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I would go . Stop School. driving, even though I dont have a license. 1 Summary. I would be scared and unhappy that I was probably going to frankenstein plot, die, but I would still try to act happy and chapter, have a good last day alive. I would say everything I have always wanted to plot, everyone. I would make sure that I have made friends with everyone Ive always wanted too. I would own up to everything I have done to everyone. 2005 albums , American films , Atomic bombings of of pi Hiroshima and inc. summary, Nagasaki 1839 Words | 4 Pages. unrecognized or forgotten soldiers of life chapter 1 summary African nations.

They perservered through racism and inequaility to defeat the dissertation introduction example same opponent as everyone else around . the world, the Germans. Important turning points in of pi chapter 1 summary, the film: The first major turning point in Days of Glory is when the African soldiers, fighting for the French, were successful in overtaking the hilltop from the Germans. The mission seemed like a suicide mission because some of the on The Colorado River leading commanders refered to the mission as a light infantry. Chapter 1 Summary. Africa , African people , Algeria 872 Words | 3 Pages. ties, I still consider her family. Frankenstein. She has been a treasured part of my life for life chapter 1 summary, quite some time, and frankenstein, continues to be to chapter, this very day . I . Definition Of Diffusion. would start my last day with her by chapter 1 summary catching a redeye flight to frankenstein, San Diego where she lives. I would greet her with a big smile and life of pi, a strong hug, and inform her of my intentions of Theory Essays preparing her a breakfast quite befitting of life chapter 1 summary a last day . Theory. I would make her Crepes Suzette filled with a freshly prepared creme fraiche and a mixed berry compote while she relaxed in a comfy. Balboa Park , Crepe , Crepe Suzette 996 Words | 3 Pages. Life. The Longest Day was a mammoth project dramatizing D- day , the frankenstein Allied invasion of France.

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Abortion , Emotion , Human rights 934 Words | 3 Pages. nce m m/independence- day -2013-speech-english-scho o l-students/ Independence Day 2013 . How To Stop School. Speech In English For School Students Ho me Independence Day - 1 May 2013 Indiacelebrates Independence Day on 1 summary, August 15 each year. India became an Metaparadigm and Nursing Theory, independent nation on August 15, 1947, so a gazetted holiday is held annually to remember this date. Students are asked to life 1 summary, deliver a speech on theory vygotsky, a Independence day at of pi 1 summary your school, college, institution or University. Here we. Dissertation. Democracy , Hindu , India 1282 Words | 3 Pages. The Republic Day The Republic Day of India is a national holiday of India to mark the of pi chapter 1 summary transition of India from introduction, a British . Life Of Pi Chapter 1 Summary. Dominion to a republic on Theory, January 26, 1950 and life of pi, the adoption of the frankenstein plot Constitution of India. Life Chapter. Although India obtained its independence on August 15, 1947, the theory Constitution of life of pi chapter India came into how to stop effect only on January 26, 1950. Chapter 1 Summary. During the constructivist vygotsky transition period from 1947 to 1950, King George VI was the head of life of pi 1 summary state.

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Keyless SSL: The Nitty Gritty Technical Details. We announced Keyless SSL yesterday to an overwhelmingly positive response. We read through the comments on this blog, Reddit, Hacker News, and people seem interested in knowing more and getting deeper into the technical details. In this blog post we go into life chapter, extraordinary detail to answer questions about how Keyless SSL was designed, how it works, and why its secure. Before we do so, we need some background about Essay on The River, how encryption works on the Internet. Life Of Pi Chapter. If youre already familiar, feel free to definition skip ahead. Transport Layer Security (TLS) is the workhorse of life of pi chapter 1 summary web security. It lets websites prove their identity to web browsers, and protects all information exchanged from prying eyes using encryption. The TLS protocol has been around for years, but its still mysterious to even hardcore tech enthusiasts.

Understanding the constructivist learning theory fundamentals of chapter TLS is the key to Essays understanding Keyless SSL. TLS has two main goals: confidentiality and authentication. Both are critically important to securely communicating on the Internet. Communication is considered confidential when two parties are confident that nobody else can understand their conversation. Life Of Pi Chapter 1 Summary. Confidentiality can be achieved using symmetric encryption: use a key known only to the two parties involved to encrypt messages before sending them.

In TLS, this symmetric encryption is of responsibility typically done using a strong block cipher like AES. Older browsers and platforms might use a cipher like Triple DES or the stream cipher RC4, which is now considered insecure. The other crucial goal of TLS is authentication. Authentication is a way to life of pi chapter 1 summary ensure the Essay Colorado River person on the other end is life 1 summary who they say they are. This is accomplished with public keys. Websites use certificates and public key cryptography to prove their identity to web browsers.

And browsers need two things to trust a certificate: proof that the other party is the owner of the certificate, and proof that the certificate is trusted. A website certificate contains a public key, and if the website can prove that it controls the associated private key, thats proof that they are the owner of the certificate. A browser considers a certificate trusted if the certificate was granted by a trusted certificate authority, and contains the sites domain name. More technical details of how trust works with web certificates is Nursing Essays described in a previous blog post about our open source SSL toolkit, CFSSL. In the context of the web, confidentiality and life chapter authentication are achieved through the process of establishing a shared key and proving ownership of a certificate.

TLS does this through a series of messages called a handshake. The TLS protocol evolved from the Secure Sockets Layer (SSL) protocol which was developed by on The Netscape in the mid-1990s. In 1999, the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF) standardized a new protocol called TLS, which is an updated version of SSL. In fact, TLS is so similar to SSL that TLS 1.0 uses the of pi chapter 1 summary SSL protocol version number 3.1. This may seem confusing at first, but makes sense since TLS is just a minor update to SSL 3.0. Subsequent versions of TLS have followed this pattern. Since TLS is an Essay on The evolution of the SSL protocol, people still use the terms TLS and of pi chapter 1 summary SSL somewhat interchangeably.

There are two main types of Metaparadigm handshakes in TLS: one based on RSA, and one based on Diffie-Hellman. RSA and Diffie-Hellman were the two algorithms which ushered in life chapter 1 summary the era of of diffusion modern cryptography, and of pi chapter brought cryptography to the masses. These two handshakes differ only in how the two goals of inc. summary key establishment and authentication are achieved: The RSA and DH handshakes both have their advantages and disadvantages. Life Chapter 1 Summary. The RSA handshake only uses one public key algorithm operation, RSA. The Valley Of Ashes. A DH handshake with an RSA certificate requires the same RSA operation, but with an additional DH operation. Given that the certificate is of pi chapter 1 summary RSA, the the valley RSA handshake is faster to compute. Life Of Pi. Public key algorithms like RSA and DH use a lot of food summary CPU and are the slowest part of the TLS handshake. A laptop can only perform a couple hundred RSA encryptions a second versus around ten million per second of the symmetric cipher AES.

The DH handshake requires two algorithms to run, but the advantage it brings is that it allows key establishment to happen independently of the servers private key. This gives the connection forward secrecy, a useful property that protects conversations from being decrypted after the fact if the private key is somehow exposed. The DH version of the handshake also opens up the possibility of using non-RSA certificates that can improve performance, including ECDSA keys. Elliptic curves provide the same security with less computational overhead. A DH handshake with and elliptic curve DSA certificate and elliptic curve Diffie-Hellman key agreement can be faster than a one-operation RSA handshake. CloudFlare supports both handshakes, but, as we will describe later, the type of 1 summary handshake used is chosen by food summary the server. CloudFlare will choose a DH handshake whenever we can. Before we walk through the steps of the handshake, here are a couple definitions.

1. Session key This is the end result of life of pi chapter a handshake. Its a key for a symmetric cipher, and vygotsky allows the of pi client and server to summary encrypt messages to each other. 2. Client random This is a sequence of 32 bytes created by the client. Its unique for each connection, and is supposed to contain a four-byte timestamp followed by 28 random bytes. Recently, Google Chrome switched to of pi chapter 1 summary using 32 bytes of random in order to prevent client fingerprinting. The Valley Of Ashes. These random values are often called a nonce.

3. Server random A server random is the same as the client random except generated by the server. 4. Pre-master secret This is a 48-byte blob of data. It can be combined with both the client random and the server random to create the session key using a pseudorandom function (PRF). 5. Cipher suite This is life 1 summary a unique identifier for combining algorithms making up a TLS connection. It defines one algorithm for definition each of the following: key establishment (typically a Diffie-Hellman variant or RSA) authentication (the certificate type) confidentiality (a symmetric cipher) integrity (a hash function) For example AES128-SHA defines a session that uses: A more daunting, but valid cipher suite is ECDHE-ECDSA-AES256-GCM-SHA384 which defines a session that uses: Elliptic Curve Diffie-Hellman Ephemeral (ECDHE) key exchange for key establishment Elliptic Curve Digital Signature Algorithms (ECDSA) for authentication 256-bit Advanced Encryption Standard in Galois/Counter mode (GCM) for confidentiality 384-bit Secure Hashing Algorithm for life of pi integrity. With these definitions in hand, lets walk through an food inc. summary RSA handshake. Note that none of the of pi chapter 1 summary messages in the handshake are encrypted with a session key; they are all sent in the clear. The client hello contains the protocol version that the client wants to use, and some other information to get the handshake started including the Nursing Metaparadigm client random and a list of of pi cipher suites.

Modern browsers also include the hostname they are looking for, called the Essay on The River Server Name Indication (SNI). Life Of Pi Chapter 1 Summary. SNI lets the web server host multiple domains on the same IP address. After receiving the client hello, the server picks the parameters for dissertation introduction the handshake going forward. Life Chapter 1 Summary. The choice of cipher suite determines what type of handshake is Essay on The performed. The server hello message contains the server random, the 1 summary servers chosen cipher suite, and the servers certificate. The certificate contains the servers public key and domain name. Note: CloudFlares cipher suite preferences are posted publicly on the valley of ashes our Github page. Message 3: Client Key Exchange

After validating that the certificate is trusted and life chapter 1 summary belongs to the site they are trying to reach, the client creates a random pre-master secret. Dissertation Introduction. This secret is encrypted with the public key from the certificate, and sent to the server. Upon receiving this message, the chapter server uses its private key to decrypt this pre-master secret. Now that both sides have the pre-master secret, and both client and of ashes server randoms, they can both derive the same session key. Then they exchange a short message to indicate that the of pi 1 summary next message they send will be encrypted. The handshake is officially complete when the client and of responsibility server exchange Finished messages. The actual text is literally: client finished or server finished encrypted with the session key. Any subsequent communication between the two parties are encrypted with the session key.

This handshake is chapter 1 summary elegant because it combines key exchange and authentication in one step. Summary. The logic is that if the server can correctly derive the session key, then they must have access to the private key, and, therefore, be the owner of the certificate. The downside of this handshake is of pi chapter 1 summary that the messages secured by it are only as safe as the Essay private key. Suppose a third party has recorded the handshake and the subsequent communication. Life Of Pi Chapter. If that party gets access to the private key in the future, they will be able to introduction example decrypt the premaster secret and derive the session key. With that they can decrypt the entire message. This is true even if the certificate is expired or revoked. This leads us to another form of handshake that can provide confidentiality even if the life of pi chapter 1 summary private key is compromised. Ephemeral Diffie-Hellman handshake. The ephemeral Diffie-Hellman handshake is an alternative form of the TLS handshake. It uses two different mechanisms: one for establishing a shared pre-master secret, and of diffusion one for authenticating the 1 summary server.

The key feature that this relies on is the Diffie-Hellman key agreement algorithm. In Diffie-Hellman, two parties with different secrets exchange messages to obtain a shared secret. Colorado River. This handshake relies on the simple fact that exponents are commutative. Specifically that taking a number to the power of 1 summary a, and the result to the power of b, is the Nursing Metaparadigm and Nursing Theory Essays same as taking the of pi chapter 1 summary same number to the power of b, and the result to the power of a. The algorithm works like this: person a has secret a, sends g a to person b person b has secret b, sends g b to person a person a computes (g b ) a person b computes (g a ) b Both person a and b end up with g ab , which is their shared secret.

This doesn't work well with regular numbers because g ab can get really large, and there are efficient ways to take the nth root of a number. However, we can change the problem space and make it work. This is done by restricting the the valley of ashes computation to numbers of a fixed size by always dividing the result of a computation by big prime number and taking the life of pi 1 summary remainder. This is called modular arithmetic. Taking an vygotsky nth root in modular arithmetic is called the discrete logarithm problem and of pi chapter is considered a hard problem. Another variant of the Diffie-Hellman key agreement uses Elliptic Curves, ECDHE.

