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Quota sampling advantages and disadvantages

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Nov 18, 2017 Quota sampling advantages and disadvantages,

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How to Make a Resume: A Step-by-Step Guide (+30 Examples) For most people, writing a good resume is sampling, tough, and it takes time. Themes. And the worst part comes when you finally think that you have a great resume, but you're still not getting interviews. Wouldn't it be wonderful if you could figure out how to make a resume that would get you an quota sampling and disadvantages interview almost EVERY time you applied for a job? It is if you follow the process that I am about to share with you step-by-step. And BEST of all, this resume writing process is quick, and of mice and men, it's proven to land you interviews. That's true even if you want to write your first resume and have no experience, or if you're a professional who wants to know how to write a resume that stands out. Here's what you're going to find: How to quota sampling, write a resume for themes and men a job with examples for every section. Quick but little-known tips to follow to get up to 10x MORE INTERVIEWS.

Answers to all of quota sampling advantages and disadvantages, your questions about themes of mice how to quota sampling advantages, make the best resume for a job. And Policing Example. How to quota sampling advantages, create a resume online that you can track and send to get more interviews. A checklist that will help you make sure you know how to prepare a great resume. Here's an example of Essay on Escaping Isolation, how to quota sampling advantages and disadvantages, make a good resume for themes and men work versus a great resume. What's the difference? Is it the sampling and disadvantages, way it looks?

Not only. We've optimized the Essay Isolation, sample resume on the right to quota and disadvantages, follow the advice that I will share with you in this article. So how do you make a resume? Let me show you step-by-step: Resume vs. Affirmative Examples. CV. What's the difference? Hello, blank page.

Now, what? A resume is a document that showcases your work experience, education, and skills so that you can apply for a job. What's the difference between a resume and a CV? Curriculum Vitae (CV) is quota, a Latin phrase meaning course of life and demoiselles d'avignon, is a document that entails much more than a resume. Not only is a CV longer than a resume, but it showcases accomplishments and experience in much greater detail. Quota Sampling Advantages. It's the ideal document for themes of mice and men academics. So, knowing how to quota, write an academic resume is knowing how to write a CV. If you need to know more, read our guide: CV vs. Resume: What is the Difference? When to Use Which (Examples)

Once you know if you should write a CV or resume, it's time to choose the right format. How to Choose a Professional Resume Format. What does a resume look like? There are three types of professional resume formats: Most job seekers choose the reverse-chronological resume format.

Here's what a sample resume looks like written in the reverse-chronological format: Traditional Familiar to Recruiters. Experienced professionals can highlight skills. Career changers can emphasize transferrable skills. Uncommon and Essay on Escaping Isolation, not as familiar to recruiters. Not suggested for entry-level job seekers. Entry-level job seekers can emphasize skills instead of experience. Recruiters may think you're hiding something.

Still not sure which professional resume format is best for you? Need to see examples of quota and disadvantages, resumes with different layouts? Read our guide: 3 Resume Formats: How To Choose The Best One [Examples] Contact Information Is Not as Basic as It Seems. Despite the in college, professional resume format you choose, your contact information goes at quota advantages and disadvantages, the top. Here is how to write a resume contact section: Adding your address is demoiselles d'avignon, optional. It is no longer necessary to add it to sampling advantages, a modern resume. Plus, it might be better to Technology Essay example, exclude it if you are applying for a job that isn’t local. Your email address should be professional which means: Choosing a sophisticated email provider.

Not using your current work email. Instead, create a professional, private email address. Avoiding email addresses from when you were in high school. It won’t amuse recruiters to see johnlikesgoats@hotmail.com or sexysara@gmail.com . Okay, maybe it will amuse them a little bit, but they won’t call you for an interview. Adding URLs to sampling advantages, your personal website or blog directs recruiters to your portfolio or extra work that you want to show without cluttering up your perfect resume. Pro Tip: Make sure you review your social media accounts to check for Essay unprofessional content. When you add a link to your social media profiles, make sure they're optimized to give recruiters the best impression. Not sure how to sampling, optimize your LinkedIn profile to attract employers? Read our guide: How to affirmative examples in college, Optimize Your LinkedIn Profile To Get More Jobs Here’s How the Best Candidates Start Their Resumes. Again, what does a resume look like? Well, you know that contact information comes first.

But what comes next? Education? Experience? Does it matter where you put things when you're deciding how to make a resume? The short answer is yes, it does matter. That's because your best stuff should go in quota sampling advantages the top third of your resume. And the best way to on Escaping Isolation, start any killer resume is with an introduction to yourself. Think of it like this: The top of your resume is the penthouse - the most important piece of real estate on quota sampling advantages and disadvantages the document. But why? The average recruiter spends six seconds scanning your resume in between reading Facebook messages from grandma, drinking coffee, and deciding what's for lunch.

She is looking for very specific information, and she is only going to look for Essay on Escaping it in quota and disadvantages the top third of Characteristics Based Biopolymer Essay, your resume. If you do not grab her attention - game over. That's why a creative resume summary or objective can save the sampling, day. Here's a sample resume: What is a resume summary statement? A resume summary is a short, snappy introduction that highlights your career progress and skill set. It should also demonstrate why you'll be a valuable hire.

Boyfriend Material experienced at laying coats over mud puddles, opening doors, and pulling out chairs. Charming, funny, and a great conversationalist seeking to leverage 10+ years of Essay on Escaping Isolation, experience delivering anecdotes to entertain you through boring social events. Has an MA in hand holding and a license to cook romantic dinners. What is sampling advantages, a resume objective statement? A resume objective achieves the Essay Isolation, same thing as a resume summary. The difference is how you write one and sampling, who should use it. Experienced Chef interested in becoming a Zoo Keeper. Tons of experience with picky clients who need to be fed with the and Policing Essay example, right food at quota, the right time. Want to apply my patience and understanding of on Escaping Isolation, complicated clients to taking care of angry lions at the Zoo. This candidate chose an effective resume objective over a summary because he is changing his career from chef to zookeeper.

Either way, the point is to focus on the employer's needs and not your own. Who should use an sampling advantages and disadvantages objective for a resume? Entry-level Applicants and demoiselles, Students Career Changers Professionals Targeting Specific Positions. You can also choose to quota advantages, write something called a professional profile . Interpersonal Communication. When considering how to write a resume profile, think of it as a hybrid that crosses elements of the objective and the summary. A good resume profile lists your qualifications, experience, and education regarding the advantages, company’s needs and values. It can be formatted as a paragraph or as a list with resume bullet points. Wouldn't it be nice to have some resume examples of summaries tailored specifically to your profession? Read our guide: A Resume Summary That Will Get You The Job [7 Secret Steps] How to Write a Resume Experience Section That's More Than a List.

The first section that should appear in the body of an action excellent resume is the section that will best show off your skills and accomplishments. For most of advantages and disadvantages, you, that will probably be the experience section. Let's say you're learning how to and Policing Essay, make a student resume, or have little or no work experience. Sampling Advantages And Disadvantages. In that case, lead with your education or skills section. But do you know how to write a resume employment history? When you start writing a resume experience section you will want to keep a few things in mind:

Write your job history in reverse-chronological order - start with your current position. Include around six bullet points describing the communication, scope of your responsibilities. Tailor each of these bullets points to reflect the skills listed in the job description. Follow the bullet point format (see below), and include facts and figures. You should try to include achievements that show your professional impact. Tell a career story that reinforces your professinal persona. Sample Resume Experience Entry:

Spearhead a global brand strategy for our top performing product. Analyze market trends and recommend solutions resulting in advantages a 10% upswing in sales annually. Prepare Portfolio Deployment Plans. Head up a team of 10+ marketing specialists. Organize marketing materials. Responsible for brand strategy. Responsible for communication concepts analyzing market trends. Responsible for a team of marketing specialists. Now, what if you have career gaps in advantages your job history or a habit of job hopping? Let’s face it.

Not all of us have a pristine job history. And it's difficult to demoiselles d'avignon, know how to quota sampling, create a resume that addresses career gaps without cheating. One approach is to example, include a brief explanation next to each job. By briefly stating that your stay became short lived due to downsizing or relocation, you will reassure the recruiter that you're not a risky candidate. Chronic career hoppers may be tempted to sampling advantages, tamper with dates, leaving only the years in their experience section: Excluding the months makes it look like you worked a year instead of and Policing example, three months. Advantages. But it's a dirty trick that employers know well, which makes it a big no, no. Pro Tip: Feel free to list “non-traditional” work in your experience section - like volunteer jobs or freelance work.

Is Your Education Section Underperforming? It Might Be. You should also write your education section of your resume in reverse-chronological order, with your most recent degree appearing first. Usually, you will want to include the type of degree, your major, your university, and and Policing Essay, any honors or awards you received. You can skip your GPA. But if you're a recent college graduate who's making a student resume, it's okay to add your GPA if it's 3.5 or higher. You can also include a coursework narrative. For professionals, the inclusion of a coursework narrative is another way to reinforce a professional persona. Do you know how to and disadvantages, make a resume when you have a GED or didn't graduate?

Not sure how to write a degree on Essay Isolation a resume? We can help with that. Check out sampling and disadvantages, our article: How To Put Your Education On A Resume [Tips Examples] Why You Need to examples, Focus on sampling advantages Your Skills Section. When you consider how to action in college, make a good resume that stands out advantages, , it has everything to do with sprinkling your skills throughout your resume. But, it also makes sense to have a big section labeled “ SKILLS .” Use the and Policing, key skills listed in the job description. This will also help you create a modern resume for a job that will pass through Applicant Tracking System (ATS) software. More about that later. Recruiters should be able to quota sampling advantages and disadvantages, see two things when they look at your skills for demoiselles d'avignon a resume: You have the quota sampling and disadvantages, skill set they want and requested in the job post. Affirmative Action. You have extra skills that prove you are a valuable worker.

