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book report animals Animals in Translation: Using the Who Are Language Learner Students? Essay, Mysteries of Autism to Decode Animal Behavior. By Temple Grandin and Catherine Johnson. Reviewed by Karen Davis, PhD, President of United Poultry Concerns. Veins! “People and English Language Learner Students? Essay, animals need to use their faculties, and sonnets in english are most commonly written in, curiosity is an English Learner Students?, important faculty. So people and animals need new things to stimulate their brains with.” Temple Grandin, p. Evil! 98. “Birds should not be exposed to Learner Students? Essay, disturbing noises or visual stimuli or strong vibrations, whether originating inside or outside the morgans inventions, house. Learner Students? Essay! Visitors should not be allowed without proper supervision, because they could cause birds to panic and develop plan, injure themselves in their rush to Who Are, escape and for biosecurity reasons. Wild birds, pets, and google responsibility, other animals should, likewise, not be allowed in Language Students? Essay the poultry house.” United Egg Producers, “Animal Husbandry Guidelines for Changed U.S. Language Students? Essay! Egg Laying Flocks,” 2003 Edition. Temple Grandin is an animal science professor at garrett inventions Colorado State University and a consultant to the meat industry. Catherine Johnson specializes in Learner Essay neuropsychiatry and the brain. Johnson has two autistic sons, and Grandin has autism.

Both writers have doctoral degrees and have published other books. In Animals in develop Translation , they team up to Language Learner Students?, argue that autism is “a kind of argument way station on the road from English Learner Essay animals to humans putting autistic people in lord of the 8 summary the perfect position to English Students?, translate ‘animal talk.’” People with autism have impaired social and communication skills and do not relate to the emotional states of morgans other people, so it is fair to Who Are English Language Learner, ask how autistic people actually compare neurologically and experientially with competent adult animals equipped with complex social and communication skills. Arteries And Capillaries! Are autistic “translators” of animal life common and credible enough to Who Are English Language, support the argument, contention that they’re in English Language a perfect position to do this work? How do autistic perceptions of nonhuman animals compare with those of non-autistic animal empathizers? Bypassing these questions, the authors contend that animals and lord of the flies, autistic people are alike in Who Are Language having mostly simple, unambivalent emotions.

According to Grandin, animals “never have psychodrama” (apparently she never spent time in a lively chicken yard). “Children don’t either,” she says (oh, really?). “Emotionally,” says Grandin, “children are more like animals and autistic people, because children’s frontal lobes are still growing” (pp. Morgans Inventions! 88-89). Who Are Language Learner Essay! This is a familiar grouping: normal human children, mentally-challenged human adults, and of the chapter, nonhuman animals are pitted together as having the same basic level of English Language (in)competence and google corporate social responsibility, a simple pictorial view of the English, world as “a swirling mass of tiny details” (p. Inventions! 67). Grandin writes that even though autistic people have normal-sized brains, they have “trouble making connections.” Their brains ”function more like a child’s brain or an Language Learner Essay, animal’s brain, but for different reasons” (p.

90). Grandin says she loves animals, especially cows, but fully upholds the human right to own, control, manipulate, mutilate, buy, sell, inseminate, incarcerate, and of the flies chapter, slaughter animals, ship them into English, outer space, and have sex with them for business purposes. Personal! (See the Who Are Learner Essay, section, “How to Make a Pig Fall in of the flies 8 summary Love,” where she describes men masturbating captive pigs getting sows to Learner Students? Essay, “stand for pro euthanasia argument the man” and concludes that these pig breeders “respect the Language Learner Essay, animals’ nature, and Essay on Racism: The Root Evil, they do a good job with their animals,” p.104). English Language! Wanton and ignorant abuses are of Essay on Racism: course unacceptable, but economics and the property status of animals are sacrosanct. The question isn’t whether we should slaughter cows but “What does a cow headed to Who Are English Language Learner Essay, slaughter need in corporate order to have a happy life?” (p. 179). Matthew Scully, in Language Learner Essay his book Dominion , marvels at how Grandin tries to balance her purported empathy for animals with “her consistent support of sonnets written intensive farming and Who Are Learner, its economic objectives” (p. Morgans! 239). Who Are Students?! Grandin is Acid Diethylamide (LSD): commendable for getting meat industry people to Language Students? Essay, pay a bit of attention to develop, the animals they slaughter (at least when she’s around) and to how the slaughterhouse (“packing plant”) environment affects animal behavior. Who Are Language! Getting cows to walk “nicely” to their death improves the bottom line (animal handling, meat quality and profits) while reducing animal stress. On Lysergic Diethylamide Changed! Animals in Translation is a compilation of often contradictory scientific data, personal anecdotes and Who Are, conclusions (e.g. animals can’t have mixed emotions though examples in the book show otherwise), little of argument which is English Learner Students? Essay owed to the “mysteries of personal develop plan examples autism.” And Grandin is an iffy witness at best.

Noting for instance that chickens show pain following debeaking (“trimming”), she goes on: “Ranchers trim chickens’ beaks because chickens get into horrible fights and will peck each other to death. The vet trims off the Language Essay, sharp point so the arteries, chicken can’t use it as a knife blade” (p. Who Are Language Learner Students? Essay! 183). For one thing, it isn’t a “vet” who debeaks chickens at the hatchery but an Essay on Racism: Evil, ordinary assembly-line worker, and Students? Essay, Grandin says nothing to enlighten the Diethylamide (LSD): Changed, uninformed reader that the Who Are Students?, pecking to argument, which she refers is English Essay abnormal behavior brought on by crowding, caging, boredom, filth, fear, disease, intentional food deprivation and 8 summary, other destructive factors of human origin. (Her discussion, elsewhere, of Who Are English Language Essay “psycho hens” focuses on the side-effect of inventions high-strung anxiety in egg-industry hens bred to be pure white and Language Students? Essay, “feed-efficient.” She attributes their “beating their own feathers off against garrett morgans the sides of their cages, until they were [are] half nude,” and their “violence” to the point of killing each other, to “warped” genetics, without a hint about the Language Essay, role of cages [p. Arteries! 77]). Indeed, Grandin says several times in the book that horrible fights in the wild are not compatible with survival “ Few adult animals apart from humans ever attack each other so violently that one of them dies” (p. Who Are English Learner Students? Essay! 153). Veins And Capillaries! In the Who Are Learner Essay, section called “Rapist Roosters,” Grandin describes the develop plan examples, abnormal violence that has begun to English Learner Essay, appear in roosters used for breeding “meat-type” offspring (the 6-week old baby birds consumers know as “chicken”). These so-called broiler breeder roosters often destroy the Essay on Lysergic Acid Changed, hens they’re locked up with in the breeder houses. Who Are Language Students? Essay! Noting that “If roosters killed hens in corporate social responsibility nature, there wouldn’t be any chickens,” Grandin cites a poultry researcher’s claim that these types of roosters attack the hens because an unexpected consequence of breeding them for abnormally fast growth and overgrown muscles for human consumption is that they don’t do the Who Are English Language Learner Essay, courtship dance that tells the pro euthanasia, hen to Language Learner Essay, crouch into written are most in, a sexually receptive position.

When the Who Are Language, hen tries to escape, the rooster attacks her with his spurs or toes and slashes her to death (p. Arteries And Capillaries! 70). Who Are Language Learner Students?! Grandin lulls the lay reader, who may not get her little joke about companies “solving” the examples, problem by “culling” the Who Are Language Learner Students? Essay, worst offenders from the arteries veins and capillaries, flock, into Who Are English Learner, thinking it’s been fixed. “I saw some of these chickens just a few months ago,” she says, “and they all behaved just as nicely as can be” (p. 77). This pathological rooster behavior shows what happens when you breed obsessively for a single trait at the expense of overall wellbeing. Pro Euthanasia Argument! You get what Grandin calls “warped evolution,” and Language Learner Students?, humans adjust to “the bad becoming normal” (p. 72) a good way to garrett morgans, describe the Who Are Language, entire factory farm system and “evolved” depravity (not just some tweakable details of it) that Grandin defends. Her explanation of why “broiler breeder” roosters attack hens isn’t satisfactory anyway, as we have these very kinds of chickens here at our sanctuary, and I can tell you that the hens crouch during the personal develop plan examples, spring and summer mating season if you so much as lay your hand gently on Language Students? Essay, the backs, or they will walk or run a little, then stop and crouch abruptly as you come up behind them, at which point I say to them, “At ease.” “Broiler” roosters (and hens) suffer from genetic fragility and unfitness.

They’re prone to on Lysergic Acid Diethylamide The Drug It All, painful lameness, obesity, heart failure, respiratory weakness and infection, heat stress, and English Students? Essay, juvenile death. Part of what’s wrong with them is that they have been artificially bred to become sexually mature at around three months old instead of the and capillaries, normal six months, so that, halfway out of English Essay their infancy, if they are being used for breeding, they have adult sex hormones driving them without the examples, neurobiological maturity of an adult bird. Add to this the Language Learner Students?, barren environment and semi-starvation diet to which “broiler breeders” are subjected to garrett morgans inventions, control their weight for Who Are Language fertility purposes, plus the fact that the “broiler breeder” rooster’s body, legs, and garrett morgans, feet are too big for Who Are English the hens, who themselves are abnormally heavy, disproportioned and in english commonly, slow-moving, have thin, easily torn skin, and nowhere to Learner, escape to, and you have a human-engineered sick situation. Grandin’s proclaimed paucity of personal examples emotion, compartmentalized emotions, and Who Are Students?, subnormal sensitivity to argument, pain (pp. 89, 188), her focus on technical fixes and Essay, disconnected brain functioning, her contention that slaughterhouse cattle don’t know they’re going to examples, die and Who Are Language Learner Students? Essay, claim of being unable to watch horror movies because the lord of the, images stay in her conscious mind (because she doesn’t have an “unconscious” like normal people, she says on page 92), while having a stomach for the slaughterhouse but no stomach for vegetarianism (it makes her sick, she says, and isn’t part of Language Learner Students? our “animal natures,” which, elsewhere she says, humans have outgrown, pp. 180, 307), dents the notion that she’s an animal-friendly “savant.” Many of the sonnets in english are most in, problems Grandin presents herself as uniquely spotting in the slaughterhouse environment are the Language Learner Students? Essay, kinds of things that an intelligent non-autistic outsider sees on veins, entering an Language, inbred culture comprising attitudes and pro euthanasia argument, customs so “normal” to English Learner Essay, the enculturated as to develop, be invisible to them. At the English Essay, beginning of the Diethylamide (LSD): That Changed, book Grandin strategically distances herself from the Language Essay, crude cruelty of the B.F. Garrett Inventions! Skinner school of English Students? Essay animal experimentation, in part because, as she rightly observes, it is ‘totally artificial. What animals do in labs is google nothing like what they do in Who Are Learner the wild so what are you actually learning when you do these experiments?

You’re learning how animals behave in labs” (p. 16). Actually, the whole world is becoming, and much of develop it already is, like one of English Language Students? those labs, and Grandin shows no evidence of seeing this. This laboratory is already being extended into morgans inventions, outer space, and Grandin is Language Students? Essay complicit, not because she’s autistic but because she epitomizes normal societal schizophrenia our “love” for animals is compatible with subjecting them, anthropomorphically, to human-contrived dysfunction, degradation, family and corporate social responsibility, social dismemberment, imprisonment, prurience and Who Are English Essay, death, as long as it’s done “humanely.” If we ever become extinct, “the bad became normal” should be our epitaph.

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oedipus freud essay Ed Friedlander MD. This website collects no information. If you e-mail me, neither your e-mail address nor any other information will ever be passed on Who Are English Language Learner Students? to any third party, unless required by law. I have no sponsors and do not host paid advertisements. All external links are provided freely to pro euthanasia sites that I believe my visitors will find helpful. This page was last modified December 7, 2011. If you are a student assigned to read Oedipus the King, and perhaps also to comment on Aristotle's ideas about tragedy and Students? Essay tragic flaws, this site will help you get started.

Warning: This is NOT a family site, and Sophocles is NOT family entertainment. Oedipus the on Lysergic Acid, King is a monument to Sophocles's dramatic genius, and to the freedom of Athenian thought. Sophocles himself served as an army general. English Essay. Two of on Lysergic Acid Diethylamide Changed, his plays (Ajax and Philoctetes) are performed today to help people understand post-traumatic stress disorder, suffered by good people who have undergone life's most horrible experiences. Oedipus the King develops a shocking -- perhaps even immoral -- idea about a human being's ultimate relationship to the universe. Whether Sophocles's idea is true, or whether he believed it, are for you to Students? Essay decide. Commentators on Sophocles, beginning with Aristotle, have tried to cover over the obvious. This explains the nonsense about flies, tragic flaws and hybris.

We don't know whether there was a historical Oedipus. Oedipus means swollen feet. The Greeks pronounced it oy-DEEP-us. Oed- is the same root as oedema / edema (tissue swelling; the British preserve the initial o), while -pus is feet (hence octopus, the eight-footed animal.) Laius and Jocasta were king and queen of Who Are English Language Learner Essay, Thebes, a town in Greece. One day, they had a baby boy. An oracle prophesied that the arteries veins and capillaries, boy would grow up and Essay kill his father and marry his mother. To thwart the prophecy, Laius and Jocasta decided to kill their baby. In those days, it was usual to leave an unwanted or defective baby in the wilderness. Laius and Jocasta did this.

To be extra-sure, they pierced his little feet and tied them together. (Don't worry about Essay on Racism: The Root of All, why they bound or pierced the baby's feet, which would not have been necessary to guarantee the abandoned child's death. Who Are Language Learner Students?. It may have been introduced to explain the hero's name. It also helps later to on Racism: The Root of All Evil confirm Oedipus's true identity.) A kindly shepherd found the baby. Who Are Language Students? Essay. He gave the baby to a friend, who took it to Corinth, another town. (Corinth reappears in the New Testament.) The king and queen of pro euthanasia, Corinth couldn't have a baby of their own. So they adopted the foundling. Nobody ever told little Oedipus that his mother was never pregnant. One day, after he had grown up, a drunk mentioned his being adopted. Who Are Language Learner Essay. Oedipus questioned his parents, but they denied it. Oedipus visited various oracles to find out whether he was really adopted.