For more information on Elliptic Curves, check out this primer we published last year. A shared secret can be derived using either of these fixed-size Diffie-Hellman key agreement algorithms. Now lets go through a Diffie-Hellman handshake: Just like in the RSA case, the client hello contains the protocol version, the client random, a list of cipher suites, and, optionally, the SNI extension. If the client speaks ECDHE, they include the list of curves they support.

If this is omitted, or there is a mismatch, it can be tricky to debug. After receiving the client hello, the of responsibility server picks the life of pi chapter 1 summary parameters for the handshake going forward, including the curve for ECDHE. Of Ashes. The server hello message contains the server random, the servers chosen cipher suite, and the servers certificate. The RSA and Diffie-Hellman handshakes start to differ at this point with a new message type. Message 3: Server Key Exchange In order to life 1 summary start the Diffie-Hellman key exchange, the of responsibility server needs to pick some starting parameters and send them to the client---this corresponds to the g a we described above. The server also needs a way to life of pi prove that it has control of the Essay on The Colorado River private key, so the server computes a digital signature of all the messages up to this point. Both the Diffie-Hellman parameters and the signature are sent in this message. Message 4: Client Key Exchange After validating that the certificate is trusted, and belongs to the site they are trying to reach, the client validates the digital signature sent from the server. They also send the client half of the life of pi Diffie-Hellman handshake (corresponding to dissertation example g b above).

At this point, both sides can compute the pre-master secret from the Diffie-Hellman parameters (corresponding to g ab above). With the pre-master secret and both client and server randoms, they can derive the same session key. They then exchange a short message to indicate that they the next message they send will be encrypted. Just like in the RSA handshake, this handshake is officially complete when the client and server exchange Finished messages. Any subsequent communication between the two parties are encrypted with the session key. Yesterday we announced Keyless SSL, CloudFlares solution that allows sites to life chapter 1 summary use CloudFlare without requiring them to give up custody of their private keys. One takeaway from the handshake diagrams above is that the private key is only used once in each handshake.

This allows us to split the the valley TLS handshake geographically, with most of the life chapter handshake happening at CloudFlares edge while moving the private key operations to a remote key server. Of Responsibility. This key server can be put on the customers infrastructure, giving them exclusive access to the private key. Once the secure tunnel is established, the RSA handshake looks like this: The DH handshake looks like this: Extending the TLS handshake in this way required changes to the NGINX server and OpenSSL to make the private key operation both remote and non-blocking (so NGINX can continue with other requests while waiting for of pi chapter 1 summary the key server). Both the NGINX/OpenSSL changes, the protocol between the CloudFlares server, and the key server were audited by food iSEC Partners and Matasano Security. They found the security of Keyless SSL equivalent to on-premise SSL. Keyless SSL has also been studied by academic researchers from both provable security and performance angles. The key server can run on Linux (packaged for Red Hat/CentOS, Debian and Ubuntu, and others), other UNIX operating systems (including FreeBSD), and Microsoft Windows Server. Life Chapter. Customers also get access to a reference implementation written in C, so they can build their own compatible key server.

The key server will soon be integrated with hardware security module (HSM) vendors and of responsibility key management solutions (such as Venafi) to provide customers with additional ways to control how the keys are managed in life chapter 1 summary their infrastructure. Keyless SSL supports multiple key servers for definition of responsibility the same certificate. Key servers are stateless, allowing customers to use off-the-shelf hardware and scale the deployment of key servers linearly with traffic. By running multiple key servers and load balancing via DNS, the life of pi chapter 1 summary customers site can be kept highly available. For Keyless SSL to vygotsky be secure, the of pi chapter 1 summary connection from CloudFlares edge to the key server also needs to be secure.

The key server can act as a cryptographic oracle by performing private key operations for anyone who can contact it. Ensuring that only CloudFlare can ask the Nursing and Nursing Essays key server to perform operations is crucial to of pi the security of Keyless SSL. We secure the inc. connection from CloudFlare to the key server with mutually authenticated TLS. Previously, we described TLS handshakes that were only authenticated in one direction: the client validated the server. In mutually authenticated TLS, both client and server have certificates and authenticate each other.

The key server authenticates CloudFlare and CloudFlare authenticates the key server. In Keyless SSL, the of pi chapter 1 summary key server only dissertation allows connections from life chapter 1 summary clients with a certificate signed by a CloudFlare internal certificate authority. We use certificates granted by our own certificate authority for both sides of this connection. We have strict controls over how these certificates are granted and use the X.509 Extended Key Usage option to ensure that certificates are only used as intended. This prevents any party that doesnt have a CloudFlare granted certificate from communicating with the key server. Customers also have the option to of diffusion of responsibility add firewall rules to limit incoming connections to those from CloudFlares IP space. Additionally, we restrict the cipher suite for this connection to one of the following: These are two of the strongest ciphers available in OpenSSL and guarantee the connection between CloudFlare and the keyserver has perfect forward secrecy. The key server itself can be modified to work with hardware security module (HSM), providing additional hardware security for customers who want to life of pi protect the key server from constructivist learning theory vygotsky undiscovered software vulnerabilities similar to Heartbleed.

The key server is not subject to padding oracle attacks like that of Bleichenbacher because it uses constant size responses. Side-channel attacks such as timing attacks are ineffective as long as the underlying cryptographic library used on the key server is immune. We use OpenSSL in our reference implementation which has been hardened against such attacks. CloudFlare is designed to make sites faster: it should take less time to connect to a site on CloudFlare than the life same site off CloudFlare. This is also the case with Keyless SSL. Connecting to a site with Keyless SSL should be faster than connecting to the same site with CloudFlare disabled. People have asked how can that be, given that the Keyless SSL requires an additional connection to the key server. The answer lies in geography. CloudFlares data centers are geographically distributed in 20 countries around the world and are located within less than 20ms of 95% of the of diffusion Internets active population.

This allows visitors to communicate with a CloudFlare server that is closest to of pi chapter 1 summary them on the network. Colorado. Messages sent between visitor and CloudFlare dont have to travel far, so the connection latency is of pi chapter smaller. This proximity effect is dissertation introduction example one of the ways that CloudFlare accelerates websites. In the Keyless SSL diagrams above, all the 1 summary messages except one are traveling over the short link between CloudFlare and the visitor. The only long round trip is the one to the key server.

Consider the scenario where a visitor in San Francisco wants to visit a site hosted in food summary London over life of pi chapter, TLS. Without CloudFlare, the TLS handshake requires two round-trips from San Francisco to London. With Keyless SSL and a keyserver hosted in London, the the valley of ashes visitor will end up in CloudFlares nearby San Jose data center. In this scenario, only one of the messages has to travel to chapter 1 summary London and back. Messages have to definition of diffusion of responsibility travel a shorter distance, resulting in a faster handshake. The reason we only require one round-trip to the key server is chapter persistent connections.

Once CloudFlare has connected to a key server, it keeps the connection ready for any new visitors to the site. The first connection to a Keyless SSL powered site is fast, but the major performance improvement comes when a visitor returns to the site. TLS provides an excellent performance feature called session resumption. If a client has previously established a session with the server, and is trying to connect again, they can use an abbreviated handshake. There are two mechanisms to Essays do so: session IDs and session tickets. Session IDs require the server to keep the session state (i.e. the session key) ready in case a previous session needs to be resumed. In the case of session tickets, the chapter server sends a session ticket (consisting of the example session key encrypted with a ticket key) to the client during the initial handshake. When resuming a session, the client sends the encrypted key back to the server who decrypts it and life chapter 1 summary resumes the session. There is no need to use the private key for session resumption.

Firefox and Chrome are the major browsers that support session tickets. All other modern browsers support resumption via session IDs. One of the challenges faced when using these techniques at scale is load balancing. In order for a server to resume a connection, it needs to have the previously established session key. If the visitor tries to resume a connection with a new server, that server needs to get the original session key somehow. The main problem with session resumption is that is was not meant to scale to load-balanced servers. If a client starts a session on one server, it cannot resume that session on example another server. This is not a failing of the protocol, just a missing feature in open source web servers. With Keyless SSL, we are introducing advanced session resumption capabilities to solve this problem. This includes worldwide session resumption via session tickets and of pi 1 summary session resumption within a data center via session IDs.

Session resumption allows repeat visitors to have lightning fast connection times because there is no need to go back to the key server to resume a connection. With session tickets, we can resume a session from any machine on our network. This required significant engineering work that we are opening up to learning theory the community. Twitter recently announced that they are using session ticket keys rotated every 12 hours. Of Pi. We are upping the ante by rotating session ticket keys every hour. We built a centralized session ticket key generator that issues new keys every hour for distribution across our global network. Each key persists for a user-configurable amount of time (defaulting to 96 hours), after which it is permanently deleted. To distribute the keys, we added a TLS layer to example the key-value store Kyoto Tycoon so that replication is fully encrypted with mutually authenticated TLS and pinned to CloudFlares CA. With Kyoto Tycoon, ticket keys are replicated globally within seconds to of pi chapter every one of our edge machines.

In keeping with our open source philosophy, we plan on open sourcing our changes to Kyoto Tycoon. With the ticket keys available on every server, we can resume any connection on any machine in our entire network. The rotation of ticket keys helps us maintain perfect forward secrecy for our customers while reducing latency for returning visitors using Firefox and Chrome. We can also resume sessions across multiple machines with a session ID. Unlike with session tickets, we can only resume sessions within a datacenter. This turns out to be good enough for 99.99% of users because CloudFlares Anycast network directs requests to the nearest data center. Browsers dont typically move between cities very often, so most resumption requests end up in the same place. Definition Of Diffusion. And, in the worst case, such as if you access a site from your phone in one city and then fly to another, your client will simply setup a new session. We can resume sessions using an ID by caching session keys within a datacenter.

For each new connection, we cache an encrypted versions of the session key in a centralized location, indexed by session ID. If a new request come in with a session ID that has been seen before, we look it up in the central store that can be accessed from of pi all the servers in constructivist learning theory any data center. Chapter 1 Summary. These session keys do not leave the datacenter and food inc. summary persist for a user-configurable amount of time, again defaulting to 96 hours. Session ID caching lets us use an of pi 1 summary abbreviated handshake for almost all resumed connection attempts in browsers other than Chrome or Firefox. Other technically sophisticated organizations also use session resumption. Google, for instance, uses a similar technique to resume sessions across its infrastructure. The Valley Of Ashes. Note: All CloudFlare customers with SSL enabled now get the benefits of life this advanced session resumption, even if they are not using Keyless SSL. CloudFlare developed a lot of code when building Keyless SSL and have contributed major portions of food inc. it back to the community: Strict SSL: this code allows upstream connections from NGINX to life of pi chapter validate TLS connections, needed for validating the identity of the key server.

This change was merged into NGINX. Session tickets: we added support for session ticket in NGINX. This change was merged into NGINX. CFSSL: we recently open sourced the Nursing Metaparadigm Theory Essays tool we use for our internal certificate authority. It is available on GitHub.

Kyoto Tycoon: we are soon open sourcing our changes to chapter Kyoto Tycoon, a high performance key value store we use extensively, to allow mutually authenticated replication. Key Server: The reference implementation of the Keyless SSL key server is now available on Github. Keyless SSL is a big advancement allowing website owners to use a service like CloudFlare to make their website faster and on The Colorado more secure, while retaining control of their private keys. As we said in 1 summary the previous post announcing it, Sebastien was able to build the initial Keyless SSL prototype overnight. Making sure it was secure, fast, and could scale is constructivist learning vygotsky what took us two years of engineering. Now, with persistent connections and of pi 1 summary advanced session resumption techniques, using Keyless SSL is not only safe, its blazing fast! Want to learn more about Cloudflare? +44 (0)20 3514 6970. Cloudflare provides performance and security for any website. More than 6 million websites use Cloudflare.

There is definition of diffusion no hardware or software. Cloudflare works at the DNS level. It takes only 5 minutes to sign up. To learn more, please visit our website.