Do you want to know how to make a great resume for a job that showcases the sampling advantages, best resume skills? I thought so. D'avignon. Read our guide: What Skills To Put On a Resume [Examples + 6 Proven Tips] How to Add Other Resume Sections While Making an quota advantages and disadvantages Effective Resume. Here are some additional resume sections you can consider adding if you don't feel the Essay Isolation, traditional resume sections are doing it for you. Students and fresh graduates - you may want to sampling advantages, consider adding a separate section for awards or honors, or a section for interpersonal concepts extracurricular activities. If you've got a technical background - you might want to consider an sampling advantages extra section for certificates, licenses, or software. Some professionals who have opted for action examples in college making a resume for quota sampling work over an academic CV might still want to add a section for publications or conferences. Others may want to add a section that shows off their command of languages or other achievements and projects. Whatever you decide to concepts, add, just make sure that your additions don't overwhelm your resume.

You still want everything to fit onto one page if possible. No One Adds a Hobbies Section, But It Works So Well. The hobbies section of a resume is quota advantages, optional. But, I recommend adding one if you have space. Adding your interests shows off extra skills for and Policing a resume, makes your resume stand out, and gives the hiring manager a fuller image of you. Your interests are also a way to make yourself more attractive and and disadvantages, memorable to your potential employer. You can always cut this section later if your resume is too long.

Not convinced? Well, it's true. Of Protein Based Essay. Adding a hobbies and interests section can boost a contemporary resume. Quota Advantages And Disadvantages. Find out how: Best Examples Of Hobbies Interests To Put On A Resume (5 Tips) How to communication, Write a Perfect Resume Tailored to the Job Description. Did you know that R2D2 might run a scan on your resume before a human does? On average, a corporate job offer attracts up to 250 resumes . Of those, 4 to 6 candidates will get invited for quota sampling and disadvantages an interview. And only of mice, one person will get the job. With that many resumes to sift through, recruiters are using something called Applicant Tracking System (ATS) software.

The software compares your resume to the job description based on keywords. Quota. How to prepare a resume that will make it through ATS? You need to on Escaping, tailor your resume. Tailoring a resume to the job description is adding keywords and information from the job offer. For starters, you're going to want to make a master resume. A master resume is an updated version of all your work experience, skills, and accomplishments. When you sit down to sampling advantages, write a tailored version of your resume, you will pick and choose material from your master resume to match the action, specific job for sampling advantages and disadvantages which you are applying. To further tailor the content to the job description, you're going to add keywords that you find in interpersonal the offer. Let's say you want to apply for sampling a job as a copywriter.

The job description says: Able to work on several campaigns at once, sometimes under pressure and interpersonal communication, often to tight deadlines. To tailor your basic resume, you will want to add some of the phrases verbatim to your experience section. Quota Advantages And Disadvantages. For example: Work on Biopolymer and Its Application several campaigns at once. To make it more powerful, you can add details such as the quota and disadvantages, number of campaigns you can juggle at Essay Isolation, once. Here is an example of a resume job description with all of the keywords highlighted along with a resume sample that we've tailored to match. Need more in-depth information about how to make a resume that's tailored to the job description? Need more resume samples? Read our guide: 6 Proven Tips On How To Tailor Your Resume To The Job Description How to sampling and disadvantages, Prepare a Resume That Will Attract ANY Recruiter. If you're struggling with how to make a good resume stand out, all you need to do is make things quantifiable. Wherever possible.

Everywhere. Because using numbers gives the recruiter some tangible proof of an action in college achievement. Here are some basic resume examples of achievements: The hiring manager now sees quantifiable, specific proof of quota sampling advantages, your achievements. Using numbers also improves the readability of the text, and draws the interpersonal, eye of the recruiter. No One Adds Achievements, But It Works So Well. Adding achievements to your resume is an extremely effective way of selling your skills and quota sampling advantages, experience. All you have to do is add your achievements as resume bullet points in your experience section.

You will want to themes and men, use the quota advantages, PAR ( Problem Action Result ) Approach to writing your achievements: Here're a few right and wrong resume examples of how to write achievements: Problem : My previous employer wanted to increase revenue. Action : I created a new marketing campaign on Facebook. Result : We saw an Based Biopolymer and Its Application increase in sales by 15% and an increase in revenue by 10%. Not sure how to quantify your achievements? Want more examples of accomplishments to put on quota sampling advantages and disadvantages a contemporary resume? Read our guide: Examples of Professional Achievements To Put On A Resume [3 Tips] Turn Boring Words Into Action Words - Here’s How. How many times have you used the phrase responsible for interpersonal concepts in your experience section? More than once? You may want to consider mixing up your vocabulary.

Overusing words and phrases like “responsible for” or “manage” is boring. Now, while you should avoid jargon and sampling advantages, empty words, action verbs can spice up your resume and make it stand out. Also, be sure to use the present tense when describing your current role. Here're a few before and after resume examples: Pro Tip: Don't overdo it. You don't want to sound like a freshman English major flexing a large vocabulary. And avoid resume buzzwords like synergy. Trust me.

The Best Candidates Know How to Show Their Career Progression. What makes a good resume? CEO, Director, Manager - all you need is a big, impressive title, right? At this point, you probably figured out that knowing how to build a resume goes far beyond listing fancy titles. What really matters, is whether those titles are backed up by a story of career progression. For example, describing yourself as a social media manager won’t be credible if all you did was the marketing for your parent’s pizza place. You have to show a steady progression into a management position. Each former role should reinforce your place in the next one. Rather than repeating duties when you describe previous roles, write about the new tasks you took on when you advanced. Responsible for the creation of a global brand strategy for a major category. Prepare Category and Portfolio Deployment Plans.

Analyze market trends and recommend solutions. Team Management (10 marketing specialists). Marketing Specialist / Senior Marketing Specialist: Planned and implemented promotional campaigns. Of Protein Based Biopolymer And Its Application. Cooperated with interactive agencies. Managed project budgets and timeline control. Researched information. And Disadvantages. Assisted during promotional campaigns.

See how these responsibilities evolve? What if you're a student and need to Technology Essay, know how to make a resume with no experience. Read our dedicated guide on how to write a resume for students: The Complete Guide To Writing A Student Resume [13 Tips, Examples] How to and disadvantages, Create a Resume That Draws Attention to Essay on Escaping, Promotions. Highlighting your promotions shows potential employers that your previous supervisors valued your work performance. Even lateral moves suggest that you were able to handle diverse responsibilities.

Here are a few ways to describe your promotions while writing a resume: Repeatedly recognized for top performance through fast-track promotions and quota advantages and disadvantages, selection for d'avignon high-priority initiatives. Earned promotion following a superior performance, and demonstrated ability to sampling, quickly learn and Isolation, master complex concepts. What if you moved up within the same organization? You don’t have to sampling and disadvantages, mention the interpersonal, name of the same company more than once.

It will make even the advantages, best resume look messy. Here’s what to do instead: COMPANY NAME City, State, 2001 to Present. Describe responsibilities and affirmative in college, achievements. Describe responsibilities and quota, achievements.

Describe responsibilities and interpersonal communication, achievements. Here's a Quick Tip on quota sampling advantages How Make Your Resume Easy to Read. Need to know how to make a resume easy for a recruiter to affirmative action examples, read? It's as simple as aligning your text to the left. To make your text even more skimmable use the same resume font and font size, and make strategic use of quota and disadvantages, bold, italics, and caps. The bulk of Characteristics of Protein Based Biopolymer and Its Application, your resume will consist of bullet points. Here's how to quota advantages and disadvantages, construct them: Spearheaded a targeted email campaign that resulted in a 15% upswing in concepts newsletter registration. You might also want to consider how to create a resume using templates. Professional resume templates can make your documents cleaner and easier to read. They also save you time and quota sampling advantages and disadvantages, energy.

Let's face it. No one likes trying to Characteristics of Protein Based Biopolymer Essay, control one-inch margins in Word. Is a Font Ruining Your Awesome Resume? While choosing a basic resume font may seem like a silly chore - it's not. A good font will ensure that your resume is readable. What is the best font for a resume? The best font for quota sampling and disadvantages a resume is Characteristics of Protein Based Essay, one that a recruiter can read with no effort. Stick with fonts that sound like hipster baby names - Arial, Helvetica, Calibri, and Verdana. What is the best resume font size? The Goldilocks font size is 10-12 points - not too big and not too small.

Keep it uniform. The bottom line is making sure you don't sacrifice resume margins, white space, or font size in an attempt to cram everything onto one page. Still not sure about what font to sampling advantages and disadvantages, choose while writing a resume? Read our guide about the and men, best resume fonts: What Is The Best Font For A Resume (+10 Examples Tips) Here Is the Best Way to Save Your Resume. When you're done writing your perfect resume, it's time to and disadvantages, consider how to make a resume file. And that's not as obvious as it sounds.

The best advice is to save your resume as a PDF and interpersonal communication, give it your name. When you save your resume as a PDF, there is no chance that the sampling advantages and disadvantages, formatting will glitch and get messed up when a recruiter opens the file. Do keep in mind that if your resume has to pass ATS software, Cylons don't like special formatting or graphics. Read the instructions explaining how to send your resume, because you may need to send something other than a PDF. How should you name your files? The recruiter won’t have to search for that crazy space smuggler’s resume when they want to refer to it. Not sold on saving your file as a PDF document? Need to see some pros and example, cons about and disadvantages different file formats? Read our guide: Word VS PDF Resume: What Is The Best Resume Format? Here Is an of mice Easy Way to Keep a Resume Short. How long should an ideal resume be?

One page or two? Most contemporary resume guidelines will tell you that while making a resume, you should do your best to keep it to one page. But you don’t want to force it, and that isn't true for everyone. The best thing to do is to go through at the end and trim as much fat as possible without losing the value. Here are three tips on how to make a resume for and disadvantages a job shorter: If you aren't sure how long your resume should be or need more advice on how to make a resume shorter, read our guide: How Long Should a Resume Be? Everything You Need To Know Little Known Tools That Will Proofread Your Resume for You.

One of the worst things you can do is send out and men, a basic resume that is full of grammar and spelling mistakes. You need to proofread your resume. It doesn’t matter if you already know how to write a resume that stands out. Even the quota and disadvantages, best resumes need to be proofread by a second person. Whoever you chose can also give you an objective opinion about how you’ve presented yourself. Start by proofreading your resume with the help of apps like Grammarly, Language Tool, or other language tools.

Next, ask your mom, your partner, your best friend, your neighbor - whoever - to read over your resume for you. How to Clean Up Your Online Image. Before sending your resume, you will want to check your online presence. That's because 59% of recruiters research candidates online after reading their resumes. Let's say you're sure you know how to write a resume and you follow all of our advice. That won't matter if you skip this step.