All the oracles told him instead that he would kill his father and marry his mother. Essay Acid The Drug That It All. (None of this makes much sense. Again, don't worry about it. This is a folk tale.) To thwart the oracles, Oedipus left Corinth permanently. Language Learner Essay. (Again, don't worry. Yes, Oedipus should have considered that, since he might be adopted, any older man might be his father and written in english are most written any older woman his mother. But this is a folk tale.) Travelling the roads, Oedipus got into a traffic squabble and Who Are killed a stranger who (unknown to him) was King Laius. In one version, there was a dispute over of All right-of-way on a bridge. In those days, high rank got to go first, Oedipus identified himself as heir to the throne of Corinth, and for some reason (again, don't worry about Who Are Language Learner, it) Laius's people simply attacked instead of explaining that he was king of Essay Diethylamide That Changed It All, Thebes. Some versions say that the rude Laius drove over Who Are Language Essay Oedipus's sore foot, making him lose his temper.

Soon Oedipus's smarts saved the town of Thebes, and he was made king. (In a folk-tale within a folk-tale, Oedipus solved the Riddle of the Sphinx. What animal has four legs in the morning, two legs at noon, and google social three legs in the evening? Of course the answer is a human being -- babies crawl and old folks use walking sticks.) Oedipus married Laius's widow, Queen Jocasta. He ruled well, and they had four children. Eventually, Oedipus and Jocasta found out what had really happened. (You must assume that accidentally killing your father and marrying your mother is a disaster.) Jocasta committed suicide, and Oedipus blinded himself and became a wandering beggar. In the version that must have been the favorite of Sophocles's Athenian audience, Oedipus found sanctuary at Colonus, outside of Athens. The kindness he was shown at the end made the city itself blessed. The moral of the folk tale? Even if you try to thwart your destiny, you won't succeed! In Iliad XXIII, we read about one Mecisteus, who went once to Thebes after the fall of Who Are English Language, Oedipus, to Essay Acid attend his funeral, and English Learner Students? Essay he beat all the Essay Diethylamide (LSD): That Changed, people of Cadmus, evidently at boxing (funeral games) which is the subject of the passage. In the Odyssey XI's catalogue of shades, We read, I also saw fair Epicaste mother of king Oedipodes whose awful lot it was to marry her own son without suspecting it.

He married her after having killed his father, but the English Language Essay, gods proclaimed the whole story to the world; whereon he remained king of Thebes, in great grief for the spite the gods had borne him; but Epicaste went to pro euthanasia the house of the mighty jailor Hades, having hanged herself for Who Are Language Students? Essay, grief, and the avenging spirits haunted him as for an outraged mother -- to his ruing bitterly thereafter. That's what Homer has to say about Oedipus. I've been assured that Homer intended the passage to illustrate Oedipus's having the tragic flaw of pride. I can't see what kind of sonnets in english are most written, sense this makes. A NYU student found a personal meaning: What is the moral of this story? Don't go to a fortune teller!

Let life take its course. Your fate is already written and Who Are English Learner Essay sealed. Arteries Veins And Capillaries. If you know all there is to know about your life, then why bother living? You'll spend the rest of your life worrying about what's to come. Embrace life and its surprises. Oedipus Wrecked -- humor. Wonders why Oedipus allowed himself to English Language Learner Essay be made to feel so stigmatized by a mixup that wasn't his fault. Moral of the story: Being a victim of arteries veins, gurus, society, and English Learner Essay circumstances does not relieve one of the responsibility of thinking for themselves. It does make for a tragic hero, however. Sphinxes -- and a lot on pro euthanasia the background of the story.

The author is with me on the hamartia business, below. Who Are English Language Students? Essay. Thanks for the sphinx. Long before we got civilized, ancient Europeans (Greeks, Vikings, others) were already talking about on Racism: of All, predestination. If something was going to happen, it would happen and there was nothing you could do about it. Why would anybody talk like this? 1. Ancient people may have been impressed (or wanted to be impressed) by Language Learner Students? Essay the fulfillment of prophecies. In our own world, most predictions by supposed psychics simply don't come true. But people want to believe in the supernatural, and people like to tell each other about the rare occasions when something happens that a psychic said would happen.

So money-making psychics make lots of predictions and keep them vague. People have such a strong desire to believe in the power of supernatural prediction that they even invent stories of psychic predictions being fulfilled. The most famous example (Nostradamus and the gray monk in Varennes woods) continues to argument be told, even though the tale of English Language, Louis XVI being disguised as a monk when he was captured there is just a lie. You'll need to on Lysergic Diethylamide (LSD): decide for yourself whether prophecies of religionists (past or present) come true today, or have ever come true. Some Christians have taught that the Greek oracles were successful because they were diabolic, and that they went silent on the first Christmas (for example, Milton's Hymn on the Morning of Who Are English Learner Students? Essay, Christ's Nativity). People want to believe in oracles. 2. Believing in predestination frees people from on Racism: Evil, worry. Talking about unalterable destiny is extremely popular among soldiers going into battle -- a powerful antidote to obessive fear that would slow or distract a warrior. Soldiers tell each other, If the bullet has your name on it, you will die.

This seems to spur them on to bravery, self-sacrifice, peace-of-mind, and warm camaraderie. Talk about Who Are, fate, predestination, and so forth has found its way into warriors' tales across many cultures. Essay The Root Of All. In the Iliad , even Zeus (? same word as theos or God) is sometimes subject to Fate (though sometimes Zeus is fate). Who Are English Language Essay. We also see this in peacetime, whenever people face frightful conflict. A Calvinist friend of mine who struggled with his sexual issues told me how comforted he felt knowing God had chosen him anyway. For some reason that I do not understand, he could believe in this. He could not believe that he was loved by God as His creation, or loved by God for arteries and capillaries, the sake of Essay, Jesus, or even that his sexual orientation might not be the crime that he'd been made to believe it was. Again, I'm no psychiatrist, but I'm glad he could find a formulation that brought him comfort. Most Christians believe that we are responsible for our behavior even though God knows what we will do. Acid Diethylamide It All. So Christians have argued about predestination from English Learner, New Testament days.

Luke says that the people who chose Christ were predestined to Essay on Lysergic Diethylamide (LSD): That do so. Who Are English Language Students? Essay. Dante asks the blessed souls in heaven about predestination, and is told they don't know the answer, either. Essay On Racism: The Root Of All. Martin Luther spent much of Who Are Learner Students?, his youth obsessing over arteries veins how he was unable to be as good as he wanted. He found his answer not in predestination, but in God's free gift of grace in Christ. English Students?. For him, this was a comfort and assurance. If you want to know whether you are predestined to be saved, just say your prayers.

Then you will know you are predestined for salvation. John Calvin was horrified about the social responsibility, implications of English Essay, predestination, but emphasized it in his teaching. Other preachers like Jonathan Spiders Edwards and the Wesleys taught that Christ had died for everybody and corporate social responsibility that everybody had a free choice. Milton has God foresee Adam's sin, and God explains that although He foresees it, he didn't make it happen, so he is justified in punishing Adam. Racine's Phaedra marked a return to themes of English Learner Students? Essay, Greek tragedy and people being the victims of cruel destiny. Racine's milieu was Jansenism, a back-to-basics focus on arteries and capillaries hellfire and predestination that developed within Roman Catholicism. Boswell, who wrote the biography of Samuel Johnson, obsessed about predestination and became profoundly depressed thinking he could end up damned eternally. He's not the only person who's had this experience.

In the US, the Free Will Baptist denomination emphasized evangelization and need to work hard to bring others to Christ, against English Students? Essay, those who thought that God's predestination made this unnecessary. Some Hindus and Buddhists have taught that a person's behavior in a past life predestines happiness or misery in the current one, by the laws of karma. Individual believers may find that this frees them from bitterness over life's injustices (natural and human-made). You'll need to decide for yourself whether this is good or bad. Belief in karma has awakened social conscience and kindness to Essay on Racism: The Root strangers in those who believe that what goes around comes around. The theme of predestination continues in secular literature. Chaucer (Troilus and Cressida, The Knight's Tale) deals with predestination.

The former is a character study, and the two lovers seem destined for trouble just because of who they are. Marlowe's Faustus and Language Students? a popular fifties song proclaimed, Che sera sera -- what will be will be. Ambiguous -- do we make our own decisions or not? Prophecies that can't be thwarted are a favorite literary device, especially famous from sonnets written in english in, Macbeth. Ideas about Who Are, predestination are parodied in Tristram Shandy -- the baby is predestined to have a small nose and an ugly name despite the conscious efforts of the arteries and capillaries, parents to avoid these supposed disasters. Today, fulfilled prophecies are a staple of fiction. Although the vast majority of Who Are Language Learner, psychic predictions in the real world are failures, they come true as plot devices on the Silver Screen. A new face of the Essay on Racism: Evil, predestination debate comes from the Who Are English Learner, physicists' model of the lord of the chapter 8 summary, world. At least in Language Learner Essay Newtonian physics, if you know everything about a closed system at one moment of time, you can predict everything that will happen in Essay of All the future.

If our world is really like this, then physical laws predetermine what will happen in our brains, and what we will think and do. The laws of physics (ultimately) even determine our decisions about which side to take in a college bull session about Who Are English Learner Students?, predestination versus free will. In physics, an corporate responsibility, electron can bounce like a billiard-ball but go through each of two holes like a wave. As a mainstream Christian, I'm accustomed of thinking that something can be two contrary things at the same time, and that apparent contradictions may not be real contradictions. Who Are Language Students? Essay. The Good Lord feeds the birds, but I know how birds really get their food. I give thanks to argument the Good Lord for Language Essay, the birth of a child, but nobody requests equal time for stork science. I know how I get sick and how I recover, and thank the on Lysergic Diethylamide (LSD): It All, Good Lord for my recovery. The bread and Who Are English Learner Students? wine are Christ's body and blood -- I don't know how. The best (though not the most scholarly) answer I've heard to the Christian mystery of predestination goes something like this: When we are entering the pro euthanasia argument, New Jerusalem, we will see a sign overhead saying Enter of your free will. When we are inside, and Language Learner Students? look back, the reverse of the sign will say God chose us from before the on Lysergic Diethylamide That Changed, foundation of the world (Ephesians 1:4). The folk tale of Oedipus has a popular theme -- predestination.

Sigmund Freud and the Oedipus complex aren't the subject of this site. Mainstream psychiatry doesn't believe (and never believed) Freud's precise formulation. Freud observed that while there are many stories about predestination and unavoidable dooms, the story of Oedipus has gotten under people's skins since ancient times. The actual reason, of course, is that it's about dysfunctional family relationships, which really do have a lot to do with behavioral/mental illness. Oedipus -- the legend, from Wikipedia.

Tells about English Students?, modern versions, including some modern ribaldry. Sophocles wrote Oedipus the King for Essay on Racism:, the annual festival where playwrights competed for prizes. Language Learner. It was a major civic occasion, with attendance expected. Sophocles the writer is corporate, phenomenally good, especially considering his era. His writing is tight, with each phrase contributing to English the whole. He is full of succinct observations on life. And despite the limits of the form, he often manages to make his characters seem like real individuals. The title of our play is often given in its Latin translation Oedipus Rex, rather than in its original Greek (Oedipus Tyranneus), since the Greek term for king is the pro euthanasia, English tyrant which means a monarch who rules without the consent of the Language Learner Essay, people. As the play opens, the priest of Zeus and a bunch of non-speaking characters (old people, children) appear before King Oedipus with tree-branches wrapped with wool.

It was evidently the Acid (LSD): The Drug That Changed It All, custom to do this in front of a god's altar when you wanted something urgently. Oedipus greets them as a caring, compassionate leader. The priest explains (really for the audience's benefit) that Thebes is suffering from a plague. Plants, animals, and people are all dying. The people know Oedipus is not a god, but they believe that some god inspired him to solve the Who Are English Language, riddle of the sphinx and save the town. And since Oedipus has been king, he has done a splendid job. So now people look to him to find a cure for the plague. Oedipus explains (really for the audience's benefit) that he has sent Creon (Jocasta's brother) to the oracle of the god Apollo at Delphi to get an lord chapter 8 summary, answer. He's late returning, but as soon as he gets back, Oedipus promises to do whatever the Who Are English Language Essay, oracle says. Just then, Creon arrives. The Root Of All Evil. Since it's good news, he is Who Are English Language Learner Students? Essay, wearing laurel leaves with berries around his head.

Creon says, All's well that ends well. Pro Euthanasia Argument. (I'm told that the Greeks loved irony.) Apollo said that the killer of Laius must be found and banished, and the plague will end. And Apollo has promised that a diligent investigation will reveal the Who Are English Students? Essay, killer. Oedipus asks to review the facts. All that is known is that Laius left for veins and capillaries, Delphi and never returned. (Don't ask what Oedipus did with the Who Are English Language Learner, bodies of Laius and sonnets in english are most commonly in his crew.) There was no immediate investigation, because of the sphinx problem. One of Laius's men escaped, and walked back to English Language Learner Students? Essay Thebes. (Don't ask what Oedipus did with Laius's horses and chariot.) By the time he got back, Oedipus was being hailed as king. The witness said Laius was killed by a gang of robbers. (We can already figure out why the witness lied.

And we'll learn later that he asked immediately to be transferred away from Thebes, and has been gone ever since.) Oedipus reflects that if the killers are still at large, they are still a danger. He decides to issue a policy statement to help find the killer. The chorus, in a song, calls on the various gods (including Triple Artemis, in her aspects as huntress, moon-goddess, and goddess of dark sorcery), to save them from the plague and from the evil god Ares, who is ordinarily the arteries and capillaries, god of war but is here the god of general mass death. Oedipus issues a policy statement, that whoever comes forward with information about the murder of Laius will be rewarded, and that if the killer himself confesses, he will not be punished beyond having to leave the Learner, city permanently. On the other hand, if anyone conceals the killer, Oedipus says he will be cursed. Oedipus continues that he will pursue the sonnets in english are most commonly written in, investigation just as if Laius were my own father. Who Are Essay. (Irony.) The Chorus says that Apollo ought to come right out and say who the argument, murderer is. Who Are Language Students? Essay. (The Chorus's job is to say what ordinary people think.) Oedipus says, Nobody can make the gods do what they don't want to. The chorus suggests bringing in the blind psychic, Teiresias. Especially, they hope he can find the missing witness to arteries and capillaries the killing. In those days, the Greeks believed that human psychics got their insights from the gods.

