever goes upon Correlation Health Essay examples four legs, or has wings is dissertation a friend. No animal shall wear clothes. No animal shall sleep in a bed. No animal shall drink alcohol.

No animal shall kill another animal. All animals are equal. The animals also agree that no animal shall ever enter the farmhouse, and that no animal shall have contact with humans. This commandments are summarised in the simple phrase: Four legs good, two legs bad. After some time, Jones comes back with some other men from the village to Correlation between Health Essay recapture the farm. The animals fight bravely, and they manage to Health Care Costs defend the farm. Snowball and Boxer receive medals of honour for defending the farm so bravely. Also Napoleon, who had not fought at all, takes a medal.

This is the reason why the two pigs, Snowball and Napoleon, often argue. Between Health And Poverty Examples! When Snowball presents his idea to build a windmill, to produce electricity for the other animals, Napoleon calls nine strong dogs. The Relationship Between Results Marker Levels With Dyspepsia! The dogs drive Snowball from the farm, and Napoleon explains that Snowball was in fact co-operating with Mr Jones. He also explains that Snowball in between Health and Poverty examples, reality never had a medal of honour, that Snowball was always trying to cover up that he was fighting on the side of Mr Jones. The animals then start building the windmill, and as time passes the increase money working-time goes up, whereas the food rations decline. Correlation Examples! Although the common animals have not enough food, the pigs grow fatter and fatter. They tell the other animals that they need more food, for they are managing the blake the lamb whole farm. Some time later, the pigs explain to the other animals that they have to trade with the neighbouring farms. The common animals are very upset, because since the revolution there has been a resolution that no animal shall trade with a human. But the pigs ensure them that there never has been such a resolution, and that this was an Mental Health Essay, evil lie of Snowball. Shortly after this decision the pigs move to increase money the farmhouse.

The other animals remember that there is a commandment that forbids sleeping in beds, and so they go to between Health Essay the big barn to look at the commandments. When they arrive there they can't believe their eyes, the lactate mechanism fourth commandment has been changed to: No animal shall sleep in Correlation between Health, bed with sheets . And the other commandments have also been changed: No animal shall kill another animal without reason, and No animal shall drink alcohol in excess. Some months later a heavy storm destroys the windmill, which is nearly finished. Napoleon accuses Snowball of destroying the mill, and he promises a reward to the animal that gets Snowball. Between And Serum Tumor Dyspepsia! The rebuilding of the mill takes two years.

Again Jones attacks the farm, and although the Correlation between Mental examples animals defend it, the Between Tumor Marker Levels windmill is once again destroyed. Examples! The pigs decide to rebuild the mill again, and they cut down the food rations to a minimum. One day Boxer breaks down. He is sold to a butcher, but Napoleon tells the pigs that Boxer has been brought to a hospital where he has died. Three years later, the mill is finally completed. Dissertation Introduction! During this time Napoleon deepens the relations with the neighbouring farm, and one day Napoleon even invites the owners of between Mental Health examples this farm for an inspection. They sit inside the farmhouse and celebrate the efficiency of his farm, where the animals work very hard with a minimum of food. During this celebration, all the other animals meet at the window of the Nutrition Labeling Can Lower farm, and when they look inside they can't distinguish between man and between Mental Health examples, animal.

The novel Animal Farm is a satire of the Russian revolution, and therefore full of symbolism. Generally, Orwell associates certain real characters with the characters of the book. Here is a list of the characters and things and their meaning: Mr Jones: Mr Jones is one of Orwell's major (or at least most obvious) villain in Animal Farm. Orwell says that at one time Jones was actually a decent master to his animals. At this time the farm was thriving. But in Results and Serum Marker Levels Dyspepsia, recent years the farm had fallen on harder times and the opportunity was seen to revolt. The world-wide depression began in the United States when the stock market crashed in October of between Health and Poverty examples 1929. Money! The depression spread throughout the world because American exports were so dependent on Europe.

The U.S. was also a major contributor to the world market economy. Germany along with the rest of Europe was especially hard hit. The parallels between crop failure of the farm and the depression in the 1930s are clear. Only the leaders and the die-hard followers ate their fill during this time period. Mr Jones symbolises (in addition to the evils of capitalism) Czar Nicholas II, the and Poverty leader before Stalin (Napoleon). Can Lower Costs! Jones represents the old government, the last of the Czars. Orwell suggests that Jones was losing his edge. In fact, he and his men had taken up the habit of between Mental and Poverty drinking. Old Major reveals his feelings about Jones and his administration when he says, Man is the only creature that consumes without producing.

He does not give milk, he does not lay eggs, he is too weak to pull the plough, he cannot run fast enough to catch rabbits. Between Endoscopy Results Levels Dyspepsia! Yet he is Mental Health Essay lord of all the animals. He sets them to blake the lamb work, he gives back to them the bare minimum that will prevent them from starving and the rest he keeps for himself. So Jones and Correlation Mental Health Essay, the old government are successfully uprooted by the animals. Little do they know history will repeat itself with Napoleon and the pigs. Old Major: Old Major is the first major character described by Orwell in Animal Farm. This pure-bred of pigs is the kind, grandfatherly philosopher of change - an obvious metaphor for Karl Marx. Old Major proposes a solution to the animals? desperate plight under the Jones administration when he inspires a rebellion of sorts among the Results and Serum Tumor Marker Levels with animals. Of course the actual time of the revolt is Correlation between Mental Health and Poverty Essay untold. It could be the next day or several generations down the road.

But Old Major's philosophy is only an lactate mechanism, ideal. After his death, three days after the barn-yard speech, the Correlation Mental Health and Poverty socialism he professes is drastically altered when Napoleon and the other pigs begin to dominate. Lactate! It's interesting that Orwell does not mention Napoleon or Snowball at any time during the great speech of old Major. This shows how distant and out-of-touch they really were; the ideals Old Major proclaimed seemed to not even have been considered when they were establishing their new government after the between Health examples successful revolt. It almost seems as though the pigs fed off old Major's inspiration and lactate dehydrogenase mechanism, then used it to benefit themselves (an interesting twist of capitalism) instead of following through on the old Major's honest proposal. This could be Orwell's attempt to dig Stalin, whom many consider to between Mental Health examples be someone who totally ignored Marx's political and social theory. Supply! Using Old Major's apparent naivety, Orwell concludes that no society is perfect, no pure socialist civilisation can exist, and there is no way to escaping the evil grasp of capitalism. Correlation Mental Health Essay! (More on this in the Napoleon section.) Unfortunately, when Napoleon and Squealer take over, old Major becomes more and more a distant fragment of the past in the minds of the farm animals. Napoleon: Napoleon is Orwell's chief villain in Animal Farm. The name Napoleon is very appropriate since Napoleon, the dictator of France, was thought by many to be the Anti-Christ. Napoleon, the pig, is really the central character on the farm. Obviously a metaphor for Stalin, Comrade Napoleon represents the human frailties of any revolution.

Orwell believed that although socialism is good as an ideal, it can never be successfully adopted due the to uncontrollable sins of human nature. For example, although Napoleon seems at first to be a good leader, he is eventually overcome by greed and soon becomes power-hungry. Of course, Stalin did, too, in Russia, leaving the original equality of socialism behind, giving himself all the power and blake the lamb, living in luxury while the common peasant suffered. Thus, while his national and international status blossomed, the welfare of Russia remained unchanged. Orwell explains, Somehow it seemed as though the farm had grown richer without making the between Mental and Poverty examples animals themselves any richer--except, of course for the pigs and the dogs. Lactate! The true side of Napoleon becomes evident after he slaughters so many animals for between Health Essay examples, plotting against him.

He even hires a pig to sample his food for him to The Relationship Results and Serum Levels in Patients with Dyspepsia make certain that no one is Correlation Mental Essay examples trying to blake the lamb poison him. Stalin, too, was a cruel dictator in between Mental and Poverty, Russia. Dissertation Example! After suspecting many people in his empire to Correlation and Poverty be supporters of Trotsky (Orwell's Snowball), Stalin systematically murdered many. At the end of the book, Napoleon doesn't even pretend to lead a socialist state. After renaming it a Republic and instituting his own version of the commandments and the Beasts of England, Comrade Napoleon quickly becomes more or less a dictator who of lactate course has never even been elected by the animals. Squealer: Squealer is an intriguing character in Orwell's Animal Farm. He's first described as a manipulator and between Mental Health and Poverty Essay, persuader. Orwell narrates, He could turn black into white. Many critics correlate Squealer with the Pravda, the Russian newspaper of the 1930s.

Propaganda was a key to Human Trials Essay many publications, and since there was no television or radio, the newspaper was the primary source of media information. So the monopoly of the Pravda was seized by Stalin and his new Bolshevik regime. In Animal Farm, Squealer, like the newspaper, is the link between Napoleon and other animals. When Squealer masks the evil intentions of the pigs, the intentions can be carried out with little resistance and without political disarray. Correlation Mental Health And Poverty Essay Examples! Squealer is also thought by some to represent Goebbels, who was the minister of propaganda for Germany. Human Trials Essay! This would seem inconsistent with Orwell's satire, however, which was supposed to metaphor characters in Russia. Snowball: Orwell describes Snowball as a pig very similar to Napoleon at least in the early stages. Both pigs wanted a leadership position in the new economic and Correlation Health, political system (which is actually contradictory to the whole supposed system of equality). But as time passes, both eventually realise that one of them will have to step down.

Orwell says that the two were always arguing. Snowball and Napoleon were by far the most active in the debates. But it was noticed that these two were never in lactate dehydrogenase, agreement: whatever suggestion either of them made, the other could be counted to oppose it. Later, Orwell makes the case stronger. These two disagreed at every point disagreement was possible. Soon the differences, like whether or not to build a windmill, become too great to deal with, so Napoleon decides that Snowball must be eliminated. It might seem that this was a spontaneous reaction, but a careful look tells otherwise.

Napoleon was setting the stage for his own domination long before he really began dishing it out to Snowball. For example, he took the Correlation and Poverty Essay puppies away from blake the lamb their mothers in an effort to between Mental establish a private police force. These dogs would later be used to eliminate Snowball, his arch-rival. Snowball represents Leo Dawidowitsch Trotsky, the arch-rival of Stalin in Russia. Human Trials Essay! The parallels between Trotsky and Snowball are uncanny. Correlation Between Essay Examples! Trotsky too, was exiled, not from the increase farm, but to Mexico, where he spoke out against Stalin.

Stalin was very weary of Trotsky and feared that Trotsky supporters might try to assassinate him. The dictator of Russia tried hard to kill Trotsky, for the fear of losing leadership was very great in the crazy man's mind. Trotsky also believed in communism, but he thought he could run Russia better than Stalin. Trotsky was murdered in Mexico by Correlation Mental and Poverty examples the Russian internal police, the mechanism NKVD - the precursor of the KGB. Trotsky was found with a pick axe in Correlation and Poverty Essay, his head at his villa in blake the lamb, Mexico. Boxer: The name Boxer is cleverly used by Orwell as a metaphor for Health Essay, the Boxer Rebellion in China in the early twentieth century.

It was this rebellion which signalled the beginning of communism in red China. This form of communism, much like the distorted Stalin view of blake the lamb socialism, is still present today in between Mental Health Essay examples, the oppressive socialist government in China. Boxer and Clover are used by Orwell to represent the proletariat, or unskilled labour class in Russian society. This lower class is naturally drawn to Stalin (Napoleon) because it seems as though they will benefit most from his new system. Since Boxer and the other low animals are not accustomed to the good life, they can't really compare Napoleon's government with the life they had before under the czars (Jones). Also, since usually the lowest class has the lowest intelligence, it is lactate dehydrogenase mechanism not difficult to persuade them into thinking they are getting a good deal.

The proletariat is also quite good at convincing themselves that communism is a good idea. Orwell supports this contention when he narrates, Their most faithful disciples were the two carthorses, Boxer and Correlation between and Poverty Essay examples, Clover. Those two had great difficulty in thinking anything out for themselves, but having once accepted the pigs as their teachers, they absorbed everything that they were told, and increase money supply, passed it on to the other animals by simple arguments. Later, the between Mental Health importance of the proletariat is shown when Boxer suddenly falls and there is suddenly a drastic decrease in work productivity. But still he is taken for granted by the pigs, who send him away in a glue truck. Truly Boxer is the biggest poster-child for Essay, gullibility.

Pigs: Orwell uses the pigs to surround and support Napoleon. They symbolise the communist party loyalists and the friends of Stalin, as well as perhaps the Duma, or Russian parliament. The pigs, unlike other animals, live in luxury and enjoy the benefits of the society they help to control. The inequality and true hypocrisy of between Essay communism is expressed here by Orwell, who criticised Marx's oversimplified view of a socialist, utopian society. Obviously, George Orwell doesn't believe such a society can exist. Toward the end of the book, Orwell emphasises, Somehow it seemed as though the farm had grown richer without making the animals themselves any richer except, of lactate dehydrogenase mechanism course, the pigs and the dogs. Dogs: Orwell uses the dogs in between Mental and Poverty, his book, Animal Farm, to increase money represent the Correlation between Health and Poverty examples KGB or perhaps more accurately, the bodyguards of Stalin. The dogs are the arch-defenders of Napoleon and the pigs, and although they don't speak, they are definitely a force the other animals have to reckon with. Orwell almost speaks of the Can Lower dogs as mindless robots, so dedicated to Napoleon that they can't really speak for themselves. This contention is supported as Orwell describes Napoleon's early and suspicious removal of Correlation between Mental Health and Poverty six puppies from their mother.

The reader is Human Trials left in the dark for a while, but is later enlightened when Orwell describes the between Mental Health chase of Snowball. Napoleon uses his secret dogs for the first time here; before Snowball has a chance to stand up and give a counter-argument to Napoleon's disapproval of the windmill, the Human Essay dogs viciously attack the pig, forcing him to flee, never to return again. Orwell narrates, Silent and Health Essay examples, terrified, the animals crept back into the barn. In a moment the dogs came bounding back. At first no one had been able to imagine where these creatures came from, but the problem was soon solved: they were the puppies whom Napoleon had taken away from their mothers and reared privately.

Though not yet full-grown, they were huge dogs, and as fierce-looking as wolves. They kept close to Napoleon. It was noticed that they wagged their tails to him in the same way as the other dogs had been used to do to Mr Jones. The use of the dogs begins the evil use of force which helps Napoleon maintain power. Later, the blake the lamb dogs do even more dastardly things when they are instructed to kill the Correlation Health Essay examples animals labelled disloyal. Stalin, too, had his own special force of helpers. Really there are followers loyal to any politician or government leader, but Stalin in particular needed a special police force to dissertation eliminate his opponents. This is how Trotsky was killed. Mollie: Mollie is one of Orwell's minor characters, but she represents something very important.

Mollie is one of the animals who is most opposed to the new government under Napoleon. She doesn't care much about the politics of the between Mental Health and Poverty examples whole situation; she just wants to mechanism tie her hair with ribbons and eat sugar, things her social status won't allow. Many animals consider her a traitor when she is seen being petted by a human from a neighbouring farm. Soon Mollie is confronted by Correlation examples the dedicated animals, and she quietly leaves the Tumor Dyspepsia farm. Mollie characterises the typical middle-class skilled worker who suffers from this new communism concept.

No longer will she get her sugar (nice salary) because she is now just as low as the other animals, like Boxer and Clover. Mental Health And Poverty Essay Examples! Orwell uses Mollie to characterise the people after any rebellion who aren't too receptive to new leaders and Human Cloning Trials Essay, new economics. There are always those resistant to between Health Essay examples change. This continues to dispel the belief Orwell hated and according to which basically all animals act the same. Trials! The naivety of Correlation between Mental Health examples Marxism is criticised, socialism is not perfect, and Trials, it doesn't work for everyone. Moses: Moses is perhaps Orwell's most intriguing character in Animal Farm. This raven, first described as the especial pet of Mr Jones, is the only animal who doesn't work. He's also the only character who doesn't listen to Old Major's speech of Correlation Mental Health and Poverty rebellion. Orwell narrates, The pigs had an even harder struggle to Essay counteract the lies put about by Moses, the tame raven. Moses, who was Mr Jones's especial pet, was a spy and a tale-bearer, but he was also a clever talker. He claimed to know of the existence of a mysterious country called Sugarcandy Mountain, to which all animals went when they died.

It was situated somewhere up in the sky, a little distance beyond the clouds, Moses said. In Sugarcandy Mountain it was Sunday seven days a week, clover was in Correlation between Mental Health and Poverty Essay, season all the year round, and lump sugar and linseed cake grew on the hedges. The animals hated Moses because he told tales and increase money, did no work but some of between Health and Poverty examples them believed in Sugarcandy Mountain, and the pigs had to argue very hard to persuade them that there was no such place. Moses represents Orwell's view of the Church. To Orwell, the Church is just used as a tool by dictatorships to keep the working class of people hopeful and productive.

Orwell uses Moses to criticize Marx's belief that the Church will just go away after the rebellion. Jones first used Moses to dehydrogenase keep the animals working, and he was successful in many ways before the Mental and Poverty rebellion. The pigs had a real hard time getting rid of Moses, since the lies about Heaven they thought would only lead the animals away from the equality of socialism. But as the pigs led by Napoleon become more and more like Mr Jones, Moses finds his place again. After being away for several years, he suddenly returns and picks up right where he left off. The pigs don't mind this time because the animals have already realised that the equality of the revolt is a farce. So Napoleon feeds Moses with beer, and the full circle is complete.

Orwell seems to offer a very cynical and harsh view of the Church. This proves that Animal Farm is not simply an anti-communist work meant to blake the lamb lead people into capitalism and Christianity. Correlation Between Health Examples! Really Orwell found loop-holes and much hypocrisy in both systems. It's interesting that recently in Russia the government has begun to allow and Tumor Marker Dyspepsia, support religion again. It almost seems that like the pigs, the Kremlin officials of between Mental today are trying to keep their people motivated, not in the ideology of Human Trials communism, but in the old-fashioned hope of an after-life. Muriel: Muriel is a knowledgeable goat who reads the commandments for Clover. Muriel represents the minority of working class people who are educated enough to Correlation between Mental and Poverty decide things for themselves and blake the lamb, find critical and hypocritical problems with their leaders. Unfortunately for between Mental Health, the other animals, Muriel is not charismatic or inspired enough to take action and oppose Napoleon and his pigs. Old Benjamin: Old Benjamin, an elderly donkey, is one of Orwell's most elusive and intriguing characters on Animal Farm. Blake The Lamb! He is described as rather unchanged since the rebellion.

He still does his work the same way, never becoming too excited or too disappointed about Correlation Mental Health examples, anything that has passed. Benjamin explains, Donkeys live a long time. None of you has ever seen a dead donkey. Although there is no clear metaphoric relationship between Benjamin and Orwell's critique of communism, it makes sense that during any rebellion there are those who never totally embrace the revolution, those so cynical they no longer look to their leaders for help. Benjamin symbolises the older generation, the critics of any new rebellion. Really this old donkey is the only animal who seems as though he couldn't care less about Napoleon and Labeling Can Lower Health Costs, Animal Farm. It's almost as if he can see into the future, knowing that the Mental Health and Poverty Essay examples revolt is only a temporary change, and will flop in the end.

Benjamin is the only animal who doesn't seem to have expected anything positive from the revolution. He almost seems on The Relationship Endoscopy a whole different maturity level compared with the other animals. He is not sucked in by Napoleon's propaganda like the others. The only between Mental and Poverty Essay time he seems to care about the others at all is when Boxer is carried off in the glue truck. It's almost as if the old donkey finally comes out of his shell, his perfectly fitted demeanour, when he tries to warn the others of blake the lamb Boxer's fate. And the animals do try to rescue Boxer, but it's too late. Benjamin seems to be finally confronting Napoleon and Correlation Mental Health and Poverty Essay examples, revealing his knowledge of the pigs' hypocrisy, although before he had been completely independent. After the animals have forgotten Jones and their past lives, Benjamin still remembers everything. Dissertation Introduction Example! Orwell states, Only old Benjamin professed to remember every detail of his long life and to know that things never had been, nor ever could be much better or much worse; hunger, hardship, and disappointment being, so he said, the unalterable law of life. Rats Rabbits: The rats and the rabbits, who are regarded as wild animals, somehow represent the socialist movement, the so-called Menscheviki. Between! In the very beginning of the Between Results and Serum Tumor in Patients book the animals vote if rats and Correlation Health, rabbits should be comrades.

Pigeons: The pigeons symbolise Soviet propaganda, not to blake the lamb Russia, but to other countries, like Germany, England, France, and even the United States. Russia had created an Correlation Mental Health, iron curtain even before WWII. Dissertation Example! The Communist government raved about its achievements and its advanced technology, but it never allowed experts or scientists from outside the country to check on its validity. Orwell mentions the fact that the other farmers became suspicious and worried when their animals began to sing Beasts of England. Many Western governments have had similar problems with their people in this century. There was a huge Red Scare in the United States in the 1920s. In the 1950s in the United States, Joseph McCarthy was a legislative member of the between and Poverty Essay government from example Wisconsin. He accused hundreds of people of supporting the communist regime, from famous actors in Hollywood to middle-class ordinary people.

The fear of Mental Health Essay examples communism became a phobia in America and anyone speaking out against the government was a suspect. Farm buildings: The farm stands for the Kremlin. Blake The Lamb! In the early days of the USSR there were sightseeing tours through the Kremlin. Later it became the Correlation between Mental Health Essay examples residence of Stalin. Windmill: The Windmill for example stands for the Russian industry, that has been built by the working-class. (Clover. ) Fredericks: Stands for Nutrition Can Lower Health Essay, Hitler. Between Health Essay Examples! There has also been an arrangement and secret deals. Blake The Lamb! (Allusion to Fritz.) Foxwood: Foxwood farm represents England. Pinchfield: Pinchfield symbolises Germany.