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95 theses rap yale In late August 2015, two pastors and five elders from the Early Rain Reformed Church 1 in Chengdu, Sichuan, signed a document entitled #x201C;Reaffirming our Stance on the House Churches: 95 theses,#x201D; an article that was accessed over of pi 1 summary thirty-eight thousand times in the first six months of its posting online [ 1 ]. The resemblance to Martin Luther#x2019;s act of five hundred years earlier is of diffusion, not incidental, and while the life of pi 1 summary, hubris might bemuse, the and Nursing Essays, document can be seen as a milestone of house church belief, broadcasting its challenge to the state and to the state-registered Protestant church in China. Luther#x2019;s first posting of theses in mid-1517 had very little effect. It is too early to judge the significance of this new statement in church history, but the fiery, authoritative language, the standing of its lead author within the house church movement and the growing import of the Reformed (Calvinist) sector of the Chinese church, mean it would be impolitic to dismiss this as a stunt of mimicry. Where Luther set out to dispute the nature of life of pi repentance and salvation, and question the Pope#x2019;s authority to issue indulgences to remit wrong, the Chengdu theses address a series of topics around sovereignty and authority as these pertain to God, the church, the definition of diffusion, government and the individual. There has been much written on government relations with religious bodies in China, and others have considered the nature of the newly resurgent Calvinist churches in China as political or socio-cultural entities, but there has been little study of their theology. 2 This article examines three of the most controversial aspects of the 2015 document: its analysis of church#x2013;state relations, its rejection of the #x201C;sinicization#x201D; of Christianity, and the excoriation of the state-registered church. These three are intricately linked, and derive from a particular reading of the bible, church tradition, and the role of conscience. The article focuses on church#x2013;state relations, showing how perspectives on the state church and sinicization stem from the same argument, and of pi chapter 1 summary how #x201C;Reaffirming our Stance on the valley of ashes the House Churches: 95 theses#x201D; develops out of pastor Wang Yi#x2019;s earlier writings and his reading of sixteenth- and seventeenth-century Reformed thought. We begin, however, with Luther. 2. From Wittenberg to West China. Life Of Pi 1 Summary? Why would a Calvinist pastor emulate Luther in posting 95 theses on an internet portal?

Was it a clarion call to revolution, or something more akin to Luther#x2019;s set of propositions for debate? A brief comparison of the two acts and their authors serves as an introduction to the context and theology of the Chinese document. The lead pastor of the Early Rain church, Wang Yi (b. 1973), is a prolific author and well-known spokesperson and commentator on the house churches in China, with strong connections to and Nursing Essays Chinese churches in North America. A former law professor, Wang has been a pastor in Sichuan since 2011, and has a robust media presence through his film reviews and writings in the secular press, as well as web pages and micro-blog. These latter host theological discussion threads as well as sermons and articles, and life of pi chapter his published volumes (with mainland and Taiwanese presses, as well as self-published works beyond the purview of the censor) include an examination of constitutionalism, a study of the house church movement, essays on Christian faith and volumes of poetry, film reviews, edited interviews and sermons. 3 The #x201C;new urban house-churches#x201D; that Wang represents are characterized by intellectual discourse and a mission for creating an open, #x201C;above ground#x201D; church that interacts with society. The Valley Of Ashes? Their demographic, stance and outlook are quite different to the predominantly rural house church of the life of pi chapter, late twentieth century. Congregations are well-educated, young, and media-aware ([ 7 ], pp.

189#x2013;90). Conversion data speaks not of healing miracles as in rural church surveys of the food, 1980s and 1990s, but of a quest for meaning among young elites whose spiritual need is understood as a release from individualism and chapter the vacuity of rampant consumerism. For such believers, Wang Yi holds out a message bridging intellectual thought and political action, charity work and justice ([ 4 ], p. 109). Wang Yi has framed much of his theological thought over the past decade within Calvin#x2019;s (or Calvinist) categories of discussion, although the overlap with Lutheran ideas is evident, whether in the language of two kingdoms or an Augustinian anthropology. The questions why emulate Luther? And why now? Invoke a wider context, and learning theory vygotsky parallels between the two eras and authors are worth pondering. Wang Yi shares a good degree of common cause with Martin Luther as a person and a thinker, which sits alongside a general reformed heritage of Lutheran insight (Wang takes sola scriptura and justification by faith as axiomatic). If the Holy Roman Empire of the sixteenth century experienced significant political and ecclesial tension, with contorted relations between imperial and life chapter local politics, church and culture, as well as serious questions over ecclesial funding, papal prerogatives and cultic revivals, the of ashes, church in China is currently facing a similar array of tensions, fueling its charged thinking.

The Holy Roman Empire and the limitations of papal authority#x2014;spiritual and of pi chapter regnant#x2014;are met, for Wang, in Nursing Theory the party-state and of pi the Three-Self Patriotic Movement. Like Martin Luther, Wang writes across a range of genres for an avid audience of Nursing Metaparadigm and Nursing Essays partisan readers. The writings of both Luther and Wang received immediate national and international scrutiny, and both are able popularizers, writing in an intelligible vernacular and utilizing popular media (whether wood block images or magazines 4 ) to disseminate views. At the time of their thesis writing, each led the busy life of the early middle-aged: teaching, writing, defending contested views, acting as pastor/priest. Both have scholarly and practical interests in history and of pi 1 summary the law: mining church history extensively and taking recourse in the law when challenged (canon law for Luther; the definition of diffusion of responsibility, Chinese constitution for Wang). Just as Martin Luther#x2019;s theology developed across lecture series, Wang#x2019;s theology has evolved over time. Many of Luther#x2019;s ideas resonate in Wang#x2019;s faith: from beliefs on church and state, to grace, to the need for discipline and obedience in life of pi chapter 1 summary churches. In his thinking on authority, Wang follows Luther in holding that no ruler enjoys power unless God wills it, and echoes the careful thought linking nation and church politics seen in the revolutionary manifestoes of 1520 [ 9 ]. Wang emulates Luther in constructivist learning theory prizing the keys to Heaven as the true treasure of the church (Luther thesis #60; Chengdu theses #55, 62, 67), and of pi chapter 1 summary takes from Luther and his heirs an abhorrence towards any confusion of the the valley of ashes, Kingdom of God with the Kingdom of the World, and a firm belief in ecclesial things for the ecclesial. At the heart of Luther#x2019;s writing was a critique of the church that was deeply pastoral in implication: what happens when the apostolic successors betray their evangelical vocation? ([ 10 ], p. 49)#x2014;this is a core question for Wang of the state church, and argued in equally passionate terms. Romans 13 was a crucial text for Luther (and Calvin), and is a passage to life chapter 1 summary which Wang returns repeatedly over the course of his writings [ 11 ]. Of Diffusion Of Responsibility? In method, the two sets of theses differ.

Luther#x2019;s #x201C;95 Theses on the Power and Efficacy of Indulgences#x201D; cohere around one central theme, which proceeds logically from step to life chapter 1 summary step, creating in sum a sketch of the Nursing and Nursing Essays, world at the time and pinpointing its wrongs and falsities. Luther#x2019;s disputation is an invitation to life of pi 1 summary argument, a gauntlet, and not a definitive statement of belief; it provoked an actual disputation of the gathered learned. By contrast, although the Early Rain church document invites response, it reads more credally, and Wang#x2019;s trial has been virtual. There are significant differences too in approach: despite his attacks on the Roman Catholic church and the #x201C;far-fetched decrees#x201D; of the pontiff, Luther held that #x201C;by schism and contempt nothing can be mended#x201D; ([ 10 ], p. 32) and Nursing and Nursing Theory chose reform from within for as long as was possible, unlike Wang#x2019;s position on life of pi chapter the state-registered church. It is reasonable to infer, however, that detailed comparison with Luther#x2019;s theology was not the intention of the Chinese church leaders. It is the symbolism of Luther#x2019;s life and theory vygotsky action at life, a time of great turbulence in church life that inspires. Luther#x2019;s steadfastness and Essay on The Colorado self-belief, even to martyrdom, is the model being held up to the Chinese house church. In God#x2019;s war, as Luther wrote, we need #x201C;beware of thinking Christ will achieve things in the earth quietly and softly, when He fought with his own blood#x201D; ([ 10 ], p. 81). Wang#x2019;s rhetoric and life experience shadow Luther#x2019;s: in believing adamantly that the life 1 summary, fight is inc., of God, in determination and stance for #x201C;truth,#x201D; in willingness to face trial or prison, and in cleaving to the Word of God as the source for action and knowledge. The great symbolic and spiritual truth of protest against church and worldly powers is captured in the theses, whether protesting the degradation of life temporal power in the ruling acts of the definition of diffusion, Chinese Party State or of of pi spiritual power in the papacy. It is notable that the language of both men against detractors hardens over time, whether in Luther#x2019;s lament questioning whether the Pope was the Antichrist ([ 12 ], p. 170) or in the Early Rain church#x2019;s denunciation of the Three-Self Patriotic Movement as an #x201C;Antichrist movement#x201D; (#76).

Luther brought significant change to the theology of the sector of the church catholic that chose to follow him: from food inc. a reduction in the number of sacraments to 1 summary a new understanding on transubstantiation to the assertion that church Councils may err#x2014;but has Reformed house church theology in China lived up to the promise signified by its posting of 95 theses? Church leaders have for constructivist learning, some time regarded the new urban house church as a prophetic development. Wang Yi and Liu Tongsu see it as forming a new stage in house church history, taking over from the rural house church as the center of Chinese mission, in what they characterize as the Chinese church#x2019;s own #x201C;post-apostolic#x201D; age, as the church moves from an era of personal experience to one of theorization and forming structures ([ 7 ], p. 112). The strategic importance of the urban church is, moreover, national: God wants, Liu and life of pi 1 summary Wang boldly argue, to renew the food summary, whole of mainstream Chinese culture through the urban house church ([ 7 ], p. 206). If the chapter, development of the urban house church thus represents a turning point in Chinese church history, does the publication of the 95 theses represent a new, bolder claim? This article suggests that the document both continues the prophetic understanding of the church (it is, after all, entitled #x201C; Reaffirming our Stance on Essay Colorado the house Churches: 95 Theses#x201D;), but also expands it to a new horizon. The handing over of the baton to life the urban churches represented a transfer of energy within the broader house church, while the 95 theses stake a claim regarding the entirety of the Chinese Protestant church. As the attack on the legitimacy of the #x201C;state#x201D; church and the exposing of the ills of the authorities recall Luther#x2019;s claims against the Roman church, and as the definition of diffusion of responsibility, impassioned language, the strength of the assertions and the form of the theses evoke the symbol of life chapter 1 summary Luther within that movement#x2014;and create a resonance between the figure of Luther and a leader such as Wang#x2014;it is difficult to read the document as anything other than a call to a new Reformation. 3. Parsing the Theses.

In structure, #x201C;Reaffirming our Stance on the House Churches: 95 theses,#x201D; begins with initial clauses affirming God#x2019;s sovereignty as creator and authority over human beings and structures, acknowledging God as governor of the human conscience (#9) and the bible as the rule for human life and inerrant word of God (#12). The second section of theses (#18#x2013;31) presents a concise summation of the gospel message through the lens of covenant, law and redemption. The core of the gospel is not just the renewal of individual human relationships with God through the sacrificial offering of Christ, but also signifies #x201C;the coming of the Kingdom of God, and that all rulers, countries and peoples on earth have been commanded to heed this gospel#x2014;and that includes China#x201D; (#30). Nursing Metaparadigm And Nursing Theory Essays? 5 The following section (#32#x2013;39) addresses the question of the #x201C;Sinicization#x201D; of Christianity in China, adamantly refuting the possibility of any redemption via Chinese culture or love outside of Christ, and presenting an (Romans-heavy) analysis of the state of China#x2019;s relation to God and the limits of natural law. The fourth and fifth sections discuss the chapter, authority of Christ given to learning theory the church, and the relation between the church and the state as that between two kingdoms.

The church submits to life the authority of the the valley of ashes, #x201C;sword#x201D; of chapter government, while defending its right to protect its own work of preaching the gospel. Introduction Example? The nature of the kingdoms and the ideal of absolute separation between church and state comprise the greatest number of clauses (#45#x2013;72), while the final part of the document attacks the stance of the Three-Self Principles Movement and its #x201C;satanic#x201D; relationship with the life 1 summary, government. Two things are immediately apparent in reading the ninety-five theses: the recurrent emphasis on China and China#x2019;s place in God#x2019;s world, and the marked drawing on a framework of covenants and a language of depravity, which are usually identified as Calvinist in China. 6 The coherence and indurate strength of the declarations derive from combining basic theological propositions taken from Calvin#x2019;s Institutes and the Westminster Confession#x2014;expressed in the document in terms of scriptural references#x2014;with extensive application to a mainland Chinese environment. A central theological datum for Wang, for on The River, example, is freedom of conscience, which is linked to of pi 1 summary the church#x2019;s freedom and so to church#x2013;state relations, to food summary questions of what is legal and illegal, to 1 summary who has ultimate authority over the conscience, and to the bible in its role as #x201C;the constitution of the church.#x201D; The premise often guides the argument: forcing a non-biblical standard onto a Christian, for example, is #x201C;to destroy humanity#x2019;s conscience and rationality, and to attack God#x2019;s rule over a person#x2019;s conscience#x201D; (#16). 3.1. Church and State. Church#x2013;state relations form the greater part of the the valley, theses. The introduction to #x201C;Reaffirming our Stance on the House Churches: 95 theses,#x201D; offers the theses as the basis for dialogue with the government, and invites comment and of pi debate from Essay believers in other churches who can affirm the document and who want to join the 1 summary, dialogue. The final clause, #95, notes that the definition of diffusion of responsibility, statement was timed to coincide with the 60th anniversary of the imprisonment of house church leader Wang Mingdao and of the government attack on chapter the #x201C;Wang Mingdao Anti-Revolutionary Clique#x201D; in dissertation introduction 1955, and so to mark sixty years of life chapter 1 summary oppression of the of ashes, house church and to #x201C;defend the church before government and society.#x201D; The house church proclaims its willingness to meet with representatives of the state, whether local or national government, at any time and place they wish#x2014;but the dialogue is to be based on these theses and on the church#x2019;s theological standpoint.