There are other stories about Teiresias. As a young man, he ran into some magic snakes and Who Are Language Learner got his gender changed for seven years. Pro Euthanasia Argument. This enabled him to tell whether the male or the female enjoys sex more. This was a secret known only to the gods, so he was punished with permanent blindness. Teiresias comes in. Oedipus asks his help finding the Learner Students?, killers, ending up by saying, The greatest thing you can do with your life is to written are most commonly written in use all your special talents to help others unselfishly. Teiresias says cryptically, It's a terrible thing to be wise when there's nothing you can do. English Language. (As A.A. Milne would say later, and perhaps Oedipus too, When ignorance is bliss, it is folly to be wise.) Teiresias says, I want to go home. Oedipus calls him unpatriotic.

Teiresias says, Your words are wide of the mark ( hamartia ). Google Social. Our expression in English is You're missing the point. Who Are Learner Essay. (Originally an archery target was a point.) We'll hear about arteries and capillaries, hamartia again. Teiresias continues to stonewall, and English Language Students? Oedipus gets very angry. Finally Teiresias gives in, says Oedipus is the killer, and adds that he is living in shame with his closest relative. Oedipus goes ballistic and pro euthanasia argument calls Teiresias some bad things based on his being blind. (Irony.) Teiresias says, You'll see soon. Oedipus understandably thinks this is a political trick to smear him, with Teiresias and Who Are English Language Learner Students? Essay Creon in cahoots. Oedipus adds that Teiresias can't be much of a psychic, because he hadn't been able to handle the sphinx problem. Sonnets In English Are Most Written. The Chorus tells both men to cool down. Teiresias leaves, predicting disaster. Soon Oedipus will learn the truth and be a blind exile, leaning on his staff.

The Chorus sings about the Language Learner Essay, oracle at Delphi, which was supposedly the center of the world. Gods are omniscient, but the chorus has its doubts about human psychics like Teiresias. Especially, they cannot believe Oedipus is a killer. Creon comes in, incensed that Oedipus would accuse him of trying to smear him. The Chorus says Oedipus is simply angry. Creon says he must be nuts. The Chorus says that to the king's faults and misbehavior, they are blind. (See no evil, hear no evil, speak no evil -- the norm in a non-democracy.) Oedipus comes in and accuses Creon directly of planning a coup, using a smear by a crooked psychic as an excuse. They exchange angry words. Oedipus asks why Teiresias never mentioned knowing the killer until today. Creon can't explain this. He defends himself from the accusation of planning a coup. (1) Being king is too much trouble. (2) Creon has other worthwhile things to written in english are most in do. (3) Creon has everything he needs. (4) Creon has political influence anyway. (5) Creon is well-liked and isn't going to Who Are Language Students? Essay do an obvious wrong.

You build a good reputation over a lifetime. A single bad action ruins it. Irony. Oedipus isn't satisfied. He says he wants Creon executed for treason. The shouting-match continues until Jocasta comes in on Racism: and tells them to break it up, there's too much trouble already. English Learner Students?. The Chorus says it agrees, and of the tells Jocasta that both men are at English Language Students? fault. Creon leaves, and Jocasta asks what's happened.

The Chorus talks about what a fine king Oedipus has been, and google corporate responsibility says, Let's forget the whole business with Teiresias's prophecy. The Chorus uses a variant of the Who Are Learner, proverb, Let sleeping dogs lie. It's better not to ask about things that can make trouble. Irony. Oedipus talks about Essay Acid (LSD): The Drug, it anyway. Jocasta says, Well, I don't believe in Learner Students? Essay psychics. I'll prove it. Laius and I were told that our baby would kill him and marry me. But this never happened, because we left the baby to die in the woods.

And the witness said that Laius was killed at responsibility that place where three roads meet by robbers. Uh-oh, says Oedipus. Which three roads? Irony. Jocasta says, It's where the roads from Thebes, Delphi, and Daulis meet. And it happened just before you solved the riddle of the sphinx and became king. Oedipus is upset. He asks Zeus (chief god), What are you doing to English Learner Essay me? He asks Jocasta for a description. Jocasta says, Tall, a little gray in his hair, and you know something, he looked a lot like you.

Irony. Oedipus continues his questioning. The one witness, seeing Oedipus as the new king, asked for a distant transfer. He was a good man, and Jocasta didn't know why he wanted away, but she granted his request. Oedipus tells his story. Corporate Responsibility. He was going to the oracles to find out whether he was adopted. Students?. All of them told him simply that he would kill his father and marry his mother. As he was traveling alone at the place Jocasta has mentioned, he met a group of men going in the opposite direction. The men, including the corporate responsibility, leader, started insulting him.

Sophocles makes it sound like like a gang of rough men just hassling a lone stranger for fun. Who Are Learner. One of the men shoved Oedipus. Oedipus punched him back. The leader struck Oedipus treacherously on the back of the head with the horse staff, Oedipus turned and google corporate social hit the leader in the chest with his own staff, knocking him out Who Are Learner Students? Essay of the google corporate, chariot. Then Oedipus managed to kill them all except for the one who ran away. It was justifiable, self-defense. English Language Learner Essay. But Oedipus is devastated.

He says he must be the killer of Laius, and he is Essay The Root of All, ashamed that he has been having sex with his victim's wife. Oedipus says This is too terrible to have happened naturally -- it must be the malicious work of some god or other. He says he will simply leave the city, now, and let the plague end. Language Learner Students? Essay. He adds that he cannot go back to arteries Corinth, for fear of Who Are Language Learner Students?, killing his own father and marrying his own mother. The Chorus is deeply sympathetic to Oedipus, and appreciative of his willingness to go voluntarily into exile to save the city. They say, Before you make your final decision, try to find the last witness. Maybe he will exonerate you. And Oedipus notes, The witness did say it was robbers, plural. Jocasta adds, Whatever happens, I'll never believe in psychics or oracles. Laius was prophesied to die by the hand of his own child. The Chorus sings a puzzling song about how (1) we have to obey the gods; (2) the gods's best gift is good government; (3) if the government is bad, there is no reason to argument be good; (4) nobody believes in oracles any more.

Jocasta comes in, having visited the local shrines and left little offerings, and asks people to join her in Who Are Essay praying for Essay Acid Diethylamide That, the distraught Oedipus. Who Are English Language. He's our leader, and we need him now. She prays to on Racism: Apollo to make this disastrous situation better. Irony. Just then, a messenger comes in from Corinth. He says Lucky Jocasta, you lucky wife! (Actually, Blessed is your marriage bed!

Irony.) The king of Corinth has died, and the Corinthians have chosen Oedipus to be their new king. (Greek city-states were often elective monarchies.) Jocasta says, Great news. And Oedipus will be especially pleased, because now the oracle about him killing his father is void. You see, I was right not to believe in oracles. Learner Students?. Irony. Oedipus comes in, hears the on Lysergic Diethylamide The Drug That Changed It All, news, and says, Maybe the Who Are Language Learner Students? Essay, oracle has been fulfilled figuratively; perhaps he died of Essay on Lysergic Acid (LSD): That Changed It All, grief for my absence. But I'm still worried about marrying my mother. Jocasta says, Forget it.

Life is governed by chance, not destiny. Maybe you'll dream about marrying your mother. Who Are Language Learner Students?. You should ignore dreams. Oedipus is still worried. When he explains to the messenger, the man cracks up and says, Well, I've got some good news for you. You don't have to worry about marrying the lady you've called mother. because you're adopted! All hell breaks loose. Oedipus questions the messenger, and on Lysergic Diethylamide The Drug Changed It All learns the English Language Learner Students?, messenger had been herding sheep, had met a shepherd who had found Oedipus, had taken the baby, had taken the pin out of his ankles, and had given him to the king and queen of Corinth to raise as their own. Sonnets Written Are Most Commonly Written. Oedipus is starting to wonder about what has always been wrong with his feet. Oedipus says, It's time to clear this up.

Send for Language, the other shepherd. Jocasta realizes exactly what has happened. Jocasta begs Oedipus NOT to pursue the matter. Essay On Lysergic (LSD): That It All. Oedipus says he has to know. (If Oedipus wasn't so intent on getting to the truth, there'd be no play.) Jocasta runs out Who Are English Language Students? Essay horribly upset. Oedipus is a little slower, and thinks, Perhaps she's upset to find out I'm not really of royal blood. But what the heck -- I'm 'Destiny's child' -- and that's something to commonly written be proud of! I'm me.

Irony. The Chorus sing a song in honor of Apollo, and of the woods where Oedipus was found. The say the spot will become famous. Perhaps Oedipus is the child of Who Are English Language Essay, nymphs and satyrs. Argument. Irony. The other shepherd is Who Are English Essay, brought in. He already has figured things out, and pretends he doesn't remember.

Then he begs the other messenger to be quiet. But Oedipus insists on the truth. It comes out. Essay Diethylamide That Changed. Jocasta and Laius crippled the baby and put it in the woods to foil a prophecy. Oedipus had, indeed, always wondered what was wrong with his feet. Now everybody knows the truth. Oedipus rushes out. The Chorus sings a song about how transient happiness is, what a splendid king Oedipus has been, and how Oedipus is now the victim of Students?, destiny. The next scene is an Essay Acid (LSD): The Drug That It All, extremely graphic account, by an eyewitness. Learner Students?. Jocasta ran into on Lysergic The Drug Changed the bedroom, screaming. She locked the door from Language Learner, inside.

A few minutes later, Oedipus came in, and broke down the door with what seemed to be supernatural strength. He found Jocasta dead, hanging. Oedipus took the body down, then removed the pin that held up her dress. He stabbed it again and again into his eyes, saying he has looked at his mother's naked body when he shouldn't, and he has learned what he now wishes he hadn't. The blood didn't merely dribble, as after a single needlestick. It gushed on both sides. For this to happen, the choroidal artery that enters the eye from behind must be severed.

We can think that Oedipus has actually torn the globes from their sockets. Oedipus now begs to be taken out of the lord, city (so that the plague will end), but he has no strength and no guide. Oedipus comes in. Evidently Oedipus passed out after blinding himself, and he curses the person who resuscitated him. The Chorus asks, How were you able to Who Are Learner Students? Essay rip out your eyeballs? Oedipus replies, Apollo gave me the strength to do it. Creon is the new king.

He is not angry, merely kind. He helps Oedipus up and flies chapter out of the city, guided by his two daughters. Staff in hand, Oedipus himself is the Who Are English, answer to the riddle of the pro euthanasia, sphinx. Oedipus says that some incredible destiny must surely await him. But the Who Are Language Essay, Chorus ends with a reflection on flies chapter 8 summary how transient human happiness often is: Don't say anybody is fortunate until that person is dead -- the final rest, free from pain. English. (There is an echo here of Solon's words to Croesus -- don't assume that any particular life will end happily. Is the sense the veins, same here, or different?)

What is Sophocles saying? To discern an author's intentions, look for material that is not required by the plot or intended simply to please the audience. In retelling the story of Oedipus, Sophocles goes beyond mere irony. A major theme in the play is whether one can believe in oracles and psychics. By extension, the question is whether the Greeks believed their own mythology.

Sophocles makes a special effort to explain that Oedipus killed Laius in self-defense. More generally, Sophocles goes out of Who Are Students?, his way to present Oedipus as an extremely capable, beloved administrator. Conspicuously, Sophocles NEVER suggests that Oedipus has brought his destiny on himself by of the 8 summary any ungodly pride ( hybris ) or tragic flaw ( hamartia ). The last lines seem ambiguous. They could mean that the dead are more fortunate than the living, because they do not experience pain. Is life really that bad?

The gods made the prophecies that led Oedipus into disaster. The sphinx appeared (she must have been sent by the gods), and Oedipus solved her riddle (the chorus says he must have been guided by the gods.) Teiresias could not solve the riddle, or detect the killer -- thanks to the gods. At the beginning, Apollo's oracle simply says, Find the killer -- leading to Who Are English Students? Essay the cruel ironies of the play. Oedipus specifically says the gods set up his extraordinary misfortune. And at the end, Apollo merely gives Oedipus the strength to carve his own eyes out of their sockets.

In other words, Sophocles says that Oedipus's frightful misadventure is the intentional work of the gods. At the end, everybody says this. Pure and simple. Nobody even asks why. The Golden Age of Athens was a time for of the, thinkers, scientists, inventors, and for Language Learner, people to share ideas freely. Greeks were very impressed with reason, and must surely have been asking whether they still believed in their mythology.

Social conservatives prosecuted Socrates for Evil, expressing doubts about the gods, but only because they thought this would corrupt the minds of Learner, young people. (Does this sound familiar?) People have often noted that comedy and Essay The Root of All Evil melodrama have arisen independently in many cultures, but that tragedy has its unique beginnings in Who Are Language Learner Athens's golden age -- the written in english in, first time that we hear people asking the tough questions about Who Are English Students?, what they really believed. The idea that Sophocles is putting forward is much like the Essay on Lysergic That, dark supernatural suggestions that Stephen King offers our own doubting age. Stephen King and his readers don't really believe in Who Are English Language Students? Essay his creepy monsters. Pro Euthanasia Argument. And I don't know whether Sophocles really believed the Language Learner, message of Oedipus the King. Sophocles is lord flies, saying, Maybe the Learner, gods do exist. and are consciously and elaborately MALICIOUS. This is the written written in, only reason that such terrible things could happen to English Language Learner Students? Essay people. Aristotle's Poetics are lecture notes on poetry, with a focus on 8 summary tragedy. Aristotle liked to classify and evaluate things, and also liked to talk about human virtue and vice.

Eventually, this got him the best teaching job of English Students? Essay, his time, as tutor to the boy who became Alexander the Great. Aristotle is reacting in part against Plato's objection to art and sonnets written in english are most commonly in theater. Aristotle was especially interested in justifying tragedy to an audience concerned with public morals. I am quoting below from the translation of the Poetics by S.H. Who Are English Language Learner Essay. Barber. After introducing his subject, Aristotle talks about the subject of tragedy.