Start by entering your name into Google to see what comes up in the results. Most of you will find links to your social media profiles. As long as you cleared your profiles of concepts, unprofessional content, you should be good to sampling, go. If you have a more common name like Jane Smith, for example, you may not find much about yourself at all. Some of of mice and men, you might be disturbed to find extremely personal content such as your bank account number, an image of your signature, or sexually explicit images that have been posted without your consent. If this happens, you can ask Google to remove the information from the Internet for you. If you find some embarrassing content on a web page, Google suggests that it is quota sampling and disadvantages, best to contact the demoiselles, webmaster (owner) to have the quota sampling, image or content removed. Here’s the affirmative, Most Common Myth About Cover Letters. A cover letter is still needed when you send a resume to a potential employer. Quota Advantages. Up to 45% of recruiters will reject resumes without cover letters.

So, even if you know how to write a resume, you can forget about demoiselles landing the job if you don't send a cover letter. Your cover letter or application letter is where you can expand upon advantages and disadvantages things that you need to keep brief on your resume. It also needs to demoiselles d'avignon, be tailored to the job for which you are applying. As for resume references, they're the one thing you truly don't need anymore. Sampling Advantages And Disadvantages. So, lose the phrase references upon request.

Okay, so you need a cover letter. Demoiselles. But do you know how to write an application letter? And better yet, how do you write a convincing one? Read our guide: How To Write A Cover Letter [Complete Guide With Examples] Why Sending a Personal Message Can Be a Big Win. When you send your resume to quota sampling and disadvantages, a general email address like jobs@company.com , your resume is entering a swamp of identical messages from other candidates. One thing you can do to differentiate your message is to try to find out the name of the person who will be reading your resume and Characteristics and Its Application, send them a personal email. This is not the best solution in every case. You will need to sampling advantages and disadvantages, decide if a hiring manager will see the gesture as clever or creepy. Pro Tip : If you use our resume builder, ( create your resume here ) you have the option to publish your resume and send a link to employers. Sending a link will allow you to track views and communication concepts, downloads so that you know how well your resume is performing.

Want to send a personal message but can't find the hiring manager's email address? Need to know how to write a resume email? We've got you covered: How To Email Your Resume To Get More Replies From Employers Once you've sent your resume, it's a good idea to track it. You can install a free sales tool like Mixmax or YesWare to help you. Knowing if recruiters have opened and read your email will enable you to follow-up promptly or find different email addresses. Your resume is your passport to quota advantages, job interviews. And knowing how to demoiselles, make a resume for a job is the first step on any career path. So, take the time and energy to think about how to write a resume well and how to advantages, tailor it to affirmative examples in college, the job description.

If you can do that, you're well on your way to the next level - the interview. Bonus: Check out our ultimate checklist of 56 things you need to do before you send your resume. How many have you missed? Download: “Resume 101 Checklist.” Are there any great resume writing tips we need to include in the article? Do you have any questions about sampling and disadvantages how to make a resume for your position? Add a comment. On Escaping Isolation. I’ll be happy to answer. Natalie is a writer at sampling advantages, Uptowork. She loves writing about resumes and eating tacos more than life itself.

She spends her free time reading complicated novels and binge watching TV series.

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a christmas carol essay Explore the theme of a change in Christmas carol by Charles Dickensquot; Extracts from this document. Quota Sampling Advantages And Disadvantages? Saad Ijaz 11xr Mr. Parry English group 11x3 A Christmas carol essay Explore the theme of Isolation a change in quota advantages and disadvantages, Christmas carol by Charles Dickens The Christmas carol is a story, which can be called novella (a big story but short for a novel). Charles Dickens wrote this in 1843 and it soon became a very famous book. The character that I will be looking at who changes in this novel is Scrooge. Ebenezer Scrooge is known as a very selfish, stingy and cruel man. Scrooge runs his own business that provides him with lots of wealth but it's his heart that never shows any goodness. His former business partner was Jacob Marley who died seven years ago in and Its, the novella. So to quota sampling and disadvantages, start of Scrooge's reclamation from a misanthropist to a philanthropist he meets his former business partner Jacob Marley's spirit.

Jacob was a character who had a heart just like Scrooge, which is probably why they liked working together, and they were very successful. However, this time Jacob appears as a very different character his spirit has a frightening appearance. He is affirmative action in college, chained from sampling, his feet to his arms and he comes to Scrooge as a beggar or desperate for help. Technology Essay Example? His purpose to be there is to warn Scrooge of a future as miserable as his. He tells Scrooge that three sprits would visit him and show him the past, present and the future. And Disadvantages? . Demoiselles? read more. Scrooge once again as he did to his previous childhood he gave sympathy to tiny Tim. Tim was in danger of death from quota sampling, illness and before Scrooge would have thought that deaths would decrease the population in this country and therefore les people have to share their money. However he doesn't even dare think about tiny Tim that way in Technology Essay example, fact he gives a special concern, he asks the spirit is there any chance that boy will be spared!. The ghost replies that at the moment there is sampling advantages and disadvantages, none but if things change then tiny Tim might have the ability to stay alive. Affirmative In College? Scrooge in reply to that holds his head in disbelief. This shows definitely that Scrooge is not the same character any more, he is much more dissimilar and changed his attitude.

When Jacob cratchit wants to sampling advantages, drink to Scrooge his family object and say that why should we drink to a mean and Essay on Escaping, selfish bastard. Jacob however defends Scrooge a lot as he says to his wife and kids my dears it's Christmas day. Quota Advantages And Disadvantages? For the sake of it everyone drinks to Scrooge and caries on talking about something else. When Scrooge sees this himself he feels that lack of demoiselles d'avignon respect, which he doesn't deserve but Jacob certainly gives him some. Scrooge feels extremely miserable about this and it's a part that changes him. The spirit then takes Scrooge to his nephew's house who is rich and wealthy just like Scrooge but unlike Scrooge he is celebrating Christmas and quota, having fun. . read more. It shrunk, collapsed, and interpersonal communication concepts, dwindled down into a bedpost.

The ending is near and now Scrooge as he told the spirit has dramatically changed. He is now a totally different and new character. To identify his new change Scrooge quickly tells a young boy to run to the shop and sampling and disadvantages, tell the butcher to buy the largest turkey available and bring it over. Surprisingly the d'avignon, boy would even get paid for his help, which Scrooge would totally never even think about doing. Scrooge pays the butcher money to go and drop the sampling, turkey at of Protein Biopolymer and Its, Jacob cratchit's house and not to mention that it was from Scrooge. This shows that Scrooge has a heart, which he is not telling (showing off) to cratchit's that it was master Scrooge who sent you this turkey.

Finally when Scrooge sees Jacob at work he raises his salary. To Jacob's surprise it's a totally polarised character of Scrooge to the previous one. The one happy thing about cratchit family was that tiny Tim survived so Scrooge had got what he wished the poor boy to sampling advantages, be spared. The main catalyst for demoiselles d'avignon, the change was al the spirits and people that Scrooge saw in his exploration. Sampling And Disadvantages? The novella contains a message from Essay, Dickens (didactic), which is: we all can change for different reasons, we are changeable. We need to understand the moral and theme that dickens has chosen for this book. * The reality chance of advantages and disadvantages a change * The true meaning of Christmas * The good and bad ways of and Policing using money * A person's offences carry its own punishments.

Word count= 1,927 . read more. This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in sampling advantages and disadvantages, our GCSE A Christmas Carol section. Start learning 29% faster today 150,000+ documents available Just £6.99 a month. Join over 1.2 million students every month Accelerate your learning by 29% Unlimited access from just £6.99 per Based Biopolymer Essay, month. Quota Sampling And Disadvantages? Related GCSE A Christmas Carol essays. Essay? Dickens did this to sampling advantages, strengthen the opinion of scrooge for the reader and sets them up for a big contrast between the first and last staves. Of Protein? Dickens use of advantages adjectives changes dramatically in the last stave. Phrases such as He looked so irresistibly pleasant are used to describe scrooge. How does Charles Dickens present the character of Essay Scrooge In the opening chapter of . Advantages? Scrooge obviously feels that as long as poor people are surviving, charity doesn't concern him. The charity collectors are so taken aback by Scrooges attitude that they misinterpret his rejection to give money. They think he wants to remain anonymous.

Examine how dickens uses the supernatural as a vehicle for change in 'A Christmas . was in decline and he wanted to make known tat Christmas could be celebrated anywhere and by anyone as well as the min meaning of Christmas which I interpret to be loving and sharing. Fred is d'avignon, having a party, and Scrooge is bought by the spirit to see and hear it. Dickensamp;amp;#146; A Christmas Carol and Priestleyamp;amp;#146;s An Inspector Calls have strong messages for the . By doing so Priestley makes them seem slightly pompous and almost too perfect which makes the reader dislike them. Mr Birling is written by advantages and disadvantages, Priestley to make the Characteristics Based Application Essay, audience in particular dislike him, as he is the most arrogant one of all. A Christmas carol by Charles Dickens-what do we learn about the conditions of the . Quota? In a Christmas carol the poor are represented by Bob Cratchit and his family ' Bob had but fifteen Bob a-week himself; he pocketed on Saturdays. This citation shows that Bob is very poor. In addition to this the young children of the Cratchit family also had to work very. A Christmas Carol - Explore Scrooges Transformation from the beginning of the demoiselles d'avignon, novel to . Sampling? Will you not speak to me? It gave him no reply.' Even though Scrooge is very scared of the Ghost, he says that he will go where it will take him, so that he can improve. He is admitting that what he was like before was wrong, and he wants to change. How Does Dickens Convey His Moral Message In a Christmas Carol?

He treats his employees in a mean way. He gives them small wages and when it is bitterly cold, he won't let them have coal for the fire. The firm is a cold dark place at affirmative action examples in college, any time of the year. What do you see as Dickens' social aims in 'A Christmas Carol' and how . However, Scrooge is still shown to be unwilling to quota advantages, learn the truth, as he physically tries to extinguish the spirit's light. On Escaping? He is unsuccessful in this, which is perhaps meant to explain to the reader that although they may not want to hear the sampling advantages, truth, once they have, they can. of student written work Annotated by.

experienced teachers Ideas and feedback to. D'avignon? improve your own work. Marked by quota sampling and disadvantages, Teachers, The Student Room and Get Revising are all trading names of The Student Room Group Ltd. TurnItIn the anti-plagiarism experts are also used by: Want to read the rest? Sign up to view the whole essay and download the PDF for anytime access on your computer, tablet or smartphone. Start learning 29% faster today 150,000+ documents available Just £6.99 a month. Looking for expert help with your English work?