This is an acknowledgement of a certain stalemate in relations: the Chinese government has accepted that the #x201C;extra-legal#x201D; situation of the house churches cannot continue indefinitely, but expected announcements on their regularization have been continuously postponed, and indeed, the latest revisions to the Regulations on Religious Affairs seem to propel house churches back towards an illegal position. 7 The church, meanwhile#x2014;and especially the rights#x2019; defense faction of which Wang Yi is a lead proponent#x2014;wants to be open and legal, but not at the cost of suppressing the life of pi, memory of its martyrs. Authority is religious, argues the church document. All humans are governed by God (#5), and all authority comes from God (#6): the only legitimate reason we obey laws, is because they are instituted by God (#7). All have freedom of conscience (#10), but God is Lord over every conscience, and no human laws can exculpate from moral responsibility before God (#9): the choice for all is constructivist, between obedience to God and enslavement to human authorities. The means that knowing God#x2019;s will is the bible, and once we jettison the bible and follow any external standards or authorities, our conscience remains neither moral nor secure (#14, which quotes Luther directly to this effect). To submit to non-biblical demands is to betray freedom, and life 1 summary no-one can demand this of another human. Clauses 20 and 21 encapsulate both the basis of resistance to the government and the perceived perfidy of the registered church: 21. This means that when anyone wants to become the ruler of our life, and wants to replace the the valley, will of God with their own will, or demands our unconditional submission, worship and praise#x2014;no matter whether our wife, our parents, or children, or the life, government or ruling party; no matter whether they come in tears or bearing a sword#x2014;this type of will, these demands, are all in essence religious in nature. These demands become the #x2018;god#x2019; of a family, a company, or a state; they demand the loyalty and compliance of people#x2019;s consciences. 22.

Morally, this type of will and these demands are evil. They are in opposition to God, and to humanity. Submitting to this type of will and dissertation these demands is likewise evil, idolatrous action. Having established the basis for life chapter, authority, and reiterating that Chinese society remains under the sovereignty of Christ whoever is in learning power, and that in spiritual reality it is Christ who governs and manages history and human hearts (#43), the authors set out life of pi chapter their understanding of church#x2013;state relations. The church, the body of Christ endowed with the authority of Christ, is #x201C;a kingdom that no eye can see#x201D; (#44), and relations between church and state are therefore those of two #x201C;kingdoms/countries#x201D; (#x56FD;#x5EA6;) and not those between a state and a subordinate religious authority, as the Chinese government might hold. In church history, claims the the valley of ashes, document somewhat magisterially, these have been understood as the relations between the #x201C;City of God#x201D; and #x201C;City on Earth,#x201D; or between the spiritual and secular kingdoms, or the chapter 1 summary, #x201C;already but not yet#x201D; of the eternal kingdom versus the on The, #x201C;doomed to chapter 1 summary destruction#x201D; present world (#45). When the church in China is asked, therefore, whether its faith is antagonistic to the government, it responds by food inc. asserting that God#x2019;s kingdom has already come to China, and no sword may stand against it (#49); that while the church is obedient to authorities, it has never belonged to any given state or political power (#50, although this does not mean individuals may not oppose it, when their rights are abrogated); and life chapter 1 summary that, just as the state has been given the authority of the of diffusion of responsibility, #x201C;sabre#x201D; to manage social order; the church has been given the mission of the gospel, to witness to life chapter the truth (#53). The critical balance of power between the sword of state and the #x201C;keys of the Kingdom of Heaven#x201D; that the church possesses, or the principal of #x201C;the separation of church and state#x201D; (#62), imposes responsibilities and restraints on each: for the church to oppose the sword would be to oppose God (#54), while the government cannot oppose God in refusing the of responsibility, church the chapter, right to preach. Since the freedom to preach the gospel comes from Christ, no country on earth has the power to prevent preachers from travelling across territories and organizing worship (#57).

Moreover, just as the church cannot divest itself of this mission on on The the pretext of complying with extra-biblical or secular laws, nor can it place its glorious mission concerning the eternal soul of humanity under the control or examination of governments or other organizations: to do so would be to #x201C;sell God#x201D; (#58, 61, 72). While the things of God and the things of Caesar co-exist, God#x2019;s are internal (#65) and do not come under the sphere of life chapter 1 summary Caesar (#64); no secular power can manage or judge conscience or faith (#68). Metaparadigm Theory? It is Christ who has distinguished the two powers (#66), and chapter the church cannot offer its power to transient government or economic powers, or unite its structures with those of the ruling powers, thereby confusing what is of God and of Caesar. The absolute nature of the language on church and state is clear. The statement is also clear on its intended outcome: as soon as the state gives up its attempts to control church doctrine, personnel and evangelization work, the church will willingly comply with external administrative requirements in the name of public order, such as registration with the civil affairs department (#91).

8 Elsewhere, Wang Yi has written at length on constructivist theory church and state, codifying the house church demands and expanding on the theological and legal ramifications of upholding the central tenets of freedom of conscience, the life chapter, bible as the church#x2019;s constitution, and religion as a non-political entity. His own views are, if anything, more polemic than the River, 95 theses. However, Wang#x2019;s language suggests a subtle balance between gospel and constitution, and his strategy is to address these in tandem. Wang#x2019;s starting point is that the life, house church#x2019;s demands are the on The Colorado River, demands of the gospel#x2014;and ought to be respected within the scope of the Chinese Constitution and China#x2019;s position as a signatory to various international treaties. The church is not fighting for new rights, but #x201C;asking the state to acknowledge and respect the freedom we already have#x2026;#x201D; ([ 14 ], p. Life Of Pi? 367). Nor is the church, Wang iterates, demanding democracy or the rule of food inc. summary law; the church can and will exist under many forms of life of pi government. The only thing it demands, he notes echoing Barth, is the freedom to worship and to Nursing Metaparadigm Essays spread the gospel. Apart from the state#x2019;s role in of pi chapter guaranteeing the constitutional right to freedom of religion (a clause he suggests #x201C;exists in name only#x201D;), #x201C;the mission of the gospel has nothing to constructivist learning theory vygotsky do with state power.#x201D; ([ 14 ], pp. Life? 364, 362). On the question of legality#x2014;and where human laws clash with divine ones#x2014;Wang#x2019;s rhetoric is frank, and combines an of diffusion appeal to Christian conscience with a defense of the Christian moral and legal position.

Over the last sixty years, he admits, the life chapter, house church has #x201C;continuously violated the law#x201D; in worship, doctrine, theological education, children#x2019;s Sunday school, charitable work, and so forth ([ 14 ], p. 360). By #x201C;non-violent non-cooperation#x201D; the church has comprehensively violated China#x2019;s administrative regulations and laws: but the more pertinent question, he argues, is whether the state itself has violated them. The state, Wang insists, has #x201C;continuously trampled on its own constitution and laws#x201D; in an #x201C;illegal, autocratic and barbarian fashion,#x201D; as he gives example after example to substantiate the claim of #x201C;mistaken application of the the valley, law#x201D; in authorities#x2019; implementation of the various documents pertaining to religious activities from the 1950s through to the 2000s ([ 14 ], pp. 360, 365; [ 15 ]). In various essays, Wang (the former lawyer and constitutional historian) discusses the life, different types of regulation in force in China, and, like others, challenges the decision to channel religious #x201C;law#x201D; within administrative regulations, overseen by the party-state and not judicial bodies [ 16 ]. A growing literature by of ashes scholars and of pi 1 summary activists attests to contradictions in current legislation, with Christian believers among the most active in on The River calling for the government to implement its own stated ideal of rule by law [ 17 ]. 9. The internal question for chapter, the church, suggests Wang, is whether it has violated that #x201C;higher, more worthy law#x201D; ([ 14 ], p. 360). Wang triangulates between Augustine, Luther and and Nursing Essays Calvin in his thinking on conscience, authority, and the nature of the church, with substantial reference to life 1 summary Samuel Rutherford, and figures such as the Scottish #x201C;puritan#x201D; Robert Murray McCheyne. In discussing three stages of River conscience that Wang discerns in St Paul, for example (from natural, to of pi 1 summary religious, to gospel, based on Romans 1 and 2), Wang frequently cites Rutherford, one of the Scottish Commissioners to the Westminster Assembly and author of Lex, Rex [ 18 ]. Rutherford is summary, noted for his early reasoning on violent resistance to of pi chapter 1 summary political sovereignty, constructing on the basis of Romans 13 a conceptual apparatus able #x201C;to appropriate Paul#x2019;s exhortation to obedience in the service of a justification of resistance#x201D; ([ 19 ], p. 140). In tracing Wang#x2019;s mentors, we can see doctrinal, political and personal inspiration: Rutherford not only set out ideas of limited government and constitutionalism, but a divine mandate for Presbyterian forms of church government, and endured banishment and constructivist learning the burning of his books. While Rutherford was strongly opposed to chapter 1 summary the deification of food conscience and its absolute liberty, we can find in his work the source for life of pi 1 summary, two central features of Wang#x2019;s thinking as embedded in example the 95 theses: the conscience as #x201C;an understanding power#x201D; according to which we will have to give an account of ourselves, and life 1 summary the Word of God as #x201C;the rule of Conscience#x201D; ([ 20 ], pp.

4, 10). The question of obeying conscience or state authorities has not been a merely intellectual exercise for Wang and the Early Rain church. Experiences such as the shutting down of the church in 2009 by local authorities, at first on #x201C;fire safety#x201D; grounds and subsequently as an #x201C;unregistered public organization,#x201D; have been the constructivist theory vygotsky, basis for a more developed theological and of pi 1 summary practical stance on church#x2013;state relations [ 21 ]. At the same time as being willing to suffer inconvenience/detention and call for a prayerful response, the dissertation introduction, church has defended itself vigorously to of pi chapter 1 summary the local authorities, arguing that the use of the church name on law enforcement documents enabled it to be a legal plaintiff, that the enforcement procedure itself was illegal, and that the act denied church members their constitutional right of association. As Wang Yi notes, switching the law enforcement of churches from Public Security, to Essay on The River the Religious Affairs Bureau, to the Civil Affairs Bureau was potentially good for house churches#x2014;but denying them the right to register as civil organizations left no legal space for their existence ([ 15 ], p. 26). For Wang, the legal process brought two insights: that the question of life 1 summary freedom of of ashes belief was now a broader one of free assembly and the church needed to engage in consensus building with other intellectuals over such freedoms, and that the church needed to question administrative definitions of #x201C;church,#x201D; and wrest this back as a theological concept, #x201C;a group of people called out by God#x201D; ([ 22 ], p. 41). A perhaps more remarkable example, and parallel case of Wang combining doctrinal and legal argument, concerns church schooling. In discussing the #x201C;Reformed School#x201D; instituted by his church and life chapter 1 summary responding to the question of River whether it was then legal to run a church school, Wang sets up a dichotomy.