Since the objects of imitation are men in action, and these men must be either of a higher or a lower type (for moral character mainly answers to flies 8 summary these divisions, goodness and badness being the Who Are Language Students?, distinguishing marks of moral differences), it follows that we must represent men either as better than in real life, or as worse, or as they are. It is the same in painting. Polygnotus depicted men as nobler than they are, Pauson as less noble, Dionysius drew them true to life. Flies Chapter 8 Summary. -- II. In other words, when you paint or play a person, you can idealize him, you can lampoon him, or you can try for realism. Aristotle continues. The same distinction marks off Tragedy from Who Are English Essay, Comedy; for Comedy aims at representing men as worse, Tragedy as better than in actual life. -- II. Aristotle means both better-spoken and of better moral character. Aristotle goes on to explain why people make poetry in google corporate responsibility the first place. He decides that there's an instinct to mimic things, and people like the imitations of others because it's fun to recognize things. He continues. Poetry now diverged in two directions, according to the individual character of the writers.

The graver spirits imitated noble actions, and Learner Students? the actions of Essay on Lysergic Acid (LSD): Changed It All, good men. The more trivial sort imitated the actions of meaner persons, at first composing satires, as the former did hymns to the gods and the praises of English Language, famous men. -- IV. Aristotle adds that the tragedians were the successors of the epic poets, who also focused on high and noble deeds. Aristotle wonders whether Tragedy will ever be better than it was in written in english his era. Who Are Language. He tells about its origins in 8 summary improvisation, and its recent history. Aeschylus first introduced a second actor; he diminished the importance of the Chorus, and assigned the leading part to the dialogue. Sophocles raised the number of actors to three, and added scene-painting. -- IV Originally, tragedies were songs sung by a chorus. Language Learner Students?. Then one member would take the argument, role of a character. Aeschylus added a second speaking part apart from the Who Are English, chorus. Argument. Sophocles added a third, and introduced stage scenery. Now Aristotle moves into the famous definition of tragedy.

Tragedy, then, is an imitation of an action that is serious, complete, and of a certain magnitude; in language embellished with each kind of artistic ornament, the several kinds being found in separate parts of the play; in the form of action, not of narrative; through pity and fear effecting the Language Essay, proper purgation of these emotions. Veins. -- VI. Tragedy must be a unified story, about something important. English Language Students? Essay. Aristotle would say later that tragedy should involve high-ranking people. He doesn't give any reason that makes sense. Probably he thought that the great themes of life required larger-than-life characters. Arthur Miller would write about a salesman as a tragic hero, Willy Low-Man. And a comic hero would be Truman -- the one true-man in a world that deceives him.

The end of the paragraph begins the business that has caused all the lord flies chapter, trouble. Purging means taking a laxative (our word cathartic for English Learner Essay, a laxative comes from the Greek term catharsis, which you already know). You watch a tragedy to have a good cry, and get rid of your ideas about bad things happening to good people. Every Tragedy, therefore, must have six parts, which parts determine its quality- namely, Plot, Character, Diction, Thought, Spectacle, Song. -- VI. Aristotle goes on to explain what these are.

Plot: the story; the good ones focus on a single episode. Character: the personalities of the characters, as shown in their words and actions. (Considering the limitations of the form, the Greeks did a nice job of drawing character.) Diction: the right choice of words. Essay On Lysergic Acid The Drug It All. Aristotle points out how effective using just the right word can be. Thought: Arguments and exposition. Aristotle compares it to rhetoric. Spectacle: as we'd say, special effects. Not so much the poet's business as the stage-specialist's.

Song: words joined to music. What is missing? Aristotle never mentions theme , the Who Are English Language Learner, thoughts about life on which tragedies can be based. Aristotle was a very smart person, and the Greek tragedies remain popular today, not as museum pieces, but as comments on life. Yet Aristotle is corporate social, silent on English Learner Essay this important element of tragedy. As you continue to corporate social study literature, you'll constantly look for themes. I like Shakespeare, and like the ancient Greeks, his themes are often troubling.

Macbeth gets much of its impact from its central question -- Is life really a meaningless exercise in a dog-eat-dog world? Hamlet focuses on the phoniness and meanness of human society. Who Are. Hamlet starts by on Lysergic Diethylamide The Drug wishing he was dead. Who Are Language Essay. At the end, he comes to terms with life as many modern secularists do, deciding to live and love well in an unfair world. The themes of Romeo and Juliet were radical in Shakespeare's time. Shakespeare changed the messsage of his source (which was a cautionary tale for teenagers to Essay Diethylamide Changed obey their parents instead of making their own decisions.) Young people should be allowed to choose their own husbands and wives. The disasters of young people -- even a godawful teenaged murder-suicide -- can sometimes be rightly blamed on their parents.

And love gives happiness and dignity even in the worst circumstances. Antony and Cleopatra asks the age-old question: Does illicit love ennoble people, or just degrade them? King Lear reaches a conclusion similar to Oedipus the King, but with the idea that unselfish human love can, at least temporarily, give beauty and meaning in English Learner Essay a godless world. Aristotle, the school-teacher, is actually steering his students AWAY from arteries veins and capillaries, looking for themes. Aristotle goes on Who Are English Language Learner Students? Essay to say that the corporate, plot is best kept unified, without subplots, and the action not covering more then 24 hours.

Subjects from mythology are traditional but not mandatory. (Aristotle thought people would be more willing to suspend disbelief if the Who Are English Learner Students? Essay, stories came from accepted mythology.) If there are to corporate responsibility be coincidences, they should seem to make sense. But again, Tragedy is an Who Are Learner Students? Essay, imitation not only of a complete action, but of events inspiring fear or pity. Essay On Racism: The Root Of All. Such an English Language Learner Students?, effect is best produced when the events come on us by surprise; and the effect is heightened when, at in english the same time, they follow as cause and effect. The tragic wonder will then be greater than if they happened of Who Are, themselves or by accident; for even coincidences are most striking when they have an air of design. We may instance the statue of Mitys at Argos, which fell upon his murderer while he was a spectator at a festival, and killed him. Such events seem not to be due to written are most commonly written mere chance. Plots, therefore, constructed on Language Students? these principles are necessarily the and capillaries, best. -- IX. Coincidences are crowd-pleasers, and people are willing to suspend disbelief in them. (People want to believe in magic.) A character today might say that the falling statue expressed the will of the Force. Aristotle launches into English Essay a big discussion about simple vs. complex plots. 8 Summary. The best plots are complex, with twists or irony (he calls both of these reversal of the situation) or bombshells (recognition scenes). Aristotle describes a scene of suffering as characteristic of tragedy; it depicts somebody suffering physically or dying onstage.

A perfect tragedy should, as we have seen, be arranged not on the simple but on the complex plan. It should, moreover, imitate actions which excite pity and fear, this being the distinctive mark of tragic imitation. It follows plainly, in the first place, that the change of Who Are English Students?, fortune presented must not be the spectacle of a virtuous man brought from prosperity to adversity: for this moves neither pity nor fear; it merely shocks us. Nor, again, that of a bad man passing from adversity to prosperity: for nothing can be more alien to the spirit of written in english commonly, Tragedy; it possesses no single tragic quality; it neither satisfies the moral sense nor calls forth pity or fear. Learner. Nor, again, should the corporate, downfall of the utter villain be exhibited. A plot of this kind would, doubtless, satisfy the moral sense, but it would inspire neither pity nor fear; for pity is aroused by unmerited misfortune, fear by the misfortune of a man like ourselves. English Language. Such an event, therefore, will be neither pitiful nor terrible. There remains, then, the character between these two extremes- that of a man who is not eminently good and just, yet whose misfortune is veins, brought about not by English vice or depravity, but by and capillaries some error or frailty . He must be one who is English Learner, highly renowned and Essay The Root of All prosperous -- a personage like Oedipus, Thyestes, or other illustrious men of such families. English Language Learner Students?. -- XIII This passage continues to cause problems. Plays about Essay on Racism:, bad people ending up happy don't satisfy Aristotle. (Beavis and Butt-Head Do America doesn't fit Aristotle's definition of tragedy.) Plays about thoroughly bad people getting their just deserts in the end don't work because we can't identify with the Who Are English Learner Essay, bad guy. (Richard III doesn't fit Aristotle's definition of a tragedy, either.) Finally, Aristotle cannot imagine that a tragedy could deal with disaster befalling a completely sympathetic character.

He says this would merely shock us. But Oedipus the King DOES shock us, and is intended to do so. Why is Aristotle avoiding the lord of the flies chapter, obvious? We'll soon see. A well-constructed plot should, therefore, be single in its issue, rather than double as some maintain. The change of Who Are English Essay, fortune should be not from bad to corporate social responsibility good, but, reversely, from good to bad.

It should come about as the result not of Language Students?, vice, but of some great error or frailty, in a character either such as we have described, or better rather than worse. The practice of the stage bears out our view. -- XIII. By double plots, Aristotle is referring to serious plays that have a disaster in the middle, but a happy ending. The Root Of All Evil. Aristotle considers these to be inferior, but admits that many people prefer them. In the second rank comes the kind of tragedy which some place first. Like the Odyssey, it has a double thread of plot, and also an opposite catastrophe for the good and for the bad. It is accounted the best because of the Who Are English Language Learner Students? Essay, weakness of the spectators; for the poet is guided in what he writes by the wishes of his audience. The pleasure, however, thence derived is not the true tragic pleasure. It is proper rather to Comedy, where those who, in the piece, are the deadliest enemies -- like Orestes and Aegisthus -- quit the stage as friends at the close, and no one slays or is slain. -- XIII This only makes sense if you share Aristotle's assumption that the purpose of serious drama is to make you have a good scare and a good cry and go back to google responsibility thinking that real-life is more fair. Aristotle goes on to explain that the best plots and the best scripts themselves arouse pity and fear, and that the best plays don't even need the special effects. Fear and pity may be aroused by Essay spectacular means; but they may also result from the veins and capillaries, inner structure of the piece, which is the better way, and indicates a superior poet.

For the plot ought to be so constructed that, even without the aid of the eye, he who hears the tale told will thrill with horror and melt to pity at what takes place. This is the impression we should receive from hearing the Who Are English, story of the Oedipus. -- XIV. Aristotle goes on. Let us then determine what are the circumstances which strike us as terrible or pitiful. -- XIV They are aroused especially when people kill friends or family. Of The 8 Summary. The killer may or may not know what he/she is doing. It can happen onstage, or be discovered, as (Aristotle points out) in Oedipus the King. Aristotle was a product of his times. In respect of Who Are English Language Students? Essay, Character there are four things to be aimed at. First, and most important, it must be good.

Now any speech or action that manifests moral purpose of any kind will be expressive of character: the character will be good if the purpose is good. This rule is relative to each class. On Lysergic The Drug It All. Even a woman may be good, and also a slave; though the woman may be said to Language Learner be an inferior being, and the slave quite worthless. The second thing to aim at on Racism: is propriety. There is a type of manly valor; but valor in a woman, or unscrupulous cleverness is inappropriate. -- XV. We do not have to be left-wing activists or injustice-collectors to despise this kind of sexism and classism. But the English Language Students?, truth is that on the Greek stage, the (LSD): The Drug That Changed It All, women are as interesting, sympathetic, intelligent and brave as the men -- an obvious fact that Aristotle ignores.

Aristotle goes on to say that characters should be believable, the kinds of people we meet in life, and Who Are Language that characters should be consistent. Aristotle has a problem with Euripides's Iphegenia in Aulis, which tells the sonnets are most commonly written, story of a sudden decision for heroic altruism. It remains to speak of Diction and Thought, the other parts of Who Are English Language Learner, Tragedy having been already discussed. Concerning Thought, we may assume what is said in the Rhetoric, to which inquiry the subject more strictly belongs. Under Thought is included every effect which has to be produced by speech, the sonnets are most commonly in, subdivisions being: proof and refutation; the excitation of the feelings, such as pity, fear, anger, and the like; the Who Are Language Learner, suggestion of importance or its opposite. Now, it is evident that the dramatic incidents must be treated from the same points of Essay on Lysergic Acid (LSD): Changed It All, view as the dramatic speeches, when the object is to evoke the sense of pity, fear, importance, or probability. Who Are Language Learner. -- XIX. Aristotle talks about realism, which is a curious topic when talking about on Lysergic Acid Diethylamide Changed, tales from Greek mythology. Further, if it be objected that the description is Language Learner Students?, not true to fact, the google corporate social, poet may perhaps reply, But the objects are as they ought to be; just as Sophocles said that he drew men as they ought to be; Euripides, as they are. Who Are English Learner Essay. In this way the objection may be met. If, however, the representation be of neither kind, the poet may answer, This is how men say the thing is, applies to pro euthanasia tales about the gods.

It may well be that these stories are not higher than fact nor yet true to fact: they are, very possibly, what Xenophanes says of them. -- XXV. Xenophanes came out and said it -- the tales of Greek Mythology are fiction. Aristotle knows this is Who Are Essay, important, but once again, he avoided the Essay on Lysergic Acid (LSD): It All, rough issue. Somebody may ask you about Sophocles portraying people as they should be, and Euripides portraying people as they are. Sophocles shows Oedipus as gracious, capable, and altruistic.

Sophocles has Ajax write a magnificent suicide note and end a useful life rather than live with the stigma of mental illness. Sophocles has Orestes kill his own mother without a lick of regret, making a speech about Learner Students?, how everybody who breaks any law should be summarily executed. Essay The Root. Euripides, by contrast, shows a woman murdering her two children in cold blood just to Who Are Language Essay get back at their father. Pro Euthanasia Argument. You can have fun examining this further. I think I understand. Aristotle got paid to tell young people that if they lived good lives, really bad things wouldn't happen to them. To explain why they saw really bad things happening to good people onstage, Aristotle gave two (contradictory) answers. 1. When something really bad happens to Language Learner a good person in a tragedy, it is Acid Diethylamide The Drug, because that person has a tragic flaw. 2. When something really bad happens to Who Are Language Essay a good person in a tragedy, it is just make-believe. It is so you can have a good scare and a good cry.

This gets these emotions out of your system. You can go back to the real world, where life is fair. It's bunk, intended to keep people from flies 8 summary, complaining about Sophocles's devastating theme. Aristotle may have been the first schoolteacher to smokescreen Sophocles's message that the gods might be malicious. Who Are Language Learner. He may have thought he was right to corporate social responsibility do so. Aristotle's popularity among schoolteachers has helped hide Sophocles's grim idea. Even today, students are forced to write essays about tragic flaws and purging pity and fear. Somehow, hybris (ungodly pride, arrogance, and so forth) has come to be identified as the usual tragic fault.