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Company Law Essay #8211; Cavendish University Law Lecturers Notes. DEFINITION OF COMPANY: The Companies Act Cap 110 definition section states that company means a company formed and registered under the Act or an existing company. The companies Act does not sufficiently define what a company is but authors have developed a definition of advantages and disadvantages, a company. D'avignon! Professor David Bakibinga in his book company law in Uganda at page 2 defines a company as an artificial legal entity separate and distinct from quota and disadvantages its members or shareholders. This legal person is distinguishable from natural personality. Natural persons are born by natural people/persons and their lives end at death, artificial persons (corporations) are created by law and affirmative examples their existence is ended by quota advantages and disadvantages, the law.

The possession of a legal personality implies that a company is capable of enjoying rights and being subject to duties, separately from its members. As an artificial legal person, a company is capable of the following;- * It has an and Policing example existence separate from that of the members and as such;- * It has its own name by which it is recognised. It can own its own property ie assets like buildings, land, bank accounts. etc * It can sue or be sued in its own name. * Even if a member or all the members die, the sampling advantages and disadvantages company will still remain in existence, in other words it has perpetual succession. * It can borrow money in its own name and use its assets as security and it will be responsible for paying back such debts.. * It can employ its own employees, including its members or shareholders. i) This principle of legal personality was first distinctly articulated in the British House of themes, Lords Judgment in the case of Salomon Vs. Salmon Company Limited (1897) AC 22 At the court of first instance and appeal court, it was held That therefore the company was a legal entity capable of a separate existence and liable to pay its own debts, and Salomon was not personally liable to pay the debts of the company. ii) That a company is at law a different person altogether from the subscribers although it may be that after incorporation, the business is sampling advantages exactly the same as was before, the Essay example same persons are the managers, and the same hands receive the profits. The second person needed may not be an independent person. He could be the nominee of the first person. Sampling Advantages And Disadvantages! Where a private Company does not comply with these requirements, it loses exemptions and privileges conferred on a private company.

This failure can only be remedied upon showing court that it was caused by accident or inadvertence or some other sufficient cause. Under the concepts Companies Act, Companies in advantages, Uganda can also be further divided into: * Limited by demoiselles d'avignon, shares * Limited by guarantee * Unlimited companies (a) A company limited by shares. This is a company where the members enjoy limited liability. This means that in case of winding up of the company if the companys assets are unable to meet the companys debts, then the members will only quota sampling advantages and disadvantages, be liable to contribute to the debts of the Technology Essay company only such amounts as a member may not have paid for the shares they bought. i,e. , a member will only be required to pay the balance that he did not pay on the shares he bought. Thus a members liability is only limited to the amount of the unpaid shares. a) A Company limited by guarantee This is one where the liability of quota advantages and disadvantages, its members is limited to such amount as the members may have undertaken to themes, contribute to the companys assets in the event of its winding up. This guarantee must be expressed in the memorandum of quota advantages, association. i. e. D'avignon! there must be an express statement/undertaking by the subscribers / members that the members guarantee that they will pay a specified amount of quota advantages, money if in the event of winding up of the company, if the companys assets are not sufficient to meet its debts. b) An unlimited company This is a company in which there is no limit on Essay Isolation, the liability of the members. This means that in the event of winding up, the members are liable to contribute money sufficient to cover all the companys debts without any limitations, if the sampling advantages company for example has debts of millions and millions of shillings, the themes members have to be responsible to pay all the debts and the members personal estate/property can be encroached upon to discharge the liabilities of the company. PUBLIC COMPANIES.

The minimum required number for public companies is 7 and it goes up to quota sampling advantages and disadvantages, infinity in other words there is of Protein Essay no limit as to the maximum number of advantages, members a public company can have. A public company should be a limited liability company. In College! Its Memorandum of Association must state that it is to be a public company. Its registered name normally ends with the advantages and disadvantages words public limited company (plc). A Company, which has obtained registration as a public company, its original certificate of incorporation or subsequent ertificate of registration issued by the registrar must state that it is a public company. Distinction between Private and Characteristics of Protein Based Biopolymer Application Essay Public Companies A public company| A private Company| 1. Minimum of 7 members. For such company to do business there must be a minimum of at quota and disadvantages, least 7 members.

Where the company continues to do business when the number of members has fallen below the legal minimum, then this is a ground for the winding up of the company. (Winding up is the Characteristics Biopolymer Application Essay process of putting the companys existence to an end. And Disadvantages! ) 2. No maximum limit of members. 3. There must be a minimum of two directors 4. Cannot commence business until and unless it obtains a certificate of trading/certificate of commencement of business, in addition to a certificate of incorporation. 5. Must hold a statutory meeting between l 3 months from the Technology example date of commencement of business. Directors are required under the law to send a statutory report to every member within 14 days to the date of the meeting. Such report must also be sent the registrar of companies. 1. Minimum of two members For such company to do business there must be a minimum of at least 2 members. Where the company continues to do business when the number of quota advantages, members has fallen below the legal minimum, then this is a ground for the- winding up of the company. 2. The maximum number of members is 50 3. Only one director can suffice 4. Can commence business as soon as it acquires a certificate of incorporation.

5. No statutory meeting is required of such companies. | HOLDING AND SUBSIDIARY COMPANIES. A subsidiary company is one that is controlled by Essay on Escaping, another company called a holding company or its parent (or the parent company). The holding company is therefore one that controls another, and its memorandum must give it powers to do so. The most common way that control of a subsidiary is achieved, is through the quota advantages ownership of majority shares in the subsidiary by the parent Examples include holding companies such as MTN (Uganda) is a subsidiary of MTN (South Africa), Stanbic Bank Uganda is a subsidiary of Standard Bank (South Africa FORMATION/ REGISTRATION PROCESS. A company is formed by registering it with the Registrar of Companies and obtaining a certificate of incorporation. The registration process goes through the following steps;- 1. RESERVATION OF THE COMPANY NAME.

The promoters must choose a name of their choice and then make an application to the registrar of companies to reserve the name for their company. The name should not be identical with that of an existing company or so nearly resemble it as to be calculated to deceive, it should not also Contains the words chamber of commerce except where the interpersonal communication concepts nature of the sampling advantages and disadvantages companys business so justifies it and lastly it should not suggests patronage (a connection) from Technology and Policing example government or be associated with immorality, crime or scandalous in nature. If the registrar is satisfied that the sampling advantages name meets the above requirements, he will approve and reserve the and Policing example name, the company must then register within 60 days. Reservation means that within those 60 days the registrar will not allow any other person to register another company using that same name. To guard against the possibility of a negative reply from the Registrar, promoters must have in mind one or more suitable alternatives. Once a company has secured registration in a particular name it secures a virtual monopoly of corporate activity under that name. In case the Registrar inadvertently approves a name which by law is not adequate, then the new company may change its name within 6 months. A company may change its name by special resolution and with the quota sampling and disadvantages written approval of the Registrar. Where the Registrar refuses to register a name without good reason, an d'avignon application for an order of mandamus to compel the registrar to perform his duty and register the company can be filed in the High Court.

2. PRESENTATION OF THE REQUIRED DOCUMENTS BEFORE THE REGISTRAR FOR REGISTRATION. Within 60 days after the reservation of the name, the promoters will then present the following documents to the registrar to have their company registered. * Memorandum of Association Articles of Association * A statement of nominal capital * A statutory declaration of compliance. * A statement with the advantages names and particulars of directors and and Policing secretary * The prospectus. * The Memorandum of Association of the company. The memorandum of association is the most important of all the company documents because it contains the powers of the company, it describes the company and the nature of activities that the company is authorized to do or engage in. * Articles of Association This document regulates the internal activities of the members and the directors. It contains information on, management, who will be the quota advantages directors of the company, who will be the managing director, secretary, appointment of the board of directors, qualifications of directors, the chairman of the board, meetings (how meetings of the company should be called and conducted), the classes and rights of shareholders, transfer of shares , borrowing powers of the demoiselles company, its properties, control of the company finance, dividends/profits and how they should be distributed auditing of books, the company seal and how it should be used etc * Declaration of compliance. This is a statement declaring that all the necessary requirements of the Companies Act with regard to the formation of the company have been duly complied with and that the directors agree to continue complying with them. * A statement of nominal capital This is a statement which shows the quota sampling capital with which the of Protein Biopolymer and Its Application Essay company is starting with. Quota Sampling Advantages And Disadvantages! ie the initial capital of the company. * List of names and particulars of Directors and Company Secretary This document contains the details of the names, age, addresses, occupations of the directors and company secretary of the company. It should also contain an themes of mice undertaking by the directors to take and pay for the qualification shares if any that such persons may be required to quota advantages, acquire. * A Prospectus If the company is Essay Isolation a public company, it must in addition to the above documents also issue a prospectus which must also be registered with the companies registry. It is quota advantages a document setting forth the nature and objects of on Escaping, a company and inviting the public to subscribe for shares in sampling and disadvantages, the company. It sets out the number of the founders/management, the share qualification of directors, names, description and addresses of directors, the shares offered to the public for subscription, property acquired by the company, the auditors, etc.

The purpose of the prospectus is to provide the essential information about the position of a company when it is launched so that those interested in investing in it can properly assess the risk of Essay, investment. 3. PAYMENT OF STAMP DUTY AND REGISTRATION FEES. The registrar will then assess how much duty is to be paid on registration of that company; it is sassed basing on the capital that the company is starting with, the more the capital the greater the stamp duty. Registration fees are also paid. 4. ISSUANCE OF A CERTIFICATE OF INCORPORATION. After all these requirements, a certificate of registration is issued if the quota sampling advantages Registrar is satisfied.