It is clear that at one level, setting up a school was an of pi chapter illegal act contravening Article 8 of the Education Law (based on Article 36 of the Constitution) which enshrines #x201C;the separation of education and religion.#x201D; Under a system of #x201C;unified state and religion#x201D; (#x653F;#x6559;#x5408;#x4E00;), with stipulation for education to be #x201C;nationalist, collective, internationalist and communist,#x201D; it is inevitable that Christianity will clash with the constitution [ 23 ]. While Wang argues for the absolute separation of church and state, he and his church elders will, he vows, single-mindedly oppose the definition of diffusion, separation of education and religion. His legal argument turns on the right of citizens to religious belief, a right denied to children in this instance. Here a more militant aspect comes into play: the church of the of pi, Lord has no other option, argues Wang, than to refuse to separate education and and Nursing religion, as he advocates the recovery of Christian education and the rebuilding of life church schools. The dialectic tension between the two kingdoms is definition of diffusion of responsibility, evident: for the Christian, whose constitution is the bible, this is what #x201C;accords with the law.#x201D; Wang cites scriptural warrant, arguing (from Proverbs 22: 6 and 2 Chron. 7: 5) that educating children is an offering to God, and not a right that parents can give away. When the possibility of Christian education exists, to deny this is #x201C;testing God with children#x2019;s fate.#x201D; Having established the breach between state and church worldviews, Wang proceeds to outline a legal space between the bible and life chapter 1 summary the Chinese constitution which provides for a medium-term reconciliation. Again, this works via recourse to international treaties, which, argues Wang, give parents priority in determining the type of education, and children the freedom to religious and moral education. As he also notes, China#x2019;s own Education Law has provision for religious schools (under State Council regulations), setting precedent for their acceptance as legitimate legal entitles [ 23 ]. 10. In Wang#x2019;s thinking, a stance for freedom of conscience and for learning theory vygotsky, the achievement of constitutional rights is both a continuation of the work for the gospel of house church martyrs such as Wang Mingdao, and a gift to wider society in opening up civic space (this latter is why Alexander Chow wants to discuss Wang et al. Life Chapter? as #x201C;public theologians#x201D; rather than #x201C;Calvinist#x201D; ones [ 6 ]).

It is also the only way to understand the history of learning theory church#x2013;state relations in the second half of the twentieth century, since the oppression of the church, Wang argues, has been political not legal, and the church#x2013;state clash a matter of politics not law. From the life of pi chapter, church#x2019;s point of view, he notes, questions of worship, doctrine etc., are all matters of faith not politics: the government has politicized faith through its sixty years of persecution, turning the house church question into a political question ([ 14 ], pp. 362#x2013;63). This line of argument speaks to fears both in the house churches that the Reformed sector has been #x201C;politicizing#x201D; faith (which Wang defends robustly, pointing out that the premise for not registering through the TSPM is not wanting to Metaparadigm and Nursing politicize church), and fears in of pi 1 summary society more generally that the church is meddling in politics. Nursing Metaparadigm And Nursing Essays? (As Liu Tongsu notes, when the life of pi chapter, church is example, criticized for #x201C;playing politics,#x201D; this is usually because #x201C;politics#x201D; is widely regarded as meaning #x201C;power games,#x201D; rather than public affairs or public policies [ 24 ].) For Wang, the life 1 summary, only way to depoliticize the question is for and Nursing Essays, the state to end oppression and guarantee religious freedom. If Wang insists on a transcendental source for secular values such as liberty or constitutionalism, 11 in writing for Christian audiences, he offers a nuanced version of freedom of conscience. In a letter to #x201C;Brothers and life of pi chapter Sisters who have dedicated themselves to serve the Reformed Presbyterian Church,#x201D; he notes that the freedom the church has is #x201C;the freedom of conscience brought by the gospel,#x201D; and offers an anecdote to show the nature of dissertation introduction this freedom and how it is linked to the church#x2019;s simultaneous existence in life two states/kingdoms. An outsider had commented to Essay River Wang on how the Early Rain church lived in truth #x201C;as if you weren#x2019;t living under the CCP#x201D; [ 25 ]. Although he was not a believer, the chapter 1 summary, speaker continued, he could see that the church was the freest group in all China, and that no other collective spread the and Nursing Essays, faith or discussed Chinese society with such a lack of scruples. This, for Wang, was important affirmation that living in life chapter 1 summary fearless freedom really did equate to living outside of party-state control, embodying in community the truth that #x201C;the church is another kingdom/country.#x201D; The transformation that the cross brings is manifest, he explains, in the valley of ashes #x201C;a counter-cultural culture, a counter-governmental government,#x201D; where money is for distribution and power is for serving others, and of pi chapter 1 summary where members can speak in a bounded freedom. Colorado? Church life is qualitatively different from life in the secular world, since the church is #x201C;the community of those who enter the of pi 1 summary, Most Holy Place,#x201D; a sacred place of Colorado truth and protection. 12 In contrast to an older generation of so-called #x201C;cultural Christians#x201D; who have eschewed church community, the of pi 1 summary, generation of the dissertation, Reformed Church under its young leaders has put a premium on community and especially small-group life.

Wang#x2019;s views on church#x2013;state relations are internally consistent and he is widely viewed as a prophetic voice in the house church movement. However, as may be clear from the description above, they also raise significant questions. The 95 theses document arrogates to the church the right to define relations with the state, based on a biblical view and on a particular reading of theological history, leaving little room for of pi chapter, dialogue. Wang might argue that the theses are based on the Westminster Confession [ 26 ], but on such key points as the balancing function of the civil magistrate in its judicial and deliberative functions#x2014;the authority of the magistrate regarding not just orderly worship but also doctrine and the right to call synods (see [ 27 ], Ch. XXX.3)#x2014;he eschews the original (and the view of Calvin) and follows the theory vygotsky, later revisions and chapter 1 summary exclusion clauses of various Presbyterian bodies. 13 More critically for ecumenical relations and relations with the state, Wang#x2019;s views disregard other (non-Calvinist) theological constructs of constructivist learning church#x2013;state relations, and do not allow for the possibility of of pi 1 summary their legitimacy, or for development within Protestant churches on the matter. 14 The tendency to use Calvinist theology as a proxy for Christian theology vis-#xE0;-vis the state is compounded by a tendency to speak for the entire house church, and to regard Reformed doctrine as unquestionably normative for this disparate body, a move problematic both for the house churches and for the post-denominational emphasis of the (state) church nationally. 15. While the church proclaims its Calvinist heritage, the theological basis and scope of Wang#x2019;s pronouncements merit further discussion.

Certain elements are explicit: a Calvinist political community under the lordship of Christ, with both state and church accountable to God; the church as a restored community; a neo-Calvinist belief in the limited role of government and civil protection for religious freedom; a Lutheran call to take up a (metaphorical) sword when the Metaparadigm, state transgresses into the spiritual realm. Life Of Pi Chapter 1 Summary? Other elements are less clear, such as the anticipated relation of the two kingdoms to the Kingdom of God, as well as to each other#x2014;along the lines of a Kuyperian refining of spheres of sovereignty and the function of government itself. Does the stress on imago dei in the 95 theses imply that governance is good and constructivist theory fundamental to human life? A more positive Calvinist view of the role of the state in God#x2019;s overall economy and in transforming society seems tempered by the experience of the Chinese state, but it is unclear how this experience filters back into doctrinal statements. Under-theorized questions include how life outside of the church, that part under state authority, is 1 summary, connected to God (especially given that the Communist view of all life under its purview parallels the of diffusion of responsibility, church one), and how the church conceptualizes participation in secular life as individuals and communities, in light of Wang#x2019;s #x201C;Christian first, citizen second#x201D; formula. The document is silent on such questions as the dangers inhering in elevating individual conscience above legal systems (thesis #10)#x2014;whilst holding to equal separate spheres#x2014;and of the consequences in a country where legislation gives primacy to the state over individual autonomy ([ 5 ], p. 158). One could argue that the positive engagement with society, especially over questions of public or civil space, by Wang and life of pi 1 summary the rights-proclaiming Chinese churches, is actually aimed at enabling a separate space, a Lutheran-type sphere for the church to be church, in learning theory vygotsky a model more akin to the older house-church version of separation than its Calvinist-leaning leaders might suppose. Despite the much publicized work of select Christian lawyers and rights activists, the life of pi 1 summary, social reform, or kingdom building element of house church work is still relatively inchoate#x2014;although it may be premature to expect answers and action when some house churches are still fighting for Essay River, the basic right to exist. 3.2. The Sinicization of chapter Christianity and food inc. summary Denunciation of the TSPM.

If explaining a house church ecclesiology forms a major concern of #x201C;Reaffirming our Stance on the House Churches: 95 theses,#x201D; the church#x2019;s position on two other significant issues derives naturally from the premises and life 1 summary arguments above. The nature of #x201C;Chinese Christianity#x201D; has been contested since the earliest days of the Protestant mission, and has been a focal question for inc., two recent constituencies, the academic study of life Christianity in China, often termed Sino-Christian theology, and theologians in state-approved seminaries, particularly within the #x201C;Theological Reconstruction#x201D; movement. Metaparadigm? The second issue, a trenchant critique of the role the state church has taken vis-#xE0;-vis the authorities, is already implicit in the account of church and state. The remainder of this article offers some brief pointers towards reading these two questions and their subsurface debates. The house church#x2019;s stance in chapter 1 summary the 95 theses on both issues is unequivocal: anyone advocating, for example, the #x201C;sinicization#x201D; of learning vygotsky Christianity is #x201C;denying Christ#x201D; and of pi chapter 1 summary #x201C;will fall under God#x2019;s righteous curse and judgement#x201D; (#36). The list denoting what #x201C;sinicization#x201D; might mean appears comprehensive: 37. This kind of advocacy or demand for a #x201C;sinicization of Christianity#x201D; includes claims for the worship of the unique God revealed in Nursing Metaparadigm and Nursing Theory Scripture within traditional Chinese culture and religion, or for a means of saving grace akin to or identical with that of the atonement of Jesus Christ; advocating that in traditional Chinese culture or religion there is revelation of salvation outside of the unique God of the bible; advocating that the basic doctrines of the church catholic must, or need, be adapted to Chinese cultural traditions or contemporary society or political system; advocating getting rid of the historic Christ for some #x201C;cosmic Christ#x201D; theory and holding that Chinese traditions contain the way of chapter 1 summary salvation of Christ; diluting or denying the substitutionary atonement of inc. Christ on the cross by means of life #x201C;justification by love#x201D; or other such tenets consonant with traditional Chinese moral thinking. 38. Vygotsky? The church must oppose the #x201C;sinicization of Christianity,#x201D; that is, oppose the twisting of the gospel by culture, or the use of politics to bind faith, or using Chinese traditions that are not faithful to God to sever from the life 1 summary, traditions of the universal church that are faithful to God. The referents are unstated, but it is possible to tease out three types of food thinking implicated in the critique in #37. The first is the least well-defined: those claiming that the Jewish/Christian God can be found in classical Chinese texts, and that these texts may have a Christian redemptive function.

Debates over whether the life of pi, #x201C;Shangdi#x201D; of early canonical texts is the same God as referred to in Hebrew and Christian scriptures have occupied Protestant scholars since the nineteenth century, and provided cause for of diffusion, much acrimonious debate and division, but there are very few in the church who have advocated an alternative route to salvation from life of pi these, especially in the present, and most contemporary work on Christian#x2013;Confucian etc., dialogue is academic rather than confessional. 16 The timeline gives a clue to the grounds for the objection: thesis #32 explains that God used Chinese culture and wisdom in the past to learning vygotsky reveal God to China, but the new covenant of of pi chapter 1 summary Christ (#40) supersedes any earlier stages of revelation through nature or conscience. Food? The second set of those #x201C;twisting the gospel through culture#x201D; seems potentially to encompass all engaged in any form of indigenization or in culturation work adapting doctrine to Chinese culture or society#x2014;that is, much of the history of Chinese Christian theology#x2014;and appears predicated on belief in life 1 summary a supra-cultural gospel, separated from the dissertation, linguistic forms and of pi 1 summary cultural meanings through which it is transmitted. This may be an over-reading of what is intended in the Early Rain document (indigenization is only sometimes a matter of transmuting core doctrines), but the text might be read as an undifferentiated attack on everything from the work of Nursing Metaparadigm liberal, church theologians in the bensehua #x672C;#x8272;#x5316; or bentuhua #x672C;#x571F;#x5316; (#x201C;indigenization#x201D;) movements of the early twentieth century through to the writings of a thinker such as He Guanghu in the 2000s arguing that Christianity should start out from social reality. Reference to the cosmic Christ and #x201C;justification by love#x201D; are more straightforward to delineate: both address the theology of the former head of the TSPM, Bishop Ding Guangxun. Ding#x2019;s work drawing on Teilhard de Chardin is well-known, as is his foregrounding of life of pi a God of love#x2014;alongside a widespread (mis)belief that Ding denied the core Protestant doctrine of justification by Essay River faith (see e.g., [ 31 ], p. 7).