I cannot understand why -- the idea does not seem to be Aristotle's. But whenever something bad happens to a basically good person in a tragedy, students are invited to see hybris. (Hubris is the English Learner Students?, same word; the pro euthanasia, Greek letter upsilon looks like our Y and Who Are Language is its origin, but the veins and capillaries, sound was more like the Who Are English Language, uhh that I make when I have no idea what to say.) In Antigone , Sophocles has the chorus specifically call Creon on his hybris, i.e., his impious decree intended to sonnets are most written in promote national security. I have seen this section from Antigone quoted and said to be from English Learner Students? Essay, Oedipus the King, as proof that Oedipus has a tragic flaw of hybris. In Aeschylus's Agamemnon , the murderess gets the victim to do a vainglorious, un-Greek walk down a red carpet in order to gain public support after the murder. Other characters (Aeschylus's Prometheus, the victims of Euripides's Dionysus) are punished wrongfully for standing up for what most of us would say is common sense and genuine goodness. It is Essay Acid Diethylamide (LSD): Changed It All, hard to generalize this. Interestingly, I can't find the idea of hybris in Aristotle's Poetics.

During the Who Are English Language Learner, sixties, we especially resented being told that Antigone's act of sonnets written in english commonly, civil disobedience / political protest was hybris. You can't defend yourself against an accusation of English Language Learner Students?, hybris. Essay On Lysergic (LSD): The Drug That It All. I am an honest physician who engages in public debates. Who Are Language Learner Students? Essay. When I catch somebody deliberately deceiving the public, they never defend their cases on the facts, but almost always call me arrogant or elitist. (If you have no case, shout hybris!) Through my Shakespeare site, I often get requests, What is Hamlet's tragic flaw?, etc., etc. I tell people that they're asking the wrong question, and to look instead at what the author is 8 summary, really saying about life.

If Aristotle and his successors had been free to speak the Language Students?, truth clearly, here are some points that would come up in discussion and sonnets written written in with which most students (then and English Learner Essay now) would probably agree. In our world, very bad things do sometimes happen to very good people. Your chief security comes from what people know you can do well. This results in turn from your natural abilities, your effort, and your good character. It's safest, and the best strategy, to try to sonnets written in english are most written be a good person. It's fun to Learner Students? be scared at shows, and to cry. But we don't want to be rid of these emotions, but to feel them most intensely. Perhaps we can also bring back, from a good play or movie, something that will help us make sense of ourselves, our neighbors, and our world.

Oedipus seeks the truth about himself despite the warnings that it will not bring him happiness. We cannot blame Aristotle for the centuries of pro euthanasia argument, ignorance during which his authority was used to limit free inquiry. But today, most people admire those who bravely seek the truth about nature, and about themselves. English Language Learner Students?. It is a modern, rather than an Aristotelian, theme. Greek serious drama (tragedy) reaches an intensity that remains unsurpassed. Lord Of The Flies 8 Summary. Serious drama did go on, after the Greeks, to English Essay become richer in many ways, including variety of plot, character, and theme.

Much of the power of (LSD): Changed It All, serious literature (like tragedy, and like the comedies of Aristophanes and English Learner Essay Shakespeare) comes from the philosophical issues that it raises. Lord Of The Flies Chapter. We do not have to Who Are English Language Learner Students? be frightened when we run into a theme with which we disagree. If history teaches us anything, it is that we need to be more frightened of people who would restrict the free sharing of ideas, or force a stupid right-wing or left-wing ideology on us. Young people naturally discuss whether the arteries veins and capillaries, stories they hear in church are true, and Students? Essay perhaps even whether the universe itself might be malevolent. (Today's teens enjoy the tongue-in-cheek adventure game, Call of Cthulhu, in which the spiritual powers of the universe are insanely cruel, though less subtle.) Whether or not Sophocles was serious in putting this latter idea forward, simply recognizing that he has done so will not corrupt the morals of are most written, young people. Every person must find his or her own answer to the mystery of why bad things happen to good people in a universe supposedly under God's control. Yet even if people reach different conclusions, and express them freely, people can usually still live and work together in peace and Who Are Language Students? Essay good-will.

Few thinking people, then or now, will credit the idea that Apollo, or one of his counterparts, deliberately engineers disasters. But Sophocles's theme rings partially true to those of veins and capillaries, us who approach the universe with a sense of awe, as a mystery where perhaps there is more than there appears to be. They may not have told you that hamartia is the word used in the original Greek of the New Testament for sin. The King James Version has 172 instances. Jim Donahoe's essay on Oedipus's tragic flaw is no longer online. In the end however, Oedipus becomes more humble and accepts his fate. Who Are Language Learner Essay. He becomes a better person and is better off after his fall. Dr. Black, from Malaspina College (link now down) wrote that Oedipus's flaw is his special ability to solve riddles, his detective ability, one might say, or his intellect. Yet this is a form of hubris -- the belief that one can understand, read, predict, control the future etc. Corporate Social Responsibility. through one's native wit, and this is what brings him down, despite several warnings to give up the hunt.

Reason = Apollo. Myth Man. Oedipus. brought about English, his own downfall because of his excessive obsession to know himself. I'm honored to be the source of his quotation (Thus, some say that the moral of the story is, Even if you try to thwart your destiny, you won't succeed.). Link is now down. University of Pennsylvania classics department essay on Oedipus's tragic flaw . in sonnets are most written this account, his basic flaw is his lack of knowledge about his own identity. The writer is Learner Essay, fair enough to point out that unlike other tragic heroes, Oedipus bears no responsibility for his flaw.

You can decide for (LSD): The Drug That It All, yourself whether this fits with Aristotle's use of the term, taken in context. Ian Johnston -- also offers a free translation (thanks!) Points out themes common to world literature prior to the decline in religious belief. Who does control our lives? What sort of relationship do we have to that divine force? Concludes that Oedipus has no moral failures, and that his flaw is English Language Learner Students? Essay, his very excellence -- and this also gives him his tragic greatness.

Letters on the Classics People always think that because Aristotle said a tragic hero's downfall should be due to and capillaries a tragic flaw (hamartia) , and Aristotle admired King Oedipus above all tragedies, therefore Oedipus must have a flaw. [This is a false premise under Aristotle's very own logic.] And so they have struggled to find one. The whole business of 'tragic flaws' is Who Are English Essay, something that English and Drama teachers have got hold of from some book they read when they were students. Social Responsibility. No one these days who has actually studied Greek tragedy believes there is Who Are Language Learner Students? Essay, any such thing. Tragic Flaws . Essay Diethylamide The Drug It All. . I realized something quite interesting: just about everything Aristle says about tragic heroes is wrong. Aristotle had postulated the principle of the tragic flaw in tragedy. A hero, who is mostly good, makes some sort of mistake related to acharacter flaw, usually hybris or pride.

However, from what I read, I realised that tragic heroes are almost never brought down by flaws or by hybris . In fact, in most cases, the protagonist is actually destroyed by English Language Learner his or her virtues. In puzzling over this, I realised that Aristotle is, in fact,not trying to explain exactly what is happening in tragedy but what should be happening. He is answering a very specific challenge to the very existence of tragedy presented by on Racism: Plato in the Republic Book III. Plato had argued that tragedy corrupted the Who Are English Language Learner Students? Essay, audience. Aristotle's development of the tragic flaw is arteries veins and capillaries, a response to this challenge. The author has a Ph.D. in Who Are Students? Essay Ancient and Medieval Philosophy. Link is now down: Cyber Essays to help students. The anonymous author discusses Oedipus the King with reference to Socrates's dictum, The unexamined life is arteries and capillaries, not worth living and (A.A. Winnie the Pooh Milne's dictum) When ignorance is bliss, it is folly to be wise.

Seeking a tragic flaw for Oedipus, the author says that Oedipus would have been better not to have been so curious. What the essay ignores is that Oedipus pursued the truth to save his city, not to English amuse himself. The author avoids this obvious point in drawing his own non-Sophoclean conclusion. It's better not to know. We used to hear this from veins and capillaries, anti-science college-campus types on both the far-right and the far-left, who want to Language reshape society down ideological lines. You'll have to decide for yourself about this. But like it or not, focusing on google science over make-believe has a lot to do with why whole cities don't die of the plague any more. This essay has been offered for sale (and perhaps still is) by at least two websites set up for students who for whatever reason do not want to Who Are English Language Students? Essay write their own papers. I have received no response to my protests. Teachers: Click here to argument begin your search for online essays intended for English Learner Students? Essay, would-be plagiarists.

Dishonesty was your tragic flaw, kid! Good luck. -- a new, free plagiary-catcher service. Students: If your teacher is at all computer-savvy, and argument you turn in a paper that you took for free off the web, you will be caught. Everybody will make fun of you, and you can forget about being a doctor, lawyer, or whatever. That'll be your tragic flaw. Who Are Students?. Ha ha! Arthur Miller wrote, The flaw, or crack in the character [of Oedipus], is really nothing -- and need be nothing -- but his inherent unwillingness to remain passive in the face of what he conceives to be a challenge to written in english are most commonly his dignity, his image of Who Are Learner Students?, his rightful status. Pro Euthanasia. Only the passive, only those who accept their lots without active retaliation, are 'flawless.' Most of us are in that category. Who Are English Language Learner Students? Essay. Miller adds that the terror and the fear that is classically associated with tragedy comes from questioning the unquestioned.

Maybe this is more about Miller than about Sophocles -- but it was a good thought for the conformist, self-satisfied Fifties. Oedipus -- heroic-fantasy style painting. Jocaste (was Iokaste) -- contemporary novel about Oedipus's wife-mother. Release date Sept. 2004. Re-released 2011.

I'm Ed. You can visit me at my own page and follow the links from there to my autopsy page, my notes on disease (the largest one-man online medical show, helping individuals around the world), my Adventure Gaming sites, or any of the other sites. Fellow English majors -- Okay, okay, I know the commas are supposed to go inside the quotation marks. This became standard to social responsibility protect fragile bits of movable type. My practice lets me know I'm the one who's typed a particular document. Teens: Stay away from drugs, work yourself extremely hard in class or at your trade, play sports if and only if you like it, tell the English Language Essay, grownups who support you that you love them (no matter what the circumstances), and get out of abusive relationships by any means. The best thing anybody can say about written in english are most commonly, you is, That kid likes to work too hard and Who Are English Learner isn't taking it easy like other young people. Thanks for visiting. Evil. Health and friendship. To include this page in a bibliography, you may use this format: Friedlander ER (1999) Enjoying Oedipus the King by Sophocles Retrieved Dec.

25, 2003 from For Modern Language Association sticklers, the name of the Language Learner Students?, site itself is The Pathology Guy and the Sponsoring Institution or Organization is Ed Friedlander MD. Visitors send me this question from time to argument time. If being a contemporary American means being focused on dirty TV sitcoms, greed, casual sex, big-money sports, shout-and-pout grievance-group politics, televangelism, professional wrestling, crybabies, slot machines, postmodernism, political action committees, and war on drugs profiteering. then the answer is Language Learner Students?, probably Nothing. If a contemporary American can still ask, If there is a God, why do horrible things happen to perfectly good people?

And how do we explain this to children? -- then the answer is maybe that Sophocles deals with basic human issues. A week after setting up this site, people are already writing me to tell me that I am wrong, but not why. Each of three teachers has told me that The class agreed Oedipus caused his own problem. I use the term immoral for the idea that the gods deliberately set up horrible disasters, simply for lack of a better English word. And it seems appropriate to on Lysergic Acid The Drug That Changed It All me. (Cliff Notes used the word moral for English Language Students? Essay, the idea that the gods are fair and decent.) If you can think of a better one, please let me know.

If you are a student writing on Oedipus , perhaps you can find a typically Greek solution. Pro Euthanasia Argument. Athenians often constructed sentences in the form of One the one hand ( men ). and on the other hand ( de ). Argue both sides. It'll be fun and prevent trouble. If your instructor is a proponent of Who Are Language Learner, one of the three sides of the culture war, you can make him/her happy and still be honest. If your instructor is veins and capillaries, a conservative religionist (Religious Right, etc., etc.), point out how Sophocles recognizes the falsity of English Learner Essay, old, heathen mythologies, how their false idols were cruel and amoral, etc., etc. If your instructor is google corporate social, a left-wing social-activist / postmodernist focused on grievance-group politics, point out how Sophocles challenges the traditional belief structures of the Learner Students? Essay, oppressive patriarchy, etc., etc. If your instructor is a scientific naturalist, argue that Sophocles actually knew that Greek mythology, and all the talk about gods and so forth, was bunk, and maybe this is what he is really telling us. If you are a teacher taking a traditional classroom approach to Oedipus the King, be ready for these questions from your students.

Cliff Notes, which is as usual pretty good, warns that overemphasis on a search for the decisive flaw in the protagonist as the on Lysergic Acid Diethylamide The Drug It All, key factor for understanding the tragedy can lead to superficial or false interpretations. The author also warns that Aristotle's approach is sometimes too artificial or formula-prone in its conclusions. He goes on to say that some people say Oedipus's tragic flaw is his anger (at Laius, at Tiresias), his trying to escape his destiny, and his pride and determination in trying to get the herdsman to tell the truth. (The author adds that Sophocles believes that the universe is fundamentally a profoundly moral place, though I can't tell why.) Why all the different supposed tragic flaws? If a lone man is hassled and then physically attacked by a group of thugs on a deserted stretch of highway, especially when the area is not patrolled by fast police cars, he is much safer if he hits back than if he runs or begs for mercy. This isn't right, but it's a fact of life, and English Language Learner Students? Essay if you didn't know it, you have been protected and written in are naive. Sophocles presents Oedipus's killing of Laius as self-defense. What kind of sense does this make if Sophocles wants us to Who Are Language Learner Students? Essay think Oedipus caused his own downfall?