Destruction of the Windmill: This destruction is a symbol for the failure of the Five Year Plan. This site is protected by COPYLEFT. You are free to use any material found on this page as long it is not for a commercial purpose, or unless otherwise stated on the page. However copying this page as a whole is NOT permitted.

Buy Custom Essay Uk - Poverty and Mental Illness | CMHA Ontario

Nov 18, 2017 Correlation between Mental Health and Poverty Essay examples,

Order Essay Writing from Our Custom Essay Writing Service - Correlation Between Mental Illness and Violence and Crime Essay

Pcat Essay Question Examples 730102. Between Health And Poverty Examples? Pcat Essay Question Examples. PCAT Test Blueprint and Sample Items for blake the lamb 201213 PCAT Test Blueprint and Mental and Poverty Essay examples Sample Items for 201213 Verbal Ability Example 2: Analogy Each Biology item stem will be in the form of a question Sample The PCAT Professor The content for Labeling Can Lower Health Care Costs each PCAT exam has been extensively planned out by the PCAT Professors editorial staff; professionals who teach PCAT Prep courses all over the world. PCAT Essay Topics and Scoring Procedure examsavvyAll Information About Pharmacy College Admission Test, PCAT Exam Study Material. Correlation And Poverty Examples? PCAT 2010 Important Dates, PCAT Exam 2011 How to Between and Serum Tumor Marker Levels in Patients, Apply Fee Structure PCAT Syllabus Free PCAT Practice Test Questions Ace Your PCAT ExamGet started studying with our free PCAT practice test questions. These questions will help you increase your PCAT test score. pcat essay | Student Doctor Networkhey guys, I know we are not allowed to talk about the essay prompt on the pcat , but is Mental and Poverty there anything that you guys did to prepare for it? Like PCAT Essay Writing Guide | PCAT Practice Test Free PCAT Essay Writing Guide. Increase Money Supply? Tips and between Mental examples strategies for getting a great score on Nutrition Labeling Can Lower Health Essay the PCAT Writing test. Also includes sample PCAT Writing prompts. PCAT Essay Questions Overview YouTubeGet a free pdf version of Correlation between Mental and Poverty examples, this and other videos on our website: http://pcatacademy.weebly.com/ An overview of the The Relationship Endoscopy Results and Serum Tumor Levels with Dyspepsia PCAT (Pharmacy College Admission Test PCAT Test Blueprint and Sample Items PCAT Test Blueprint and Sample Items 2 Examples of Biological Processes Items ? Each Biological Processes item stem will be in the form of a question Pcat Essay Question Examples sifarmastore.comPDF PCAT Test Blueprint and Sample Items for 2012-13 PCAT Test Blueprint and Sample Items for Mental Health 2012-13 Verbal Ability Each Biology item stem will be in lactate, the form of PCAT Biology Practice Questions Study Guide Zone PCAT Biology practice test questions to help PCAT test takers review Which of the Essay following is an example of a PCAT Study Guide PCAT Biology Practice. Nutrition Health Care? PCAT Test Study Guide Study Guide Zone.

PCAT Test Study Guide 1 PCAT Overview The PCAT is indeed a assistance, and question examples for the areas in which you are struggling the most. 11 Pcat sample essay questions nortonequipmentcorp.us225/- per Mental Health and Poverty subject. accounting examples of expository essays for high school standards, financial. We will be adding test questions to this quiz periodically as well Pcat Essay Question Examples sifarmastore.comPDF PCAT Test Blueprint and blake the lamb Sample Items for 2012-13 PCAT Test Blueprint and Sample Items for 2012-13 Verbal Ability Each Biology item stem will be in Correlation between Health Essay, the form of Pcat Essay Question Examples GELASTIN Sport PCAT Essay Topics and Nutrition Labeling Health Scoring Procedure examsavvyThe PCAT essays are classified into Mental Health Essay examples, different categories. They are health issues, science issues and Nutrition Costs Essay social PERSONAL ESSAY PharmCAS ApplicantThe personal essay is an important part of your application for admission and provides you with an Correlation and Poverty Essay, opportunity for increase you to Correlation between Mental Health examples, clearly and effectively express your ideas. Money Supply? Sample Questions for PCAT Exam . Between And Poverty Examples? Sample Questions for Nutrition Health Care Costs Essay PCAT Exam . Correlation And Poverty Examples? Go. Human Trials Essay? Login. Sign In; examples include docosahexaenoic acid and gamma-linolenic acid. Have a question ? Pcat Essay Help bestpapertopessay.servicescustom my essay Pcat Essay Help eudora welty one writer Can you write my essay for me? question presupposes a Examples of automatically PCAT Test Practice Questions Exam 2 JobsFree practice questions tips to Correlation Health, enable you to lactate, get the high score you and should assume that each question counts. PCAT Practice Questions Verbal Abilities. And Poverty Essay? 1.Custom Academic Paper Writing Services sample pcat essay Pcat Essay Help pay to do assignments pcat example ; pcat essay pcat writing; pcat exam topics; example of supply, pcat exam; pcat practice problems; pcat question ; Pcat Example Essay Writing 241931 Alpha Phi Alpha Welcome To Alpha Phi Alpha Faternity Inc. Forums General Chat Pcat Example Essay Writing 241931 This topic contains 0 replies, has 1 voice, and was Pcat Example Essay Writing 241931 Alpha Phi Alpha Welcome To Alpha Phi Alpha Faternity Inc. Forums General Chat Pcat Example Essay Writing 241931 This topic contains 0 replies, has 1 voice, and was.

Pcat Essay Help pay to do assignments pcat example ; pcat essay pcat writing; pcat exam topics; example of Correlation between and Poverty examples, pcat exam; pcat practice problems; pcat question ; Pcat sample essay Blanco Negro Pcat sample essay . Your masters experience example if you come back books, and we would like to have three children. Lactate Mechanism? Read, could easily tell when they portion of Health and Poverty examples, came Pcat essay sample | Advanced HabitsAfrican-american women who essay pcat sample live on a house to essay control our own lives. Question : narrative essay example the money The PCAT Blueprint The PCAT Blueprint . Number of questions the first of two essay writing question . A quick example of a writing question may be Best Free PCAT Test Prep PCAT Review Course!Explore our free PCAT practice test questions and PCAT test review course. One section involves writing an essay . Correlation Between Mental And Poverty? There are five multiple-choice PCAT Review Questions Pharmacy College 141 free PCAT review questions, Topics included in mechanism, this exam prep question set are: Test Prep Materials for PCAT Review Questions Pharmacy College Sample IELTS essay questions and topics Sample IELTS essay questions and both parts of the question . in Mental Essay, your example . types of IELTS essay question you have clearly mentioned in Best PCAT Test Flashcards with PCAT Practice QuestionsFind PCAT help using our PCAT flashcards That#039;s why we created the The Relationship Between Endoscopy Tumor Levels Dyspepsia PCAT Flashcard Study It#039;s kind of hard to answer a question if you don#039;t know what PharmCAS Instructions FAQsYou can NOT make any edits to your personal statement after you have e-submitted your completed application to PharmCAS . essay may be subject to.

Do My Essay For Free - Poverty & Mental Illness: You Can t Have One Without the Other - Mad

Nov 18, 2017 Correlation between Mental Health and Poverty Essay examples,

Buy Essay Papers Online - Poverty and Mental Illness | CMHA Ontario

Fair Trade - In or Against the between Mental and Poverty examples, Market ? “Before you’ve finished your breakfast this morning, you’ll have relied on half the dissertation, world.” Martin Luther King. Fair Trade is the most important and Correlation examples, fastest growing market-based mechanism to improve the lives of producers in developing countries. It does so by offering small-scale producers in Nutrition Labeling Can Lower Health, the global south fairer trade relations, including a guaranteed minimum price above world price and developmental support. Global Fair Trade sales have reached € 1.1 billion (US$1.4 billion), increasing at rates of around 50 percent per year and Mental Health and Poverty Essay, are projected to continue to grow. Fair Trade bananas have a market share of 56 percent in Cloning Trials, Switzerland and the U.S.

Fair Trade coffee market has been growing nearly 90 percent per year since Fair Trade coffee was launched in 1998 (Max Havelaar, 2006; TransFair USA, 2005). The success of Fair Trade is reiterated time over time by a variety of between Mental Health and Poverty personalities and institutions, ranging from The Relationship Endoscopy Results Tumor Marker Levels in Patients Dyspepsia, advocates of Fair Trade in the North and producers in Correlation Health and Poverty, the South to such prominent promoters of trade liberalization as the G 8 and the European Commission. 1 The general feeling of dissertation introduction example euphoria is captured by one of the Correlation between Mental and Poverty, pioneers of the The Relationship Between Marker Levels in Patients with, Fair Trade movement, Carol Wills, on a conference in the European Parliament in June 2005: “Fair Trade works! It works for Correlation Essay examples poor people; it works for consumers. It works as a business model; it works as sustainable development; it works to protect the example, environment; it works as an Correlation Mental idea!” (Fair Trade Advocacy Newsletter, 2005). However, one could wonder what this is all about. After all, Fair Trade started as an Human alternative to free trade, explicitly focusing on solidarity and the well-being of producers and rejecting classical economic notions of competition, the Correlation between Mental Health, self-regulation of the market and sometimes even employing anti-capitalist rhetoric. How should one asses that at the G8 summit 2005 in Gleneagles leaders of those economically dominant countries that are continually held responsible for lactate mechanism global trade injustices (often by actors and organizations in the Fair Trade movement) formally acknowledged the growing success of global Fair Trade and between Health Essay examples, said in their final statement that they “welcome the growing market for money Fair Trade goods and their positive effect in supporting livelihoods and increasing public awareness of the positive role of trade in development”? (Fair Trade Advocacy Newsletter, 2005: 4). Or, even more disturbing, how should one think about the fact that Nestlé, famously 2005’s “least responsible company” worldwide and as one of the four big roasters responsible for the coffee crisis that impoverishes millions of producers, prides itself of launching a Fair Trade brand in Britain (Nestlé, 2005)? The sentiments and reactions of many people working in the field are nicely summarized by John Hilary, policy director at War on Want: “The Fair Trade movement was set up to challenge the practices of companies like Nestlé. How can such a company deserve the Fair Trade mark?” (Vidal, 2005).

In this paper I will try to asses if Fair Trade really works for all and Correlation between Mental Health and Poverty examples, even more importantly how it works for example the different participants of Correlation Health and Poverty Fair Trade, mainly consumers and producers and Labeling Care Costs, what the wider effects of Fair Trade are. Between Mental And Poverty Essay Examples? As a framework of Nutrition Health Care Essay reference I will employ a tension between two visions of Fair Trade that underlie contemporary debates in the Fair Trade movement as well as in Mental Essay examples, the growing literature about increase money, Fair Trade. At the one extreme a pragmatic position interprets Fair Trade as a developmental tool to increase the standard of living for disadvantaged producers in developing countries by making neoliberal free trade work the way it is supposed to work. At the Correlation Health Essay, other extreme a more idealistic vision sees Fair Trade as a practical critique of the The Relationship Results Tumor Marker Levels in Patients, neoliberal free trade model that aims at Mental Health and Poverty Essay examples transforming the capitalist market through alternative trading practices. Since these visions are at Essay least in tension with each other, if not inherently contradictory, the question is: what is Fair Trade really?

Is Fair Trade a neoliberal solution to Correlation between and Poverty current market failures for small scale producers in the global south that works within and thus perpetuates the free trade and free market regime? Or is Fair Trade a practical tool of social change that challenges neoliberal trading practices and more generally aims at transforming free market and blake the lamb, free trade? This paper will argue that these dichotomous visions are useful in between and Poverty, terms of conceptualizing different possible trajectories but that they are both two one sided and extreme. Fair Trade is neither a purely neoliberal and free market solution to certain market failure nor a tool to entirely transform capitalist free market relations. Rather, I will argue with Polanyi, Fair Trade can be analyzed as a complex and Labeling Health Care Essay, multilayered process of between Mental Health Essay social defence against destructive effects of unrestricted market forces that tries to re-embed the economy. As such it is money supply a site of contestation, conflict and Correlation between Health and Poverty examples, negotiation between different actors that brings about lactate mechanism, multiple and partly contradictory effects on different levels. I will first describe what Fair Trade is how it is defined, how it works, how big it is today and what problem it tries to address. Correlation And Poverty Examples? I will then analyze the two vision of Fair Trade in more detail to specify and contextualize the question this paper tries to answer. Essay? The central part of the paper tries then to assess the impact Fair Trade has, first on the level of producers and producer communities and secondly the socio-cultural, political and economic impact on the free trade market in between Health and Poverty examples, general. And in Nutrition Labeling Can Lower Health, the end I will propose a theoretical framework of Fair Trade that tries to avoid the strict dichotomy of the Mental and Poverty examples, two visions. 2. 1. Introduction? Definition, Functioning and Scope of Fair Trade.

During its long history there have been many different definitions of Fair Trade, but in Mental Health and Poverty Essay examples, an attempt to come up with an understanding that can be widely accepted, an informal network of the most important Fair Trade organizations called FINE produced the following definition in 2001: 2 “Fair Trade is a trading partnership, based on dialogue, transparency and respect, that seeks greater equity in lactate mechanism, international trade. It contributes to sustainable development by offering better trading conditions to, and securing the rights of, marginalized producers and workers - especially in the South. Fair Trade organisations (backed by consumers) are engaged actively in supporting producers, awareness raising and in campaigning for changes in between Mental and Poverty Essay examples, the rules and practice of conventional international trade” (FINE, 2001). The goals of Fair Trade that are implicit in this definition have been laid out by blake the lamb Redfern and Snedker in a 2002 report of the between examples, International Labour Organization (ILO) as being: To improve the livelihoods and well-being of blake the lamb producers by improving market access, strengthening producer organizations, paying a better price and Correlation Health and Poverty examples, providing continuity in the trading relationship.

To promote development opportunities for disadvantaged producers, especially women and indigenous people, and to protect children from exploitation in the production process. To raise awareness among consumers of the negative effects on producers of international trade so that they exercise their purchasing power positively. Blake The Lamb? To set an example of partnership in trade through dialogue, transparency and respect. To campaign for changes in the rules and practice of conventional international trade. To protect human rights by promoting social justice, sound environmental practices and economic security” (Redfern Snedker, 2002: 11). Historically Fair Trade evolved out of a range of faith-based and secular alternative trading organizations (ATOs) that can be traced back to relief efforts after World War II. Charities in Western Europe like Oxfam began importing handicrafts from producers in Eastern Europe and in the United States the Mennonites started to between Mental and Poverty buy products from Puerto Rico in what would become Ten Thousand Villages (Redfern Snedker, 2002; Low Davenport, 2005, Kocken, 2003). The Fair Trade movement developed from increase supply, these charities that understood themselves as radically opposed to the market over between Mental and Poverty examples several stages into dissertation introduction example the mainstream.

Fair Trade has thereby changed in a variety of ways, the most import shift being that “Fair Trade has moved from Correlation and Poverty Essay, being purely an activist-led advocacy and increase money supply, empowerment model towards being a market-led commercial success story” (Nichols Opal, 2005: 13). This shift was mirrored in the change of name and discourse from “alternative” to “fair” trade (Low Davenport, 2005: 147). Especially after the establishment and international harmonization of labelling organizations in the 1990s Fair Trade has experienced enormous growth rates and since the Correlation Mental and Poverty, 2000s, Fair Trade is entering a new stage of becoming a serious option for dissertation example many mainstream retailers (Krier 2005, 5). The most important labelling organizations are organized under the umbrella of the Fairtrade Labelling Organization International (FLO). Correlation Between Mental And Poverty Essay Examples? FLO was formed in 1997 out of 14 national labelling organizations with the aim of collaborating on defining international Fair Trade standards, certifying and blake the lamb, auditing Fair Trade producers organizations and traders and on providing support to producer organizations that need external help (FLO, 2005a: 23). Today 20 national labelling organizations joined FLO-International (FLO, 2006). These marks in the U.S. and Germany for example called TransFair and in the Netherlands and Switzerland called Max Havelaar guarantees independent third party auditing of Fair Trade products. Between Mental And Poverty Essay? However, due to the complex and expensive process of getting the mark, not all Fair Trade products are sold under these labels Tradecraft for Labeling example, the largest Fair Trade company in the UK, offers most of Correlation Health and Poverty Essay examples its products without it (Nichols Opal, 2005: 11). 3. In operational terms Fair Trade is characterized by Human several key practices that are practiced by the labelling organizations as well as by the alternative trading organizations that do not participate in certification (Nichols Opal, 2005: 6-7): agreed minimum prices, usually above or independent of world market prices, that allow for a living wage for producers; an emphasis on development and technical support through the payment of a social premium; direct purchasing from producers to shorten the global supply chains and reduce the Correlation between Health and Poverty, margins of middle men; transparent and long-term partnerships; provision of credit when requested and pre-financing of up to and Serum Tumor Dyspepsia 60 per cent of the total purchase value; producers are democratically organized, often in a cooperative; sustainable and increasingly organic production is practiced; there are no labour abuses and unionization must me allowed. Since most products are certified through the national labelling organizations this paper will focus on the standards established by the FLO.

These standards, which must be met by producer groups, traders, processors, wholesalers and retailers, can be divided into three parts (FLO, 2006; Nicholls Opal, 2005: 131): First there are two sets of generic organizational producer standards, one for co-operatives of between Health and Poverty Essay small-scale producers and family farmers and another one for plantations. Introduction Example? Independent small-scale farmers must be organized into democratically organized cooperatives that transparently account for and distribute the Fair Trade income, especially the Correlation between and Poverty Essay, social premium. Fair Trade plantations must have a democratically elected worker body or a union that is able to decide on and distribute the Nutrition Can Lower Health, Fair Trade social premium (FLO, 2006). Secondly there are several sustainable production requirements. These environmental standards vary by products but in general prohibit the use of pesticides and require protection of Correlation Mental Health and Poverty Essay drinking water and endangered resources (Nicholls Opal, 2005: 131). And thirdly there are, as the core of Fair Trade, certain trade requirements that govern the relations between producers and importers. Traders have to pay a price to producers that covers the dehydrogenase, costs of sustainable production and living; they must pay an additional social premium that has to be invest in development; they must pay up to 60 percent in advance, when producers ask for it; and the trading contracts have to allow for long-term planning and Correlation Health and Poverty examples, sustainable production practices. And producers have to meet the above requirements, have to accord with the labour standards of the International Labour Organization and have to meet certain quality requirements (FLO, 2006).

These trade standards vary by product and are determined by dehydrogenase mechanism the labelling organizations and the quality standards can be extremely specific and Mental and Poverty examples, rigid. 4 . The minimum price for washed arabica coffee for money example is set by the FLO at US$1.21 per pound (455 gram) in Central America, Mexico, Africa and Correlation between Mental Health, Asia (and at US$1.19 for South America and the Carribean). In addition to this minimum price producers get US$0.15 per pound for certified organic coffee and a social premium of US$0.05 per pound for all coffee. And if the market price is higher than the Fair Trade minimum price, the market price applies but the social premium is still paid on top of the market price (FLO, 2005b). Trials Essay? This means that while the coffee price in Correlation between Mental Health examples, 2004 on Human Essay the conventional market averaged at US$0.76 per pound, Fair Trade cooperatives were paid a guaranteed price of US$1.26 for conventional and US$ 1.41 for coffee that is also certified organic (TransFair USA, 2005). 5 For other products the standards are very specific and complex. For bananas for example the minimum price varies depending on the country from US$5.50 in Colombia and Ecuador to US$7 in the Dominican Republic for Correlation between Mental Health a box (18.14 kg) of conventional bananas at the farm gate, with an additional premium of US$1 per box.

Organic bananas from Costa Rica, for example, are measured entirely different and priced at US$0.15 plus a 3 cent premium per kg (FLO, 2005c). Between Results And Serum Levels With Dyspepsia? With market prices in Ecuador currently under the Correlation Health Essay, official minimum price of US$3 per box this translates into a substantial benefit for Fair Trade producers. 6. In order to The Relationship Between and Serum Tumor Marker in Patients with provide a sense of the Correlation between Health, scope of Fair Trade it is useful to look at some facts and figures that describe the Between Endoscopy Results Marker Levels in Patients with, ‘success story’ of Fair Trade: World wide sales of labelled Fair Trade products are estimated at €1.1 billion for 2005 (Max Havelaar, 2006: 28). At the end of 2005 there were 510 producer organizations from more than 50 countries that represent over one million producers and together with their families over 5 million people are integrated into the Fair Trade system and profit from Correlation between Mental and Poverty Essay examples, it (Max Havelaar, 2006: 28). This makes up a considerable amount of all small scale growers world wide. 7 Between 2003 and Can Lower Health Care Costs Essay, 2004 the sales of labelled Fair Trade products grew by between Essay examples 56 percent, exceeding the increase money, annual growth of Correlation between Mental and Poverty Essay examples 42 percent between 2002 and 2003 (FLO, 2006). The growth of Fair Trade sales since 1999 is illustrated in table 1. These growth rates are projected to continue (Nicholls Opal, 2005: 190). The market share of Fair Trade products, on Human Cloning Trials average only amounting to below 3 percent is Correlation between partly substantial. In Switzerland for example more 56 percent of bananas are Fair Trade and the market share of Fair Trade ground and roast coffee in the UK is 20 percent (Max Havelaar, 2006: 22; Krier, 2005: 30).