A discussion of contextualization in Chinese Christianity is beyond the scope of this paper, but it is a little ironic that a church with such a strong denominational and transplanted historical context shaping the parameters of its theology should be so readily dismissive of others#x2019; attempts to life 1 summary engage their cultural setting. Food? The danger of damning cultural adaptation of core doctrine is that of tainting all indigenization moves, and life of pi chapter of discouraging engagement with liberals by anathematizing their extreme manifestation. Zhao Zichen, revered theologian and, presumably, epitome of those targeted, wrote in 1947, #x201C;to the Chinese, God speaks as if He were a Chinese,#x201D; and yet for all, #x201C;the Word goes out over against their particular existing environments#x201D; ([ 32 ], p. 482). This same Zhao who saw in Confucius #x201C;a clear revelation of God, though only in certain particulars#x201D; and the indigenous church as #x201C;one which conserves and unified all truths contained in the Christian religion and in Essay Colorado China#x2019;s ancient civilization,#x201D; also did his utmost to evangelize China and to #x201C;follow Jesus#x201D; personally, as did many of the academic theologians of the day [ 33 , 34 ]. The potential for misrepresentation of #x201C;Sinicizing#x201D; attempts among liberal theologians is clear, but the thesis gives no context: one of the 1 summary, most active periods of conceptualizing a #x201C;Chinese church,#x201D; for example, was the 1920s, in food inc. summary the midst of national crisis about life 1 summary, what it meant to be Chinese, when not to engage with the inc., question would have been negligent. A set of theses is necessarily concise, but the omission of specificity threatens to blur the argument. Ding Guangxun did not deny justification by faith, arguing only that Christians erred when they paid attention to of pi chapter 1 summary this to the exclusion of works, yet the tendency to repeat this statement unexamined has extended well beyond Chinese evangelical scholarship.

17 In place of #x201C;sinicization,#x201D; house church voices have called for inc., the #x201C;evangelization of life China, the kingdomization of the church, the Nursing Metaparadigm and Nursing Theory Essays, Christianization of culture#x201D; (#x4E2D;#x56FD;#x798F;#x97F3;#x5316;, #x6559;#x4F1A;#x56FD;#x5EA6;#x5316;, #x6587;#x5316;#x57FA;#x7763;#x5316;). It remains to be seen how the #x201C;Christianization#x201D; of Chinese culture may proceed without the evisceration of the Chinese or imposition of foreign cultural forms. Of Pi? A notable trait among urban house church writers is to Colorado acknowledge United States church partners for material help, training, and as a dialogue partner#x2014;and yet to seem to see this as a neutral, culture-free Christianity. While the anti-sinicization theses are aimed at life 1 summary, a spectrum of the valley of ashes academics and theologians and a range of beliefs on Christ and culture, the attack on the state church (#73#x2013;#95) is directed at one facet: its betrayal of the chapter 1 summary, keys of the valley of ashes Heaven entrusted to it, through collusion with the ruling authorities. There is chapter 1 summary, a clear link between the extremely rigid separation of spheres of church and state described above and the rejection in totality of the TSPM, which relates back to the church#x2013;state split of the 1950s (alluded to in #95) and the sense that the Essay on The, church #x201C;sold out#x201D; on the faith in the decisions made. The house church, the document states, will not accept any censorship or monitoring by the government, any training or registration or interference in appointments, any financial controls or limitation on worship (place, age of participants, content); any slander against or persecution of missionaries in China; any church officers who also work for the government or in political parties; any notion of #x201C;religious affairs#x201D; as part of life chapter 1 summary government business (#74, 86, 87). To do so betrays the authority entrusted to the church and #x201C;joins in Essay on The Colorado the oppression of the true church#x201D; (#75); it is the chapter 1 summary, sign of a corrupt and idolatrous church, a whore not the Essay on The Colorado, bride of Christ (#83), a #x201C;false church#x201D; that has given itself over to life of pi political power (#79), a #x201C;scheme of Satan#x201D; that denies the kingdom of Christ is higher than nations on earth (#76). The Valley Of Ashes? The house church must #x201C;fight to death#x201D; for the invisible keys to the kingdom and power of the gospel (#82), and uphold its three core principles of the (inerrant) Bible as its guide; Christ as the only head of the church, and the separation of church and state, with the church submitting to government power in chapter 1 summary the sphere of governance and holding to freedom of conscience in matters spiritual (#78). The passion is evident, as is the combination of loyalty and theological absolutism, based on a certain reading of scripture and of Reformed theology. Making #x201C;two kingdoms#x201D; theology and the separation of church and state the Essays, central dogma of faith has had a clear concomitant effect on the scope and direction of theological debate for the Early Rain church. While one can understand why the current assault of government advice to registered pastors as to what local and national issues merit attention, and indeed what they might like to life of pi chapter 1 summary focus on in their preaching, might repel pastors such as Wang Yi, such language#x2014;which echoes nothing so much as the tone of the Vatican on definition communists in the 1950s#x2014;makes reconciliation between the 1 summary, registered and unregistered churches almost impossible to conceive.

It also represents a partial reading of both Chinese church history and of diffusion Reformed tradition, as suggested above. On the life chapter 1 summary, debates of the 1950s, others within the house church movement have taken a more conciliatory approach regarding the decisions that the fledging unified church took to maintain its existence, including Wang Yi#x2019;s co-author Liu Tongsu; a careful re-reading of the debates and of the historical situation of the Essay on The, Chinese church in the Republic and life of pi chapter the early years of the PRC is imperative to any progress on this question ([ 35 ], p. 207). Wang Yi#x2019;s particular reading of and Nursing Theory Essays Calvinist tradition on church autonomy (versus independence) and his heavy dependence on American interpretations and experience over, say, European modes of church#x2013;state relations, have channeled the course of debate, a debate which will continue to have ramifications within the house church movement and nationally. South African theologian Denise Ackermann notes that #x201C;We say God is love; we do not often say that God is freedom,#x201D; and recounts how the neo-Calvinism that dominated Reformed South African theology almost deterred her from finding the #x201C;stunning depth#x201D; in chapter 1 summary Calvin#x2019;s writing on freedom, that freedom which enables consciences to rise above the law and resist tyranny, whose embrace permits true service of on The Colorado others ([ 36 ], pp. 150#x2013;55).

In contrast, freedom of 1 summary conscience is a cardinal tenet of Wang Yi#x2019;s theology (whereas God as love is more problematic because of the association of that theme with TSPM theologies). It is easy to see why a Chinese lawyer and constitutional expert would be drawn to Calvinist thought and to the central question of church#x2013;state relations. The exponential growth in academic interest in Calvinism in China attests to broader interest in such thought ([ 5 ], pp. 156#x2013;57), 18 while Wang Yi himself invested considerable time in translating into Chinese Douglas F. Kelly#x2019;s volume The Emergence of the valley Liberty in the Modern World: The Influence of Calvin on life of pi chapter Five Governments from the Sixteenth through Eighteenth Centuries [ 37 ]. Definition Of Responsibility? If anything, one might argue that Wang Yi has spent too much time reading sixteenth- and seventeenth-century theology, seen in hyperbolic language and in the revivifying of debates in contemporary China soaked in the 1584 Black Acts, monarchical tyranny and National Covenant. We can hold in tension two conclusions. The first is the courageous, and timely stance on the gospel and on such questions as the rule of law and role of a constitution that the Early Rain church document represents. The cost to the house church of its beliefs has been very great over the last sixty years, and the sacrifice has given the church a strong moral voice in 1 summary debate, a voice and confidence that it is now deploying to good effect in the interests of other citizens. Given China#x2019;s contradictory relations with its judiciary and constitution as well as with international legal bodies, and set against the valley of ashes a background of the state strengthening its control over churches, it is life chapter, both timely and dangerous to dissect the constitution, or to write openly of teaching school children about the Tiananmen massacre. Grounding legal activism in theology has provided the same impetus and strength that drove an older generation of house church activists. Dissertation Introduction Example? In an era when the Chinese government is dealing with global aspirations to theocracy on its north-west borders, a propulsion to absolute division between state and religion also provides much food for political thought.

This tendency towards the life chapter 1 summary, absolute, however, furnishes the second conclusion. Wang Yi and the Early Rain church 95 theses have avoided much of the more nationalistic aspects of food Calvinist thought and life of pi of other sectors of the Chinese church in their analysis of church#x2013;state relations, and two kingdoms theology may contribute to a way beyond recent advocacy of constructivist theory vygotsky Chinese exceptionalism, or insoluble debate on nationalism versus patriotism. The zealous and life of pi chapter uncompromising interpretation of two kingdoms theology, however, brings its own problems. One is a potential inflexibility in dealing with the state, both at a practical level (and so potentially engendering unnecessary oppression or control, limiting the reach of church work 19 ) and of diffusion of responsibility also metaphysically, in inhibiting theological thinking on how to integrate life in the civil and church worlds#x2014;even under an oppressive, atheist regime, or on how to serve vocationally in the civic sphere, or even be a Christian leader and politician. Another is in representing Christianity truthfully, to Christians and to the state.

As suggested above, the tendency to speak for all of the #x201C;house church#x201D; has been compounded by narrow views of Christian history and biblical mandate, especially on chapter 1 summary the contentious question of church#x2013;state relations. While Wang Yi has championed thinkers such as the Scottish reformers, he has not always followed through the the valley of ashes, natural inference: in 1 summary the Scottish case, that kirk#x2013;state relations have been much more complex and interrelated than allowed for in his parsing, or that various European Presbyterian churches have followed very different trajectories than the US model and its outworking in church and society#x2014;or even that Luther himself entertained a much greater acceptance of state authority over church affairs than Wang#x2019;s absolutist line.

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Essay Medea in Apollonius Rhodius and Euripides. How and life, why does the characterisation of Medea in Apollonius Rhodius draw on the characterisation of the Euripidean Medea. The Argonautica is the only surviving Hellenistic epic and extant work of Apollonius Rhodius. Unfortunately little is known about of ashes, Apollonius life, or how he viewed his work, as few extant materials refer to him[1]. Argonautica was written in the third century B.C. and broke from the chapter, Hellenistic tradition for short literary works[2]. The epic draws upon a long literary and mythological tradition that included Euripides Medea . Within scholarship the plays of Euripides are widely considered to be a forerunner of Hellenistic works[3]. In Argonautica this is particularly clear through the allusions Apollonius draws with his characterisation of Medea. Medea was a popular mythological subject and appeared in many other works such as those of Pindar and Apollodorus[4]. These works are important in respect of the mythological traditions of Medea as they add to the understanding of the summary, development of the myth.

However, the focus of this essay will be upon the representations of Medea within Argonautica and life of pi 1 summary, Medea and how and on The, why Apollonius draws upon Euripides characterisation. The mythology of Medea is very complex due to varying literary traditions. Of Pi Chapter 1 Summary. Euripides Medea is the valley, a particularly well known version of the myth; therefore, the name Medea in the minds of many brings forth his image of a passionate, angry and life of pi chapter 1 summary, strong-willed woman. Colorado River. In mythology Medea was not always the woman who murdered her children, as depicted by Euripides. One variation of the life chapter, myth tells how Medea may have killed her children by accident[5]. Another how the people of Corinth murdered them as an act of revenge for the murder of their princess[6]. Apollonius, instead of using either of these versions of the introduction example, myth, chose to foreshadow his Argonautica with the events of Euripides Medea . Of Pi Chapter. However, there are indications Apollonius drew upon other literary influences such as Nausicaa from Homers Odyssey . It will be necessary to briefly consider such influences in order to assess the extent to which they embed themselves within Apollonius characterisation of Medea. Scholarship has taken a keen interest in the representation of Apollonius Medea. In particular Hunter considers Medeas suffering for love in one section of his work and theory vygotsky, the intertext between Apollonius and Euripides[7]. Of Pi 1 Summary. On the inc., other hand, Pavlock considers Medeas passion to life of pi, be dangerous and uncontrollable.

These viewpoints, amongst others, will be given due consideration[8]. Medea is a defining mythological figure and as such it is important to understand how and why Apollonius draws upon Euripides. Metaparadigm And Nursing. Therefore, this essay will demonstrate that Apollonius, in order to chapter, foreshadow his epic, draws upon the characterisation of Euripides Medea. This is undertaken through Medeas rhetorical skills, assistance to Jason and passion whilst also making specific reference to certain images. Furthermore, notwithstanding other influences from epic, it will also be shown that Apollonius uses this characterisation to definition of diffusion of responsibility, explore the reactions of the life, Alexandrian audience to the increased personal freedom of introduction example women and the psychology of of pi chapter 1 summary passion. The Medeas of Euripides and the valley of ashes, Apollonius. One of the primary considerations of how Apollonius foreshadows and draws upon the characterisation of Euripides Medea is of pi chapter 1 summary, through her rhetorical ability.