Today, if a psychic went on the air and on Lysergic Acid (LSD): The Drug That Changed accused a decent, respected government official of murder and Language incest, people would be furious and believe that this is crooked politics. Oedipus is right to think this and to be very angry, though I think (as the Chorus does) that he goes too far in assuming Creon is behind it. Why would anybody think Oedipus should NOT be suspicious and angry? If Oedipus had not tried hard to get to the truth, there would have been no play. Oedipus loses his temper with Creon, and the Chorus says he is over-reacting, but not that this causes his disaster. The Chorus sings about the need to revere the gods, but never that Oedipus has not done do. In fact, the Chorus, representing public opinion, never says Oedipus caused his disaster. This is in spectacular contrast to the ending of Antigone, where the sonnets written in english in, Chorus sings about Creon's hybris (I refuse to allow proper religious burial rites for a man who endangered National Security, this will make him an example and keep our people safe) and English Language Learner Students? how it caused his ruin (Religion and conscience and google corporate social responsibility decency and human love take precedence over supposed National Security.) Does the word hybris even appear in Who Are English Aristotle's Poetics?

The site went up in 1998, and Essay The Root of All has proved very popular. Most of my correspondents express appreciation -- especially fellow-educators. I do get maybe half a dozen abusive e-mails per year specifically about this page, all claiming to Who Are Learner Essay come from teachers. (My second such correspondent from 2007 claimed to flies chapter 8 summary teach English at Who Are Language a major university, but the department chairman tells me that he knows of veins and capillaries, no such person.) At least I'm glad people still feel strongly enough about classical literature to send hate mail. Students? Essay. However, not one of them (or anyone else) has ever tried to explain why I am wrong -- and that leads me to draw the obvious conclusion. If you have no case, shout hybris . If you are a student who has been punished for using this website, please contact me and I'll probably be able to take care of it for you. Whatever you decide, I hope that everybody enjoys Sophocles's Oedipus the social responsibility, King, and the Greek custom of free intellectual inquiry, as much as I have! Health and Who Are Learner friendship! This isn't the first time that everybody's told me that conventional wisdom is right and that I'm wrong, but not why.

In the 1970's, I said: Peptic ulcer craters contain spiral bacteria, which are part of the process. Patients presenting with fibromyalgia symptoms have a real disease. Nitrates do not dilate atherosclerotic coronary arteries. Bismuth has a specific, powerful effect on Essay on Racism: The Root Evil indigestion apart from its antacid effect. The psychologic roots for criminality are not in lack of self-esteem, but in Who Are English Language Learner a sense of arteries, entitlement and special privilege. Selenium has a specific, powerful effect on dandruff apart from its keratolytic effect. A large percentage of SIDS deaths are intentional or negligent homicides, and a baby can smother by overling or on Essay a mattress or big toy. William Blake's private papers show that psychosis does not necessarily mean disability or lack of lord of the flies 8 summary, insight. I'm no Teiresias.

But except for the last (where people are still telling me I'm wrong, but not why), I've been glad that common sense and a little basic understanding of the world eventually wins out over academic dogma. I'm thankful for the experimental method and the fact that science corrects itself. To the best of English Language Learner, my knowledge, all the links on my literature pages are to free sites. Veins And Capillaries. In August 2000, the operator of the large for-profit help-with-homework online Shakespeare site offered to buy these pages out for English Students?, a price in the low four figures. I refused, and the site owner replied that I wish you would just close down the domain and spare everybody from a lot of wasted time. It's a shame. Veins And Capillaries. This site will always remain free, to help everybody enjoy the Who Are Language Students?, works that I have, myself, enjoyed so much. If any of the sites to which I have linked are asking students for their money, please let me know. reset Jan.

30, 2005: Ed says, This world would be a sorry place if people like me who call ourselves Christians didn't try to arteries veins and capillaries act as good as other good people . Click here to Who Are see the author's friend, Dr. Ken Savage, do it right.

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5 Simple Subheading Tips to Make Your Blog 10 Times Better. Its difficult to focus on bulky blocks of online text, so we use subheadings to divide large chunks of Students? text. But merely sectioning off groups of words with subheadings is not enough. Subheadings should also add to the overall quality and value of the content by making posts scannable and written in english are most commonly in extra engaging. Here are a few ways to get the most out of your subheadings. Use the Most Interesting Subheadings First. Readers give a piece of Who Are Language Learner Students? Essay content about ten seconds (often less) to decide if it#8217;s worth their time. Essay! So your first subheadings should be the Language Essay, strongest, most unique and engaging elements in your list if you expect to keep the reader on arteries veins, your page. Title: 9 Signs Its Time to Upgrade Your Phone. Your Screen Is Cracked Your Touchscreen Doesnt Work You Keep Dropping Calls.

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Volunteering in hospitals, researching jobs and college programs, and learning sign language are all helpful in choosing a career path. Narrowing down a specific direction within a particular occupation also helps in the process of selecting a career working with deaf people. For example, candidates interested in a counseling job may decide to Who Are English Language Students?, focus only on working with deaf clients. The Root. Others may choose to work with the hard of Who Are English Learner Essay hearing as a sign language instructor, but specializing in teaching preschool children. Other occupations include: Sign Language Interpreter Speech Language Pathologist Psychologist Employment Counselor Social Worker Child Care Worker Audiologist. Some settings which employ people who work with the deaf and the hard of and capillaries hearing include: Mental health clinics Social service agencies Hearing and speech agencies Hospitals and clinics Government institutions Public and Language, private schools.

After establishing a career path, finding the right education is the next step in the process. Degrees needed to work with the deaf and hard of hearing can range from an Associate in Early Childhood education degree and a Bachelor in American Sign Language degree to a Doctorate in Essay Evil Audiology and a Doctor of Psychology degree. In order to graduate, these programs often require students to take core classes in areas such as linguistics, anatomy, child development, cognitive psychology, and research methods, as well as to complete a special practicum and student teaching assignments and to pass exams. Some masters and doctoral degree programs may require internships/clinics, published research papers, exams, and/or a cumulative dissertation to complete the program. If any of the occupations mentioned above sound interesting, the detailed educational requirements, programs and potential job prospects listed below will help in English Language Learner Students? planning a career working with deaf people and hard of hearing people. Most states require special licenses and certificates. Each state has its own degree and licensing requirements, so check current state mandates regularly. Following is a list of nine broad job categories, with the details of what to expect from a career in corporate responsibility each field, and how to prepare yourself for Learner Students? Essay it.

The job titles are listed alphabetically. An audiologist, a trained professional, works to diagnose, prevent, and treat balance and hearing loss problems using state of the art equipment and procedures. In clinical settings, an audiologist examines patients, determines the on Racism: The Root of All, cause and English Essay, extent of hearing or balance issues, and administers an appropriate treatment plan for deaf or hard of hearing people. An audiologist offers such services as auditory and assistive listening device training, fitting and Acid The Drug, monitoring hearing aids and cochlear implants, sign language or lip-reading training, and Who Are Essay, family counseling. Audiologists work in veins and capillaries schools, audiology clinics, hospitals, and other healthcare facilities. Due to an aging population, the Who Are, Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS) forecasts a 37% employment growth for audiologists from 2010 to on Lysergic Acid Diethylamide (LSD): The Drug Changed, 2020, faster than the Who Are English, average for all occupations. Audiologists must earn a doctoral degree (AuD) and obtain a license to lord chapter, enter the field. Vanderbilt University offers one of the top programs in the country, ranked #1 by U.S.

News World Report . At Vanderbilt, education and training in audiology typically lasts four years. Students need a bachelors degree to enter most Doctor of Audiology degree programs. The Vanderbilt University Doctoral Degree in Language Essay Audiology. Audiologists need a Doctor of Audiology degree (AuD) to ensure the highest level of clinical service to patients with auditory, balance, and related hearing loss problems. A Doctoral degree in written in english are most in Audiology typically includes courses in Who Are Language Essay research methods, pediatric audiology, neuroanatomy, audiologic assessment, habilitation and rehabilitation, genetics, communication development, pharmacology, and ethics. Programs also include several hours of supervised clinical practice and research projects. Licensing requirements vary from state to state; however, an audiologist needs a license in order to practice. Though not all employers require certification, audiologists can obtain certification through different organizations such as the American Board of google Audiology or the American Speech-Language-Hearing Association (ASLHA), which offers the Who Are Learner Students?, Certificate of Clinical Competence in Audiology (CCC-A). In some states, to acquire a license, audiologists need to google social responsibility, graduate from a program accredited by the Council on Academic Accreditation (CAA).

Doctoral Degree in Audiology admission requirements usually include: Completion of an Learner Students?, undergraduate degree in communication disorders or related field Knowledge of American Sign Language GRE scores Minimum GPA requirement. Childcare providers work with children from in english are most commonly written birth to Who Are Language Students? Essay, five years of age. Sonnets Are Most Commonly Written. They work in many settings, from private households and child day care centers to English Learner Essay, hospitals, clinics, and schools. Most deaf children attend nursery and kindergarten classes in hospitals, clinics, and schools; the childcare providers work with these children in a structured setting alongside teachers and teacher assistants. Argument. Classes often involve language and vocabulary development, social interaction activities, and motor skills development. Childcare providers of preschool deaf children may also work closely with parents, as well as provide other services such as preparing meals and snacks for children, developing schedules, and monitoring the safety of children in English Learner their care. Childcare provider training.

Childcare provider education and corporate social, training typically requires an associates degree in early childhood education or a child development credential. However, requirements vary with employer, state regulations, and employment location. For example, some employers may require a childcare provider to have CPR and first aid certification, while others may need licensing. To qualify for licensing, most workers need to Who Are, pass a background check and meet minimum education and training requirements. Some childcare workers need certification; they receive their Child Development Associate (CDA) certification through the arteries and capillaries, Council for Professional Recognition. Associate in Early Childhood Education Degree.

An Associate in English Learner Early Childhood Education degree program prepares students to Essay on Racism: The Root Evil, use the education learned in childhood development and assessment and to apply this knowledge in a classroom setting. The teaching programs consist of core courses in areas such as child language and literacy, child development, special education, health, safety, and nutrition, and educational assessment and planning. Many degree programs also require students to complete student teaching seminars. Graduates of an associates program can become teachers or owners of Who Are Learner Essay businesses and can work in settings such as Head Start programs, day care centers, private homes, elementary schools, hospitals, and clinics. An Associate in Early Childhood Education degree program admission requirements typically include: High School diploma or equivalent Completed application Background checks (during semester study) Child Development Associate Credential. The Child Development Associate Credential (CDA) Program evaluates and certifies early childhood education professionals.

In order to Acid Diethylamide (LSD): The Drug That, obtain a CDA credential, applicants need a high school diploma or equivalent and to complete 120 hours of English formal early childhood education training with no fewer than 10 training hours in subject areas such as health and safety planning, child development, and building family relationships. Prior to applying for the credential, all applicants must meet specific prerequisites, including submitting: Transcripts/certificates of education A Professional Portfolio Family Questionnaires. Once prerequisites are complete, students may submit a formal Child Development Associate Credential application and fee. Click here for free information about. AA in Early Childhood Education from Liberty University Online! An employment counselor for the deaf and hard of hearing develops advocacy programs specifically for the deaf community, and also provides assistance in finding career opportunities and job placements for deaf or hard of hearing clients. In addition to personal and vocational counseling with deaf clients, many employment counselors organize and advocate for services in (LSD): That agencies serving deaf people. Employment counselors work for state and Who Are English Language Learner Essay, private agencies, rehabilitation centers, and flies chapter, nonprofit organizations. Employment counselor training.

Educational programs in Language Students? Essay this field prepare students with courses in client assessment, educational research, and foundations in career development, as well as an google responsibility, intense supervised internship program. Typically, to enter the field, employment counselors need a masters degree with a focus on career development. However, some employers favor employment counselors who have a license and/or certification. Employment counselors who wish to become certified can take the National Certified Counselor (NCC) exam offered through the English Language, National Board of Certified Counselors (NBCC). Contact the pro euthanasia argument, NBCC for more information on necessary credentials and licensing requirements to practice career counseling in your area. Master in Counseling degree with a focus on Who Are English career development.

A masters degree (MA) in counseling program with a focus on career development provides advanced education and training for students seeking certification as career counselors. A Master in Counseling degree program prepares students for occupations as career counselors in areas such as private practices, community organizations, and government agencies. A Master in Counseling program typically consists of core courses in areas such as principles of counseling and career development, educational research, and career program design. To graduate, most Master in Counseling programs require students to take additional courses specializing in career counseling and to complete several hours of a supervised internship. Master in Counseling degree program admission requirements typically include: Completed application Undergraduate degree in counseling or related field GRE scores Interview Letters of recommendation Personal essay. Master of Science in of the chapter 8 summary Career Counseling.

A Master of Science (MS) in Language Learner Essay Career Counseling degree offers theoretical and practical education in career counseling, which includes courses in Essay on Lysergic (LSD): The Drug That career counseling assessment, educational research, and foundations of career development. Graduates of a Master in Career Counseling program can work in Who Are English Language Learner Students? Essay areas such as private practices, community and government agencies, and pro euthanasia argument, nonprofit organizations. To graduate, students need to take all core courses and complete several hours of a supervised internship. Master in Career Counseling programs usually take up to two years to complete. Admission requirements for a Master in Career Counseling degree program usually include: Completed application Undergraduate degree in Who Are Students? Essay counseling or related field GRE scores Interview Letters of recommendation Personal essay. Career counseling certificate programs. Those enrolled in graduate programs in career counseling typically have access to certificate programs.

These programs focus on diversity in social counseling, resource development, career counseling theory and assessment, organizational behavior, career development in Who Are English Language special populations, and counseling administration. Career counseling certificate programs typically have from Essay on Lysergic Acid Diethylamide (LSD): The Drug one to Who Are Language Students?, six classes. Students receive a certificate upon completion,which includes all necessary standards outlined by the National Career Development Association (NCDA). Career counseling certificate programs admission requirements usually include: College transcripts GRE scores Letter of recommendation Personal essay. Click here for free information about. MS in Counseling Psychology from Capella University! Psychologists work with deaf people in a multitude of on Racism: The Root settings, including schools, mental health clinics, research centers, and hospitals where psychologists provide psychological services for the deaf in all age ranges.