The market share of Fair Trade bananas has been estimated by the European Commission Director General for Cloning Agriculture to reach at least 10 percent in Europe. Table 1: Sales volume in Correlation between Health Essay examples, comparison in million Euro (Source: Max Havelaar, 2006/FLO). Between Results Tumor Marker With? (TransFair USA, 2006c). The largest national Fair Trade market is currently the U.S. market, amounting in 2004 to €215 million, followed by the U.K. with a market of €206 million and Correlation, Switzerland with €135 million (FLO, 2005a: 4). Table 2 illustrates how small the amount of Fair Trade products is that consumers buy on average in large economies like the U.S. and Germany compared to Switzerland, thus revealing the immense potential for future growth. While consumers in Germany for example only spent €0.70 on average on Fair Trade products, in The Relationship Between Endoscopy and Serum Levels, the U.K. consumers spent €3.46 and in Switzerland an impressive €18.47 per year (Krier, 2005: 29). Table 2: Average consumption of Correlation and Poverty Essay Fair Trade products per capita in different countries in Euro (Source: Max Havelaar, 2006 / FLO)

The most comprehensive study of the exact facts and figures about Fair Trade organizations is a 2005 study “Fair Trade in Europe” published by the four largest Fair Trade organizations(Krier, 2005). It shows that in Europe alone sales of Fair Trade products amount to a minimum of €660 million in 2005, including €60 million of non-labelled products. Fair Trade sales increased in Europe by 154 percent in the last 5 years or on average 20 percent per year and these increases are mostly due to the participation of supermarket chains in Fair Trade. Fair Trade products are available at 79,000 points of sale in Europe, including 55.000 supermarkets. In Europe more than 100,000 volunteers are involved in the 2.800 world shops and blake the lamb, the 200 Fair Trade importing organization (Krier, 2005).

In the U.S. the Fair Trade coffee market is growing at astounding rates, since 1998 increasing at between Mental Health Essay an average rate of dissertation introduction example nearly 90 percent per year. Fair Trade coffee is currently available in 35,000 retail outlets in the U.S. alone (TransFair USA, 2005; 2006d). There is considerable overlap between certified organic coffee and certified Fair Trade coffee. Correlation Mental Essay? While in Europe only an estimated 25-45 percent of Fair Trade coffee is also organic, in the U.S. this share is money 75-85 percent (Zehner, 2002). 8 There are 5000 to 7000 different Fair Trade products available, 250 of which are currently certifiable. Most of the uncertified products are handicrafts, but the bulk of all Fair Trade products sold worldwide are agricultural products, mostly coffee, bananas, other fruits, tea and cacao. According to Leatherhead Food International the most important Fair Trade products globally are in bananas (in terms of volume) and coffee (value) (Nicholls Opal, 2005: 191, see also FLO, 2005a). 2. Mental Health? 2. The Problem: The “Un”-Fairness of the Neoliberal Free Trade Regime. It is important to understand the reasons why we need Fair Trade in the first place. Classical free trade theory, which originates from Adam Smith’s and David Ricardo’s theory of comparative advantage, claims that countries specialize in lactate dehydrogenase, and export what they are relatively good at producing and they import what they cannot produce sufficiently. Since for example the climate in between Mental examples, Germany does not allow for the production of coffee and since the infrastructure and the technological advancement for the manufacturing of cars is not developed in Bolivia, both countries benefit from opening their markets for mutual trade.

In theory, free trade is dissertation a win-win situation in which everyone benefits. But social reality proves the opposite: international trade (among other things) has contributed immensely to the present situation of devastating poverty for the majority of humanity (McMichael, 2004). And instead of Correlation Mental Health Essay examples increasing the blake the lamb, wealth of both trading parties, the relations between producers and consumers in commodity markets like coffee or bananas can be described as a “perverse transfer of wealth, by some of the supermarkets, from farmers and farm workers of developing countries to the consumers of Correlation between Essay examples developed countries” (Tallontire Vorley, 2005: 5). The aggressive liberalization of international trade through international institutions such as the World Bank and the International Monetary Fund has led to an enormous increase in the volume of trade global trade in 2000 was 22 times the level of 1950 (Nicholls Opal, 2005: 17) and world exports have almost doubled over the last decade (HDR, 2005: 114). Between Endoscopy Results Marker Levels In Patients With Dyspepsia? But global inequality has grown simultaneously so drastically, that many question the Health Essay, basic assumption that trade benefits all. The United Nations Human Development Report 2005, for example, introduces its section on international trade with a telling quote by blake the lamb Eduardo Galeano: “The division of Correlation and Poverty labour among nations is that some specialize in winning and Nutrition Labeling Health Care Costs, others in losing.” And to give a flavour of what the between Mental Health and Poverty Essay examples, outcome of neoliberal trade is according to Labeling Can Lower Costs Essay this report the “world’s richest 500 individuals have a combined income greater than that of the Health and Poverty examples, poorest 416 million. Nutrition Health Costs Essay? Beyond these extremes, the Mental and Poverty, 2.5 billion people living on less than $2 a day 40% of the world’s population account for 5% of global income. The richest 10%, almost all of whom live in high-income countries, account for 54%.” (HDR, 2005: 4)

There has also been much scholarly attention to a series of commodity crises of falling prices and to changes in the structure of the Cloning Essay, supply chains that further concentrate power and benefits within a few supermarkets based in the Global North. The price index of commodities for example declined by Correlation between Mental examples 47 percent between 1982 and 2001, and the present the Labeling Can Lower Health, real prices for key agricultural commodities are near a 30-year low (Vorley, 2003). Between Mental Health Examples? And the globalization of blake the lamb sourcing, shifting the distribution of power along the Correlation Mental Health examples, global supply chain, gave increased leverage to a small group of oligopolistic supermarket chains, the “new gatekeepers” (HDR, 2005: 139). „These companies have tremendous power in their negotiations with producers and they use that power to push the costs and risks of lactate dehydrogenase mechanism business down the supply chain. Their business model, focused on maximising returns for shareholders and keeping costs competitively low for consumers, demands increasing flexibility through ‘just-in-time’ delivery, but tighter control over inputs and standards, and ever-lower prices“ (Brown, 2005: 3). The squeezing of prices (which are paid on average 45-60 days after delivery; Brown, 2005: 10) and Health Essay examples, the increased pressures of tightly governed product standards and The Relationship Between Marker Levels with, stringent criteria for make it impossible for many small-scale producers to compete on between and Poverty the market (Reardon et al., 2003). Both the commodity crisis of falling prices for agricultural products and the concentration of power by a few supermarket chains are general patterns in dissertation introduction, the agricultural industry that are exacerbated in the coffee sector (Lang, 2003). According to Correlation between and Poverty a study of the International Coffee Organization (Osorio, 2004) the general price decreases in agricultural products were greatest in coffee. While exporters received US$10-12 billion per year in the 1980s this has dropped to less then half in 2003 US$5.5 billion. This immense loss in income in developing countries is contrasted with the opposite lactate, development in high income countries retail sales in consuming countries increased from between Mental Essay examples, US$30 billion in the 1990 to around US$80 billion at present (Osorio, 2004: 2).

Low world prices have reduced costs and at the same time boosted profit margins for those five coffee roasters (Philip Morris, Nestlé, Sara Lee, Proctor Gamble and Tchibo) that in 1998 controlled 69% of the world market (the level of concentration seems to blake the lamb be even higher according to more recent studies; Gibbons, 2005). Exporting countries, meanwhile, have seen their share of final consumer expenditure fall from one-third to one-thirteenth (Ponte, 2002). Correlation Between Mental Health And Poverty Essay Examples? Studies on blake the lamb the impact of falling commodity prices show that especially for small-scale producers the effects are disastrous, directly translating into diminished opportunities for human development and increasing poverty (Gibbons, 2005). Small-scale producers of agricultural products in rural societies in many developing countries are confronted with the absence of several key conditions on which classical and Correlation Health Essay examples, neo-liberal trade theory is based (Nichols Opal, 2005: 132-54): Many small scale producers face a lack of market access, in terms of transportation, language, education and market information, making it easy for middlemen or big corporations to increase money supply exploit this uncompetitive situation of between Mental Health examples ‘monopsony’ (a market situation with only one buyer) and create a race to the bottom. The Relationship Results Tumor In Patients Dyspepsia? Most producers are excluded from Correlation Health examples, financial markets or insurances and especially the lack of The Relationship Endoscopy Tumor Levels Dyspepsia access to credit and Correlation between Mental and Poverty Essay, the inability to switch to increase money other sources of income in response to between examples price changes make it extremely hard for small-scale producers to survive under the global free trade regime. These market situations reveal important power asymmetries in global commodity markets.

Fair Trade tries to address these difficulties by trading directly with producers, promoting long-term trading relationships and by lactate dehydrogenase mechanism paying a floor price and a social premium. But what is Fair Trade, conceptually, and what are its effects? Before I will assess the impact and functioning of Fair Trade closer I will in the next section systematize the different theories about Fair Trade, particularly distinguishing two different visions. The variety of objectives and characteristics of Fair Trade and Correlation Mental Health and Poverty, the theories about Fair Trade have in the literature been conceptualized in terms of blake the lamb two visions of Fair Trade (Renard, 2003: 91; Moore, 2005: 74; Goodman Goodman, 2001). While the first and pragmatic position sees Fair Trade as a way to increase the standard of living for some of the disadvantaged producers in the South through fairer trade relations, the second and more idealistic positions sees Fair Trade as a means or a tool to modify the neoliberal economic model and to transform the entire economy into one in which Fair Trade abandons free trade. 9 And, putting it in a similar dichotomy, whereas some argue that Fair Trade is compatible with the Mental and Poverty, free market claims of contemporary dominant neoliberal discourse (Nichols Opal, 2005) others claim that Fair Trade promotes “social change” (Taylor, 2005), challenges “abstract capitalist market principles” (Raynolds, 2000: 306) and increase supply, operates “in and against” the same global capitalist market that it wants to transform (Brown, 1993: 156). The main dividing line centres around the question if Fair Trade is an Health attempt to bring neoclassical economic theory “closer to Health Essay reality” (Nichols Opal 2005: 19), or if Fair Trade is Mental examples a practical critique and departure from free trade theory and practice that opens up an alternative way of trading. Before I will criticize these two conceptions of Fair Trade as both being too extreme and missing the real impact of Fair Trade I will take a closer look at the specific claims these theories make. The moderate view of Fair Trade as perfect neoliberalism argues that the aim of Essay Fair Trade is to create trading conditions that are beneficial rather than exploitative to the most disadvantaged producers in the Global South.

Nicholls and Opal (2005) argue in Mental and Poverty Essay examples, their comprehensive account that Fair Trade as “market-driven ethical consumption” (so the subtitle), “by correcting market failures to make the trading system work for mechanism everyone [is], in fact, a neo-liberal solution to the problems with trade” (p. 13). Instead of construing Fair Trade, like many others, as opposed to free trade, they argue that Fair Trade “makes the free trade system work the way it is Correlation between Mental Health Essay examples supposed to.” (p. Can Lower Care Essay? 31). It does so by correcting those market imperfections that characterize agricultural markets for small-scale producers in and Poverty examples, developing countries.

And this “market-led commercial success story”, so the blake the lamb, authors conclusion along the same lines, “works within a capitalist system, rather than abandoning the liberal trade model entirely” (p. 13). Interestingly Paul Rice, president of the U.S. Health Essay Examples? labelling organization TransFair USA seems to share this view. In the 2004 annual report of TransFair he writes: “Fair Trade makes globalization and ‘free trade’ work for the poor” (TransFair USA, 2005). On the blake the lamb, other hand, so the more idealistic and radical vision, Fair Trade challenges both theory and practice of neoliberal free trade. It does so by Correlation Mental Essay examples criticizing conventional competitive trade relations as “unfair”, as socially and ecologically destructive and by campaigning for broad change in the way trade between the powerful industrialized countries and the countries of the Third World works. Fair Trade thus recognizes the discrepancy in power between the developing and the developed world and it is money supply a practical model of pursuing international trade beyond competition and liberalization. This type of argument often refers to between Health and Poverty Essay socio-cultural changes in terms of the consciousness of market participants.

Raynolds (2002a) for example analyses Fair Trade in terms of new kinds of ‘consumer/producer links’ that shorten and humanize the supply chain and introduce values such as fairness, equality and Endoscopy Results and Serum Levels in Patients with Dyspepsia, global responsibility into the market. And Tallontire (2000) sees this cooperation as a new ‘partnership’. And Raynolds (2000: 306) even argues that the Correlation, importance of the Fair Trade movement (similar to the global movement for organic agriculture) lies primarily in its ability to challenges the “abstract capitalist market principles that devalue natural and human resources, particularly in countries of the South”. The idea of this line of argument is that consumers as well as producers through participation in Fair Trade change their attitudes towards markets and lactate, trade in general and that this change of mentality has further implications for the free market in general. Some claims even go as far as Goodman and Goodman (2001: 99) who would prefer to Correlation between Mental Essay examples have Fair Trade result in a “fundamental transformation of capitalist society and its distinctive rationality.” It has been argued that this is an “inherent contradiction of the [Fair Trade] model” (Renard, 2003: 91). This is certainly the lactate, case, if one constructs Fair Trade as constituting either one of these visions. But as will become clear from the Mental and Poverty Essay, following evaluation of how Fair Trade works in practice, these visions are both too extreme and one sided. The reality of increase money Fair Trade lies somewhere in between: Fair Trade incorporates some elements of the free market and abandons others; with some of its multiple activities Fair Trade stabilizes free trade and with others it challenges free trade. The possible impact of Fair Trade, as has been illustrated by the two visions about Fair Trade, lies in two different areas: First, Fair Trade is supposed to benefit producers and the producer communities. This is more or less straightforward and uncontroversial and the results of different case studies will be summarized and Correlation Mental Health and Poverty Essay, systematized in the following section.

The second type of impact Fair Trade allegedly has that it influences free market and free trade in general is more controversial. In order to analyse this claim I will divide it up in three areas. I will assess the socio-cultural impact of Fair Trade on producers, consumers and on actors not participating in the Fair Trade market, analyse the economic impact on The Relationship Between Results Marker Levels the conventional market and see in Correlation Essay examples, how far Fair Trade politically challenges the rules of free trade. 4. 1. Dehydrogenase? Impact on Correlation Health Essay examples Fair Trade Producers. Measuring the dissertation example, impact of Fair Trade on the lives of producers is extremely important. Fair Trade claims to between and Poverty Essay be an effective way of improving the living standard of producers in the global south, and consumers buy Fair Trade products in the belief that their purchase is having this developmental effect. Dissertation Introduction? In the end all the money that NGOs, government agencies and private donators give in support of Fair Trade and Correlation between Health Essay, all the money that consumers of Fair Trade products spend on the higher prices of these products could be spent on other development projects that might be more effective. In recent years a variety of case studies and survey studies on the impact of Fair Trade have been published, both by academic research groups (at the University of Greenwich, UK and the Colorado State University, USA) and by NGO’s and lactate, ATO’s. These studies, most of which are qualitative non-systematic analysis, converge on several general points: Fair Trade has a positive impact on the lives of producers; Fair Trade benefits the producers in Health and Poverty Essay, a variety of blake the lamb ways beyond increasing income; and the most pervasive problem is that Fair Trade products make up only a part of the sales of producers. There are some limitations to Health and Poverty examples these impact studies, the most important being that most studies do not compare the supply, changes in Correlation Mental examples, incomes and livelihoods of the Fair Trade producers to non-Fair Trade producers and communities (an exception is increase Bechetti Constatini, 2005) and that it is analytically hard to separate the unique contribution of Fair Trade from other influences, especially since Fair Trade projects are often supported in Correlation Health examples, various ways by development agencies (Raynolds 2002b).

10 As has been convincingly argued by a survey study of the United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO), the benefits from developmental aid and supply, from participating in between Mental and Poverty examples, Fair Trade are highly mutually supportive and interlinked (Dankers, 2003: 64). Complicating the evaluation further, some studies and especially surveys seem to Nutrition Care overemphasize the positive instances and to leave out some of the more problematic findings. 11. There are a variety of different impacts on producers. The direct impacts include an increase in income due to between Mental and Poverty the Fair Trade minimum price and the social premium; access to credit; improved education; psychological and organizational effects such as producer empowerment and its effect on civic participation (Nicholls Opal, 2005: 204). I will first analyze the benefits from the The Relationship Between Endoscopy Tumor Levels in Patients Dyspepsia, price premium and other directly financial benefits, I will then assess the non-monetary benefits and the organizational and political impacts of Fair Trade on between Mental producers and finally I will try to give a picture of how effective Fair Trade is in transferring money from consumers to producers. 4. 1. 1. Benefits from the dehydrogenase, price premium. Fair Trade producers receive for their products a floor price, which is, depending on the fluctuations of the world market prices, significantly higher then what conventional buyers pay and Mental Health, an additional social premium.

This price difference is sometimes substantial: due to extremely low world prices, coffee producer organizations for example get at present around twice the money conventional producers are paid. On an aggregate level the increase supply, direct benefits of this extra income for producers are impressive: This extra income calculated from the difference of Fair Trade floor prices and world prices for all the certified global retail sales (estimated at between Health Essay US$ 1 billion for 2004) and the social premium amounted in 2004 to US$100 million, so the Human Cloning Essay, 2004-2005 annual report of the FLO (FLO, 2005a: 4, 21). And similarly, the extra benefits for coffee farmers during 2003 amount to over US$22 million, if one calculates the difference between the world market price as defined for Arabica by the New York and for Robusta by the London stock exchange with the Fair Trade minimum price and premium (FLO, 2006). 12 All these benefits are distributed among the 531 producer organizations that are certified by the FLO, representing over one million farmers and workers and, including their families, five million people are affected by the extra income earned through Fair Trade sales above world prices (FLO, 2006). Just looking at these aggregate numbers this means that in 2004 out of US$100 billion consumers spent on Fair Trade products an extra income of almost US$100 on average was transferred to more than one million farmers. On the Correlation between Health examples, micro level the picture is, however, more complex. The benefits for individual producers range from doubling their income to just securing their employment without immediate direct benefits.

All studies and surveys conclude that Fair Trade has a positive influence on the income of cooperatives and increase money supply, individual producers, significantly improving their standard of living (Riedel et al, 2005; Mayoux, 2001; Ronchi, 2002; Nicholls Opal, 2005; Taylor, 2002; Dankers, 2003). 13 Different studies demonstrate however highly differing results even in terms of the basic financial benefits. This reflects the different particular circumstances of Health and Poverty producers and their environment as well as the uneven distribution of increase Fair Trade benefits among the producers organizations. Let’s look, at some examples: In a cooperative of 1500 small coffee producers in Chiapas, Mexico, the individual members received up to 200 percent of the conventional price for their coffee - and since coffee incomes made up some 80 percent of family incomes, this made a huge difference (Perezgrovas and Cervantes, 2002: 16, 19). Correlation Between And Poverty? In a coffee cooperative in Costa Rica the individual members earned 25-60 percent more than the local middle men would have paid them and on average 39 percent more then farmers that did not sell on the Fair Trade market (Ronchi, 2002: 10). In a coffee cooperative in Bolivia the prices in 2000, compared with the conventional market, ranged from 106 percent to 123 percent for Fair Trade, and from 109 percent to 195 percent for organic Fair Trade (Dankers, 2003: 59). In one of the only economistic studies on a Fair Trade farm in Kenya Bechetti Constatini (2005) conclude that Fair Trade improved the social and blake the lamb, economic well-being and between examples, the nutritional life quality and that participation in Fair Trade resulted in a higher perceived income, which they attribute mainly to lower expectations among Fair Trade farmers who had access to complementary welfare services. Blake The Lamb? Several studies emphasize the importance the Fair Trade premium plays in improving the overall economic conditions of a cooperative, such as stabilizing loans, buying new infrastructure or improving the working conditions (Lyon, 2002; Mendez, 2002; Dankers, 2003). The wages at a Fair Trade banana plantation in Ghana, however, were only between Health, insignificantly higher than the wages of casual labour in the region (Dankers, 2003: 57, 59).

And in a cooperative in El Salvador the financial benefits of blake the lamb participating in Fair Trade were only enough for outstanding debt servicing, in both cases mainly because only a small percentage of products could be sold on the Fair Trade market (Mendez, 2002). Mutersbaugh (2002) evaluates Oaxacan coffee producers’ participation in alternative trading networks very critically, arguing that what producers find most relevant about these networks and dislike most are the expansive and technically demanding aspects of organic certification. As Raynolds (2002b: 14) correctly analyses, Mutersbaugh does however not analytically distinguish between Fair Trade and Correlation and Poverty, organic labelling, and Human Cloning Essay, assumes incorrectly that costs for certification are paid for by producers. Between Mental Health? Since most Fair Trade coffee is also certified as organic, it is worth noting that sometimes the prices paid for organic coffee on the conventional market are as high or higher as the Fair Trade premium for organic coffee (VanderHoff Boersma, 2002: 11). In addition to the direct monetary benefits from the Fair Trade price premium another important benefit is the provision of credit at reasonable rates and the pre-financing of money supply up to 60 percent of the between Mental and Poverty, price of the purchases, if the cooperative demands that. The provision of credit and prepayment is immensely important and is mentioned in most studies as very positive (Taylor, 2002: 21). A problem that has been reported however is that contrary to the rules of the different Fair Trade labelling organizations and money, ATOs the actual payment comes very late, creating immense financial pressures for producers (Lyon, 2002: 32). In a cooperative in El Salvador farmers complained that the payments were usually delayed by more than 3 months, as opposed to payments after 30 days on the conventional market (Mendez, 2002: 19).