THE MEMORANDUM ARTICLES OF ASSOCIATION OF A COMPANY. The memorandum of Association. The Memorandum of Association of a company, which is required to be registered for purposes of incorporation, is d'avignon regarded as the companys most important document in the sense that it determines the powers of the advantages and disadvantages company. Action Examples In College! Consequently, a company may only engage in sampling advantages, activities and exercise powers, which have been conferred upon of mice and men, it expressly by the memorandum or by implication there from. Contents of the Memorandum The Memorandum of Association of a company limited by shares must state the following:- 1.

The name of the company with Limited as the sampling advantages and disadvantages last word. 2. The registered office of the company is situated in Uganda. 3. The objects of the company. Action Examples! 4. A statement as to the liability of the members. 5. A statement to the nature of the company (Whether private or public).

6. The amount of quota and disadvantages, share capital and division thereof into shares of a fixed amount. In addition, the memorandum must state the communication concepts names, address and descriptions of the subscribers thereof who must be at least two for a private company and quota advantages seven for a public company. 1. The name. The name of the of mice and men company should be indicated and quota advantages if it is a limited company, it should have the word limited at the end eg Stanbic Bank Uganda Ltd. 2. Registered office The memorandum must state that the registered office is situated in Uganda. However, the actual address must be communicated to the Registrar of Companies within 14 days of the date of incorporation or from the date it commences business by registration of a company form called Notice of situation of registered office of the company, this form will indicate the exact location of the company eg plot 8 industrial area Kampala. . The objects clause This sets out the principle activities the Characteristics Based and Its company has been incorporated to pursue. For example; trading in general merchandise, carrying on business of wholesalers and retail traders of all airtime cards, mobile phones and all phone accessories, carrying on the business of mobile money agents etc. The objects must be lawful and should include all the activities which the company is sampling likely to pursue.

The objects or powers of the communication concepts company as laid down in the memorandum or implied there from determine what the company can do. Consequently, any activities not expressly or impliedly authorized by the memorandum are ultra vires the sampling company. The ultra vires doctrine restricts an incorporated company under the Companies Act to the purse only the themes of mice objects outlined in its registered Memorandum of Association. The doctrine of sampling advantages and disadvantages, ultra vires is illustrated in the case of ASHBURY RAILWAY CARRIAGE CO. LTD VS. RICH (1875). A company which was not authorized by its memorandum of association to lend money or finance any activity made an agreement with the defendant to provide him with finance for the construction of a railway in Beligium, later on the company repudiated this agreement and Essay on Escaping Isolation did not actually provide the finances, the defendant sued the company for breach of contract, the company in its defense argued that financing railway construction was not one of the activities it was authorized to do, it was held that indeed such an act was beyond the powers of the company and such an ultra vires contract was void and un enforceable. To evade this restrictive interpretation of the quota sampling advantages objects clause, draftsmen inserted words as and to do all such other acts and things as the company deems incidental or conducive to the attainment of these objects or any of them. In BELL HOUSES LTD -VS-CITY WALL PROPERTIES LTD (1966) 2 QB 656, a company was formed to carry on the business of General Civil Engineering contracts and in Essay, particular to build houses.

It had power to carry on any other trade and to do any other things that incidental to the above companys objects. The Court held that the company could lawfully contract for a fee to procure loans to other concerns, from or business whatsoever which it can in quota advantages, the opinion of the board of Characteristics of Protein Biopolymer, directors be advantageously carried out sources of finance which it had resorted to in the past. It further held that cementing good relations with the financiers would be valuable when the company needed finances for its activities. The Memorandum of Association spells out the advantages and disadvantages main objectives and powers of the company. However, certain powers may be implied in the Memorandum of Association.

For example, in the case of FERGUSON V WILSON (1866) 2CH. A 277, a power to appoint agents and and Its Application engage employees was implied in quota sampling and disadvantages, the Memorandum of Association. This is only sensible because a company as a fictitious person can only work through agents and employees; and therefore if such a power was not implied, then the company could not function at all. Example! Similarly in advantages and disadvantages, GENERAL AUCTION ESTATES MONETARY CO. V. SMITH (1891) 3CH 432, the court implied powers of borrowing money and giving security for loans.

Subsequent cases have also adopted this position. In NEWSTEAD (INSPECTION OF TAXES) V FROST (1978)1 WLR 441 AT PAGE 449, the court implied powers of entering into partnership or joint venture agreements for Essay carrying the on the kind of business it may itself carry on quota sampling and disadvantages, i. e. intra vires. In PRESUMPTION PRICES PATENT CANDLE CO (1976), the court implied a power of paying gratuities to employees. A power to institute, defend and compromise proceedings will also be implied in the Memorandum of Association if it is not provided expressly. Courts at Characteristics Essay, times imply powers because the particular nature of the companys undertaking demands it. In EVANS, (1921) I CII.

359. The court observed that a company formed to manufacture chemicals had powers to make grants to Universities and other scientific institutions to facilitate scientific research and training scientists although it may not obtain any immediate financial benefit from the venture. Therefore before the court implies powers it seems: * There must be some reasonable connection between the companys objects and the power it seeks to exercise. Sampling And Disadvantages! It is not sufficient for it to merely show that it will benefit in some way by exercising that power. It is important to show that the company will in fact benefit in some way even though remote in the exercise of the power (see Evans, (above). However, though the Court may imply these powers in the Memorandum of Characteristics of Protein Based and Its, Association, its better practice to expressly state them. This is only sensible because:- * The company often needs powers which the courts have not ruled that they can be implied and therefore the company can only sampling advantages and disadvantages, obtain them by express provisions in the Memorandum of Association, (e. Interpersonal! g. the power to quota advantages, buy a share from another company though recognized under the Act has not yet been implied). To avoid uncertainties or expenses of litigation, it is safer to insert them expressly in the memorandum of association.

4. The liability of members The memorandum of a company limited by shares or by guarantee should indicate that the Technology Essay liability of members is limited. With respect to a company limited shares, the liability of a member is the quota sampling advantages amount, if any, unpaid on his shares. With regard to the liability of a member of a company limited by guarantee, this is limited to the amount he undertook to contribute to themes of mice and men, the assets of the company in the event of winding up. A company may also be registered with unlimited liability. In such a situation, the members liability is unlimited and in cases the company does not have sufficient credit to pay its creditors, then the shareholders personal property may be encroached on to pay the companys debts.. 5. Share capital (clause) The memorandum requires that a company having a share capital must state the quota sampling advantages and disadvantages amount of share capital with which the affirmative action examples in college company is to be registered and that such capital is divisible into shares of a fixed amount. The essence of the division is to control the powers of the directors to allot shares. The law does not prescribe the value but they are usually small amounts to encourage people to sampling, hold as many shares as possible. The amount of capital with which a company is to be registered and the amount into which it is to be divided are matters to be decided upon by the promoters and will be determined by the needs of the company and interpersonal concepts finance available.

For example if a company has its initial share capital/ startup capital of 5,000,000 it can divide this into 100 shares of quota sampling, 50,000 each. So of s member subscribes for 50 shares, he will contribute 2,500,000/= . ARTICLES OF ASSOCIATION The Articles of Association contains regulations for managing the internal affairs of the company i. e. the business of the company. They are applied and interpreted subject to and men, the memorandum of quota sampling and disadvantages, association in that they cannot confer wider powers on the company than those stipulated in the memorandum. Thus, where there is a conflict or divergence between the Essay on Escaping memorandum and articles, the provisions of the sampling advantages and disadvantages memorandum must prevail. Affirmative Action Examples In College! anagement, who will be the directors of the company, who will be, appointment of the board of quota, directors, qualifications of directors, the, the classes and rights of shareholders, transfer of shares , , auditing of books, Contents of the Articles * The board of directors (management) and how they will be appointed, their qualifications, how they can resign or be removed from Technology example office. * The chairman of the board. * The managing director and how he will be appointed. * Secretary and his appointment. eetings (how meetings of the company should be called and quota advantages conducted and concepts the required quorum/ number of members that must be present to conduct a valid meeting of the company) and the different types of meeting that the company may hold from time to time voting rights of the members, the right to quota, receive notice and to Characteristics and Its Application, attend and vote etc. * powers of directors * The different classes of shares and the rights attached to different classes of shares. Quota Advantages! * Borrowing powers of the company. Essay Isolation! its properties, control of the company finance, its bankers, dividends/profits and how they should be distributed * appointment of auditors * the advantages and disadvantages company seal and how it should be used etc The Articles must be printed in the English language, divided into paragraphs, numbered consecutively, signed by each subscriber to Characteristics of Protein and Its Essay, the memorandum in the presence of at least one witness who must attest the signature. Advantages! The Companies Act contains a standard form of articles (table A) which applies to companies limited by shares. These regulate the company unless it has its own special articles which totally or partially exclude table A. Essay On Escaping Isolation! The advantages of quota and disadvantages, statutory model articles are: * That legal drafting of special articles is reduced to a minimum since even special articles usually incorporate much of the text of the model. * There is of Protein and Its Application Essay flexibility since any company can adopt the model selectively or with modifications and include in its articles special articles adapted to its needs. INTERPRETATION OF ARTICLES AND MEMORANDUM OF ASSOCIATION.

The Memorandum of Association is the basic law or constitution of the company and the articles are subordinate to the Memorandum of Association. It follows therefore that if there is a conflict, the advantages and disadvantages Memorandum of Association prevails. In other words if there is a contradiction between the provisions of the memorandum and the provisions of the articles of association, then the themes provisions of the memorandum will be followed and those provisions in the articles which are contradicting the memorandum will be void and of no effect. If there is no conflict, the Memorandum of Association and articles must be read together and any ambiguity or uncertainty in either can be removed by the other CONSEQUENCES OF INCORPORATION The fundamental attribute of corporate personality from which all other consequences flow is quota advantages that the corporation is interpersonal communication concepts a legal entity distinct from its members. Quota Advantages! Hence its capable of demoiselles, enjoying rights and sampling advantages being subject to Essay, duties which are not the same as those enjoyed or borne by its members. Quota Sampling And Disadvantages! In other words it has a legal personality and it is often described as an demoiselles d'avignon artificial person in contrast with a human being-a natural person. Advantages And Disadvantages! SALOMON Vs SALOMON CO) Since the Salomon case, the complete separation of the company and its members has never been doubted. It is from this fundamental attribute of separate personality that most of the particular advantages of incorporation spring and these are: 1. LIABILITY: The company being a distinct legal persona is liable for its debts and obligations and the members or directors cannot be held personally responsible for the companys debts. It follows that the companys creditors can only sue the company and not the themes of mice shareholders.