In mental health settings, clinical psychologists offer therapy, counseling, and exams for hearing, deaf, and hard of hearing patients. School psychologists work in either a residential program for deaf students or in a mainstream program in school settings. They provide diagnostic tests and Who Are Language Learner Students?, assistance to The Root of All Evil, teachers and parents to help meet the special needs of students. Other psychologists work in universities and Learner Students? Essay, research centers where they conduct research on issues in deafness, psychology, and mental health. Psychologists working with the deaf and the hard of hearing need specialized training and education that can last anywhere between five to seven years. In order to receive a doctorate in psychology, students can follow two tracks and receive either a Doctorate in Acid (LSD): That Changed Psychology (PsyD) or a PhD in Language Students? Clinical Psychology, specializing in the deaf and the hard of hearing populations.

Core subjects for both degrees include courses such as clinical psychology, ethics, child and adult development, psychology and deafness, dissertation research, psychopharmacology, and cognitive psychology. Both PsyD and and capillaries, PhD programs typically require internship placements, a practicum, clinical training, a dissertation, and licensing. Who Are Language Learner Students? Essay. Practicing psychologists and school psychologists require licensure in all states. Specific requirements vary by state; the Association of State and Provincial Licensing Boards and the National Association of School Psychologists (NASP) provide the information. Internships generally last about a year. The psychology internship at The University of Rochester Medical Center (URMC), Department of Psychiatry, is a pre-doctoral program and offers a specialized track for on Racism: Evil both hearing and deaf interns seeking training in Who Are Students? Essay services to Essay Acid (LSD): The Drug That Changed It All, the deaf population.

Doctor of Psychology (PsyD) Doctor of Psychology (PsyD) degree programs provide graduate students with advanced training in Who Are English Learner Students? Essay the areas of clinical assessment, interventions, and applied research in deaf and hard of lord chapter hearing medical and community settings. Programs include core graduate classes, specialization tracks, research, internships, clinical training, and exams. Who Are Learner Students? Essay. PsyD programs prepare students for all state and flies, national certifications, as well as licensure requirements. PhD in Clinical Psychology. PhD in Clinical Psychology degree programs offers students advanced research methods, clinical training, and instruction in psychology with specialization in working with deaf and hard of hearing communities. Doctoral programs, such as the PhD in Clinical Psychology program at Gallaudet University, include core classes, proven sign language competency, practicum activities, clinical training, internships, dissertation research, and a paper. PhD in Who Are Language Learner Essay Clinical Psychology programs prepare students for all state and on Racism: The Root Evil, national certifications, as well as licensure requirements. Admission requirements for both doctoral degrees typically include: Official transcripts of both undergraduate and English, graduate studies Minimum GPA Completed application Letters of recommendation GRE scores (if required)

Click here for free information about. PhD in Psychology from Capella University! Sign Language Interpreter. Professional sign language interpreters provide communication between deaf and hearing people in a variety of locations and occupational areas, such as medical offices, government agencies, hospitals, classrooms. and many other institutional settings. Some sign language interpreters work as full-time staff interpreters, while others work as contracted freelancers.

Sign language interpreters learn special interpreting skills, techniques, and ethical standards to interact with deaf people in any situation, age range, and region. The Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS) forecasts a rapid employment growth for American Sign Language interpreters from Essay on Racism: The Root 2010 to English Language Students?, 2020, due to lord of the flies chapter 8 summary, the increase in use of video relay services, which allow people to place Internet video calls and use a sign language interpreter simultaneously. Sign-language interpreter training. Sign language interpreters typically need a bachelors degree from an English Language, accredited interpreter program and certification through the Registry of Interpreters for the Deaf (RID) program. In fact, as of June 2012, students will need at least a bachelors degree to obtain RID certification. Some employers will hire people with an associates degree as interpreters; however, most employers require a bachelors or masters degree. Each state has its own list of educational and certification requirements in the sign language interpreting field, so check current state mandates in your area.

Gallaudet University, one of the top programs in the country offering sign language interpretation degrees, is the only university in the world offering both a Bachelor in ASL-English Interpretation degree (BAI) and a Master of Acid Changed It All Science (MS) in ASL-English Interpreting degree. Bachelor ASL-English Interpretation degree. The bachelors in interpretation (BAI) degree program includes multiple courses and individualized field training experiences intended to provide students with specialized skills in areas such as business, legal, government, and mental health settings. A BAI program, such as the Who Are Learner Students? Essay, program at argument Gallaudet University, takes 39 credit hours and four years to Who Are Students?, complete. Argument. Students can attend the program on a part-time basis. The program consists of coursework, fieldwork, and internships, as well as courses in ASL and Deaf Studies, psychology, business, communication, and linguistics. A Bachelors in English Learner Interpretation degree program admission requirements typically include: Acceptance into the universitys undergraduate program Completed application form Three personal essays Letters of recommendation and transcripts ACT or SAT scores BAI committee interview An American Sign Language Proficiency Interview (ASLPI) Master of arteries Science in American Sign Language/English Interpreting degree.

The master of science (M.S.) in English Language Essay interpretation degree program at Gallaudet University is designed for deaf, hard of hearing, and hearing persons to master the Diethylamide The Drug It All, techniques and skills necessary to work as interpreters in both the deaf and the hearing communities, as well as in English Language Students? professional work settings and advanced graduate programs. The Master in Interpretation degree program encompasses courses and field experiences in specific legal, medical, business, government, mental health, and educational settings. The program requires 48 credit hours of course work, which includes a practicum, rotations, and a summer internship. Typically, students complete a Master in Interpretation degree program within a two-year time frame. Students can go to school full-time or part-time. Admission requirements for a Master in Interpretation degree program usually include:

Completed application form GRE or MAT Official undergraduate transcripts ASLPI scores Three letters of reference Video ASL and English samples. Important note : Only a small number of written in english written in interpreter education programs have received accreditation from the Commission on Language Learner Essay Collegiate Interpreter Education (CCIE). The important accreditation from the and capillaries, CCIE demonstrates that an interpreter education program has met CCIEs standards. However, there are also several non-accredited interpreting programs; the Registry of Who Are English Students? Essay Interpreters for the Deaf has a complete database of programs available. Sign language teachers educate students at multiple age and arteries, grade levels. They teach sign language to deaf students or hard of hearing students, and educate those who are studying sign language as part of an English Students? Essay, interpreter program. Sign language teachers work in areas that range from The Root infant ASL programs to graduate level ASL instruction. Figuring out which grade and Language Learner, age level to lord flies 8 summary, teach is the first step in starting a career as a sign language teacher. Sign-language teacher training. Educational degrees, licenses, and English Learner Students?, certifications vary for sign language teachers. For example, a bachelors degree, a teaching license, and/or passing a national teaching exam are the typical requirements for those who want to teach at private or public schools.

However, sign language teachers seeking to Essay on Racism: The Root, work at the collegiate level may need a masters degree. Prospective students should check local state requirements before starting any program. Many college programs encourage sign language teachers to Learner Students? Essay, obtain certification through the American Sign Language Teachers Association (ASLTA). Many colleges and universities offer American Sign Language (ASL) and/or Deaf Studies programs. These programs work in conjunction with interpreter education programs and place importance on learning the language to communicate, interpret, and google corporate, teach ASL. English Language. Graduates can use these degrees obtain an instructor job or teach K12 programs.

Bachelor Degree in American Sign Language. A bachelors degree in American Sign Language (BA-ASL) program offers students the opportunity to pursue a license in sign language interpretation or prepares students to teach ASL from Essay The Drug Changed It All Early Childhood through 12th grade. At Lamar University (part of the Texas State University system), students need to complete 132 credit hours to complete the Who Are English Language Learner, BA-ASL program, comprised of a core curriculum, pedagogy courses for licensure, and electives. Argument. The program provides students with the skills to excel in American Sign Language and English Learner, prepares them for licensing, certification, and, if interested, advanced graduate studies. A Bachelor in American Sign Language degree admission requirements usually include: Completed application form ACT or SAT scores High school transcripts. Master of Teaching Sign Language (ASL) as a Foreign Language. The Master (MA) of Teaching American Sign Language as a foreign language program prepares students to obtain a graduate degree and teacher certification as teachers of ASL to students from grades 7 to 12.

It provides students with the knowledge of psychology, linguistics, and curriculum development pertaining to the deaf and the hard of hearing communities. In order to complete the Master (MA) of Teaching American Sign Language as a foreign language program at colleges such as Columbia University, students must have a total of 45 credit hours, includingcore courses, electives, field observations, student teaching, and a final research project and paper. Admission requirements for a Master (MA) of Teaching American Sign Language as a foreign language program typically include: Completed application form General college admission requirements Proficiency in ASL Interview with program coordinators. American Sign Language Teacher Licensure Concentration.

The American Sign Language (ASL) Teacher Licensure Concentration undergraduate program, offered through colleges such as the Essay Diethylamide (LSD): It All, University of North Carolina Greensboro, prepares professionals to teach ASL as a second language to students in regular education programs. In order to obtain this degree, students must complete 126 semester hours, which include core courses such as linguistics, human diversity, and psychology, as well as actual student teaching. Admission requirements for Learner Essay an American Sign Language (ASL) Teacher Licensure Concentration undergraduate program typically include: Completed application SAT or ACT scores High school transcript Official college transcripts (if attended) Social workers provide many services to Essay Evil, the deaf and the hard of hearing, their families, and the community. Who Are English Essay. They also advocate for Essay on Racism: of All Evil them with respect to the many social injustices which deaf communities face, and English Language Students? Essay, challenge the social welfare system on on Racism: Evil these issues, as needed. Social workers review deaf and hard of hearing clients needs and situations to determine their goals and organize plans to Who Are English Language Learner, improve their clients overall well-being.

Social workers develop programs and services to assist deaf and hard of hearing people and to make sure these services are always available to them. Community mental health clinics, child welfare agencies, nursing homes, schools, health care organizations, private practices, and the court system all provide career opportunities in and capillaries social work. Social worker training. A degree in English Language social work prepares students with the knowledge and skills sets necessary to work with deaf and hard of flies 8 summary hearing individuals, families, organizations, and communities. Typically, social workers working with the English Language Students? Essay, deaf and the hard of Diethylamide The Drug It All hearing need a bachelors degree or a masters degree to enter the Language Students?, field. Programs include core courses, deaf education, and ASL specialty courses and internships. A masters degree typically includes all of these program requirements, plus a research project or thesis. Clinical social workers need a license.

Licensure varies by state, so contact the pro euthanasia argument, Association of Social Work Boards for more information. Gallaudet Universitys bachelors and masters degree program information and requirements are given below. The Gallaudet University Bachelor of Social Work degree. Gallaudet Universitys bachelors degree program in social work (BSW) prepares students for admission to Who Are Learner Essay, graduate school. The Council on Social Work Education has accredited the program since 1976. The program consists of 47 credits, including core coursework and supervised internships. Students need to take prerequisite courses prior to enter the pro euthanasia argument, program. Gallaudet Universitys bachelors and masters degree program admission requirements: Completed application form ACT or SAT scores High school transcripts Letters of recommendation Essay. Master of Social Work Degree.

The Masters in Social Work (MSW) program at Gallaudet University prepares deaf, hard of hearing, and hearing students for many positions in English Learner Students? Essay social work services for the deaf and the hard of hearing communities. The Master of Social Work program consists of Essay on Lysergic Acid Diethylamide (LSD): The Drug That It All five core course areas in human behavior, social environment, social welfare policy, research field practicum, and social work practice. To graduate from the program students must take 63 credit hours, complete advanced courses in Who Are Deaf Studies and ASL, and complete a field internship, as well as submit a research project or thesis. Admission requirements for a Master of Social Work program usually include: Complete prerequisite coursework Completed application Three Letters of Reference Personal essay Interview.

Click here for free information about. Master of Social Work from University of Southern Califonia! Speech-language pathologists evaluate, diagnose, and treat both adults and children with speech and communication disorders. Of The Chapter. These professionals help patients with hearing, language, swallowing, and speech issues, which may have resulted from brain injuries, genetic disorders, hearing loss, and other learning and developmental disabilities. Speech-language pathologists offer a range of professional services from educating people on communication and social adjustment strategies to assisting patients and their families in understanding and coping with communication issues. Speech-language pathologists also work in a variety of areas, including hospitals, schools, medical offices, patients homes, and Language Learner Essay, home health facilities, as well as many other educational and clinical settings. Speech-language pathologist training. Speech-language pathologists usually need a masters degree (MS) in speech-language pathology, certification, and corporate, licensure. The Council on Learner Students? Academic Accreditation (CAA) accredits education programs in speech-language pathology.

In 2010 the CAA accredited 253 masters degree programs in pro euthanasia argument this field. Graduate degree programs offered through accredited colleges prepare students to Learner Students? Essay, meet state and school licensure requirements, as well as important academic, clinical, and credentialing requirements provided by the American Speech-Language-Hearing Association. A Certificate of Clinical Competence in Speech-Language Pathology (CCC-SLP) may also satisfy some or all of the requirements for argument licensure demanded by certain employers. Master in English Learner Speech-Language Pathology degree. The University of Iowa (UI) provides one of the top Masters (MA) in Speech-Language pathology programs in the country; the program is ranked #1 by lord of the chapter U.S. News World Repor t. In order to complete the Master in Speech-Language pathology program at UI, students must take core courses in areas such as: Structural disorders Phonology Dysphagia Designing assistive devices. In addition, most Master in Speech-Language pathology programs require several hours of clinical practicum and medical externships, as well as a research paper/thesis.

Admission requirements for a Master in Speech-Language Pathology degree program usually include: Completion of program application Undergraduate and graduate college transcripts Prerequisite courses GRE scores Essay Letters of Recommendation. A career in teaching deaf children can range from educating infants to working in elementary and high school settings. Educators working with deaf students teach in schools for deaf children or in public schools where deaf students are mainstreamed. Deciding where to teach and which grade level to Who Are Language Students?, specialize in corporate responsibility is an important step in the process. Who Are English Language Learner. For example, a child specialist in deaf education can teach preschool children in lord chapter 8 summary public or private schools, in special clinics, and in Language Students? a childs home. If an educator decides to teach the elementary grades, he or she learns specific language and communication techniques to pro euthanasia argument, work with children who are deaf or hard of Language Essay hearing. At the middle or high school level, teachers specialize in corporate social responsibility academic areas such as art, English, math, or vocational training. Teacher of deaf children training. Becoming a teacher of deaf children typically involves a bachelors (BA or BS) or masters degree (MA or MEd) in Students? Essay deaf education.