The most pervasive problem and at the same time the major explanation for the difference in the direct benefits for individual producers and cooperatives is that many Fair Trade producer organizations are only able to sell a small portion of their products on the Fair Trade market. The supply by far outstretches the demand. On a world-wide average Fair Trade producers are only able to sell around 42 percent of Correlation and Poverty Essay their product on the Fair Trade market (Bechetti Constatini, 2005: 3), while Fair Trade coffee cooperatives are selling half of their crops at Fair Trade prices (Levi Linton, 2003). How this plays out at blake the lamb an individual level is illustrated by between Mental Health examples a recent study of Nicaraguan coffee farmers (Bacon, 2005). This study shows that although the price paid for Fair Trade coffee at the farm gate is more then two times higher then for conventional coffee (US$0.84/lb as opposed to US$0.39/lb to an agro export company or US$0.37/lb to a local middleman), the average price for all the coffee that Fair Trade farmers get is still very low, only slightly higher then conventional prices and sometimes lower then the monetary production costs (US$0.56/lb as opposed to the conventional average of US$0.40/lb, while the monetary production costs average US$0.49 to money 0.79/lb, see p. Health And Poverty Examples? 505).

Other factors that play into the difference in income revealed by Labeling Can Lower the case studies are different local price levels for between Health and Poverty Essay examples conventionally grown products and the fact that depending on increase the internal organization and between Mental Health and Poverty Essay examples, the social context of the different cooperatives differing proportions of the extra income are absorbed by administrative activities and communal projects. Some producer groups decide to Between Results Marker Levels with return most of the extra income to their members, but many decide democratically to retain part of the extra income and use it communally for health, education, community projects, debt repayment, infrastructure, organic conversion and between Mental Health and Poverty, technical training (Nicholls Opal, 2005, table 9.2 on p. 206). In evaluating Fair Trade projects it is furthermore crucially important to increase take the larger social and geographical of a specific cooperative into account. Bacon’s study on Nicaraguan coffee farmers emphasizes correctly, that although the vulnerability of farmers in Correlation Mental Health and Poverty Essay, the Fair Trade cooperatives to loose their land titles due to low coffee prices is four times lower then for farmers selling for the conventional market, the more important finding is that a vast majority of increase supply surveyed farmers, both those selling to Fair Trade and to conventional markets, reported a decline in the standard of living during the last years (Bacon, 2005: 506). And Lewis (2005) points out in his study of the relation between Fair Trade and migration that in between Mental Health and Poverty, the Mexican village he researched the positive effect of Fair Trade organic coffee was outweighed by supply the negative impact of increased migration patterns. The higher price Fair Trade retailers pay to Mental Health and Poverty producer communities has a significant impact on the lives of thousands of small-scale producers. A closer look at introduction example different Fair Trade farms and cooperatives shows however that the impact is very different depending on a variety of factors. There has not been a systematic comparative account that describes the general patterns of these differences. But all studies point out that the biggest problem for between Health producer communities is that they cannot sell all their products on lactate dehydrogenase mechanism the Fair Trade market.

The fact that most producer groups in between Mental Health Essay, different studies emphasize the need to increase the Fair Trade market furthermore reveals the importance participation in and benefits of Fair Trade has for blake the lamb small-scale producers (Murray et al, 2003: 5). Producers not only directly benefits from the extra income or Fair Trade, but also from long-term relationships, improved organization and market information, all of which may affect their non-Fair Trade relations (Nichols Opal, 2005: 202). Correlation Between Health And Poverty Essay Examples? In several studies psychological benefits like improved self esteem and Human Essay, pride in the higher level of control over the value chain are evaluated as very beneficial and important. Murray et al (2003: 8) for example reports from Correlation, seven case studies with coffee farmers in Latin America that “in case after case, farmers reported that the increased attention to their farming including the Essay, visits of Fair Trade and organic inspectors, buyers and even visiting Northern consumers () promoted renewed pride in coffee farming.” (see also Mayoux, 2001; Ronchi, 2002: 17). Taylor (2002: 19) found that this increased self esteem “was often manifested in producers’ behavior relative to others in their community, such as increased participation in public assemblies.” In other studies these more subtle improvements were only acknowledged by a small minority (e.g. of only 14 % in a case study in Mental Essay examples, El Salvador; Mendez, 2002: 21).

Other indirect benefits of increase participation in Fair Trade reported in case studies are increased spending on education of children (Lyon, 2002: 9; Ronchi, 2002: 8; Murray et al, 2003: 9) and Correlation between Mental Health Essay, the preservation of indigenous cultures (Murray et al, 2003: 4; Lyon, 2002: 32). Nutrition Labeling Can Lower Costs? It must however be noted that the evidence for the claim that high proportions of the extra income through Fair Trade is spent on education and that Fair Trade supports the survival of indigenous cultures is more anecdotal than systematic and that other factors like low success rates in schools or powerful trends like urbanization and migration may neutralize these impacts (Nicholls Opal, 2005: 209). An important issue in Fair Trade is the apparent gender bias. A variety of studies has shown, that since the income generated from Fair Trade crops is generally controlled by male household members, and since less woman are employed in Fair Trade cooperatives, there is no or little female empowerment or improvement of the livelihoods of woman through Fair Trade (Nicholls Opal, 2005: 208; Tallontire, 2000: 170; Redfern Snedker, 2002: 39). Sometimes more women are employed but men still get the Health and Poverty Essay, income (Mayoux, 2001). Often specific woman empowerment programs are required by dissertation introduction the certifiers but the implementation seems hard (Taylor, 2002: 4). And as Mayoux (2001) has pointed out, if females are employed in Fair Trade their workload often increases since they are not exempt from household work.

There are however also positive examples: In a producer organization in India in the increased participation of females in the production process had broader impacts like “increase in self-confidence, economic independence, better access to health, and participation in Correlation Health Essay examples, decision-making in the family, community, and local council” (Redfern Snedker, 2002: 39; see also Paul, 2005: 148). Many studies emphasize the importance of Nutrition Labeling Care Costs Essay organizational development through Fair Trade (Ronchi, 2002; Mayoux, 2001; Murray et al, 2003; Nicholls Opal, 2005; Paul, 2005). A report by the FAO that is based on seven case studies concludes for example: “In all the cases involving farmer cooperatives, it is clear that the fair-trade price premium is only part, and often only between Health Essay examples, a small part, of the benefits derived from the fair-trade system. The success in Cloning, self-organization seems to be far more important, resulting in better bargaining positions, better credit worthiness and economies of Correlation between Mental Essay examples scale” (Dankers, 2003: 64). Fair Trade certification requires small farmers to be organized in cooperatives and workers to establish democratically elected bodies to decide on the use of the social premium. It is important to note the mutually supportive effects of Fair Trade and cooperatives. Cooperatives enhance producer power in blake the lamb, local markets, increase income for both members and non-members by creating competition to private intermediaries and democratically empower its members to express their voices collectively. Milford (2004) has shown in a study on cooperatives in Chiapas, Mexico, that cooperatives often failed if they were not involved in selling for the Fair Trade market.

If cooperatives are engaged in Fair Trade, they cannot only compete better in the conventional market but Fair Trade also works better in generating cooperative and organizational benefits then other financial and developmental support by NGOs or governments (Milford, 2004). Other studies raise doubts about the accountability and efficiency of cooperatives. Correlation And Poverty? A study from a coffee cooperative in Nicaragua argues that the cooperative as a organizational structure “involves an expensive, top-heavy entrepreneurial hierarchy, including a large administrative staff and substantial representation costs for example its leaders” (Mendoza Bastiaensen, 2003: 42). Several studies revealed a lack of “effective democracy” in large cooperatives and even the emergence of a new “management class” (Dankers, 2003: 64) and there have even been reports of Correlation between Health and Poverty Essay corruption (Lyon, 2002: 35). Other organizational benefits that have been highlighted in several studies are access to increase money market information and the increased credibility of between Mental Essay producer organizations that participate in Fair Trade. The Relationship Between Endoscopy Results And Serum Tumor Marker Levels In Patients With Dyspepsia? All these aspects have helped many producer cooperatives their performance in the non-Fair Trade market, often enabling small farmer coffee organizations to establish direct links with foreign companies, sometimes under conditions similar to Correlation between Mental Health Essay examples Fair Trade (Taylor, 2002: 10, 21). The organizational strength of Fair Trade cooperatives has helped several producer organizations to take innovational routes of opening up new market possibilities. La Selva, a coffee cooperative in Chiapas, Mexico, for example started to sell their coffee in a Mexican chain of cafeterias, the first of which opened in San Cristóbal de Las Casas in 1994 (Cabanas, 2002: 30). In an interesting article titled Bringing the moral charge home Jaffe et al. (2004) have investigated several Fair Trade initiatives within the South. Human Trials? Realizing that conventional Fair Trade is only able to benefit a small fraction of cooperatives, civil society organizations and producer groups in Mexico launched their own label called Commercio Justo México in 1999 (Jaffe et al, 2004: 184). Correlation Essay? In 2001 the first coffee was sold under this Mexican domestic label, thus addressing the problems of small producers that sell to the domestic market and example, changing a situation in which the between Health Essay examples, best coffee products had to be imported (Comercio Justo, 2006).

14 A similar initiative is the network ANEC (National Association of mechanism Peasant Marketing Enterprises) that started to sell domestically labelled Tortillas to counter recent trends of deteriorating quality of corn which were caused by cheap U.S. imports after NAFTA (Jaffe et al, 2004: 186). These initiatives seem very promising and, as Jaffe et al (2004) argue, together with similar attempts in and Poverty Essay examples, the North they could broaden our understanding of Fair Trade in positive ways. Another interesting aspect of Fair Trade one that is extremely hard to measure and that only few studies take into account are the possible spill-over effects to Endoscopy and Serum Marker Levels in Patients with Dyspepsia non-Fair Trade producers and the entire community stemming from the organizational power of Fair Trade cooperatives. There are obvious benefits to the families of producers through the extra income and on Correlation Mental and Poverty Essay examples the producer communities through the Nutrition Can Lower Health Essay, impact of the developmental projects (Nicholls Opal, 2005: 213; Taylor, 2002: 24). In a coffee cooperative in Mexico the members became politicized through their participation in the assemblies. One member reports: “We know that even if La Selva decided to stop selling coffee, the organization would go on.

We know this because in the assemblies we discuss the Mental Health and Poverty, sale of coffee and mechanism, management of the farms, but also the Health Essay, people are concerned about more wide reaching problems about our relationship with the Nutrition Labeling Can Lower Health Essay, rest of the Correlation Mental Health and Poverty Essay, world. For example: how the government projects are run, the problems in the Registro Civil (office for The Relationship Endoscopy Tumor Marker with births, marriages, and deaths), land tenancy questions, and religious festivals.” (Cabañas, 2002: 30). And a Guatemalan cooperative helped the government in setting up a trash collection program and supported community events and Correlation between and Poverty Essay examples, the local school with supplies and furniture (Lyon, 2002: 30). Health Care? In general Fair Trade seems to increase what Putnam (2000) called the social capital of communities by thickening organizational structures and Health and Poverty, strengthening civil society (Nicholls Opal, 2005: 215). Besides the financial benefits Fair Trade thus provides a variety of other benefits, all of which are important to the improvement of the lives of blake the lamb producers. Especially the organizational and cooperative benefits of Mental Health and Poverty Fair Trade, even if sometimes not perfectly effective, are crucial in increasing the market power of producers, in providing new sources of income and in strengthening the political struggle of farmers. Human Cloning Trials Essay? The gender bias observed in several studies is an issue that must be addressed in the future. There is still a lack of consistent research on the impact and the effectiveness of Fair Trade (Paul, 2005). Especially the attempts to come up with quantifiable methods of Correlation Mental and Poverty examples calculating if the blake the lamb, money spent on between Health and Poverty Essay examples Fair Trade products or donated to Fair Trade organizations is well spent, is blake the lamb only in its preliminary stages. Since all the impact studies conclude that the most important benefits of Fair Trade are non-monetary, quantitative assessments can only capture one part of the entire impact that Fair Trade has on producers (Paul, 2005).

The non-monetary impact on the life of producers is hard to quantify, but the qualitative research summarized above should give some insight. Nicholls Opal (2005: 225) attempted to use a quantitative and highly sophisticated account to measure the social return on investment for a South African wine cooperative and found with this somewhat contingent and problematic method that “for every £1 spent on Fair Trade wine (at the Correlation Health, import level), a value of £6.89 was returned to the community.” Since the higher price of Fair Trade products is divided up by several margins (retailer, distributor, coffee roaster, importer, producer) it would seem far less efficient then giving the money directly to the producers. There has not been a systematic account yet. While some studies suggest that a reasonable percentage of the Human Cloning Essay, extra price for Fair Trade actually reaches producers, other reports seem to Correlation Essay imply that sometimes Fair Trade is example a pretty inefficient way to transfer money to producers in between and Poverty Essay examples, the South. In a critical article in the Wall Street Journal Stecklow White (2004) have reported some examples that show how Northern retailers benefit far more then the producers from Fair Trade: At Sainsbury's, a British supermarket chain, the price of Fair Trade bananas (which was four times that of conventional bananas) was US$2.74 per The Relationship Endoscopy Marker Levels in Patients pound. Correlation Between? The producers receive only 16 cents per Can Lower Health Care pound, 55 cent go to all the middlemen and importers and the rest to the supermarket, which earns approximately US$2 with every pound of organic Fair Trade bananas.

15 At a Cafe Borders in New York City, producers paid nearly US$12 a pound for Correlation between Mental Essay examples bags of Fair Trade coffee while farmers received only US$1.41. A comparative study of the coffee supply chain of Nestlé and The Relationship Results Tumor Marker Levels, the Fair Trade supplier Cafédirect found that out Correlation between Mental Health and Poverty examples of the blake the lamb, 34 percent Fair Trade mark-up for the consumer price only 4 percent ended up with the producers, mainly due to higher costs of advertisement and marketing licence (Mendoza Bastiaensen, 2003: 40). Between Mental Health Essay Examples? Zehner (2002) compared Fair Trade coffee and conventional coffee and found that 43 percent of the higher price of US$1.50 is passed on The Relationship Between and Serum Tumor Levels with to producers while 39 percent went into Correlation examples the increased margin of Nutrition Labeling Can Lower Care Costs Starbucks itself. And there are more similar examples (Stecklow White, 2004; Nicholls Opal, 2005: 51). This is however not the general rule. Other retailers, by selling Fair Trade products at the same price as conventional products, have shown the way to increase the market share of Fair Trade and to decrease exclusion on the side of consumers. At the supermarket chain Migros in Switzerland for example Fair Trade bananas have almost the same price as non-Fair Trade bananas (which made it possible to increase the market share of Fair Trade banana to 56 percent) and Wild Oats Natural Marketplace in the U.S. sells Fair Trade bananas and bulk coffee at Correlation Mental Health and Poverty examples the same price as their conventional counterparts (Stecklow White, 2004). To change this situation, in which consumers pay very high prices with the intention of helping producers, but end up mostly increasing the margin of the retailer, it would be interesting to investigate the possibility of The Relationship Endoscopy Levels with Dyspepsia establishing a further criterion for Fair Trade certification, ruling that the margins of retailers cannot be higher for Fair Trade products than for conventional products. A related criterion could be to make all retailers of Fair Trade products disclose their margins, something many retailers refuse to do (Stecklow White, 2004). 16 Another problem is the inefficiency of many Fair Trade supply chains.

In order to Correlation Health Essay increase the market share of lactate mechanism Fair Trade products and to benefit more producers this problem has to be addressed as well. (Mendoza Bastiaensen, 2003). Another important ratio is the return on investment in the labelling organizations. If one just takes into Health Essay account all the Endoscopy Results and Serum Marker in Patients, money the FLO and its member organizations spent in between Mental Essay examples, 2002 and calculates the return on investment of this money by increase money dividing it with the total benefits for Correlation Health Essay farmers, the ration is 2.8 : 1, meaning that every dollar spent by Trials the labelling organizations increases farmer income by US$2.8 (Nicholls Opal, 2005: 216). And TransFair USA claims that since 1999 “each dollar of TransFair USA's budgets has been translated into more than $7 in supplemental income for farmers and Correlation Mental and Poverty Essay examples, farm workers.” 17 These measures, however, do only include one part of the extra money consumers spent on the higher prices for Fair Trade products. These examples show that due to very high margins in the North or to mechanism inefficient management of the trade partly only a small portion of the extra money consumers pay goes directly to the producers. This is particularly appalling because the high prices of Fair Trade products prevent the demand from increasing. And, as we have seen, one of the Correlation and Poverty, main problems of Fair Trade producers was the insufficient demand and producers could immediately double their supply. 4. 2. Impact on the Free Trade Market. Fair Trade does not only benefit the producers it sources its products from, but as an attempt to blake the lamb create alternative or at least different trading practices it has a wider impact on the free market in general. This means, Fair Trade influences not only the producers, but as well consumers, other actors on the market like competing companies and political decision makers. Most authors who write about the broader impact of Fair Trade emphasize socio-cultural changes and neglect the political and economic pressures Fair Trade exerts on the market.

But all are important and I will address them separately. 4. 2. 1. Socio-Cultural Impact of Fair Trade. There has been no systematic research on how participation in between Health and Poverty Essay, Fair Trade brings about socio-cultural changes. Dissertation Introduction Example? I will in this section lay out the general idea of what the Correlation Health and Poverty examples, socio-cultural impact of Fair Trade might be. The Relationship Endoscopy Results And Serum Tumor Levels In Patients Dyspepsia? In the next section I will then raise some general doubts and problems that might limit or neutralize the between Mental Health Essay, socio-cultural impact of Fair Trade. What is this socio-cultural impact, the “quiet revolution” 18 Fair Trade is supposed to bring about in the values and practices of its participants and even among those who don’t participate?

Fair Trade links consumers and producers together in ways that are fundamentally different from the conventional market, so a claim held by Nutrition Labeling Can Lower Health Care Essay many activists and researchers (Raynolds, 2002a). It ‘humanizes’ the trade process (so ETFA, the European Fair Trade Association, Raynolds, 2002a: 404) by shortening the consumer-producers chain and by introducing values like solidarity, cooperation and equality into the market. While in conventional markets the interests of producers and consumers are inherently contradictory and Mental and Poverty examples, gains for the one are losses for the other Fair Trade re-personalizes trade by introduces real deliberative decisions and values into the otherwise automatic and anonymous price mechanism. The Fair Trade movement recognizes that economic activity is social activity. Fair Trade, just by functioning the way it does, “destabilizes neo-liberal knowledge claims” (Raynolds, 2002a: 398). Whereas the quality of conventional products just consists of the physical features and the image attached to dissertation example it by the brand (Klein, 2002), thus excluding the conditions of production from the Correlation and Poverty examples, value or the quality, Fair Trade includes these into the quality of the product. Producer and consumer links that make the conditions and lives of producers visible to the consumers are created, maintained and Human Cloning Trials Essay, “performed” through the discursive and narrative tactics of images and label texts about corporate policies, personalities and lives in the producer community (Goodman Goodman, 2001: 109). This competition for Correlation Health the “hearts and minds” of the consumers through disclosing facts about the production process, which are absent from other, changes the geography of production: The power of who defines what is “quality” in a product is to some degree shared by producers and consumers as partners (Goodman Goodman, 2001: 112). Fair Trade furthermore uncovers that conventional markets are dominated by the most powerful actors that create the market and shape its rules in Human Cloning Trials, their own interests, thus contributing to counter the neoliberal view of the economy as a level playing field (Taylor, 2005: 139).

Fair Trade frames conventional products as ‘un-fair’ and thus challenges consumers that do not buy Fair Trade products to think about the social and environmental costs that might not be included into the cheap price of the product. Fair Trade has thereby contributed to the impressive rise of ethical or “green” consumerism (Cowe Williams, 2000; Nicholls Opal, 2005: 186). Various studies reveal that a growing portion of consumers sees itself as “ethical” or “green” consumers that are taking social and between, environmental values into account in their market behaviour and are partly willing to pay more. Different studies estimate the percentage of ethical consumers differently, but there is The Relationship Endoscopy Results and Serum Tumor Levels in Patients Dyspepsia increasing evidence that 50 to 80 percent of all consumers fall under this category and that the market for ethical goods and services is Correlation between Mental Health and Poverty examples growing at rates of 20 percent per Nutrition Health Costs year and Correlation between Health, already amounts to Trials U.S.$8 billion (Nicholls Opal, 2005; Cooperative Group, 2004). 19 From these surveys it is obvious that the market for ethical products is huge and growing and that many consumers care about the social and ecological externalities of the production process. This is Mental examples a clear signal that self interested utility maximisation is not the only driver of economic action certain values associated with the dislike of global inequalities are becoming additional determinants of individual choices. 20 It is important to notice however the blake the lamb, “ethical gap” between the preferences consumers state in surveys and Health and Poverty Essay examples, their actual behaviour on the market (Nicholls Opal, 2005: 187). Although most surveys reveal that around 30 percent of the population is particularly motivated to buy ethical products these products make up only fewer than 3 percent of Between Endoscopy Marker Levels in Patients with Dyspepsia their individual markets. This phenomenon has been termed the “30:3 syndrome” and it is one of the most important challenges Fair Trade faces for between Health and Poverty Essay examples the future to close this gap (Cowe Williams, 2000: 5). Fair Trade also represents a model that provides orientation for change (Roozen Boersma, 2002).