In in the case of Salomon V Salomon (1897), creditors of the company sought to quota advantages and disadvantages, have Solomon a managing director of the company personally liable for of mice the debts of the company but court held that the and disadvantages company and Solomon were two different persons and that the company as a legal person is liable for its own debts and Solomon a managing director could not be held personally responsible for the debts of the company. In the themes Ugandan case of quota sampling, Sentamu v UCB (1983) HCB 59, it was held that individual members of the company are not liable for the companys debts. The liability of the interpersonal communication concepts members or shareholders of the quota sampling company is limited to the amount remaining unpaid on the shares. For instance, where a shareholder has been allotted 50 shares at Shs. 100,000 each, in total he should pay 5,000,000 for all the fifty shares, if he pays only themes, Shs.

4, 000, 000 to the company, it means that he will still owe the sampling advantages company 1,000,000. This is what is called uncalled capital. Interpersonal Communication! The company may call on him to pay it any time. And Disadvantages! If that does not happen, then at the time of winding up the company, he will be required to pay the Shs. 1, 000, 000. In the case of a company limited by guarantee, each member is interpersonal concepts liable to contribute a specific amount to the assets of the company and their liability is quota and disadvantages limited to d'avignon, the amount they have guaranteed to contribute. If the sampling company has unlimited liability, the members liability to contribute is unlimited and their personal property can be looked at to discharge the interpersonal communication company creditors but that is only after utilizing the companys money and it is not enough to pay all the debts. 2. PROPERTY: An incorporated company is able to own property separately from its members.

Thus, the members cannot claim an interest or interfere with the company property for their personal gain/benefit. Thus, one of the advantages of incorporation (corporate personality) is that it enables the property of the company to be clearly, distinguished from that of the members. In the case of MACAURA Vs NORTH ASSURANCE CO. (1925) AC (see page 3 for facts). In that case Lord Buckmaster of the House in Lords held that no shareholder has a right to any item of the property of the and disadvantages company, even if he holds all the shares in the company. In the case of Hindu Dispensary Zanzibar v N. A Patwa Sons, a flat was let out to a company and the question was whether the Characteristics of Protein Application company could be regarded as a tenant, it was held that a company can have possession of business premises by its servants or agents and that in fact that is the only way a company can have possession of its premises. 3. Quota Sampling And Disadvantages! LEGAL PROCEEDINGS: As a legal person, a company can take action to enforce its legal rights or be sued for breach of its duties in the courts of law. If it the company being sued, then it should be sued in its registered name, if a wrong or incorrect name is used, the case will be dismissed from interpersonal court for example in the case of Denis Njemanze V Shell B. P Port Harcourt, the plaintiff sued a company called Shell B. P Port Harcourt which was a non existing company, counsel for the defendant company objected that there was no such company and the suit should be dismissed, counsel for the plaintiff sought courts leave to amend and sampling advantages put the right part but court refused to grant the leave and dismissed the case. In the case of Wani V Uganda Timber, 1972 HCB the plaintiff applied for a warrant of arrest against a managing director of a company instead of suing the company, chief justice Kiwanoka held that a managing director of a company is not the Biopolymer and Its Application company and cannot be sued personally, that if there is a case against the company then the company is the right party to be sued not its managing director. 5. PERPETUAL SUCCESSION: s. 15 of the companies Act provides that a company is a legal entity with perpetual sucession.

This means that even if a shareholder dies, or all the shareholders die or go bankrupt, in the eyes of the law, the company will remain in existence. If a share holder dies, his /her shares will be transmitted to their executor or a personal representative. Also in case a shareholder no longer wants to be a shareholder in a company, he will simply transfer his shares to someone else and to company will continue to exist. The only way a company can come to an end is by winding up, striking it off the register of companies or through amalgamation and reconstruction as provided by the Companies Act. This was illustrated in the case of RE NOEL EDMAN HOLDING PROPERTY all the members were killed in a motor accident but court held that the company would survive. Thus, this perpetual succession gives the quota certainty required in the commercial world even when ownership of shares changes there is of mice no effect on the performance of the company and no disruption in the company business. 5. TRANSFER OF SHARES: A share constitutes an item of property, which is freely transferable, except in the case of private companies. When shares are transferred, the person who transfers ceases to be a shareholder and the person to sampling advantages, whom they are transferred becomes the shareholder. In private companies, there is Characteristics Application a restriction on the transfer of shares for example one may not transfer his shares except to an existing member or shareholder, and advantages not to an outsider. This is essential and is in of Protein Biopolymer and Its, any event desirable if such a company is to retain its character of an incorporated private company.

6. BORROWING: A company can borrow money and provide security in the form of a floating charge. A floating charge is a security created over the assets of the company. When a company borrows money lets say from the bank or any other cerditor, it may use its assets e. Quota Sampling Advantages! g. cars, bank accounts and other assets as security, the Characteristics Based security/ charge will then float over those assets, in quota sampling, case the company defaults on payment, the charge can settle on one or all of demoiselles d'avignon, those assets and the bank/creditor of the company can sell those assets to quota sampling, recover their money. It is called a floating charge because it floats like a cloud over interpersonal concepts the whole assets of the company from time to quota sampling, time, it only settles/crystallizes if the company defaults on payment. So before the charge settles on the assets, the company is free to deal with those assets even to dispose them off in the usual course of business. 6. CAPACITY TO CONTRACT.

On incorporation, a company can enter into any contract with third parties. In the examples in college case of quota advantages, Lee V Lee Air Farming Co. Ltd (1961) A. C 12, it was held that a company was it is incorporated it has capacity to employ servants, even the shareholders. THE ULTRA VIRES DOCTRINE. a) Meaning of ultra vires. The object clause of the memorandum of association of a company contains the object for which the company is formed. Essay! An act of a company must not be beyond the object clause otherwise it will be ultra vires. The expression ultra vires means beyond powers, therefore an act or transaction that is beyond the powers of the company as stated in the objects clause of the memorandum is an sampling and disadvantages ultra vires act or transaction, such an act that is ultra vires is void and cannot be ratified by the company. Sometimes the term ultra vires is also used to describe a situation where the directors of a company have exceeded the powers delegated to them, where a company exceeds the powers conferred upon it by and Policing example, its memorandum of sampling advantages, association, it is not bound by it because it lacks the Technology capacity to incur responsibility for that action, but when the directors of a company exceed the powers delegated to them, the and disadvantages company in a general meeting may choose to ratify their act or omission. b) Distinction from illegality.

An ultra vires act or transaction is different from an action illegal act/ transaction, although both are void, they attract different legal consequences and the law treats them differently. Quota Sampling Advantages And Disadvantages! An act of a company which is beyond its object clause is ultra vires and therefore void even if it is legal. Similarly an illegal act done by a company will be void even if it falls squarely within the objects of the company. c) Importance of the of Protein Based Biopolymer Application doctrine. The doctrine of ultra vires was developed to quota sampling advantages and disadvantages, protect the investors and creditors of the Characteristics and Its Essay company. This doctrine prevents a company from employing the money of the investors for a purpose other than those stated in the object clause of its memorandum. Thus the investors of the company are assured that their money will not be employed for activities which they did not have in contemplation at the time they invested their money into the company.

This doctrine also protects the creditors of the sampling company by ensuring that the Technology example funds of the company to advantages and disadvantages, which they must look to for payment are not dissipated in unauthorized activities. ) Establishment of the doctrine. The doctrine was established firmly in 1875 by the House of Lords in the case of ASHBURY RAILWAY CARRIAGE CO. LTD VS. RICHE (1875). A company which was not authorized by its memorandum of association to Characteristics Based and Its Application Essay, lend money or finance any activity made an agreement with the defendant to sampling and disadvantages, provide him with finance for in college the construction of a railway in Beligium, the directors made this ultra vires contract on behalf the company but subsequently the company ratified this contract in a meeting. ater on the company repudiated this agreement and quota sampling did not actually provide the finances, the defendant sued the company for breach of contract, the company in its defense argued that financing railway construction was not one of the activities it was authorized to do.

It was held that indeed such an act was beyond the powers of the of Protein Biopolymer Essay company and such an ultra vires contract was void and could not be enforced against the company. Court also held that an quota sampling ultra vires contract cannot even be ratified by the company and that the subsequent act of the company purporting to ratify this contract in a meeting was void, court emphasized that an ultra vires contract is and men void and cannot even be ratified by a unanimous decision of all the members of a company. In that case, the quota sampling advantages and disadvantages HOL expressed the view that a company incorporated under the Companies Act had power to do only those things which are authorized by its object clause and nything outside that is ultra vires and cannot be ratified by the company. Soon after this case was decided, its shortcomings became immediately clear, it created hardships both for the management and outsiders dealing with the company. The activities of the management of the company were subjected to strict restrictions, at every step of transacting the business of the company; management was required to ascertain whether the acts which were sought to be done were covered by the object clause of its memorandum of association.

The business men thought this unduly restricted the frequency and ease of business, if the act was not covered by interpersonal concepts, the memorandum, it would mean having to alter the object clause to add that activity and alteration of the memorandum required a lengthy procedure. Quota And Disadvantages! Later in 1972, in England this doctrine was modified, and subsequently the courts have developed principals to reduce the rigors of the doctrine of ultra vires. They include the following. 1. Powers implied by statute. According to this principal, a company has powers to do an act or exercise a power which has been conferred on it by the companies Act or any other Act of Parliament even if such act is not covered by the object clause in the memorandum of association. 2. The principal of implied and incidental powers. This principal was established in the case of ATTORNEY GENERAL V GREAT EASTERN RAILWAY CO (1880) 5 AC 473, in this case the HOL affirmed the principal laid down in the earlier case of ASHBURY RAILWAY CARRIAGE CO. LTD VS. RICHE (1875) but made a slight departure and held that the doctrine of ultra vires ought to demoiselles d'avignon, be reasonably and not unreasonably understood and applied.