Apollonius Medea is at first quiet in on The Colorado, Jasons presence having been seized by of pi chapter 1 summary speechless stupor due to the arrow of Eros[9]. However, from this point the character develops a rhetorical skill attuned to that of Euripides Medea. The dispute between Jason and Medea, following her discovery of the secret negotiations with the Colchian fleet, recalls the couples first argument within Euripides Medea [10]. In each instance Medea delivers a carefully constructed speech which denounces Jasons behaviour. Euripides Medea commences her speech focusing on the wrongs Jason has committed. Medea then recounts her sacrifices, recalls the oath Jason broke and ends her speech considering what she is to do, calling upon the gods.

Apollonius Medea starts by Essay questioning what Jason has planned for her. She then reminds him of his oath, her sacrifices and proceeding to consider what will become of life of pi chapter her she calls upon the gods. The chastisement of definition of diffusion of responsibility Jason by Medea evokes and rewrites her agon in Medea [11]. It is particularly noteworthy that Medeas speech written by Apollonius follows a similar pattern to Euripides, one an audience familiar with Medea would recognise. This argument can be considered further through the supplications of life Medea in both works. Each of example these is intended to 1 summary, ensure Medeas self-preservation; Circe cleanses her blood guilt, Creon stays her exile and Arete and Aegeus provide protection from her enemies[12].

Apollonius appears to have drawn on Euripides characterisation of Medea as a survivor, able to use her rhetorical skill in order to secure what she requires. This is drawn out through the language and actions of of ashes Medeas supplications. Each instance is undertaken on her knees putting herself in the appropriate position of life respect to the person hearing her request[13]. Furthermore, the language used on each occasion is comparable, Show kindness to me!Take pity on meMay the immortals grant you both a life of fulfilmentchildren, and the glory of an unravaged city Medea declares to Arete[14]. Definition Of Responsibility. Likewise to Aegeus she states have pity on an unfortunate womando not allow me to be cast into exilemay your longing for of pi children be brought to fulfilmentand may you yourself die happy![15]. Though Medea does not ask Creon for pity the approach used in supplicating him is similar: Have no fearI am not the kind of person to commit crimes against my rulersAnd now I do not begrudge you prosperity.

Make your marriageand may good fortune attend you[16]. The Medea of Apollonius like Euripides understands well the process and dissertation introduction example, requirements of life of pi chapter supplication and uses it to her advantage[17]. Medeas rhetorical skill in Argonautica and desire for inc. self-preservation are the hallmarks of Euripides heroine[18]. Furthermore the specifics of the language used and description of the supplications within Argonautica parallel that of Euripides Medea . This desire for self-preservation becomes very apparent during Medeas supplication of Jason at the beginning of Argonautica book four[19]. Medea transforms from a woman in distress to a plotter of her brothers murder, scenes reminiscent of the ruthless and determined woman who commits infanticide in Euripides Medea [20]. Medeas act of infanticide is life of pi chapter 1 summary, motivated by anger induced by Jasons betrayal[21]. Constructivist. It is of pi chapter, this allusion Apollonius draws upon to prepare the audience for the murder of Apsyrtos[22].

The murder is attributed to Medea in Euripides Medea [23]. However, in Argonautica Jason is the murderer with Medeas role greatly reduced to co-conspirator; Medea requires purification as she is not free from dissertation example guilt[24]. Apollonius use of ????????? (by or at the hearth) for the location of Circes purification of Jason and Medea is similar to the phraseology of Euripides[25]. During Jasons recollection of the murder in Medea he describes the location as at the hearth[26].Though Medea takes place sometime after Argonautica , through Apollonius use of language he foreshadows situations which will occur in the future[27]. The ability to devise brilliant and destructive schemes is an intricate part of Medeas character in both representations. Medeas name means The Planner and this skill is a consistent theme throughout Argonautica and Medea [28]. Life Chapter. Medeas planning secures Jasons victory in the trials set by Aietes (her father), enables the murder of her brother and Essay Colorado River, removal of Pelias from the throne of life of pi chapter Iolcus[29].

Without Medeas aid Jasons story would have ended as it was thought by the Argonauts that Aietes first trial was unachievable[30]. The potion provided by Apollonius Medea to Jason protects him during the trial and Essay on The River, it is she who lulls the dragon to sleep so that he may seize the fleece[31]. These actions foreshadow Euripides Medea who declares to Jason that it was she who saved him from death on two occasions, the of pi chapter 1 summary, trial of the fire-breathing bulls and the dragon[32]. Apollonius decision to have Jason commit the murder places the focus on Medeas ingenuity and cunning instead of the act itself. There are subtle differences between the the valley, works such as Euripides declaration that Medea killed the dragon whereas Apollonius spares its life. Of Pi 1 Summary. Though this difference exists it is clear that Apollonius was heavily influenced by the elements of Euripides story that focus on inc. summary the aid provided by Medea. It has been suggested that, at such an early stage, Apollonius wanted to ensure that Medea remained free of violence[33]. However, this difference was likely intended to develop Medeas character as, within a short time, she begins to of pi, reveal her darker side. Medea declares that Jason should not break his oath or, May my Furies drive you straight from your homeland, because of what I have suffered through your heartlessness. What I say the vygotsky, gods will not leave unaccomplished[34].

The language is reminiscent of the curses Medea calls upon Jason in Medea [35]. Comparison can also be drawn with the references to Jason as the vilest of life chapter knaves, an enemy of the gods and definition of diffusion, an oath breaker in Medea , descriptions similarly reflected in Argonautica [36]. Apollonius describes Medea as seething with grim anger believing that she is at risk of abandonment and requires placating by Jason[37]. Arguably, the anger of Medea prepares the audience for the murder of her brother that follows shortly. Medeas anger can be compared to 1 summary, Aietes when he discovers Jasons intention to claim the Nursing and Nursing Theory, Golden Fleece[38]. Medea becomes her fathers daughter and although the murder of Apsyrtos is shocking it is the climax of the sacrifices that led to 1 summary, it[39]. Medeas anger in both works in part results from her sacrifices in order to aid Jason.

Medea betrayed her family and homeland to runaway with a foreigner who she assists in murdering her brother[40]. The sacrifices are a key feature in Apollonius characterisation of Medea and example, there are clear indications that they are drawn from Euripides representation. Medea sacrificed much out of love for Jason. However, the love was not romantic but instead fiery passion influenced by the gods. The passion induced by life Eros is a destructive force that foreshadows the definition, events that take place in life of pi 1 summary, Medea . Theory Essays. Apollonius describes how Eros arrow burned deep in the girls heart like a flame arousing in Medea a passion for Jason[41]. 1 Summary. Comparison can be drawn with the description provided by Euripides of Medea being smitten with love for Jason[42]. The shooting is described by Apollonius in violent terms, Eros fitted the arrow-notch to the bowstringand shot straight at Medeathe destructive love which crouched unobserved and burnt in Medeas heart[43]. This echoes the comments of Euripides chorus who declare that they never want the arrow of desire to fly against my heart or for Aphrodite to madden my heart with love for a strangers bed[44]. Medea initially under Eros influence is very different to Euripides characterisation. She is a young, vulnerable girl overwhelmed by love for Jason[45].

This indicates that Euripides is not the only influence upon Apollonius. There are allusions to Homer and of diffusion of responsibility, during book three of Argonautica it is suggested Apollonius continuously recalls the Phaeacian episode of Odyssey whilst still reminding his audience of Medea [46]. Of Pi Chapter 1 Summary. The potential relationship of Odysseus and Nausicaa has been contrasted with the past and future of Jason and Medea[47]. There is a virgin princess who is ready for marriage but Jason like Odysseus will not stay to marry, though he will take Medea with him unlike Odysseus[48]. Furthermore the definition, scene where Medea leaves to meet Jason at Hecates temple is considered to imitate Odyssey book six[49].

However, Nausicaa unlike Medea would not betray her own sense of shame, or her family [and] never hesitates to speak freely with Odysseus[50]. The Nausicaa story is inverted by Apollonius and chapter 1 summary, although there is definition of diffusion, some influence upon the characterisation of Medea the primary influence is Medea . Apollonius continuously returns to allusions of Jason and Medeas future. Jason declares may Olympian Zeus himselfwitness my oath that I shall make you my lawful wedded wife[51]. Apollonius uses this line to anticipate Medeas appeal to the gods in Medea . The nurse recounts how Medea, invokes the mighty assurance of his sworn right hand, and calls the gods to life, witness the the valley, unjust return she is getting[52]. In turn the oath in life of pi chapter 1 summary, Medea becomes an appeal to the oath in Argonautica [53]. Furthermore, though Athena influences Nausicaa by enhancing Odysseus appearance she does not experience the same destructive power of love brought upon dissertation introduction Medea by Eros[54]. This is best attested through Medeas violent state of mind in Argonautica where, she longed to set fire to the ship, to destroy everythingand throw herself into theflames[55]. This foreshadows Medeas consideration as to whether she should set fire to Jason and life, Glauces bridal chamber but also the immolation of Glauce and Creon through the wedding gift[56].

In both Argonautica and Medea love is example, described in terms of a powerful force which has overcome Medea. Of Pi Chapter. Love is described by Euripides as a bane and Medea herself as possessing a love-maddened heart and having shown more love than sense[57]. This language brings to mind Apollonius description of Medea as having bitter-pain in her heart and suffering distress[58]. Apollonius use of language and learning vygotsky, imagery is very Euripidean. It does not only foreshadow the events of Medea but also creates links between the characterisations. The use of clothing as part of Medea and Jasons plot to murder Apsyrtos in Argonautica has drawn keen scholarly interest[59]. Apollonius description of the deception used to 1 summary, lure Apsyrtos to his death is the same as that used by Euripides Medea to destroy Glauce[60]. Dissertation Example. This similarity is believed to be a long held recognition by Hunter but can also be considered more broadly within the wider context of Argonautica [61]. Clothing has been identified as an important theme throughout as it draws the audience to consider past or future events either within or outside the epic[62].

The description of Medeas dress bathed in moonlight following the capture of the fleece appears as though it were a wedding dress[63]. This can be considered further as the imagery takes on of pi a frightening aspect foreshadowing the events of Medeas nuptial clothing gift to Glauce[64]. Comparison can also be drawn between Jasons celebration at having captured the fleece and Essay on The Colorado River, the future death of Glauce. When Jason raises the fleece he is described in life, terms of a young girl who catches in her fine dress the gleam of the full moonher heart is delighted at the sight of the lovely radiance[65]. Dissertation Introduction Example. This simile whilst emasculating Jason for life 1 summary having won the fleece without risk to himself also brings to mind the image of Glauce putting on Medeas deadly wedding gift[66]. Glauce is described as arranging her hair in summary, a bright mirror, smiling [parading] about the roomentranced with the gifts[67].

The parallels between the images cannot be ignored. It is clear that Apollonius has seized upon a key incident in of pi chapter 1 summary, Euripides tragedy and provided ample connections that foreshadow the future death and destruction that Medea will bring to Corinth. Why Euripides Medea ? In the years that followed the death of Alexander the Great in 323 B.C. the inc. summary, Macedonian Empire broke into separate kingdoms ruled by his successors[68]. During this period life for of pi chapter 1 summary Apollonius Hellenistic audience changed for various reasons such as increased migration[69]. It became more socially acceptable for a woman to food summary, be educated and to enjoy a public role[70]. Though personal freedom increased there were still limitations on what a woman could do. However, within the kingdoms life for women would have varied considerably depending on where they lived and their political class[71]. Apollonius within Argonautica uses aspects of Medeas characterisation as a mirror for the societal changes in Alexandria. Medea was first performed in Athens in the fifth century B.C.

During this period work and the influence of public opinion would have predominantly kept Athenian women at home[72]. Though some womens work would have been within the public sphere those who remained at home would have had little freedom[73]. Of Pi. At the beginning of the play, Medea has been fulfilling the role of an of diffusion Athenian wife, remaining at home looking after it and the children[74]. The majority of evidence of the lives of Greek women comes from of pi chapter Athens. However, it is important to be cautious when drawing conclusions on the lives of women in wider Greek society due to the differing natures of each city state[75]. In Medea the idealistic societal structure of Athens is broken down by Medeas emergence from the home and Essay Colorado, her challenges towards her former husband in public[76]. This can be compared with societal changes in Alexandria as women began to life chapter, enjoy an increased freedom of movement, particularly in comparison to Metaparadigm and Nursing Essays, Athens[77]. Medea is an ideal figure to represent such changes in society, achieved through the of pi chapter 1 summary, portrayal of her enjoying the freedom to move around her country unrestricted[78]. Apollonius portrait is Colorado River, realistic as although Medea has freedom she is required to have her handmaids accompany her; though under her instruction they leave her to speak with Jason alone[79].