Fair Trade establishes, in contrast to the competitive trade relations, a partnership approach to Human trade that aims at incorporating ethics into trade by between Health examples focusing on values such as equality of exchange, cooperation and fairness and by trying to increase the terms of trade in favour of the producer (Tallontire, 2000). 21 Fair Trade is however not only a practical model of alternative trading practices but a variety of companies in the Fair Trade movement embody also a model for alternative business practices. Instead of being characterized by dissertation external shareholders and profits like conventional companies, many of the alternative trading organizations involved in Fair Trade are cooperatively run, owned by between Essay the workers and Human Trials Essay, some do not work for profit (Nichols Opal, 2005: 96). Correlation Between Health Essay? One example is The Day Chocolate Company that directly connects small-scale cocoa farmers into increase money supply global markets by Mental and Poverty Essay making the farmers shareholders in the company (Doherty Tranchel, 2005). The social impact of Fair Trade is Trials multilayered and complex. Fair Trade humanizes trade relations through consumer-producer links, it undermines conventional the legitimacy of conventional production and it epitomizes functioning alternatives. Correlation Essay? Fair Trade can be understood as a model for politicians as well as for Trials Essay private corporations. A model of alternative trading practices that restricts competition, includes social externalities into the price and is fairer in Correlation between Mental, its outcomes; and dissertation, an example of an alternative company model that does not only aim at increasing profits, but at serving both producers and consumers. The section on Mental Health and Poverty Essay examples the political impact of Fair Trade will discuss deliberate attempts by Fair Trade actors to Human lobby for Correlation between Health examples political change of the rules of international trade by invoking the Fair Trade system as a model of cooperation in trade that works.

And the section on economic impacts of The Relationship Endoscopy Results and Serum Tumor Levels with Fair Trade will see in how far Fair Trade influences competing corporations to Correlation Health and Poverty Essay examples improve their practices, both through market pressures by conscious consumers and by dissertation representing a functioning alternative. Although and most researchers agree on this point participation in Correlation, Fair Trade has important socio-cultural impacts on consumers along the lines laid out Care Costs above, some concerns can be raised about between Health and Poverty examples, these claims. Especially in how far producers really are part of the “consumer/producer links” in Fair Trade networks is questionable. Many studies reveal the limited sense of understanding and increase money, identification producers have towards Fair Trade for most it is just another market that demands higher quality and pays higher prices (Mendez, 2002; Perezgrovas and Cervantes, 2002; Lyon, 2002; Dankers, 2003). One researcher at a Guatemalan coffee cooperative observed: “The vast majority of interviewed members stared at me blankly when asked if they knew what Fair Trade was. Between Health And Poverty Examples? Some came up with creative responses that exhibited a minimum level of comprehension such as ‘Fair Trade is the good price that they pay us for our coffee’” (Lyon, 2002: 24). 22 The understanding many producers have of lactate Fair Trade is mostly based on quality and price. Taylor (2002) reports in his summary of seven case studies that it was easier for producers to understand the impacts of organic production since it was more related to their farming activity and they got a higher price for improved quality. And one producer claimed: “In Fair Trade there are higher quality products, and in Correlation Mental Health and Poverty, the conventional market the introduction example, produce is contaminated and at the same time sold at Correlation Health and Poverty Essay examples lower prices.” (VanderHoff Boersma, 2002: 18). Other cooperatives have an understanding that is closer to the theories about consumer/producer links.

Isaías Martínez, a farmer in Cloning, Mexico, for example says: “The most important contribution of the Fairtrade Labelling system is in my eyes that our ‘dignity as a human being’ is recovered. We are no longer a plaything of the anonymous economic power that keeps us down” (FLO, 2006). This gap in understanding Fair Trade is, according to several studies, a new development that is commonly attributed to the increased activity of big national labelling organizations and Essay examples, large retailers that see Fair Trade more as business than the alternative trading organizations. 23. On the consumer side there is Nutrition Can Lower Care another set of worries. Especially the mainstreaming of Fair Trade has led to a diffusion of between Health and Poverty its message that changed from participation in an international project of trade reform to one in which consumers are “shopping for Labeling Health Essay a better world” (Low Davenport, 2005b). It is important to be conscious of who is getting what out of a Fair Trade deal: The consumer on the one hand receives, in between and Poverty examples, addition to introduction example the product, the “good feel factor”.

A reason to perceive herself as an and Poverty “ethical” and “responsible” consumer is given by Cloning Essay the message on between Mental Health Essay examples the Nestlé coffee: “Partners’ Blend: Coffee that helps farmers, their communities and money, the environment”. 24 The producer on Correlation examples the other hand gets a couple of Human Cloning cents more than on the conventional market, but will never be able to consume in a similar way. In light of the asymmetry in wealth between consumers and producers one could ask if the standards in between Mental examples, Fair Trade are an “adequate representation of ‘equal exchange’ or ‘fairness’ in relation to Between Endoscopy Tumor Marker with the rich consuming North?” (Goodman Goodman, 2001: 115). Although this is a legitimate question it is not important in a practical or pragmatic sense since not buying regular coffee or not buying coffee at all are both detrimental to the producer. It is however important to not let the experience of consuming a cup of fairly traded coffee become an “absolution” (Howley, 2006) and a justification to source all the other products through conventional markets. There are some further general concerns that can be raised about the power relations in Fair Trade, in particular about the commodification of the Correlation between Mental Health examples, lives of producers in advertising for lactate dehydrogenase mechanism Fair Trade and exclusive standards and prices, but both are necessary mechanisms to Correlation between Essay make Fair Trade effective and successful on Nutrition Can Lower Care the market. 25. 4. 2. 2. Correlation Between And Poverty Essay Examples? Economic Impact of Fair Trade.

Besides the socio-cultural impact of Fair Trade described above and its attempts to influence the Cloning Trials Essay, politically established rules of the market explained in Correlation between Mental Health Essay examples, the following section the blake the lamb, most recognized impact Fair Trade has on the market is economic. The argument has two parts. The first part is concerned with the amount to which international trade gets transformed just by the fact that more and more products are traded through Fair Trade organizations. And since that is limited somewhat, the Correlation Health and Poverty, other part analyses the introduction, indirect impact Fair Trade has on Correlation between Health and Poverty Essay competing companies in forcing them to change their trading policies by raising awareness about the social and environmental externalities of the Endoscopy in Patients with, production process. Fair Trade only amounts to a small portion of all international trade, currently to far less than one percent. But Fair Trade has potential to grow especially since Fair Trade has shifted from being an Correlation between Mental Health alternative to increasingly penetrating the mainstream, and in some markets Fair Trade already accounts for large portions of all trade (Krier, 2005; Taylor, 2005). There is an extremely controversial discussion about the recent development of money Fair Trade into the mainstream which gives practical importance to the debate between the two visions of Fair Trade described above. The positive sides of selling Fair Trade products through mainstream channels and commercial supermarkets such as Starbucks in the USA or Tesco in the UK are fairly uncontroversial: immense increases in the volume of Fair Trade products, which thus benefit more producers, an increase in the availability and range of products and opening up the Correlation Health and Poverty Essay examples, message of Fair Trade to blake the lamb a much wider audience then through ‘alternative’ trade (Low Davenport, 2005a: 150). The downside of mainstreaming Fair Trade, on the other hand, is more controversial. There are several concerns about mainstreaming Fair Trade.

A general critique comes from conservative free market advocates. Philip Booth (2005) from the between Mental Essay examples, London based Institute of supply Economic Affairs argues that by paying a minimum price Fair Trade is disturbing the automatic market mechanisms of Adam Smith’s invisible hand. While it might help the producers that sell on Correlation Essay examples the Fair Trade market it is detrimental to all other producers in blake the lamb, that market. Guaranteeing a minimum price, so the argument continues, also creates oversupply. Between Mental Health And Poverty? 26 While this critique overestimates the power of Fair Trade to disturb the market and to create oversupply and although it suppresses the far more important market disturbances described above (market power of TNCs, monopsony, imperfect access to credit and information etc.), it raises the dehydrogenase mechanism, important issue of Correlation between Health Essay examples how Fair Trade influences non-Fair Trade producers. The argument against Fair Trade is however flawed. In order to introduction avoid negative impacts on other producers and to decrease the dependency of Correlation between and Poverty Essay Fair Trade producers the labelling organizations encourage producers to diversify their production and Essay, help them to access new markets. Furthermore, as I will discuss in the next section, contrary to harming other producers, Fair Trade has contributed to a broader trend of social standards and certifications that might bring about Correlation between Health and Poverty examples, positive change for Nutrition Labeling Health Care Costs all producers.

Most of the criticism of the Correlation Health and Poverty Essay examples, mainstreaming of Fair Trade comes however from supporters of the general idea of alternative trade. One worry is that big mainstream corporations that take part in Fair Trade undermine the message of Fair Trade. Whereas the Fair Trade movement started as a movement of alternative trading organizations that practiced trade not along cooperative lines and challenged conventional competitive and exploitative trading practices the Human Cloning, mainstreaming of Fair Trade introduces new actors with different interests and practices into Fair Trade. Whereas ATOs are interested in Mental Essay examples, increasing the blake the lamb, benefits for the producers in the South, the and Poverty, motives of mainstream corporations like Starbucks or Tesco are by no means the principles of Fair Trade but to Endoscopy Tumor Marker Levels Dyspepsia increase their profits (Ransom, 2005). Mainstream supermarket chains this is confirmed by most studies see Fair Trade as a “useful marketing tool which differentiates them in the market [and as] one of the between Health Essay, tools in Human Cloning Essay, the CSR [Corporate Social Responsibility] armament rather than a basis for doing business” (Young, 2003: 10). This difference in interest becomes manifest for example in the overpricing of Fair Trade products by many supermarket chains, that has been discussed above. 27. Another concern is that this “clean-washing” (Low Davenport, 2005b) or “fairwashing” (Nichols Opal, 2005: 138) helps mainstream corporations to justify and perpetuate their exploitative trading practices (Raynolds, 2002a). By selling a small percentage of their products under the Fair Trade certification, mainstream companies can use the strategy of between and Poverty Essay examples “parallel production” (Mutersbaugh, 2005b: 398) to improve their image as socially conscious without fundamentally changing their sourcing practices.

Some of the smaller alternative trading organizations that sell 100 percent of their coffee Fair Trade dropped out of dissertation introduction example third party certification altogether as a response to these practices. Just Coffee, one of them, explains the Mental and Poverty examples, strategy of fairwashing or parallel production: “the conventional roasters are lining up to access the Fair Trade label. The problem is that they want to blake the lamb do this without changing their business practices (), still buying the bulk of their coffee paying low market prices while they use the Correlation between Health and Poverty, Fair Trade label on The Relationship Between Endoscopy Results and Serum in Patients with the miniscule amount of ‘Fair Trade’ coffee they purchase. They want to capitalize on the symbol without committing to between Mental Health and Poverty Essay examples what it stands for.” (quoted in Nicholls Opal, 2005: 138). Some examples: Starbucks, which adopted Fair Trade coffee under severe consumer pressure in 2000, purchased in 2005 only 3.7 percent (5.21 million kg) of its coffee under the Fair Trade label (Benjamin, 2006; Renard, 2003). Mechanism? And, as mentioned in the introduction, Nestlé is using the Fair Trade label to make up for being labelled 2005s “least responsible company” worldwide by selling some of their products with the Fair Trade label the actual amount is not laid open but are estimated to be less than 1 percent (Nestlé, 2005). As Booth (2005) has noted, the biggest retail promoter of Fair Trade in Britain, the Coop, is at the same time the biggest recipient of Correlation between and Poverty examples subsidies from the EU common agricultural policy in the country. “There is lactate dehydrogenase no doubt whatsoever that the subsidies do more damage to the developing world than the sale of Fair Trade products does good” (Booth 2005: 8).

Bill Vorley (2003: 77) gives another interesting and between Mental, telling example: The Asda Wal-Mart excused its shift away from sourcing most of its bananas from small farms in the Caribbean by pointing to its Fair Trade bananas, highlighting the fact that it is still possible to buy Caribbean bananas. Dissertation? It did however suppress the fact that the Fair Trade bananas only made up an between Mental Health and Poverty Essay examples extremely small percentage of all the bananas it sold. A related problem with mainstreaming Fair Trade is the asymmetry in power that is created by the fact that mainstream corporations only sell a small portion of introduction their products under the label (Renard, 2005). Since this portion makes up a huge percentage of all the Fair Trade sales, the labelling organizations become dependent on these sales, while corporations like Starbucks could easily change their buying policies. In the U.S. for example, where Fair Trade coffee is growing at impressive rates of almost 90 percent per year, huge parts of these increases are due to the participation of mainstream actors like Peet's Coffee Tea, Starbucks, Dunkin’ Donuts, McDonalds and Tully's (TransFair USA, 2006a; 2006b). If Starbucks would decide to trade its 3.7 percent of Fair Trade coffee under its own label C.A.F.E. (Coffee And Farmers Equity) a move that would not much affect Starbuck this would have devastating affects on Fair Trade in the U.S., decreasing world coffee sales by more than 10 percent and decreasing Fair Trade coffee sales in the U.S. by 21 percent (Starbucks, 2006; TransFair USA, 2006). Renard (2005: 30) mentions a similar dilemma: “Would TransFair USA be capable, at this point, of stripping Starbucks of Mental Health its seal if in example, fact Starbucks practices were shown not to comply with Fair Trade norms or generally unethical, despite the importance of Starbucks Fair Trade sales in the US?” Another threat is the strategy of “standards dilution” (Mutersbaugh, 2005b: 398) employed by TNCs to alter the standards set by Correlation and Poverty examples an NGO like the FLO, using their immense power and share of example sales (Renard, 2005).

The growth of Fair Trade into the mainstream bears immense possibilities; but at the same time it creates some new dangers, mainly the undermining of the message of Fair Trade, the fairwashing of between Mental Health Essay socially and environmentally destructive corporations and increasing dependency of the labelling organizations on dissertation large retailers. The question is thus one of finding the right balance between these, or as one scholar has put it: “At what point do increased sales and and Poverty, economies of scale cross the fuzzy line between more income and benefits for producers to dependency on mainstream markets and potential loss of the cutting edge in challenging unjust world trade relations?” 28. The other side of the economic impact Fair Trade has on the market is its indirect power to influence competing corporations to change their trading practices outside of Fair Trade. This power of Fair Trade is mainly its ability to indirectly influence and change the preferences of consumers by pointing attention on the producers and the conditions of production and by providing a viable alternative. The socio-cultural changes associated with this argument have been laid out above. Various studies reveal that a growing portion of consumers sees itself as “ethical” or “green” consumers that are taking social and environmental values into account in their market behaviour and are partly willing to pay more.

Fair Trade plays an important role in Nutrition Health Care Costs, this increase of the Correlation between Mental Health, segment of conscious consumers, especially by showing that alternatives are possible (Roozen Boersma, 2002b). Transnational corporations have often responded to consumer demands and pressure for better social and environmental production by lactate dehydrogenase arguing that it is Correlation between Mental Essay examples impossible to control the entire supply chain. The new division of labour, involving the Results and Serum Marker Levels in Patients Dyspepsia, establishment of export processing zones (EPZs), global subcontracting and lean production are used by TNCs to between Health Essay examples justify exploitation and environmental destruction as inevitable and impossible to blake the lamb control (McMichael, 2004). Fair Trade shows in practice that social and ecological exploitation are not natural and that corporations can take responsibility, thus proving the Correlation between Health, standard apologetic reactions of corporations wrong. It is blake the lamb a well established fact that more and more corporations react to these market pressures and shifting consumer preferences by establishing CRS (corporate social responsibility) standards and by creating guidelines and standards for Mental Health Essay internal monitoring (Mutersbaugh, 2005a; 2005b; Renard, 2005). This has been described as a “paradox of globalization” (Barrientos, 2000: 556; Tallontire Vorley, 2005): On the one hand there are strong trends to deregulation and market liberalization in the context of the rise of neoliberalism and on the other hand there are more and more attempts to privately re-regulate the market; while transnational corporations abuse their increasing market power to lactate mechanism further lower the price of between Mental Health production and externalize social and environmental costs these same corporations take part in Human Cloning Trials, the rise of different and Mental and Poverty Essay examples, mostly private measures that claim to improve social and environmental sustainability of production. I will not go into the developments of Between Results with this general process of the increase of labels and just mention one example (see Muradian Pelupessy, 2005). Starbucks, which sells 3.7 percent (5.21 million kg) of its coffee with a Fair Trade label, has established its own self monitored first party label “C.A.F.E” (Coffee and Farmers Equity) practices that amounts to another 24.6 percent (34.84 million kg) of total sales.

This label is supposed to “ensure the sustainable production of high-quality coffee by addressing social, environmental and economic responsibility throughout the coffee supply chain” (Starbucks, 2006a: 20). Starbucks goal is, as illustrated in table 3, to double the between Mental and Poverty Essay examples, amount of coffee traded under the C.A.F.E. practices to Trials around 70 million kg in 2006 and further increase it to Correlation Health and Poverty examples 102 million kg in 2007, which would mean that almost three fourths of all the coffee Starbucks buys is monitored under its own label (Starbucks, 2006a: 4; Benjamin, 2006). Table 3: Projected increase of Starbucks coffee bought under its own label C.A.F.E. Lactate Dehydrogenase? practices (Source: Starbucks, 2006a: 19). In assessing these developments one first has to Health and Poverty Essay examples take into account the extremely high price Starbucks pays to its producers. Starbucks has paid an average price of $2.84 per kg for all the 142 million kg of unroasted coffee it bought, both for labelled and unlabelled coffee. This average price is 23 percent higher than the average commodity market price, and even more than the minimum price of Fair Trade ($2.80 per kg) (Starbucks, 2006a: 17; Benjamin, 2006).

This is an extremely promising and extremely effective development. Increase Money Supply? The entire sales of Starbucks, sold at an average price higher than Fair Trade, amount to 2 percent of global coffee sales and are more than four times the amount of Fair Trade coffee certified globally in 2003 (30 million kg) (TransFair USA, 2005: 2). It is however also important to take a close look at Correlation between and Poverty Essay the supply chain, to dig into blake the lamb the reasons why Starbucks does not substantially increase its participation in Correlation between Mental Health and Poverty Essay examples, Fair Trade and to see in how far these high prices are outweighed by the high costs of standard compliance to the high quality requirements. The high price Starbucks pays for its coffee can partly be explained by the fact that Starbucks only buys gourmet coffee with extremely high intrinsic qualities. Increase Money? And the between Mental examples, C.A.F.E label is only a “code of Nutrition Health Care conduct-lite” (Renard, 2005: 429), focusing first and foremost on Correlation Health Essay examples the intrinsic quality and the taste of the coffee and adding ecological and social standards as secondary. Further important differences to introduction example the Fair Trade label are among others (Starbucks, 2006b): the and Poverty Essay examples, payment of higher premium prices increases with better performance instead of a guaranteeing a minimum price; the infrastructure of certification remains internal to Starbucks, making it impossible for producers to blake the lamb influence the standards (Mutersbaugh, 2005a); there is no substantial third party monitoring; verifiers are not autonomous, making it a “fully private” as opposed to the “semi-public” space in Fair Trade certification (Mutersbaugh, 2005b); and there is less organizational and developmental support. And Poverty Examples? Since the high price is only one of the benefits of dehydrogenase mechanism participation in Fair Trade, and as shown in the case studies above not even the most important benefit, all the non-monetary benefits of Fair Trade do only partially apply to those producers selling to Starbucks through its C.A.F.E. Mental? scheme. Labeling Can Lower Care Costs? Besides these trends to undermine the Fair Trade label there are reports of problems at the producer level that forced several cooperatives to break up their trading relations with Starbucks. 29.

There are some important dangers in this general trend towards voluntary certification that are important to fully assess the economic impact Fair Trade has on between and Poverty Essay the market. These are mainly the way power relations in the production process change and a curious convergence between the rhetoric of Fair Trade and contemporary discourse in dominant institutions. Nutrition Labeling Health Care Costs? While voluntary standards are often praised as the positive influence of consumer power on corporations and Correlation between Mental and Poverty examples, the increasing social and environmental accountability and awareness of those corporations, studies like the Human Development Report conclude that “the growth of private standards is increase acting as a barrier to market entry for smallholder farmers” (Brown, 2005: 5; Vorley, 2003: 70). It has been argued that this “just in space production” of Correlation between Mental and Poverty certified products transforms rent relations, shifting the costs of standard compliance to the producers, increasing rents for retailers and giving the retailers more power and governance over Human the supply chain (Mutersbaugh, 2005a; 2005b; 2005c). 30 This line of argument, seeing certifications as a place of conflict and power rather than cooperation, criticizes the broad trend towards the establishment of semi-public spaces through NGO-third party certification.

Fair Trade, so the argument, by promoting the privatisation of standards, facilitates the already existing tendency of the demise of the Correlation between Mental Essay examples, state in market regulations. Fair Trade, without intending to do so, thus stabilizes neoliberal globalization and supports the further decline of state power to regulate markets and to increase money restrict exploitation and environmental destruction. A similar argument can be made on the level of contemporary development that converges with the discourse of Fair Trade in Essay, an interesting way. 31 Faced with the controversial debate about the East Asian miracle in money supply, the early 1990s, the destructive Asian economic crisis in 1997 and the emergence of powerful NGOs and social movements, the dominant paradigm in the major development institutions like the World Bank and the IMF shifted in the late 1990s from between Mental and Poverty, neoliberalism towards a more “inclusive liberalism” (Porter Craig, 2004; Gore, 2000; Hart, 2001; Wade, 1997). Revisionist or inclusive neoliberalism, while using a slightly different, more inclusive and empowering discourse, shares with orthodox neoliberalism the preference of the market over the state, has enabled processes of immense social and Between Endoscopy Results Tumor Marker Levels with, environmental destruction and is in similar ways interpreted as yet another discourse of domination and control (Porter Craig, 2004; McMichael, 2004). And the rhetoric of the Fair Trade movement conforms to an astounding degree with this discourse of revisionist neoliberalism. Central parts of both discourses converge albeit with different connotations on notions like market ‘opportunity’, ‘empowerment’, social and Correlation Mental and Poverty, economic ‘inclusion’, ‘social capital’, ‘civil society’ and ‘partnership’. What should one think about the fact that these concepts are employed both by institutions from the centre right like the Nutrition Health Essay, World Economic Forum and by the Fair Trade movement?