Court therefore held that whatever may be fairly regarded as incidental to or consequential upon the objects of the company should not be seen as ultra vires. That case therefore led to a clear conclusion that that a company incorporated under the companies act has power to carry out the objects set out in its memorandum and also everything that is reasonably necessary to enable it carry out those objects. ) Ascertainment of the ultravires doctrine. An act is therefore intra vires (within the powers) the company if; * It is quota advantages and disadvantages stated in the object clause of the memorandum of association of that company. Themes Of Mice! * It is authorized by the Companies Act or by any other Act of parliament. * If it is incidental to advantages, the main objects of the company or reasonably necessary to enable it carry out those objects. In the case of ATTORNEY GENERAL V. Affirmative Examples In College! MERSEY RAILWAY CO (1907) 1 CH 81, a company was incorporated for carrying on hotel business. It entered into a contract with a third party for the purchasing of furniture, hiring servants and for maintaining omnibus. The purpose or object of the company was only to carry on advantages, a hotel business and it was not expressly mentioned in the objects clause in the memorandum of the company that they could purchase furniture or hire servants. The contract was challenged on the ground that this act of the and Policing directors was ultra vires. The issue before court was whether the transaction was ultra vires. Court held that a company incorporated for carrying on a hotel business can purchase furniture or hire servants and maintain an omnibus to attend at the railway station to take or receive the advantages and disadvantages intending guests to d'avignon, the hotel because these objects are reasonably necessary to effectuate the purpose for which the company has been incorporated, and consequently such acts are within the powers of the company, although these may not be expressly mentioned in the objects clause of the memorandum of association of quota sampling advantages, that company. However not every act that is beneficial to the company is intra vires , it is not enough that the act is beneficial to the company , the act must be reasonably necessary for the company to carry out the activities mentioned in the memorandum. Affirmative Action In College! f) Effect of ultra vires transactions. * Ultra vires contracts.

These are void and cannot be enforced by or against the company. In the quota and disadvantages Case of RE JON BEAUFORE (LONDON) LTD (1953) CH 131, it was held that ultra vires contracts made with the company cannot be enforced against a company. Court also held that the memorandum of association is constructive notice to the public and therefore if an act is demoiselles ultra vires, it will be void and will not be binding on the company and the outsider dealing with the company cannot take a plea that he had no knowledge of the contents of the memorandum because he is deemed to know them. In England, the quota sampling advantages and disadvantages European Communities Act 1972 has lessened the effect of application of the themes of mice and men Ultra vires doctrine in this manner. In England, third parties dealing with the company in good faith are protected and can enforce an ultra vires contract against the company if the third party acted in good faith and the ultra vires contract has been decided by the directors of the company. However in Uganda, the ultra vires doctrine has not been modified by statute or case law and there is therefore no legal provision where third parties dealing with the company in good faith are protected and can enforce an ultra vires contract against the company if the third party acted in good faith Thus in Uganda the doctrine of ultra vires is applied strictly with the effect that where the contract entered into by the third party is sampling found to Technology, be ultra vires the company, it will be held void and quota sampling advantages cannot be ratified by the company and the company cannot enforce it against the third party and neither can a third party enforce it against the company. * Ultra vires borrowing. In Uganda a borrowing that is ultra vires is void and cannot be ratified by action in college, the company and the lender is quota sampling and disadvantages not entitled to sue the company for the return of the loan.

However, the courts have developed certain principals in the interests of justice to protect such lenders. The reliefs include; * Injunction. If the of mice and men money lent to the company has not been spent, the lender can apply to sampling advantages, court for themes of mice and men an injunction to prevent the company from quota sampling advantages spending the money. * Tracing. Of Mice! The lender can recover his money as long as it can still be found in the hands of the company in its original form. Quota Sampling And Disadvantages! * Property acquired under ultra vires transactions. Where the funds of the company are applied in purchasing some property, the companys right over themes and men that property will be protected even though the expenditure on such purchasing has been ultra vires. * Judgments from ultra vires transactions. Because the law considers ultra vires acts void by their very nature, the company and third parties cannot even with consent attempt to validate an ultra vires act. In RE JON BEAUFORE (LONDON) supra, builders of a factory for purposes which were apparently ultra vires demanded for their money and by consent it was ordered that the quota sampling and disadvantages company should pay, on winding up, the of Protein Based Biopolymer liquidator refused to pay that debt that was arising out of an ultra vires transaction, the advantages court held that the liquidator was well entitled to reject the claim as a company cannot do what is beyond its legal powers by simply going into court and consenting. LIABILITY OF DIRECTORS ON ULTRA VIRES TRANSACTIONS . 1. Liability towards the of mice company. It is the sampling advantages and disadvantages duty of the directors to ensure that the funds of the company are used only for legitimate purposes of the company. Consequently if the funds of the company are used for on Escaping a purpose foreign to its memorandum, the directors may be held personally liable to restore to the company the funds used for such purpose. Quota And Disadvantages! Thus a share holder can sue the directors to restore to the company funds which they employed in transactions which the company is not authorized to engage in.

2. Liability towards third parties. The directors of a company are treated as agents of the company and Characteristics Based Essay therefore have a duty not to go beyond the powers that the company gives them. Where the director represents to sampling and disadvantages, a third party that the contract entered into by them on behalf of the company is within the powers of the company while in communication concepts, reality the company does not have such powers under its memorandum, the directors may be held personally liable to the third party for the loss on account of breach of warranty of authority. Advantages And Disadvantages! However to make the directors liable, the following conditions must be fulfilled. i) There must be a representation of authority by the directors. It should be a representation of of Protein Essay, fact not law. ii) By such representation, the directors must have induced the third party to make a contract with the company in respect of a matter beyond the powers of the company. iii) The third party must have acted on such inducement to enter into the contract and must prove that if it had not been for that inducement, he would not have entered into that contract. iv) That as a result, the third party suffered loss. EXCEPTIONS TO THE ULTRA VIRES DOCTRINE. 1. Property acquired /investments made by advantages and disadvantages, the company using money from ultra vires transactions. 2. Activities which are not expressed by the memorandum but are implied by Essay, law. 3. Activities which are not expressed by the memorandum but are incidental or related to advantages, or reasonably necessary for the company to carry out its express objects.

4. Affirmative Examples! Ultra vires borrowing, where one seeks the equitable relief of injunction or tracing. LIFTING THE VEIL OF INCORPORATION A company once incorporated becomes a legal personality separate and distinct from its members and shareholders and capable of having its own rights, duties and obligation and can sue or be sued in its own name. This is commonly referred to as the doctrine or principle of corporate personality. No case illustrated the above principles better than the noted House of Lords decision in Salomon v. Salomon. However, in some circumstances, the courts have intervened to disregard or ignore the doctrine of corporate personality especially in dealing with group companies and subsidiaries and where the corporate form is being used as a vehicle to perpetrate fraud or as a mere facade concealing the true facts. Quota Sampling Advantages! Upholding the abiove principal in such cases would result into and perpetuate injustice. In this topic, we will examine the concept of lifting the veil and interpersonal concepts the circumstances where the court may pierce or lift the veil of quota advantages, incorporation. Themes Of Mice And Men! In Dunlop Nigerian Industries Ltd V Forward Nigerian Enterprises Ltd Farore 1976 N. CL. R 243, the HC of Lagos stated that in particular circumstances, e. where the device of incorporation is quota sampling advantages and disadvantages used for some illegal or improper purpose, the court may disregard the principle that a company is an independent legal entity and Characteristics of Protein Biopolymer and Its Application Essay lift the veil of corporate identity so that if it is proved that a person used a company he controls as a cloak for an improper transaction, he may be made personally liable to a third party. Advantages And Disadvantages! The legal technique of lifting the veil is recognized under 2 heads: 1. Statutory lifting of the veil 2. Case law lifting of the veil Statutory lifting of the of mice veil 1. Where the sampling advantages and disadvantages number of members is below legal minimum. Under S. 33 of the Companies Act if a company carries on business for more than 6 months after its membership has fallen below the statutory minimum, (2 for private companies and 7 for public companies), every member during he time the business is carried on after the 6 months and who knows that the of mice company is carrying on business with less than the required minimum membership is individually liable for the companys debts incurred during that time.

In such a case therefore the corporate veil is quota sampling and disadvantages lifted in order to hold those members personally liable for the companys debts incurred during that time. 2. Where the- company is not mentioned in Essay on Escaping Isolation, the Bill of Exchange. S. 34 of the Companies Act provides that a bill of exchange shall be deemed to have been signed on quota, behalf of examples, a company if made in the name of the company, by or on behalf of the company or on account of the sampling advantages company by any person acting under the companys authority. S. 09 (4) (b) prohibits any officer of the company from signing or authorizing to be signed a bill of exchange on behalf of the company in Essay, which the companys name is not mentioned in legible characters/ clear letters. Any officer who does this is personally liable on quota sampling advantages, that bill of exchange for the money or goods for that amount unless it is duly paid by the company. Therefore in such case the corporate veil is and Its Application lifted in order to hold that officer of the company personally liable.

3. Sampling Advantages And Disadvantages! Holding and subsidiary companies. Where companies are in a relationship of holding and demoiselles d'avignon subsidiary companies, group accounts are usually presented by the holding company in quota sampling and disadvantages, a general meeting. In this regard, the holding and subsidiary companies are regarded as one for accounting purposes and the separate nature of the subsidiary company is ignored. S. 147 of the Companies Act requires each company to keep proper books of accounts with respect to * Money received by the company and from what source. * Money spent and what it was spent on. * All sales and purchases of goods made by the company. * The assets and liabilities of the company. These accounts are meant to give a true and fair view of the state of the companys affairs and to explain its transactions.

Directors of the company are required at least once a year to lay before the company in example, a general meeting a profit and loss account (or income expenditure account for non profit making companies) plus a balance sheet. Where at the end of quota sampling and disadvantages, each year a company has subsidiaries, then as that parent company presents its accounts, it should also present a group account dealing with the affairs of that parent company and of mice its subsidiaries, the group account consists of quota sampling advantages, a consolidated balance sheet and a consolidated profit and loss account of both the subsidiary and interpersonal communication the parent company. 4. Reckless and Fraudulent Trading: Under sect 327, it is provided that if in the course of quota advantages and disadvantages, winding up, it appears that any business has been conducted recklessly or fraudulently, those responsible for in college such business may be held liable without limitation of liability for sampling and disadvantages any of the companys debts or liabilities. 5. Taxation. Under the income tax Act, the veil of incorporation may be lifted to ascertain where the control and management of the company is interpersonal communication exercised in quota, order to determine whether it is a Ugandan company for Essay income tax purposes. 6. Investigation into related companies Where an inspector has been appointed by sampling advantages, the Registrar to investigate the affairs of a company, he may if he thinks it fit also investigate into the affairs of any other related company and also report on the affairs of d'avignon, that other company so long as he feels that the results of his investigation of advantages and disadvantages, such related company are relevant to the main investigation.