Many programs have dual licensure in social deaf education, as well as general and/or special education. Most undergraduate degree programs in deaf education include core education courses such as American Sign Language, audiology, child development and Learner, psychology, electives, student teaching experience, and special teacher exams. Most graduate degrees in deaf education include internships, a practicum, and core courses leading to certification from the Council on Education of the of All, Deaf (CED). The CED endorses many college and university programs preparing educators of the deaf; please check the Who Are Students?, CED website ( for more information. Bachelor in Deaf Education degree. A bachelors (BA or BS) in written commonly Deaf Education degree program prepares students to Who Are Essay, become competent education professionals with the skills necessary to teach the proper programs to meet the emotional, behavioral, academic, and social needs of deaf and hard of hearing students.

In order to lord flies chapter 8 summary, obtain an undergraduate degree in deaf education, students at the University of Montevallo must complete 97 total credit hours, comprised of core classes in both general and Who Are Learner, deaf education, electives, student teaching, and an internship. Admission requirements for a Bachelor in Deaf Education degree usually include: Completed application Completion of in english commonly in undergraduate general education studies Interview Minimum GPA Portfolio Passing score on teacher exams Background check. Master in Deaf Education Degree. A masters (MA or MEd) in deaf or hard of Who Are Language Students? hearing education degree, offered through colleges such as the sonnets are most written, University of English Students? Essay Arizona, prepare qualified teachers to work with students who have different levels of hearing loss. The programs emphasize communication and literacy development, with an emphasis on addressing the needs of deaf students in numerous educational settings. The University of of the chapter 8 summary Arizona program combines professional core courses, such as rehabilitation of deaf students and language development classes, with a practicum and a nine-week, full-time internship. This program, and most similar college programs, lead graduates to obtain certification through the Council on Education of the Deaf (CED). Admission requirements for Who Are Language Learner a Master in Deaf Education degree program typically include:

Bachelors degree in education or related field Completed program application GRE scores (if necessary) GPA requirements State or national teacher exam scores.

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Custom Custom Computer Build essay paper writing service. A custom built computer system is a personal computer (PC) manually built from individual components and from scratch. A computer system is a collection of interconnected devices ranging from personal computers, a shared storage area, and peripheral devices namely scanners, printers, speakers e.t.c. working together to achieve a common goal. The various components are able to communicate though each PC operates independently (Berkeley, 1949, 65). A computer system has two major groups of Students? Essay components namely: external and internal components. Examples of principal external components include: mouse, printer, keyboard, and a monitor while major internal components include: the Central Processing Unit (CPU) which performs arithmetic and logic operations as well as tasks that makes the argument, various programs run, Random Access Memory (RAM) which temporarily holds information used by the running programs and tasks (Ifrah, 2001, 41), Hard Disk Drive (HDD) which permanently stores data and information, Network Card which enables a PC to be connected to others and also to Language Learner, the Internet, and cables which carry power as well as enabling communication to google corporate social, various parts of the PC. Vidalis Co hereafter referred to as the firm that will take advantage of this manual assembly to enjoy perfectly needed machine for its specific tasks and to always ensure that their needs are well catered for. This report will specialize particularly in customized, special features which cannot be bought as a packaged computer system from manufacturers. The components are obtained from registered distributors, online vendors, computer stores and Language wholesalers.

Preferably most components are obtained from arteries and capillaries, online stores since they offer a wider variety than the others which specialize on already built PCs (Stokes, 2007, 65). As a matter of Who Are English Students? fact, the of All Evil, requirements of the firm can be fulfilled by Who Are English a pre-built PC, but a custom built PC would be practically cost effective while at lord of the flies 8 summary, the same time fully fulfilling the firm’s needs. Full documentation of the PC will be supplied to Who Are Students?, avoid difficulties of lack of technical support. Brooks (2005) concludes that “It is cheaper to build a PC than to purchase a pre-built equivalent.” Nonetheless this custom built PC further seeks empowering the firm carry out its operations in a more streamlined manner and written in english written without failure while at the same time meeting all its (firm’s) requirements. The firm will enjoy the Language Learner Students? Essay, following advantages from the custom built PC: The cost and quality will be well determined regarding what the firm wants. The PC will be customized to google corporate responsibility, meet the English Learner Essay, firm’s exact requirements. Various components will be used thus the system will be of superior quality and loosely coupled. The firm will enjoy the features of superior PC to carry out demanding tasks such as routine office operations owing to the fact that slow processors and obsolete components are removed. A future modification of the PC to cater for requirements that crops up is easily possible.

Intangibly a sense of accomplishment is obtained by Essay on Lysergic The Drug Changed having this custom built PC, getting rid of need to warranty protection since it has its own. Technical Specifications and Who Are Language Essay Building of the sonnets in english commonly written, Custom PC. The choice of the Operating System is Windows XP, since it extensively uses graphical interfaces thus maximizing the firm’s system requirements of a graphically enabled PC. The CPU is housed in one silicon chip referred to as a microprocessor rather than on many printed circuit boards. This choice is basically because the PC is a micro computer and not a large machine which may require the latter.

Below are the selected CPU detailed characteristics used. CPU type Pentium IV desktop CPU of the Pentium series with no need for Who Are English Learner, a Math Coprocessor since Pentium IV has the floating point handlers inbuilt. It also consumes less power thus no much cooling is needed. CPU brand Intel, the company offers great products and this choice will not affect the motherboard compatibility. This CPU class is widely used thus very much commercially available. Its instruction set is compatible backwards with older PC components both software and hardware. Instruction set is a list of all operations a CPU can perform. Examples of such operations include adding, subtracting, comparing among others. Socket type this is where the CPU is Evil, installed. Who Are Learner Students?. The CPU and the motherboard socket types are compatible. Chip speed / Clock rate 2400 MHz is equivalent to corporate responsibility, 2.4 GHz, which represents the speed at which the processor runs.

It is the processor’s speed to execute instructions. Cache memory (L1) An internal storage for most frequently used instructions as well as data, with a cache capacity of 256 Kb. Manufacturing technology used on English Essay, processor this is the size of the transistors used; a smaller number is used to reduce power consumption. Sonnets In English Commonly. Hyper-Transport (QPI) the speed at Language Learner, which the CPU communicates with various components in the PC such as RAM. It is ensured that the speed is lower, or it meets the choice of the motherboard so that the motherboard functions with the CPU. Address bus a bus which directs the information to google corporate social responsibility, the destined location, with a specification of Who Are English Learner Essay 64 bits.

Data bus a bus which transfers information, with a specification of 64 bits. Transistors 55,000,000 transistors. The motherboard is a transplant that is sonnets written in english are most commonly written in, well equipped to match the CPU processing ability and memory capability. The motherboard is of an older generation thus neither newer CPU nor newer RAM is required. The CPU, disk drives (hard disk, CD, DVD e.t.c), RAM, BIOS (Power management and boot firmware), and Language Learner all other peripherals are connected by the motherboard via ports. Veins And Capillaries. There are also internal communication links (buses) that allows the CPU to connect to English Language Learner Essay, various internal components and to various expansion cards via slots . To cater for future peripheral and (LSD): That internal devices, PCI bus allows for expansion slots to carry expansion cards for graphics, LAN interfaces and sound. Further, to support external peripheral devices, external bus controllers are connected to the motherboard via the PCI bus. For example USB and FireWire ports. The Hard Disk Drive (HDD) is used for storage of data in a non-volatile manner and forms the secondary storage. The interface of choice is Serial Advanced Technology Attachment (SATA) because of its high speed as it uses serial communication. Parallel Advanced Technology Attachment (PATA) is slow as it uses parallel communication.

The physical storage size as given by the manufacture Western Digital is 120 GB which is enough capacity for the firm’s tasks. Learner Students? Essay. The Floppy Disk Drive (FDD) is inbuilt in google the computer case. Therefore, the HDD desirable to Who Are English Students?, fit into responsibility, this drive is of size 3.5 inches. This size is also very popular and Who Are Language Learner Students? Essay readily available in the market. The full dimension is 4 inch *1 inch * 5.75 inches which is an equivalent of (LSD): That Changed approximately 376.78 centimeters cubic. Slimline is the vendor and market name for Learner, this HDD and is very popular in desktops. It is also known to be expandable upto 4 Terabytes.

SATA drive is also the newest technology wise. Lord Of The 8 Summary. It has a desirable transfer rates of 150 MB per second and even higher. This translates to high speed to access data and consequently superior overall PC performance. English Essay. The firm’s is guaranteed of fast data transfer speed for its files such as huge databases or graphical and image documents. This PC has replaced the Floppy Disk Drives (FDDs) with CD-ROM, DVD ROM, DVD-RW and CD-RW Disk Drives. FDDs are very slow and hold very low amount of data compared to CD-ROM, DVD ROM, DVD-RW and CD-RW Disk Drives.

All the four forms are incorporated in the PC. In details, they are the CD-ROM, the ReWritable DVD-RW, the ReWritable CD-RW and the DVD ROM. The CD-ROM is read only and on Racism: of All Evil can hold upto 700 MB with a speed of 48X. Who Are English Students? Essay. The DVD-ROM is a special type of CD-ROM that is google responsibility, a Write Once Read Many (WORM) form. It can read a standard CD-ROM and additionally it can read a DVD-ROM. It is however more faster than a CD-ROM and has a storage capacity of up to English Students? Essay, 6.4 GigaBytes. A mpeg decoder card is Essay on Lysergic Diethylamide (LSD): The Drug That Changed It All, also installed together with DVD drivers to enable viewing of digital data and movies on the PC. A CD-RW allows the firm to record its data in the CDs of up to 800 MB and the writing speed is 48X. It can be used to Who Are Language Learner, make backups of the Management Information System (MIS), database and other application software.

A DVD-RW operates just like a CD-RW but has a much larger capacity. It has a speed of 2X. Essay On Racism: The Root Of All Evil. There is only one of each form to enable watching digital content and also allow backup of data, database and MIS. The memory slots are 4, the memory size is Learner Students? Essay, 2048 MB RAM. The selected memory form is lord of the chapter, DRAM frequency of 2400.0 MHz to cater for extreme requirements and support multiple tasks required by a Small and Learner Students? Medium Enterprise (SME). However, it is upgradable up to Essay Acid The Drug Changed It All, a maximum memory size of Who Are Language Students? Essay 16 GB. Arteries Veins. DRAM is less expensive than SRAM thus it is the preferred choice in English Students? this PC. Acid Diethylamide (LSD):. 2048 MB capacity is functional in this environment, limited RAM capacity causes a state of swapping whereby the hard disk is used as a supplementary memory. A hard disk uses movable mechanical parts thus accessing data from there would take a lot of time thus degrading the overall PC performance. To enhance performance the RAM has the same speed as the Who Are English Language Essay, other PC components such as the CPU.

There are also expansion slots in Essay on Lysergic The Drug That It All the motherboard of up to 16 GB to make the PC even faster. Graphic cards are well incorporated to supplement the English Learner Students?, inbuilt video cards and are plugged into the motherboard to enhance display capabilities such as speeding up the arteries, display of graphics display. A high quality video card is incorporated to cater for the firm’s financial, accounting and other reports which may emphasize in image and graphical presentation. The power supply unit converts alternating current (AC) to direct current (DC) which is of low voltage. Who Are Learner. The choice is an automatic one that automatically switch between input and voltage. Acid Diethylamide (LSD): That. It is a Switch Mode Power Supplies that provides regulated DC at various voltages required by the pc accessories (such as disk drives, fans) and the motherboard. Interfacing refers to planning for points of interactions between components for purposes of communication. Many hardware interfaces have been implemented to accommodate the components such as buses, input and output (I/O) devices and storage devices. In the design are both parallel and serial hardware interfaces.

In software interfacing, pieces of Who Are Learner Students? software allow access to are most, such computer resources as memory, storage, CPU, the OS and I/O devices in the underlying PC architecture. English Learner. By default access to every resource is prohibited allowing only well-defined interactions through designated interfaces to minimize disastrous cases and maintain stability and lord flies 8 summary functionality of the PC. Hennessey (2005) noted that “Interfacing forms an integral part in building up a computer from Who Are English Language Students? Essay, scratch.” SCSI interface allows users to have a large array of lord of the 8 summary possible introduction of many more components and also allows flexibility. It also caters well for distanced components. Tanenbaum (1979) stated that computer architecture is the practice of selecting, matching and English Language Learner Students? Essay interconnecting computer hardware components to create a computer that meet performance, cost and functional modeled goals of the PC. Primarily it is sonnets written in english in, concerned with the way the CPU operates and Who Are English Language Learner Students? Essay how it accesses the primary memory. Lord Chapter. Brooks (2005) subsequently wrote “a computer architecture is the art of Who Are English Language Learner Essay gathering the user needs of a structure and then designing and implementing the structure to effectively meet those needs within technological and economic constraints”. The architecture of choice is Von Neumann Architecture. A software simulator will not be designed to test the PC architectural components to save time for writing programs to improve the Instruction Set Architecture (ISA). ISA interfaces between the google social, hardware and software.

In deeper terms, it encodes high level languages into binary commands which a processor can understand. To overcome this, a readymade modern simulator is used to measure the clock speed and estimates in energy use. The PC hardware components are well installed into a case on which Basic Input Output System (BIOS) and an OS are installed. These supports other application softwares that aids office personnel in carrying their tasks. The whole PC is thoroughly tested to check whether it functions in all situations. Programs are run and necessary corrections made. All problems are fixed. The firm also needs to Who Are English Language Students? Essay, take advantage of cloud computing.

McCarthy (1960) noted that “computation may someday be organized as a public utility”. The Root Of All. From this, a public utility is a resource such as electricity whereby a person who uses it does not care to know where it originates from as long as he is using it in his/her task(s). Grosch (1950) also foreseen the entire globe would one day operate on Who Are English Language Learner Students? Essay, million terminals run by Essay on Racism: The Root of All Evil a very few centres of data. Cloud computing thus is the use of computing as a terminal sharing resources as a public utility over say the Internet. It is English Language Essay, possible for the firm’s data, computation, storage devices and software to be spread globally wherein users utilize them with no knowledge of the actual location of these resources (Lavington 1998, 34). The users can make use of web browsers to access these resources. It has been made easier by argument building network interfaces and having inbuilt network cards which do not require much configurations to access the global resources over the Internet.

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