This convergence of revisionist neoliberal discourse and Fair Trade discourse helps explain why this small movement of alternative trading organizations could move into the mainstream; why several studies interpret Fair Trade as part of neoliberalism or social capitalism; and between Essay examples, why such prominent supporters of blake the lamb free trade as the European Commission and the G 8 summit are celebrating the success of Fair Trade. In both cases by using private certifications and by Correlation between examples employing a certain discourse of market empowerment Fair Trade converges with contemporary reactionary tendencies. While this certainly carries the dangers of supporting (as an unintended consequence) the Cloning Trials Essay, privatisation of market regulations and between Health, the justification and Tumor Dyspepsia, naturalization of neoliberal discourse, there is also the potential for change. Private standards are not inherently opposed to state regulations and through its political efforts Fair Trade actively tries to lobby for Correlation between Mental Health Essay change in dissertation introduction, the political market rules. And discourses are contradictory, unstable and contested and political and social pressures can, alongside with Fair Trade, transform a discourse of domination and oppression into a discourse of Correlation Mental Health entitlements and rights, taking serious the ‘inclusive’ and ‘empowering’ part and turning it against the inhumane consequences of neoliberal hegemony. The discussion and analysis of the possibilities for Fair Trade to blake the lamb economically influence the conventional market has revealed opportunities as well as dangers. There is first impressive potential for Correlation Mental Health Fair Trade to money supply grow into the mainstream and to directly change trading practices. But these possibilities depend on the participation of big mainstream corporations that only use Fair Trade to their advantage without sharing its message and taking the responsibilities. This brings along the dangers of undermining the message of Correlation Mental and Poverty Essay Fair Trade and of becoming dependent on these mainstream companies. Secondly by showing that ecologically and socially responsible trading practices are possible Fair Trade is part of a more general push by introduction example consumers that brought about the rise of private standards and Health and Poverty Essay, certifications. This development in a similar way opens up new possibilities to introduce social and Endoscopy Levels in Patients Dyspepsia, environmental standards on a broad basis into the mainstream economy but at the same time bears the danger of getting down-washed into intransparent and unenforceable standards-lite that are (mis)used by big mainstream corporations to control and exploit the supply chain in new ways.

Fair Trade certification and Correlation Mental Health Essay examples, the general trend towards private standards are not intrinsically good or bad. Both are social institutions that are sites of introduction example conflict and power where contesting interests get negotiated and fought out between different actors. Future developments depend among many other social forces on the evolution of Fair Trade. 4. 2. 3. And Poverty Examples? The Political Impact of Fair Trade. Contrary to dominant discourses and public opinions on trade issues, the current trade injustices are not “natural” or the outcome of different levels of knowledge, technology and education. These factors surely play their part, but the unjust system of international trade is politically established and maintained by countries with very different levels of power. The rules that enable the dehydrogenase, free market and free trade to Correlation between Mental Health and Poverty function are not “neutral” or “natural” but serve certain interests and not others. Without going into Between and Serum Marker Levels with detail this can be illustrated by looking at between Mental and Poverty examples the unjust tax system and Between Endoscopy Results and Serum with, the immense amounts of subsidies in the global north, which both make trade with agricultural products very difficult for developing countries. According the United Nations Human Development Report 2005 the average tariffs low-income countries, which are exporting to Correlation Mental Health and Poverty examples high-income countries, face are three to Costs Essay four times higher than the Correlation between Health and Poverty Essay examples, barriers applied in trade between high-income countries (HDR, 2005: 126). 32 Since primary products like cacao beans are taxed less then processed products like chocolate, this perverse tax structure also makes it impossible for many developing countries to lactate mechanism do the high value-added processing and retailing parts of the production process in their country, ensuring that most profits in the value chain are added in the Global North. Correlation Health And Poverty Essay Examples? In the European Union, for example, tariffs rise from 0 to 9 percent on cocoa paste and to 30 percent on the final product, which explains why 90 percent of lactate dehydrogenase mechanism cacao beans are produced in and Poverty examples, developing countries while only 44 percent of cocoa liquor and 29 percent of cocoa powder exports originate in those countries, making Germany the worlds largest exporter of increase cacao products (HDR, 2005: 127).

The unbelievably high levels of agricultural subsidies, especially in Europe and the U.S. furthermore undercut any comparative advantage of developing countries and the UNDP calculates that the real costs for developing countries of rich country agricultural subsidies is as high as all official aid flows in 2003 - US$72 billion a year (HDR, 2005: 130). The global legal framework for trade justifies exploitation and the externalization of social and environmental costs of production. This can be illustrated by the fact that the WTO under the PPM clause (Production and Processing Methods) does not allow discriminating against products that are produced through social and ecological exploitation. 33 There is considerable discussion in the Fair Trade movement if the PPM clause, created for governments, does also apply to labelling organizations like the FLO, but it is generally assumed that voluntary discrimination does not violate the WTO rules, even if they include non-physical characteristics such as the real social or environmental costs. Between Mental And Poverty? 34. Whenever those institutions that currently determine how the markets function mainly the World Trade Organization and its sisters World Bank and International Monetary Fund there are powerful attempts by The Relationship Between Endoscopy and Serum Levels Dyspepsia NGOs and social movements to protest and lobby for Correlation and Poverty market and trading rules that are fairer to blake the lamb the most disadvantaged producers. This Trade Justice Movement is “campaigning for trade justice - not free trade - with the rules weighted to benefit poor people and the environment” (Trade Justice Movement, 2006).

Fair Trade is part of Correlation between and Poverty Essay this push for fair market rules. And it is the deliberate goal of Nutrition Labeling Costs Fair Trade, stated by the four major Fair Trade organizations as one of between Health Essay examples three strategic intents, to “play a wider role in the global arena to dehydrogenase mechanism achieve greater equity in international trade” (FINE, 2001: 1). Also the above mentioned widely recognized definition of Fair Trade states: “Fair Trade organisations (backed by Correlation and Poverty Essay consumers) are engaged actively in supporting producers, awareness raising and in campaigning for changes in the rules and practice of conventional international trade” (FINE, 2001). Just one example: At the WTO meeting in Hong Kong in 2005 FINE, the informal network of Fair Trade organizations, organized a “Fair Trade Fair” that featured producers from mechanism, Asia, Africa, the Middle East and Latin America which were displaying and selling their products, including coffee, chocolate, spices, crafts, textiles and many others. At a symposium producers shared their stories the impact Fair Trade had on their communities and experts discussed the development of Correlation between Mental and Poverty examples Fair Trade and the implications of the WTO rules for its functioning. 35 Besides this eventful critique of free trade FINE also lobbied the WTO with a position paper stating what the dissertation introduction, Fair Trade movement thinks “is wrong with the WTO” (FINE 2005a). The style of this document is captured in its beginning statement: “We, members of the international Fair Trade movement, know from Mental Health and Poverty, experience that trade can reduce poverty and contribute to sustainable development. However, if not carried out in a fair and responsible manner, trade can exacerbate poverty and inequality.” FINE, acting as the advocate of small scale producers around the world, demands the end of subsidies and tariff escalation mechanisms, argues against Cloning Trials Essay deregulation and liberalization and promotes the Health examples, expansion of Fair Trade principles of regulating and managing the global supply chain (FINE, 2005a). After the dissertation introduction example, meeting, another publication described the outcome of the WTO summit as serving “the interests of companies operating globally” instead of Correlation Health and Poverty Essay promoting an Tumor Marker in Patients Dyspepsia agenda that is in any way favourable to the developing countries (FINE, 2005b). Correlation And Poverty? The political impact of Fair Trade operates as well on the micro level. Besides contributing to a necessary change in consciousness that has been described above Fair Trade politicizes people and strengthens the Global Justice Movement through the thousands of world and solidarity shops that are important centres of this movement.

Although some activists might see this as the most crucial part of Fair Trade, arguing that the structural change promoted by the Global Justice and Third World Movements is necessary for real improvement in the producers lives, the political side of Fair Trade should not be used as an excuse for the economic and social problems described above (Mendoza Bastiaensen, 2003: 41). Organizations working with Fair Trade are thus using the practical example of Fair Trade to lobby for a change in the international trading rules away from money, free trade and towards cooperative trade, essentially seeing Fair Trade as a practical prefiguration of a more desirable trade. 5. Between Mental Essay? Conclusion: Fair Trade as a Re-embedding Countermovement. So what is Fair Trade: A neoliberal solution to current market failures that works within the free market regime or a practical tool of social change that aims at transforming the The Relationship Between Results and Serum Tumor in Patients with Dyspepsia, free market? The discussion of the impact of Fair Trade on the level of producers as well as on the level of the free market in general has shown that there is no easy and clear-cut answer to this question. The social reality of Fair Trade entails both, free market mechanisms and non-markets restrictions and Fair Trade seems to Mental and Poverty Essay examples both undermine free trade and to be used and interpreted as supporting neoliberalism. Human Essay? To better understand this rather puzzling result I will propose a theoretical framework to understand Fair Trade that is heavily influenced by Polanyi’s work. Correlation Between Essay Examples? In order to better understand the effects of Fair I will situate Fair Trade historically using Polanyi’s theory of the double movement. And I will then use Polanyi’s concept of embeddedness to argue that Fair Trade is neither a free market solution nor a transformation of free trade.

In order to situate the emergence of Between Endoscopy Results Tumor in Patients Dyspepsia Fair Trade in a broader context the work of Karl Polanyi (1944), especially his understanding of capitalism as progressing in form of a ‘double movement’ concerning the relations between the market and society has been increasingly used and seems very instructive (Barham, 2002: 350-352; Murray Raynolds, 2000; Mutersbaugh, 2005a). Polanyi argued that the unleashing of markets for the three ‘fictitious commodities’ land, labour and money causes intense social and environmental destruction and generates counter-tendencies that demand regulation, intervention and social protection from these destructive market forces. This protective countermovement is, however, not an external intervention into Correlation Health and Poverty Essay a structurally determined process but these opposing forces are contained within capitalism (Hart, 2002: 304). Polanyi’s historical analysis of the double movement has its contemporary parallels (Silver Arrighi, 2003): 36 The neoliberal revolution of the 1980s on dissertation example the one hand destroyed societal regulations protecting labour, money and land/nature by promoting free market economies as the only model, liberating financial transactions and privatising and destroying natural resources. The growing importance of civil society in the 1990s and the rise of transnational social movements that push for Mental Essay “counter-hegemonic globalization” (Evans, 2005) on the other hand represent efforts to re-embed the destructive market forces into societal norms and regulations. These actors promote political regulations for financial markets, fight against the commercialization and privatization of supply natural resources and counter the dismantling of labour regulations that restrict exploitation. Between Mental Health Essay Examples? 37 It is important to increase money note that these attempts to re-embed the market have also been incorporated into conservative discourses and practices where they represent efforts to contain dissent and to Mental Health examples enable the neoliberal project to continue. They are employed by personalities in dehydrogenase, neoliberal institutions like the world bank and the IMF (Wade, 1997; 2001; Sachs, 1998; Stiglitz, 2000) and have shaped the paradigm shift from orthodox neoliberalism to Correlation Mental and Poverty examples ‘revisionist’ or ‘inclusive’ neoliberalism (Hart, 2001; Porter Craig, 2004).

And exactly here is where Fair Trade comes into the picture: Fair Trade, so I will argue, is part of the protective countermovement. I will come back to this point, but first I want to employ Polanyi to argue that Fair Trade is neither a neoliberal free market approach nor an attempt to transform free trade. Fair Trade is concerned with the unleashing of markets for the fictitious commodities labour, and, to a lesser degree, land/nature. While markets might be useful and efficient mechanisms to produce and distribute products, if labour and nature are included into increase money supply the market as free and unrestricted commodities the results are destructive. Free trade theory rests on the notion that free competition results in the lowest possible price, and that because the producers with the lowest price outcompetes other producers competition stimulates efficiencies and improved technologies. Free trade theory does, however, falsely assume that competition does only take place regarding technological innovation, productivity and marketing. 38 In reality, and especially in trading relations between large retailers and small-scale producers in Correlation examples, the global south, business companies use the blake the lamb, externalization of costs onto other parties as one of the main strategies of competition. If Chiquita cannot outcompete another retailer in the banana market with improved technology or better marketing strategies it can do so by externalizing the social and environmental cost of production.

This means that the Mental Health Essay examples, social cost of production is increase money passed on between Health examples to the The Relationship Between Tumor Marker in Patients, producer and the environmental cost of production is passed on to future generations. This is possible if labour and nature are not socially embedded through political legislations like minimum wages and environmental restrictions or social forces like unions or NGOs. And Fair Trade is exactly this, an attempt to Correlation Mental Health and Poverty examples re-embed the market within society by internalizing both the real social and environmental cost of money supply production into the price. The real price of a product and the price Fair Trade tries to pay thus consists of the real social cost of the work (human wages, dignified working conditions etc.) plus the real environmental cost of production. Roozen and VanderHoff Boersma (2002), two founders of the first labelling organization Max Havelaar, argue convincingly: “The costs of a socially responsible production are included in the price of the product in Health Essay examples, the Fair Trade market. Competitiveness does not depend on the level of exploitation that goes into the production of the product.” Fair Trade is thus not abandoning the market, but it also does not provide a free market solution.

Fair Trade rather re-embeds the market by internalizing the social and environmental cost of production into the price. By paying a guaranteed minimum wage that reflects the real social and environmental costs of example production it restricts market competition from exploiting labour and and Poverty, nature, but at the same time uses competition in the production process to function in the market. The essence of Fair Trade is Human according to Brown (1993: 158) “that the between, consumer should be told the truth, not only about what is in the product but also the truth about the producer, her or his conditions of life and work, what they get for their work and what it does to the environment.” Far from pure competition or state-led planning, Fair Trade combines the power of lactate mechanism producers and consumers to Correlation Mental Health and Poverty Essay create links between them that both limit and engage competition and that consist of information: 39 “Connections between consumers and Fair Trade organizations [and producers] are rooted largely in flows of information. Fair Trade networks socially re-embed commodities, so that items arrive at blake the lamb the point of consumption replete with information regarding the social and environmental conditions under which they were produced and traded” (Raynolds, 2002a: 415). Fair Trade challenges the idea that the setting of between Health and Poverty Essay prices on the market as an automatic and depersonalized process is the only instrument for valuing commodities (Raynolds, 2002a: p. Blake The Lamb? 409). Instead of competition as the main driver of the market, Fair Trade introduces an interesting type of “contract economy” into between Health and Poverty examples the market, in which the Human Trials Essay, price is negotiated between consumers, producers and salesmen and their contradictory interests are resolved in cooperation.

As one scholar has put it: “Fair Trade is primarily about reasserting human control over a mechanism that claims to be in the best interests of everyone but no longer even bothers to prove it” (Ransom, 2001: 9). The fact that Fair Trade does not challenge the existence of the market as such does not mean that it is not a radical vision, since, as the domestic Mexican Label Comercio Justo insists, Fair Trade is about transforming the very purpose of between examples markets; by reorganizing markets in a way that can benefit the more disadvantaged members of blake the lamb society Fair Trade creates un mercado donde todos quepamos “a market where we all fit” (quoted in Jaffe et al, 2004: 192). Fair Trade, as an Correlation between Health Essay examples attempt to re-embed the dissertation introduction, market in the sense described here, is part of the protective countermovement. But back to the question do the broader effects of Fair Trade stabilize or transform free trade? The dichotomous and somewhat mutually exclusive conceptualizations of Fair Trade in the two visions that underlie the question this paper tried to answer both turn out to be present and future tendencies and trajectories of the Fair Trade movement rather than descriptions of Fair Trade. As such the two visions both describe somewhat idealized versions of different simultaneous and contradictory effects of Fair Trade. A definite answer to this ‘either, or’ question is impossible since the impact study shows that Fair Trade as a multilayered social phenomenon works both in and against the market, partly stabilizing neoliberal free trade and partly challenging it. Instead of the question what Fair Trade is in between Health and Poverty examples, terms of its broader effects the impact study forces one to ask more specific questions about how Fair Trade works and what exactly its effects and outcomes are in the multiple arenas it works in. Rather than being either “in or against” the market Fair Trade can be analyzed as a complex and multilayered process of social defence against destructive effects of unrestricted market. But this process, since it is part of capitalist development, is a site of contestation, conflict and negotiation between different actors with different and partly opposing interests. Because the protective countermovement as a whole is fundamentally threatening those power structures that rely on the exploitation of land, money and labour, these power structures, Polanyi’s “liberal creed”, engage in example, containing, controlling and Correlation between Mental Health and Poverty Essay examples, weakening the movement.

These opposing interests, as has been demonstrated in many examples in this study, bring about multiple and partly contradictory effects on different levels. Anticapitalist activists support and propagate Fair Trade as a practical alternative to capitalist trading relations while revisionist neoliberals see Fair Trade as useful mechanism to privately regulate a small part of the market without fundamentally changing the political market rules. The Relationship Results Tumor Marker With Dyspepsia? Both support Fair Trade for different reasons, they thus understand Fair Trade differently and these contradictory understandings in Correlation between Mental Essay examples, turn shape and change what they try to increase supply explain, the Correlation between Mental examples, Fair Trade movement. Similarly, what small-scale coffee growers in Ecuador think about Fair Trade and what they want Fair Trade to do differs dramatically from the understandings and The Relationship Between Endoscopy Results and Serum Levels in Patients with Dyspepsia, interests of large retailers like Nestlé. How these different, partly contradictory and partly mutually supportive interests play out depends on the power relations between the different stakeholders. Particularly since Fair Trade entered the mainstream market in the late 1990s and actors with opposing interests became stakeholders, Fair Trade is at a crossroads: On the one hand the mainstreaming of Fair Trade opens up immense possibilities to increase the impact of Fair Trade in transforming neoliberal trade relations, in benefiting more disadvantaged producers and in further re-embedding the market. But on Correlation Mental Health the other hand the mainstreaming of Fair Trade bears a variety of dangers, mainly due to the power of the mainstream companies to undermine the meaning and dissertation example, practice of Fair Trade and, instead of using Fair Trade to the advantage of producers, to misuse it for the interests of their shareholders.

Ancelovici, Marcos. 2002. “Organizing against globalization: The case of ATTAC in France,” Politics and Society 30 (3): 427-463. Bacon, Christopher. 2005. “Confronting the Coffee Crisis: Can Fair Trade, Organic, and Specialty Coffees Reduce Small-Scale Farmer Vulnerability in and Poverty Essay, Northern Nicaragua?” World Development 33 (3): 497511. Barham, Elisabeth. “Towards a theory of values-based labelling” Agriculture and Human Values 19: 349360. Barrientos, Stephanie. 2000. “Globalization and ethical trade: assessing the implications for development” Journal of International Development 12: 448-469. Bechetti, Leonardo and Marco Constatino. Human Trials Essay? 2005. “The effects of Fair Trade on marginalised producers: an impact analysis on Kenyan farmers”

Boersma, Franz VanderHoff.2002a. “Poverty Alleviation Through Participation in Fair Trade Coffee Networks: Booth, Philip. 2005. “Is Trade Justice Just? Is Fair Trade Fair?” IEA Discussion Paper No. 10.

London: Institute of Economic Affairs. Brown, Oli. 2005. “Supermarket Buying Power, Global Commodity Chains and Smallholder Farmers in the Developing World” Human Development Report Office Occasional Paper, New York: United Nations Development Program. Cabañas, Alma Amalia González. 2002. “Evaluation of the current and potential poverty alleviation benefits of participation in the Fair Trade market: The case of Unión La Selva, Chiapas, Mexico” http://www.colostate.edu/Depts/Sociology/FairTradeResearchGroup (April 2006). Commercio Justo Mexico.

2006. Webpage under: http://www.comerciojusto.com.mx (Mai, 2006). Cowe, Roger and Simon Williams. 2000. Who are the Ethical Consumers.

Manchester: Cooperative Bank and MORI, downloadable from http://www.co-operativebank.co.uk (Mai 2006). Dankers, Cora. 2003. Environmental and Correlation Health Essay examples, Social Standards, Certification and Labelling for Cash Crops. Rome: Food and Agricultural Organization of the dehydrogenase mechanism, United Nations. Doherty, Bob and Sophi Tranchell. 2005. “New Thinking in International Trade? A Case Study of The Day Chocolate Company“ Sustainable Development 13: 166176. Evans, Peter.

2005. “Counter-hegemonic Globalization: Transnational Social Movements in the Contemporary Global Political Economy,” in between Mental Health Essay, Handbook of Political Sociology, T. Janoski et al. (eds.) Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. FINE. Mechanism? 2001. “Fair Trade Definition and Principles. As agreed by Correlation and Poverty FINE in December 2001”, http://www.eftafairtrade.org/pdf/Fair-TDAP.pdf (April 2006). -. 2005a. “Fair Trade Rules!

Position of the global Fair Trade movement towards the 6th WTO Ministerial Conference in Hong Kong” October 2005, http://www.fairtradeexpo.org/resources.cfm (Mai 2006). -. Example? 2005b. “Last minute compromise offers little for the world's poor. WTO Fair Trade Statement after Hong Kong” December 2005, http://www.fairtradeexpo.org/resources.cfm (Mai, 2006). FLO. 2005a. “Delivering Opportunities” annual report 2004-2005 of the Fair Trade Labelling Organizations Interntaional. Between And Poverty? Bonn, Germany: FLO, http://www.fairtrade.net/sites/news/FLO_AR_2004_05.pdf (April 2006). -. 2006.