Lifting the Veil under case law . Where the company acts as agent of the share holders. Affirmative In College! Where the shareholders of the sampling advantages company use the company as an examples agent, they will be liable for the debts of the company. Agency is a relationship which exists whenever one person authorizes another to act on his or her behalf. The person acting is called the agent, and the one he is acting for is called the advantages principal. Where such a relationship exists, the acts of the Essay Isolation agent are taken to be the acts of the principal. Therefore in an agency relationship, the acts of the agent are taken to be the acts of the principal. In case of liability it is the principal who is held liable and not the agent. This is because of the dictum that he who acts through another acts for himself. Thus where share holders employ or use the company as an agent, then those shareholders will be personally liable for the acts of the advantages company as principals behind the agent. 2. Where there has been fraud or improper conduct. The veil of incorporation may also be lifted where the corporate personality is used as a mask for fraud or illegality.

In Gilford Motor Co V. Horne [1933] Ch. 935 Home was the former employee of Gilford Motor Co. He agreed not to solicit its customers when he left employment. He then formed a company which solicited the customers. Both the themes of mice and men company and Home were held liable for quota advantages breach of the covenant not to solicit. The company that Home formed was described as a mere cloak or sham for the purpose of enabling him to commit a breach of the covenant. In Jones V Lipman [1962]1 W. L. R 832 Lipman in order to avoid the completion of a sale of his house to Jones formed a company and transferred the house to the company. Affirmative Action Examples! Court ordered him and the company to complete payment, even though the ownership of the house was no longer in his names but in that of the formed company. Quota! The company was described as a creature of Lipman, a device and demoiselles a sham, a mask which he held before his face in an attempt to avoid recognition by the eyes of equity. In Re Williams Bros Ltd. (1932) 2ch.

1, a company was insolvent but the Directors continued to carry on its business and purchased its goods on credit. It was held that if a company continues to carry out business and to incur debts at a time when there is to the knowledge of the directors no reasonable prospects of the creditors ever receiving payments of these debts, it is in general a proper inference that the quota sampling advantages and disadvantages company is carrying on business with intent to of Protein Based Biopolymer, defraud. R V Graham (1984) QB. 675 makes it clear that a person is guilty of fraudulent trading if he has no reason to believe that the company will be able to pay is creditors in advantages and disadvantages, full by the dates when the respective debts become due or within a short time thereafter. And Policing Essay Example! 3. Public interest/policy. Sometimes, courts have disregarded the separate legal personality of the company and sampling and disadvantages investigated the personal qualities of its shareholders or the persons in control because there was an overriding public interest to be served by doing so. In Daimler Co Ltd Vs Continental Tyre And Rubber Co (1916) A. C 307, a Company incorporated in England whose shares except one were held by themes, German nationals resident in Germany brought an action during the First World War. All its directors were also German nationals resident in sampling advantages and disadvantages, Germany, which was an enemy country at the time.

The Court disregarded the fact that the company had a British nationality by incorporation in England and rather concentrated on of Protein Biopolymer Application Essay, the control of the companys business and where its assets lay, in determining the companys status. 4. In determining residence of sampling advantages, a company for Essay tax purposes. The court may look behind the veil of the company and its place of registration so as to determine its residence. The test for determining residence is normally the place of its central management and control. Usually, this is the place where the board of directors operate.

But it can also be the place of business of the M. D where he holds a controlling interest. MANAGEMENT OF A COMPANY The control and management of a company is distributed among its principal officers and these include the advantages and disadvantages auditors, accountants, Board of Directors, Managing director (if any) and any other officers of a company. There are basically two organs responsible for the management of a company. These are: 1. The Shareholders through company meetings and 2. The Board of Directors. The shareholders and Company Meetings The shareholders have an communication concepts opportunity of influencing the companys management through the companys meetings. There are 4 types of meetings through which the shareholders can participate in the affairs of a company. 1. Statutory Meetings: These are provided for under S130 of the Companies Act which requires every public ltd company to hold such type of meeting within 30 days from the date of quota advantages, commencement of business. The meeting is held once in the companys life and communication concepts never again. The meeting is a must hold for all public companies, private companies are not required to quota advantages and disadvantages, hold this meeting. 2.

Annual General Meeting (S. 131). Unlike the Statutory Meeting, an AGM is required of themes of mice and men, all types of companies. It must be convened by notice of not less than 21 days. Advantages! This is the most important meeting of the company and Isolation concerns a number of issues. Although the companies Act does not exactly indicate the nature of the business transacted at such a meeting, the business invariably includes appointment of auditors, fixing their remuneration, declaration of dividends, consideration of the companys profit and loss accounts and the balance sheet, consideration of the reports of the and disadvantages directors, auditors and election of new directors or auditors if need arises. The purpose of the annual general meeting is important for the protection of the members because it is the one occasion when they can be sure of having an opportunity of meeting the directors and communication questioning them on the profit and sampling advantages and disadvantages loss accounts, on their report and on the companys position and prospects. It is at this meeting that normally a proposition of the directors will retire, come up for re-election:- and it is at this meeting that the members can exercise their only affirmative, real power over the board i. Advantages! e. the power of dismissal by voting them out. Most of themes and men, these things could of course be done at the extraordinary meeting but the sampling and disadvantages members who want to raise these matters may not be able to insist upon the convening of such meeting, the annual general meeting is valuable to them because the directors must hold it whether they like it or not.

If the company fails to convene such a meeting, there are two consequences that occur:- i. The registrar may himself convene that meeting or order that the and Policing example meeting be convened and in sampling advantages and disadvantages, extreme cases he may further order that any one shareholder present in person or by proxy be deemed to constitute the Essay meeting. ii. Every director who is in default of convening that meeting as well as the company itself are liable to a default fine not exceeding shs 200/= and every officer of the quota advantages company who is in default is liable to themes of mice and men, a default fine of shs. Quota Sampling Advantages And Disadvantages! 40/= (1981) HCB 60). Within 18 months after incorporation, the company must hold an annual general meeting and then every 12 months thereafter. 3. Affirmative Action! Extra-Ordinary General Meeting (S 132): This is usually convened by the directors at their discretion ( art 49 table A) to deal with urgent matters which cannot wait till the next annual general meeting. However the directors must hold such meeting irrespective of any contrary provision in the articles if holders of at least 10% of the companys paid up capital or 10% of the members carrying voting rights ask/ requisition for it. They must state the reason why they want such a meeting. If the directors do not convene the meeting within 21 days of the requisition, then the quota and disadvantages requisitionists may themselves convene the meeting and recover expenses from the company which may in turn recover the same from the defaulting directors. 4. General meeting convened under court orders (S. 135).

It provides that if for any reason it is action in college impracticable to call a meeting of the company in any manner in which meetings of the company may be called, the court may on sampling and disadvantages, application of any director or member of the company who would be entitled to attend and vote at the meeting order a meeting of the company to be called, held and conducted in any manner that the court thinks fit, and d'avignon court may for that matter direct that only one person present at advantages and disadvantages, the meeting shall constitute quorum. PROCEDURE, ATTENDANCE AND QUORUM (17. 3. 05) 1. Example! NOTICE OF MEETINGS. s. 133 provides that any meeting of a company must be called by a notice of quota sampling advantages and disadvantages, a period not shorter than 21 days and any provision in Technology and Policing example, that articles providing for a shorter notice is void and and disadvantages of no effect. The notice may be in writing or it can take any other form like word of mouth, radio or TV announcements, newspapers etc. it must state the exact date time and place where the meeting will take place and what is intended to be discussed at that meeting, if the affirmative action in college notice does not indicate the above then it is not a proper notice and advantages if any shareholder is absent from the meeting because his notice had not fully disclosed the agenda, he can seek a court order to declare such a meeting null and void.. However a meeting may be called by example, a shorter notice than 21 days if all the members entitled to attend and vote at the meeting agree to such a shorter notice. Quota And Disadvantages! 2. QUORUM. This relates to the minimum number of members that must be present at a meeting of the company for it to be a valid meeting.

The companys articles will normally provide for the required quorum but where they are silent on communication, this, s. 134 (c) of the Act provides for the requisite quorum as 2 members present in case of a private company and in any other case three members personally present. Quorum need not be maintained throughout the sampling meeting though at the beginning it must be there. 3. PROXY A proxy in Company law is a document which authorises somebody to attend a meeting on behalf of a shareholder. S. 136 provides that any member of a company entitled to interpersonal communication concepts, attend and vote at a meeting of the company is entitled to appoint another person to attend and vote instead of him of her and advantages any notice calling for Characteristics Based and Its a meeting should indicate that that person is entitled to attend by proxy. 4. VOTING. S. 134 provides that every member shall have one vote in respect of each share he has and in case of a company having a share capital and in other cases every member shall have 1 vote. Under S 137, it is stated that either five members entitled to vote or shareholders with at least 10% of the voting rights can demand a vote by poll. Quota Sampling And Disadvantages! OFFICERS AND MEMBERS OF THE COMPANY 1. Demoiselles! Board of Directors There is no definition of a director whether in the Act or by case law. Nevertheless, S2 of the Act states that a director includes any person occupying the position of a director by whatever name called. In most private companies directors are usually share holders and in public companies , there is a requirement that directors must take up qualification shares, which is not the case in private companies unless the and disadvantages articles provide for it. According to S 177, a public company must have at least 2 directors.

Its an offence to have one director. Where a private company has one director, he cannot simultaneously act as the secretary of the company but if they are two directors then one of them can also be the secretary. Under the act, a director is defined as any person occupying the affirmative examples position of a director by quota sampling advantages, whatever name called this definition includes a de jure director. Havent found what you want? 12-22 Newhall St, Birmingham B3 3AS, UK [emailprotected] Hi there, would you like to get such a paper?

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