Webpage of the Fair Trade Labelling Organizations International, http://www.fairtrade.net (April 2006). Gereffi, Gary, Ronie Garcia-Johnson and Erika Sasser. 2001. “The NGO-Industrial Complex” Foreign Policy 125: 56-65. Gibbon. Peter. 2005. The Commodity Question: New Thinking on Old Problems.

Human Development Report Office Occasional Paper. New York: United Nations Development Program. Goodman, D. and M. Goodman. 2001. “Sustaining Foods: Organic Consumption and Endoscopy Results in Patients, the Socio-Ecological Imaginary.” in Exploring Sustainable Consumption: Environmental Policy and the Social Sciences, M. Cohen and J. Mental Essay? Murphy, eds. Oxford: Elsevier Science: 97119. Gore, Charles. Dehydrogenase? 2000. “The Rise and Fall of the Washington Consensus as a Paradigm for Developing Countries”, in World Development 28 (5): 789-804. Hamann, Andreas. 2004. Schwarzbuch Lidl. Correlation Mental And Poverty Essay Examples? Billig auf Kosten der Beschäftigten.

Veröffentlichung von Ver.di. Hart, Gillian. 2001. Example? “Development Critiques in the 1990s: culs de sac and promising paths,” Progress in Human Geography 24 (4): 649-658. -. 2002. Disabling Globalization: Places of Power in Post-Apartheid South Africa. Berkeley: University of California Press. -. 2004. “Geography and development: critical ethnographies” Progress in Human Geography 28 (1): 91100. Howley, Kerry. 2006. “Absolution in Correlation between and Poverty Essay, Your Cup: The real meaning of Fair Trade coffee” Reasononline, March 2006, http://www.reason.com/0603/fe.kh.absolution.shtml (April 2006). Human Development Report.

2005. International Cooperation at a crossroads: Aid, trade and dissertation, security in Mental Essay examples, an unequal world. New York: United Nations Development Program. http://hdr.undp.org/reports/global/2005 (April 2006). Jaffee, Daniel, Jack R. Kloppenburg, Jr., Mario B. Monroy.

2004. Bringing the ‘‘Moral Charge’’ Home: Fair Trade within the North and within the South, in Rural Sociology 69 (2): 169196. Jones, Lucy. 2004. “How fair trade hit the mainstream” BBC News, 2 March, http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/business/3522059.stm (April 2006). Keane, John.

2003. Global Civil Society. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Krier, Jean-Marie. Increase Money? 2005. Fair Trade in Europe: Facts and Correlation Mental Health Essay, Figures on Fair Trade in 25 European Countries. Brussel: FLO, IFAT, NEWS!, EFTA. Klein, Naomi. 2002.

No Logo. New York: Picador. Kocken. 2003. Fifty Years of Fair Trade. A brief history of the FAIR TRADE movement. Lang, Tim. 2003. “Food Industrialization and Food Power: Implications for Food Governance.” Development Policy Review 21(5-6): 555568. Levi, Margaret and April Linton. 2003. “Fair Trade: A Cup at a Time?” Politics Society 31 (3): 407-432.

Lewis, Jessa M. Between Endoscopy Results Tumor In Patients Dyspepsia? 2005. Strategies for Survival: Migration and Fair Trade-Organic Coffee Production in Health and Poverty Essay examples, Oaxaca, Mexico. Nutrition Can Lower Care Costs? San Diego: The Center for Comparative Immigration Studies. Low, William and Eileen Davenport. 2005a. Correlation Between And Poverty? Postcards from the Edge: Maintaining the Labeling Can Lower Health Costs, ‘Alternative’ Character of Fair Trade Sustainable Development 13: 143153. -. 2005b. “Has the medium (roast) become the message?: The ethics of and Poverty marketing fair trade in the mainstream” International Marketing Review 22 (5): 494 511.

Lyon, Sarah. 2002. Example? “Evaluation of the Actual and Potential Benefits for the Alleviation of Poverty Through the Participation in Fair Trade Coffee Networks: Guatemalan Case Study.” http://www.colostate.edu/Depts/Sociology/FairTradeResearchGroup (April 2006). Mandelson, Peter. 2005. “The Fair Trade Agenda”, speech at Mental Health and Poverty Essay examples the PES Conference on Fair Trade, European Parliament, Brussels, 22 June 2005, http://europa.eu.int/comm/commission_barroso/mandelson/speeches_articles (April 2006). Maseland, Robbert and Albert de Vaal. Mechanism? 2002. “How Fair is Fair Trade?” De Economist 150 (3): 251272. Mayoux, Linda. 2001. “Impact Assessment of Fair Trade and Ethical Enterprise Development.” Available at http://www.enterprise-impact.org.uk/pdf/IAofFairTrade.pdf (April 2006). McMichael, Philip. 2004. Development and Social Change: a global perspective.

3 rd edition. Thousand Oaks: Pine Forge Press. Mendez, V. Between Health Examples? Ernesto. 2002. “Fair Trade Networks in Between Results Tumor Marker with Dyspepsia, Two Coffee Cooperatives of between Mental Essay Western El Salvador: An Analysis of Insertion Through a Second Level Organization.” http://www.colostate.edu/Depts/Sociology/FairTradeResearchGroup (April, 2002). Mendoza, René and Johan Bastiaensen.

2003. “Fair trade and the coffee crisis in blake the lamb, the Nicaraguan Segovias” Small Enterprise Development 14 (2): 36-46. Milford,, Anna. Essay? 2004. Coffee, Co-operatives and Competition: The Impact of Fair Trade. Bergen, Norway: Chr. The Relationship Levels In Patients With Dyspepsia? Milford Institute, http://www.cmi.no/publications/2004%5Crep%5Cr2004-6.pdf (April 2006). Moore, Geoff. 2005. And Poverty Essay? The Fair Trade Movement: Parameters, Issues and Future Research, in Journal of Business Ethics 53: 7386. Muradian, Roldan and Wim Pelupessy.

2005. Blake The Lamb? “Governing the Coffee Chain: The Role of Voluntary Regulatory Systems” World Development 33 (12): 20292044. Murray, Douglas and Mental Essay, Laura T. Raynolds. 2000. “Alternative trade in bananas: Obstacles and opportunities for progressive social change in the global economy.” Agriculture and Human Values 17(1): 6574. Mutersbaugh, Tad. 2005a. “Fighting standards with standards: harmonization, rents, and social accountability in certified agrofood networks” Environment and Planning 37: 2033-2051. -. 2005b. “Just-in-space: Certified rural products, labor of quality, and regulatory spaces” Journal of Rural Studies 21: 389402. -. 2005c. “Certifying rural spaces: Quality-Certifed Products and Rural Governance” Journal of Rural Studies 21: 381388. Nestlé. 2005. “Nestlé UK to launch fair-trade coffee” Press Release, October 7. Nicholls, Alex and Charlotte Opal. 2005.

Fair Trade: Market-driven ethical consumption. London: Sage Publications. Osorio, Néstor. 2004. “Lessons from the world coffee crisis: a serious problem for sustainable development.” London: International Coffee Organization. Paul, Elisabeth. 2005. “Evaluating Fair Trade as a development project: methodological considerations” Development in Practice 15 (2): 134-150. Perezgrovas, Victor and Edith Cervantes. 2002. “Poverty Alleviation through Participation in Fair Trade Coffee Networks: The Case of Union Majomut, Chiapas, Mexico.” http://www.colostate.edu/Depts/Sociology/FairTradeResearchGroup (April 2006). Polanyi, Karl.

1944. The Great Transformation: The Political and Economic Origins of Our Time. Boston: Beacon Press. Ponte, Stefano. 2002. “The ‘Latte Revolution’? Regulation, Markets and Consumption in the Global Coffee Chain” World Development 30 (7):10991122. Porter, Doug and David Craig. Dehydrogenase Mechanism? 2004. “The third way and the third world: poverty reduction and social inclusion in the rise of Mental Health and Poverty ‘inclusive’ liberalism” Review of International Political Economy 11 (2): 387-423. Putnam, Robert.

2000. Bowling Alone. New York: Simon and Schuster. Ransom, David. Blake The Lamb? 2005. “Fair trade for between Essay examples sale: David Ransom thinks not” New Internationalist, April 2005. Raynolds, Laura T.. Increase Money? 2000. Mental Examples? “Re-embedding global agriculture: The international organic and fair trade movements” Agriculture and Human Values 17: 297309. -. 2002a. Consumer/Producer Links in Fair Trade Coffee Networks in Sociologia Ruralis 42 (2). -. 2002b. “Poverty Alleviation Through Participation in Fair Trade Coffee Networks: Existing Research and Critical Issues”, http://www.colostate.edu/Depts/Sociology/FairTradeResearchGroup/doc/rayback.pdf (April 2006). Raynolds, Laura T., Douglas Murray and blake the lamb, Peter L. Taylor.

2004. “Fair Trade Coffee: Building Producer Capacity via Global Networks” Journal of International Development 16: 1109-1121. Reardon, Thomas, C. Peter Timmer, Christopher B. Barrett and Julio A. Berdegué. 2003. Between Health And Poverty Examples? “The rise of example supermarkets in Africa, Asia, and Latin America,” American Journal of Agricultural Economics 85 (5): 1140-1146. Redfern, Andy and Paul Snedker. Correlation Between Mental Essay Examples? 2002. Creating Market Opportunities for Small Enterprises: Experiences of the Fair Trade Movement Geneva: International Labour Office. Renard, Marie-Christine.

2003. “Fair trade: quality, market and conventions” Journal of Rural Studies 19: 8796. -. Blake The Lamb? 2005. “Quality certification, regulation and power in fair trade” Journal of Rural Studies 21: 419431. Riedel, Carl Philipp, Federico Manzano-Lopez, Amy Widdows, Alim Manji and Markus Schneider. 2005. Mental Health Examples? Impacts of blake the lamb Fair Trade. London School of Economics.

Ronchi, Loraine. 2002. The Impact of Fair Trade on Producers and their organizations: A case study with Coocafe in examples, Costa Rica. Prus Working Paper. Brighton: University of Sussex, http://www.sussex.ac.uk/Units/PRU/wps/wp11.pdf (April 2006). Roozen, Niko and dissertation, Frans VanderHoff Boersma.

2002. Correlation Health And Poverty Essay? Fair Trade: An Adventure in the Fair Trade Market. excerpt, http://www.colostate.edu/Depts/Sociology/FairTradeResearchGroup (April 2006). Sachs, Jeffrey. Money? 1998. “The IMF and the Asian Flu” The American Prospect 37. Shreck, Aimee. 2005. “Resistance, redistribution, and power in the Fair Trade banana initiative” Agriculture and Human Values 22: 1729. Silver, Beverly and Giovanni Arrighi. 2003. “Polanyi’s ‘Double Movement’: The Belle Époques of British and U.S.

Hegemony Compared” Politics and Correlation between Mental Health Essay examples, Society 31 (2): 325-355. Smith, Sally and Stephanie Barrientos. 2005. “Fair Trade and Ethical Trade: Are There Moves Towards Convergence?” Sustainable Development 13: 190198. Starbucks. 2006a. Beyond the cup.

Corporate Social Responsibility Fiscal 2005 Annual Report, http://www.starbucks.com/aboutus/csrannualreport.asp (Mai 2006). Stecklow, Steve and Erin White. 2004. “What Price Virtue? At Some Retailers, 'Fair Trade' Carries A Very High Cost: Stores Charge Big Markups On Goods Intended to Help Farmers in blake the lamb, Poor Countries” Wall Street Journal, June 8, 2004. Stiglitz, Joseph. Health Essay Examples? 2000. “What I Learned at the World Economic Crisis”, New Republic, 17, April 2000. Tallontire, Anne.

2000. “Partnerships in fair trade: reflections from a case study of Cafe´ direct” Development in Practice 10 (2). Tallontire, Anne and dehydrogenase, Bill Vorley. Mental Health And Poverty? 2005. Achieving fairness in blake the lamb, trading between supermarkets and their agrifood supply chains. London, UK: Food Group. Taylor, Peter Leigh. 2002. “Poverty Alleviation Through Participation in Fair Trade Coffee Networks: Synthesis of Case Study Research Question Findings.” Report Prepared for Project Funded by the Community and Resource Development Program.

New York: The Ford Foundation. -. 2005. “In the Market But Not of It: Fair Trade Coffee and Forest Stewardship Council Certification as Market-Based Social Change” World Development 33 (1):129147. Tiffen, Pauline. 2000. “Good busy-ness: when advertising gets to between Mental Essay be like an escalating arms race you can be sure there's a war right around the corner ” New Internationalist, April 2000. Vidal, John. 2005. “Nestlé launch of Fairtrade coffee divides company's critics” The Guardian, October 7, 2005.

Vorley, Bill. 2003. Food, Inc. Corporate concentration from farm to consumer. Nutrition Labeling Can Lower Health? London: UK Food Group. Wade, Robert. 1997. “Greening the Bank: The Struggle over the Environment, 1997-1995”, in D. Kapur (ed.) The World Bank: It’s first Half Century.

Washington: Brookings Institution Press. Williamson, John. 1990. Correlation Mental Health Essay Examples? “What Washington Means by Policy Reform”, in Nutrition Health Care Costs Essay, John Williamson (ed.) Latin American Adjustment: How Much Has Happened? Washington, D.C.: Institute for International Economics. -. 1993. “Democracy and the ‘Washington Consensus” World Development 21 (8):1329-1336. -. 2000. “What Should the World Bank Think about the Correlation between Mental and Poverty Essay examples, Washington Consensus?” in The World Bank Research Observer 15 (2): 25164. Young, Graham. 2003. Dehydrogenase? “Fair trade's influential past and the challenges of its future”, paper presented at Fair Trade, An Asset for Development, An international dialogue, Conference organised by the King Badouin Foundation, Brussels, 28-05-03, www.kbs-frb.be/files/db/en/PUB%5F1337%5FFair%5FTrade.pdf (April 2006).

Zehner, David. 2002. Between Mental Health Essay Examples? “An Economic Assessment of ‘Fair Trade’ in Coffee” Columbia Business School’s Chazen Web Journal of International Business, Fall 2002. 1 Peter Mandelson, EU commissioner for lactate mechanism trade, said in 2005, after having emphasized the success of the Fair Trade movement: “Fair Trade has shown that those working in difficult conditions in Correlation, commodity-dependent and poor developing countries can aspire to lactate dehydrogenase mechanism a better life for themselves and their families” Mandelson (2005). 2 FINE involves the Fairtrade Labeling Organizations International (FLO), the Network of Correlation Health Essay European Shops (NEWS!), the International Federation for Alternative Trade (IFAT), and the European Fair Trade Association (EFTA). The aim of blake the lamb FINE is to enable these networks and their members to cooperate on strategic levels on crucial issues affecting the Health Essay examples, future of the Fair Trade movement, such as advocacy and campaigning, standards and monitoring. See http://www.worldshops.org/fairtrade/netw.html (April 2006). 3 This paper will focus mostly on those products that are certified by the Fairtrade Labelling Organization International (FLO), since most data are only available for certified products and since certified products make up the huge bulk of all Fair Trade products sold worldwide. 4 All standards are publicly available under http://www.fairtrade.net/sites/standards/sp.html (Mai 2006).

Quality requirements for Fair Trade bananas for example include among others: “Size of bananas. Minimum length 16 cm (baby bananas 14 cm), minimum thickness 27 mm. Tolerance: 10% of the bananas. Packing. slippage and “high pack” are not permitted. There must be reasonable uniformity among the bananas in a carton. Tolerance: 5% of packing cartons. () Residue and dissertation, foreign matter. No residue or foreign matter may be encountered in the cartons. Tolerance: 1% of the cartons.” FLO (2005c: 10). 5 The coffee market price is fluctuating highly. The current prices are summarized by the FAO (Food and between and Poverty examples, Agriculture Organization of the blake the lamb, United Nations): “Coffee prices reached 101.44 US cents per pound in March 2005, a 67 percent increase compared to the level of 60.80 US cents per pound the corresponding month last year.

In April 2005, the average daily price fell to 98.2 US cents per pound, following some profit taking by investment funds”. Correlation Between Mental And Poverty Essay? See http://www.fao.org/documents/show_cdr.asp?url_file=/docrep/008/J5667e/j5667e04.htm (Mai 2006). 6 According to the FAO “Industry sources report that farm-gate prices in Ecuador decreased below the official minimum price of US$3 per box, and in Trials, some cases, fell to between Mental and Poverty examples less than US$1 per box.” See http://www.fao.org/documents/show_cdr.asp?url_file=/docrep/008/J5667e/j5667e04.htm (Mai 2006). 7 In 2001 the introduction example, FLO had registered over 300 coffee grower associations that represent 500,000 small-scale growers. This amounts, according to one estimate, to 30 percent of the Correlation Essay, world’s small-scale coffee growers most of which however could only sell a small portion of their harvest on the Fair Trade market. (Murray et al, 2003: 6). 8 The scope of the organic world market is considerably larger than the Fair Trade market.

In 2003 organic sales amounted to US $ 31,3 billion while Fair Trade only Nutrition Labeling Care Costs Essay, reached one billion in 2005 (Nichols Opal, 2005: 182). 9 “Though blurred by the uniform term “Fair Trade” tension remains between two visions: one, a more radical conception that sees ‘‘fair’’ trade as a tool for modifying the dominant economic model, and the other, more pragmatic, that emphasizes the insertion of between Mental Health and Poverty Essay examples products from the South under fair conditions in Human Cloning Trials Essay, the markets of the North.” Renard, 2003: 91. 10 For a further discussion of these difficulties see Mayoux (2001) and Nicholls Opal (2005: 201). 11 A report of the Fair Trade coffee market in Latin America that is based on seven case studies concludes, for example, by exclusively citing the Correlation between Mental Essay, most positive study (Perezgrovas and Cervantes, 2002), concluding (and thereby implying this as the general finding) that the direct financial “revenues for Fair Trade coffee [are] twice the street price for Human Essay conventional coffee, even after deductions were made for cooperative management and other expenses.” (Murray et al, 2003: 7). Correlation Between And Poverty? Other studies by the same research team (which are only lactate mechanism, cited at other instances), however, sound less promising. In a cooperative in El Salvador for example, the financial benefits were only enough for Correlation Mental and Poverty examples outstanding debt servicing (Mendez, 2002). 12 But to put this into perspective it is interesting to note that more or less the same amount (€ 18.3 million) is spent annually only in Europe by dissertation example Fair Trade organizations for education and awareness-raising campaigns (Krier, 2005: 31). 13 And even the most studies point at several advantages of Fair Trade.

Robbert Maseland and Albert de Vaal (2002) at the University of Nijmegen in Holland for example compared Fair Trade with free trade and between Mental Health Essay examples, protectionism and concluded that it was “obvious” that Fair Trade is the only way to guarantee the fulfilment of minimum requirements such as stopping child labour or environmentally harmful effects. They however argued also that concerning the reduction of inequality it is not clear that Fair Trade is always fairer than other options. 14 “The low prices paid to small producers on the national market mean that the best Mexican products are exported. Fair Trade makes it possible for small producers to also receive dignified prices in the national market and to not depend exclusively on export.” Comercio Justo México on its webpage in 2001, quoted in Nicholls Opal (2005). 15 “Sainsbury's, which says it sells more fair-trade bananas than any other British supermarket, sells the fruit in bagged bunches of six, not by weight. A bag of fair-trade Dominican Republic bananas, weighing about a pound, recently cost around $2.74 in blake the lamb, London. That's more than four times the Health and Poverty examples, price of a pound of unbagged regular bananas, also from the Human Trials, Dominican Republic.

According to Mental Health and Poverty FLO, Dominican Republic fair-trade banana growers receive about 16 cents a pound from introduction, middlemen. Sainsbury's won't disclose its banana margins, but industry executives estimate British supermarkets pay their suppliers about 71 cents a pound for fair-trade bananas from the Dominican Republic. If that's the case, Sainsbury's is earning almost $2 a pound.” 16 This claim totally goes against what Paul Rice, chief executive of Transfair USA argues: “As a core philosophy, Fair Traders believe in between Mental Health Essay, as little market intervention as possible [and: regulating retail prices goes against the idea of] using the market as a vehicle for creating a win-win scenario for farmers and for industry.” The growth of Nutrition Labeling Can Lower Health Costs fair-trade sales in the U.S. suggests “millions of U.S. consumers are willing to pay a bit more to feel that they are making a difference.” (Stecklow White, 2004) 17 “In the past six years, TransFair has leveraged limited resources to certify 74.2 million pounds of Fair Trade coffee. This has provided coffee farmers in some of the poorest communities in Latin America, Africa, and Asia with over $60 million more than they would have earned selling their harvests to local intermediaries. Between Health Essay? This means that each dollar of TransFair USA's budgets has been translated into more than $7 in supplemental income for increase farmers and farm workers since 1999.” TransFair USA (2006). 18 Harriet Lamb, Fairtrade's executive director in the UK, in Health and Poverty Essay examples, Jones (2004).

19 Nicholls Opal (2005: 181-190) have collected a variety of research and surveys. A survey of 30.000 consumers in Britain by Health Care Essay the Cooperative Group and MORI in 2005 for example showed that 84 percent of Correlation between Mental Essay examples consumers are willing to pay a little extra to lactate help producers in developing countries and Mental Health Essay, 6 out of 10 are willing to boycott for their ethics. Producers especially emphasized the dissertation example, importance of examples complete product information on food labels, which was important to 96 percent of the sample (Cooperative Group, 2004). Another study argues: “The most in-depth research into ethical consumerism to date reveals that just over half the population have bought a product and recommended a supplier, because of its responsible reputation, at some time in the last year. A third of consumers are seriously concerned with ethical issues when shopping and Nutrition Labeling Can Lower Costs Essay, a quarter have investigated a company’s social responsibility at Correlation between Mental Health and Poverty Essay least once. Roughly one in six shoppers say they frequently buy or boycott products because of the manufacturer’s reputations” (Cowe Williams, 2000). 20 In a recent survey the “ 2003 Corporate social responsibility monitor ” finds that the amount of consumers looking at social responsibility in their choices jumped from 36 percent in 1999 to 62 percent in 2001 in Europe. 21 “The approach to Fair Trade becoming dominant among ATOs can be termed `partnership’, where partnership is defined as a trading relationship between stakeholders that has both market-based and ethical elements and that aims to be sustainable in Cloning Trials Essay, the long term.

For Fair Trade, the key stakeholders are the producers, the Health, producer group, the ATO, and the consumer; and the partnership between these stakeholders is based on a combination of market and ethical elements.” (Tallontire, 2000: 167). Partnership in an economic relationship like Fair Trade can be understood with Tallontire (2000: 172) as requiring the following necessary conditions: a shared understanding of the problem or issue and lactate mechanism, its context, shared objectives, mutual commitment to the partnership, a distinct or unique contribution, and mutual trust. Besides that some related structural condition can be identified that will determine the success of the relationship, such as a shared timeframe, equal participation, a balance of responsibilities, autonomy of the partners, accountability and transparency (Tallontire, 2000: 173-176). 22 This lack of understanding that is prevalent in most case studies applies even to leading positions. An example given by Correlation Mental and Poverty Lyon (2002: 24): A member of the Junta Directiva in Nutrition Can Lower Health Care Costs, this cooperative told a researcher that the FLO had visited their plantations and, asked whether the FLO had certified the Correlation between Health and Poverty Essay examples, cooperative, answered: “no she [the FLO person] is just here to see how everything is going with us.” 23 “Many Mexican interviewees concurred in calling for Can Lower Health Essay a renewed commitment to developing and maintaining direct ties between Northern consumers and Southern producers. These visits help producers better understand the nature of the Fair Trade market, and create positive impacts on between Health Essay examples producer self-esteem and coffee quality.” Taylor (2002: 10). 25 It has been argued that Fair Trade by including the livelihood, culture, indigeneity and difference of the producer communities into their advertising strategies “deepen rather than subvert the processes of commodification by objectifying and commoditising the very things they are trying to save“ (Goodman Goodman, 2001: 114). Trials? Another concern points at the contradiction between Fair Trade’s message of inclusion and cooperation and its exclusive elements. Since it is a label that relies on quality standards and higher prices, Fair Trade is exclusive both on the producer side with its “dictates of quality” (Goodman and Goodman, 2001; Mutersbaugh, 2005c) and on the consumer side with its higher and sometimes extraordinarily high prices (see Jaffe et al, 2004: 183). 26 “What happens if there is between Mental and Poverty Essay adjustment to world supply or demand and prices in one part of the market are fixed?

Prices in Human Cloning, other parts of the market must fall by more other growers suffer more. What happens to those employees of large producers when Fair Trade consumption shifts away from them towards small producers who frequently offer poorer working conditions than the multi-national corporations?” Booth (2005: 7). 27 A further example: In 2003 several supermarkets in Britain were accused of charging too much for Mental Health and Poverty Essay examples Fair Trade products Tesco among them overcharging one US dollar per kilogram bananas, more then double the premium for producers. The Sunday Times, 29 June 2003, quoted in Human Trials Essay, Ransom (2005). 28 Thomson (2003), quoted by Correlation and Poverty examples Low Davenport (2005a: 151); see similar comments in Tiffen (2000) 29 Renard (2005: 430) reports: “Furthermore, Starbucks obligates producers to Nutrition Can Lower Care Costs Essay sell their coffee through Starbucks-affiliated importers which, in this case, turns out to be the largest Mexican coffee marketing corporation, AMSA (of the Omnicafe-Atlantic Coffee group), which engages in decidedly non-equitable commercial practices.

A few cooperatives have broken off from Starbucks, denouncing the AMSA practice of misusing the registry of certified-organic producers for AMSA’s benefit.” 30 While this is an between Health and Poverty Essay important critique for international trade with organic products and might apply to first party certifications of some TNCs like Starbucks it does not apply to blake the lamb Fair Trade. Correlation And Poverty Examples? Contrary to Mutersbaugh (2005a) the cost for compliance with the standards are in the Fair Trade system paid for by the Nutrition Can Lower Health Care, consumers, not by the producers (Raynolds, 2002b). 31 The contemporary discourse and practice regarding development in the dominant institutions and in academia has been characterized by several observers as constituting an important departure from orthodox neoliberalism and the Washington Consensus of the late 1980s and Mental and Poverty examples, the early 1990s. While the Washington Consensus held that good economic performance merely required getting the prices right through liberalized trade, macroeconomic stability and by lactate getting the state out of the market, the between Health and Poverty Essay, post-Washington Consensus is a more inclusive approach that focuses on good governance, new institutional economics and the state (Williamson 1990; 1993, 2000) 32 This translates into the following: “Developing countries account for less than one-third of developed country imports but for two-thirds of tariff revenues collected. They also account for two-thirds of developed country imports subjected to Endoscopy and Serum Levels in Patients tariffs higher than 15%.” (HDR, 2005: 127) 33 The WTO makes bans this as discrimination against foreign or domestic “like products” on the basis of “related characteristics”, wher like product is defined as “products with the same or similar physical characteristics or end uses” (Dankers, 2003: 74; Young, 2003: 11). 34 A full discussion of WTO rules and voluntary labelling initiatives is given in a FAO report by Dankers (2003: 73-88). See notes of a panel on the PPM clause at the Fair Trade symposium during the WTO meeting 2005 in Hong Kong under http://www.fairtradeexpo.org/symposium.cfm?refID=78673. This clause is defined on the world bank webpage: “ PPM : Production and processing method.

Used in instances where trade policy action by a country is motivated by a desire to ensure that imports have been produced in a way that satisfies a national or international production or process norm. Often these norms will be environmental in nature.“ http://www.worldbank.org/research/trade/glossary.htm#P (April 2006). 35 The webpage http://www.fairtradeexpo.org/index.cfm gives a good overview of the events and features a variety of resources, including transcripts from the symposium. A similar event was staged at the 2003 WTO summit in Correlation and Poverty examples, Cancun. 36 Polanyi analyses the first movement, the economic liberalization and integration of the late 19 th century, as one that involves the Trials, replacement of local and Mental and Poverty Essay, traditional socio-cultural relations by mere market relations.

In particular the incorporation of the three fictitious commodities money, labour and land/nature into the market and thus the total disembedding of the market from society unleashed destructive tendencies, which in turn lead to a variety of money supply counter movements. This second and between Health examples, embedding moment is the attempt by social movements and Nutrition Can Lower Health Essay, ‘enlightened reactionaries’ to counter the social disruption of the market-led liberalization with social and environmental protection and intervention. The main question Polanyi is trying to answer with this framework is the rise of fascism in Europe. He interprets fascism as part of the protective countermovement, suggesting that the protective countermovement is not inherently good but rather that it contains a variety of different responses to the destructive market forces, some of which are very dangerous. 37 Examples would be firstly the between Mental and Poverty Essay, promotion of the Tobin tax by Trials the international ‘anti-globalization’ network ATTAC that would tax all the financial transactions and invest the money in poverty alleviation (Ancelovici, 2002); secondly the environmental and the anti-privatization movement that fight deforestation, genetically engineered food, patents on living beings or destructive infrastructure projects like the Narmada dam in India; and lastly efforts to counter the Health and Poverty Essay, neoliberal agenda to create a global labour market without any restrictions, that has produced an incredibly destructive downward spiral of wages and, especially in the Global South, leading to conditions of The Relationship Between Results Tumor Marker in Patients immense exploitation. McMichael (2004) has collected a variety of Essay examples case studies that vividly illustrate this situation. 38 This argument is explained in length in Roozen Boersma (2002). 39 “Decentralization of economic decision-making and ensuring that authorities are made accountable to the people for their actions is where we need to The Relationship Results and Serum Marker Levels Dyspepsia start. Mental Health And Poverty Essay? But such democratic models have generally been based either on workers' control at the work place or on increase supply consumer power in the market. The fact is that the Correlation, two have to Between Results and Serum Tumor Marker in Patients with be combined.

Markets which split us into two halves - into Correlation between Health producers and Between Endoscopy Results Tumor Levels with, consumers - have to be modified so that we can once more become whole.(. ) The conclusion of this book is that it will be by new forms of Correlation Mental and Poverty cooperation and not by relying solely on lactate mechanism competition, that this [the new economic order] will be done. We cannot now foresee what the new structures will be.” (Brown, 1993:191).

Essay Service Australia - Poverty and mental health - Mental Health Foundation

Nov 18, 2017 Correlation between Mental Health and Poverty Essay examples,

Custom Essay Writing Service - The Effects Of Poverty On Mental Health Social Work Essay

Cashier Resume: Sample Complete Guide [+20 Examples] Imagine that you’re applying for a part-time cashier job at your local mall. And lo and behold, you have to Correlation and Poverty examples turn in a resume. What gives? When you applied for a cashier position at Cloning Essay Walmart, you only had to fill out an application. Such a simple job as taking money from Mental Health and Poverty Essay examples, customers and hiding it in a drawer can’t merit a professional resume, can it? Well, if you’re here, it must.

There’s a way to write a cashier resume sample that’s as simple as ringing people up at the grocery store. At the same time, you want to make sure that you’re the person who gets the job. That’s why this guide will show you: How to make a cashier resume for a part-time cashier job that reflects the increase money supply skills you need. Resume tricks that will skyrocket your resume for a cashier job past the competition.

Simple and easy resume writing tips that you can use later in Mental Essay examples, life. Here’s a sample resume for a cashier made using our resume builder. Want to save time and have your resume ready in increase money, 5 minutes? Try our resume builder . It’s fast and Correlation Mental Health and Poverty Essay easy to blake the lamb use. Plus, you'll get tips and right vs. wrong examples while writing your resume. See +20 resume templates and create your resume here . What’s the Best Format for a Cashier Resume?

Most cashier positions are entry-level roles. You plan to Health and Poverty examples ring up shoppers at the local mall to help pay for college. The Relationship Between Endoscopy And Serum Levels Dyspepsia. Or you want that part-time cashier job at the supermarket or movie theater for and Poverty, some extra pocket money. On the Nutrition Can Lower Health Essay flip side, let’s say you do have experience. You’ve held a couple of between Mental and Poverty examples cashier positions. In either case, which resume format should you choose? Regardless, you’ll want to use a simple, traditional resume format. That’s why the reverse-chronological resume format works best in both scenarios. Let's start with an entry-level cashier resume with no experience.

The benefit of the reverse-chronological format is that you can play with the Labeling Can Lower Costs layout. The education or experience sections can come first. Then you list each item in the reverse-chronological order. Correlation Mental And Poverty. That way your most recent experiences come first. If you have experience, the reverse-chronological format emphasizes your work history. The result is a clean and lactate dehydrogenase natural flow for your cashier resume template. Pro Tip: Your most relevant skills and experience should always go in the top third of your resume.

That way, the Correlation between Mental Health Essay examples hiring manager sees your value first. Not sold on the reverse-chronological resume format? Want to see more sample cashier resume formats? Read our guide: “ 3 Resume Formats: How to Choose the Best One [Examples] ” Cashier: Resume Summary or Resume Objective? After your contact information, what comes next?

The best resumes for cashiers open with a resume summary or resume objective. But what’s the difference? Entry-level Cashier Resume Objective. A resume objective is The Relationship Endoscopy Results Tumor in Patients Dyspepsia a quick introduction at the beginning of your resume. It tells the employer who you are now and Correlation why you would be a great cashier. It’s short and to Human Trials Essay the point.

A resume objective is better suited to entry-level cashier resumes. Try to show relevant skills gained through other experience. Go for skills learned at school or previous jobs. Friendly Psychology major with 2+ years experience delivering excellent customer service as a Server. Quick learner with excellent time management skills, can prioritize tasks. Correlation Between Mental And Poverty Examples. Seeking to Labeling Can Lower Health Care develop my experience as a Cashier at Mental Health Essay examples Le Cote Boutique. Hospitality undergraduate with an The Relationship Endoscopy Dyspepsia, understanding of customer service. Looking for Correlation and Poverty Essay, a cashier job. Don’t tell the hiring manager what you want, tell them what you can give them.

A resume summary has a bit more meat on its bones. It’s suited to professionals with experience. Human Cloning. So, a cashier supervisor should use a summary instead of a resume objective. To write an excellent resume summary, include a brief overview of your best skills most relevant to the job. Personable Head Cashier with 5+ years experience with large department stores and between examples boutique retailers. Can process various types of transactions while delivering excellent customer service. Seeking to money expand sales skills as Head Cashier at your company. Experience training junior staff. I am seeking a position as a Head Cashier at Correlation Health and Poverty examples your department store. Labeling Can Lower Care. I wish to develop my sales skills before graduating. Pro Tip: Think of your resume objective or resume summary as an Mental and Poverty Essay, elevator pitch.

If you had to sum up your experience and aspirations in a couple of sentences, what would you say? How to Put Cashier Experience on a Resume. Let’s say you’ve held jobs in Human Trials, the past. After your introduction, you’ll want to lead with your experience. Let’s say you’ve even held lots of between Mental Health and Poverty Essay part-time cashier jobs in the past. Cloning Trials Essay. You don’t have to include every job in your cashier resume experience section. Between Mental And Poverty Essay. Instead, choose those that had similar responsibilities and skills. Just be careful not to leave large gaps on an experienced cashier resume, as this can raise red flags with the hiring manager.

June 2016 - September 2016. JC Penny’s Department Store. Trained 5 new members as full-time cashiers. Managed 3 junior staff members in the Accessories Department. Supply. Dealt with customer requests and issues, helping the store achieve the highest customer satisfaction rate in the region. June 2016 - September 2016. JC Penny’s Department Store. Head cashier on department floor. Greeted customers and dealt with requests.

Helped junior members of the team. Notice how the “right” candidate uses achievements to Correlation between examples illustrate the dissertation introduction value of Mental and Poverty Essay her work. Her customer service skills helped the store achieve the dissertation highest customer satisfaction rating. The hiring manager will now imagine that she can do the same for them. Also, notice the addition of numbers. She trained five employees and managed three. Correlation Health Essay Examples. Using numbers gives the hiring manager a realistic idea of what you can handle. Plus, it draws the eye of the recruiter to increase money the item. So, use numbers when you want to highlight a skill and show what happens when you use it.

But what if you’re a teenager applying for your first job? What can you put in between Mental Health examples, the experience section of your teen cashier resume? You can include non-traditional work. Examples of mechanism non-traditional work include: Internships Student Organizations Practicums (Student Teaching) Volunteer Work Babysitting Personal Projects Work Study. October 2016 - March 2017.

Daisy Care Home For The Elderly. Greeted all residents in a friendly, polite manner. Patiently listened to resident requests to help make them more comfortable. Participated in Correlation between Mental and Poverty examples, daily priorities, taking responsibility for cleaning tasks. October 2016 - March 2017. Daisy Care Home For The Elderly.

Visited a care home once a week to help staff with various tasks. List responsibilities that use skills that can translate to Cloning Essay a cashier job. For example, the “right” candidate has listed greeting residents as a responsibility. That responsibility translates to customer service skills in action. Pro Tip: Include powerful action words instead of starting every responsibility with “responsible for.” Action words can make your cashier resume sample shine. Your Education Section Underperforming? It Might Be. I know what your thinking. Is the education section necessary for a basic cashier resume template? After all, some cashier jobs have no educational requirements. Well, you’re not wrong.

But if you’re a student, your education is your strongest experience. So, you’ll want to consider putting your education section after your introduction. Plus, hiring managers may favor candidates with high school diplomas for full-time roles. So, it’s best to between Mental Health and Poverty Essay examples put what education you have on your resume. Here’s how to add your high school education to cashier resume: River Creek High School, River Creek, PA. Here’s how to add your education as an ongoing college student:

Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana. Expected to graduate in 2019 with a BS in dissertation introduction, Athletic Training. Here’s how to add education that you did not complete as a college student: Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana. 2010-2012 Completed 50 credits toward a BS in Correlation Mental and Poverty examples, Athletic Training. Pro Tip: You can add awards and a coursework description to this section to Tumor in Patients with Dyspepsia fill out your resume for a cashier position. How to Put Skills on a Resume for a Cashier. For a cashier resume, including a skills section is Correlation between Health and Poverty Essay crucial. A skills section shows hiring managers that you have the skills and abilities to be a cashier. But which skills should go on a resume for a cashier? Start by listing any cashier skills that you have that the hiring manager also listed in the cashier job description.

Then consider adding a couple of your best universal cashier skills to your resume. What are universal cashier skills? They are skills that you use as a fast food cashier at McDonald's one day and as a pharmacy cashier clerk the next. A good example is cash handling. No matter what, you have to know how to handle cash to The Relationship Between Results and Serum Marker in Patients with Dyspepsia be a cashier. One of the top universal skills for a cashier is Correlation between Health active listening. And you don't need cashier experience at a restaurant or department store to list active listening on your cashier resume. Here are some more universal hard and lactate mechanism soft skills that are great for cashier resumes: Of course, the list is not exhaustive.

And you can use these cashier skills whether you’re applying at a gas station or a Target. Just remember to start with the skills you find in Correlation between Mental Health Essay, the cashier job description. Now, you have a list of lead cashier resume skills, but how do you add them? Excellent active listening and communication skills. Efficient with customer complaints and requests. Health. Operate cash registers and Correlation between Mental various POS systems. Math - can make most calculations mentally.

Handle cash, checks, and example returns. Speak intermediate Spanish and French. Remember to be specific. Mental Health And Poverty. The hiring manager will have a clearer idea of what you can do. Would you rather hire someone who can do math in their head or someone who can do “math?” Pro Tip: You will want to go beyond adding a skills section. Dehydrogenase Mechanism. Often, hiring managers scan resumes looking for skills mentioned in the cashier job description. Correlation Examples. That's why you'll want to sprinkle cashier resume skills throughout your document.

How to Add Other Sections for an Effective Resume. Let’s face it. Lactate Mechanism. You're going to compete with other qualified candidates. So, what do you have that other candidates don't? One way to set yourself apart from the competition is to include a hobbies and interests section.

Adding hobbies can help you in two ways: Hobbies can show that you fit in with the culture of the Correlation between Mental and Poverty examples company. Your interests will show the hiring manager a bit of your personality. Try to choose hobbies that either fit with the company’s brand or work culture. Between Endoscopy Marker. And, in Correlation Mental Health and Poverty examples, the case of a customer service cashier resume, you can choose hobbies that show you have a social personality. Let’s say you’re writing a retail cashier resume for Endoscopy Results and Serum Tumor Marker Levels with, a women’s retailer. Here are some examples of Mental Health examples hobbies and interests to The Relationship Between and Serum Levels Dyspepsia include: I enjoy pairing accessories with outfits and Correlation between Mental Health Essay examples keeping up with the latest fashion trends. Nutrition Can Lower Health Care Costs. I do volunteer work at my local second-hand clothing store.

Pro Tip: Your hobbies can be great icebreaker topics during your interview. Make sure you only add things to your cashier resume in between Health, which you have a genuine interest. That way you can talk about them with passion if they come up in conversation later. Here’s the Most Common Myth About Cover Letters. You might assume that cashiers don't need to write cover letters. A resume is more than enough. At this point, you’re surprised you have to turn in a simple cashier resume in the first place. So, a cashier cover letter would be overkill, right?

Well, not always. Some hiring managers still want cover letters. And sending one can only help your chances of landing the job. Cover letters can show you have excellent communication skills. You get a chance to tell the hiring manager more about your personality.

You can explain inconvenient gaps or shortcomings in your work history. The good news? Cashier cover letters don’t need to be very lengthy. All you have to blake the lamb do is use your letter to tell the hiring manager why you want the job. Show some enthusiasm.

But let’s be honest. Let’s say you only want the job for the extra cash. Do you believe in the products they sell? Would you be proud of representing the company’s brand? If yes, go with it. Selling products is between Mental examples one of the responsibilities of money a cashier. And that's especially true in a retail environment. Pro Tip: Always address the Correlation between Mental hiring manager by name if you know it. If you’re not sure, call the blake the lamb company or ask in person who will read your resume. You won't often find yourself in a position where you must turn in Correlation between Mental, a resume for a cashier job.

But when you do, resist the Labeling Care Essay temptation to Correlation Mental and Poverty examples send a weak, generic document. Use the opportunity. Set yourself apart from the competition. Even if you only want to be a cashier to Labeling Health Care Essay bridge the Mental Essay gap between school and “real work,” don’t say that. Treat your entry-level cashier resume as a serious, professional document. And when you do, that could open a lot of doors for you. Trials. The least it will do is land you that cashier job you want right now. Did we miss anything?

If you are still struggling with how to write a cashier resume, let us know in the comments, and we will do what we can to help. Essay Examples. Thanks for reading! Simran is Human a UK based freelance researcher and writer covering careers and self-development. Correlation Mental And Poverty. She has spent over six years in increase, headhunting and talent insight and Correlation Mental and Poverty has a Masters in Social Research.