However, it must be noted that there is still a dependency on Aietes and subsequently Jason[80]. It might be argued that the level of dependency is variable throughout Argonautica ; for example in respect of chapter 1 summary her marriage. Medea takes control of some of her own affairs within Argonautica such as her agreement to marry Jason and contracting her own marriage[81]. Marriage for the valley of ashes Greeks within Alexandria would have required the permission of the brides father or guardian[82]. Both Jason and Alkinoos are thought to act as Medeas guardians. The former as Medea declares herself his daughter, sister and wife.

The latter as he presides over the decision whether or not to return Medea to her father[83]. Neither can actually be considered to have fulfilled the role of guardian as Jason is Medeas future husband and Alkinoos is not present at the wedding. Life Of Pi Chapter. Therefore, the of responsibility, agreement to marry is without her fathers consent and the marriage occurs without a guardian present. Life Of Pi. Furthermore, the Golden Fleece is considered to represent Medeas dowry[84]. Medea secured the fleece for Jason and of ashes, as such can be viewed as having paid her own dowry. Life Of Pi. The union of Medea and Jason is not representative of an Alexandrian marriage. Greek women, except royalty, were required to use an intermediary or guardian for legal and monetary transactions.

However, women using the Egyptian or Jewish legal systems could undertake such transactions themselves[85]. There is some papyrus evidence in existence that suggests women were able to undertake private contractual matters in respect of property and their marriage[86]. The first example is dissertation introduction, Olympias who contracts her own marriage with her father as legal representative[87]. Life Of Pi 1 Summary. Another document states that Heraclides took Demetria from her father but the contract is indicative that the couple entered into the agreement together. The contract informs Demetria how she would resolve a breach of contract should she need to. Even though documents such as this exist it cannot be taken that women undertook contractual matters regularly. Apollonius portrayal of definition Medea indicates a changing attitude towards women and an audience coming to life of pi chapter 1 summary, terms with womens power and privilege[88]. The influence of the valley wealthy and royal women could be attributed to the development of this class of Alexandrian women. It was particularly important for life of pi the privileged of vygotsky Alexandrian society to be highly educated[89]. Arguably the construction of the great library of Alexandria in the third century demonstrates this desire[90].

Apollonius was well-educated as demonstrated through his extensive use of mythological and geographical understanding within Argonautica [91]. Life Of Pi Chapter 1 Summary. Apollonius assumes his Alexandrian audience would have been aware of the mythological traditions of Medea and Jason and the story told by Euripides[92]. Given the importance placed upon knowledge by Alexandrian society this assumption is plausible. Food Summary. Medea is described as speechless in Jasons presence in the first scene within Aietes palace[93]. However, Medeas character develops during book three of Argonautica and she begins to chapter 1 summary, speak freely, challenging Jason and in subsequent scenes the Argonauts.

Though there is no reference to her education by either Euripides or Apollonius the language used by of responsibility Medea shows her intellect in life of pi 1 summary, both works. There is evidence to Essay Colorado, suggest greater access to education for of pi chapter 1 summary women during the constructivist theory vygotsky, Hellenistic period. Of Pi Chapter. The existence of prominent educated women such as Hipparchia a philosopher and Erinna a poetess provide some evidence to support this[94]. Furthermore, epigraphic evidence exists such as the constructivist learning theory, gravestone of a woman from Sardis that states The book shows you were wise suggesting she would have been educated[95]. This does not necessarily indicate that all women had access to education but instead implies that educated women were present within Hellenistic society. In some respects society became less restrictive including travel, certain contractual matters and of pi chapter 1 summary, education, but others remained such as the holding of public office[96]. Though there is evidence of on The Colorado one wealthy woman having held a magisterial position true equality was not possible and of pi chapter 1 summary, as such this cannot be considered to have been common[97]. Apollonius draws upon the characterisation of dissertation introduction Euripides Medea the strong-willed woman and devises her story for the developing Alexandrian audience. Life Of Pi. Medea was refashioned for his Argonautica whilst retaining the abilities of skilled rhetorician, thinker and planner that would have been recognised by his audience. Arguably Apollonius challenged the perspective of women in constructivist theory, Alexandrian society through Medea.

Medeas first appearance in Argonautica as a love-struck young girl unable to speak to Jason is unrecognisable to the representation of Euripides[98]. Apollonius Medea appears more a woman overwhelmed by her first feelings of love[99]. The portrayal of Eros shooting Medea has led to the suggestion of her as a victim of violence[100]. Life Chapter. On the other hand, the scene can be viewed ironically as the sorceress becomes subject to a spell[101]. Instead of the powerful sorceress Medea is the dissertation introduction example, victim of magic with her prayer to Hecate an attempt to process her feelings[102]. Life. It has been suggested that Apollonius constructed Argonautica as a prequel to Medea [103]. Food. The evidence of Medeas rhetorical skill, assistance to Jason and involvement in Apsyrtos murder would certainly support such an argument. The divergence from Euripides arguably exists to enable Medeas character to develop.

Apollonius, in life of pi 1 summary, Argonautica , draws upon the complex array of emotions in Medea providing background to the feelings, setting their roots in River, Medeas past. The character development of Medea throughout Argonautica books three and four indicates a progression towards her Corinthian counterpart. Life 1 Summary. The psychology of love and passion explored by Apollonius is an Metaparadigm and Nursing Essays important part of Medeas characterisation that requires particular consideration. The development of Medeas passion for Jason is undertaken through a dream during which she convinces herself that Jason has come to 1 summary, Colchis in order to marry her[104]. The dream represents an important stage in the awakening of her passion[105]. Arguably it bridges the gap between the naivety experienced during her first sighting of dissertation introduction Jason and strength at their subsequent meeting at Hecates temple. Through the life of pi, course of the meeting the love-struck Medea soon gives way to the more familiar characterisation of Euripides[106]. Scholarship has widely recognised that Apollonius Medeas passion becomes extremely dangerous[107]. Pavlock suggests that Apollonius association of women with the disruption of social norms and the community is Essay on The Colorado River, his attempt to reinforce traditional views about of pi 1 summary, excessive passion of the female[108]. This is dissertation introduction example, certainly an interesting consideration as the destructive nature of infatuation is widely explored in Athenian drama.

Apollonius, through associating excessive passion with Medea, also draws upon imagery from other plays. In Euripides Trojan Women and life chapter 1 summary, Hippolytus Helen and Phaedras passions have brought about Essay on The Colorado, death and destruction[109]. The argument is noteworthy as Medea, like Helen, leaves with a man she barely knew and, like Phaedra, her actions result in death. Therefore, Argonautica could be interpreted as Apollonius commenting upon the negative effects of excess passion. Life 1 Summary. Medeas threat to Jason that she will haunt him as a Fury has been considered to border on madness and foreshadow the violence of the future[110]. However, although it does foreshadow Medeas violent future, arguably it is dissertation, not madness as she is a frightened woman, grasping at reasons for Jason to not return her to her father who will punish her. There are indications that Apollonius explored the psychology of women driven by passion with a Euripidean-like sympathy[111]. Euripides Phaedra analyses her passion for Hippolytus going through the possible options to master it; concealment, self-control and death[112]. Furthermore, Artemis declaration that Aphrodite is to blame redeems Phaedra[113]. Likewise, in Euripides Helen , it is revealed that Helen would not have left with Paris and was brought to Egypt to protect her chastity[114].

Apollonius adopts a similar analytical approach to Medea, focusing in particular on her psychology whilst also ensuring that she is portrayed in a realistic way. Even though Medea is under Eros spell Apollonius explores the of pi, realism of her passion and developing awareness of what is affecting her[115]. The realism can be seen through Medeas natural response to the sunrise but also her shame at falling in love with a foreign stranger and of responsibility, betraying her family and country[116]. The sense of life of pi 1 summary shame bound Greek women to follow their fathers instructions[117]. Shame culture was passed down through the ages and Argonautica appears as a piece of social commentary upon the culture within Alexandrian society. Within Medeas monologue she explores her desire but also her cognitive dissonance[118]. The sense of shame that love has brought Medea leads her to the valley of ashes, consider suicide. Though Medea realises suicide will not release her as she believes she would be mocked anyway; a belief reminiscent of Euripides Medea[119]. Life Of Pi 1 Summary. Instead of on The Colorado portraying Medeas passion as being disruptive Apollonius analysis focuses upon her emotions and decisions. When Jason and Medea first meet the audience know what is to come but at the same time it does not know[120]. The audience are aware that Medea will provide assistance to of pi chapter 1 summary, Jason and leave with him but they are also presented with her decision making process.

Arguably, Apollonius used Medea to examine the psychology of constructivist theory vygotsky passion. The division in Medeas personality between naivety and of pi chapter 1 summary, powerful sorceress might be seen as Apollonius attempt to explain the future murder of her children[121]. Alternatively Apollonius Medea could be looked upon as a sympathetic development of her characterisation akin to Euripides. Vygotsky. Apollonius explores the life chapter 1 summary, emotions of love, passion and shame presenting a more realistic portrayal of Medeas past as a prequel to Euripides Medea . It has become apparent that Apollonius draws upon the characterisation of the Euripidean Medea in order to foreshadow the events of Medea . Furthermore, Argonautica is devised as a prequel to Euripides Medea through language, imagery and action. Of Ashes. There are indications of other influences upon Medeas characterisation from life of pi tragedy and dissertation example, epic but the 1 summary, primary focus is Medea . Apollonius characterisation of introduction example Medea is not limited to how it draws upon her but also why. Life Of Pi Chapter 1 Summary. Argonautica explores the finite increase in freedom for Alexandrian women and also the psychology of passion. There are constraints on the interpretation of Nursing and Nursing Essays Apollonius intentions due to the lack of information about him. However, despite such limitations it is possible to draw out the following conclusions. There is a progressive development in Apollonius characterisation of Medea that slowly forms into her Euripidean counterpart. This is achieved by life of pi chapter 1 summary drawing upon key aspects of the character created by Euripides, namely Medeas rhetorical ability and her love of on The Jason. There are echoes of Euripides Medeas fierce nature in Apollonius description of his Medea who seethes with grim anger[122].

These aspects are interwoven with the imagery used by Apollonius that allude and foreshadow instances within Medea such as the gift of clothing presented to Apsyrtos echoing the future gift to Glauce. Apollonius explores the psychology of Medea through the representation of her being passionately and uncontrollably in love. It has been argued that Apollonius is commenting on the dangers of chapter such passion. However, it is apparent that his treatment of this subject is sensitive. Medea is shamed by her feelings and behaviour towards Jason to introduction, the point of wanting to commit suicide. Medeas passion though uncontrollable (due to the influence of the gods) is explored in life chapter, detail by constructivist Apollonius through her thought processes.

Though also considered by of pi Euripides the treatment is brief due to of diffusion, the limitations of a 1418 line play. Apollonius used the length and chapter, breadth of an epic to provide a more detailed analysis of Medea and her actions, presenting a relatively realistic image and prequel to the Alexandrian audience. Society developed during the Hellenistic period and women enjoyed a limited increase in freedom. The Valley Of Ashes. Euripides Medea, as a strong woman, provided a basis for the exploration of of pi 1 summary such freedom. Though no reference is made to Medea having had any formal education both characterisations appear educated and Colorado, confident in their interactions with men. Life 1 Summary. Evidence would suggest that, in this period, there was an increase in the education of introduction women and as such Apollonius took the opportunity to life chapter 1 summary, represent this. Apollonius, like many modern day readers, saw something important within Medea and that is Medea herself. The fire, passion and strength immortalised by constructivist theory vygotsky Euripides; Medea is the perfect figure for epic. Argonautica and Medea are exceptional and important works. The former as it is the only surviving Hellenistic epic and the latter as the chapter, only extant Athenian drama that deals with the Argonautic cycle. Within the myth of Medea, modern audiences find both a gripping narrative and complexity of the character development.

It is considered by Griffiths that in facing the the valley, complexities of Medeas identity we face the complexities of our own[123]. Apollonius brought this challenge to life, the Alexandrian audience through his complex portrayal of Euripides Medea. Apollodorus Library Apollodorus The Library Loeb Classical Library, Translated by Frazer, J. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1921. Perseus Digital Library [Accessed: 10th January 2015]. Apollonius Rhodius Argonautica Jason and the Golden Fleece Translated by Metaparadigm Hunter, R. Life Of Pi 1 Summary. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1993. Aristophanes Lysistrata Lysistrata and Other Plays (Revised ed), Translated by constructivist learning Sommerstein, A. London: Penguin Books, 2002. Diogenes Laertius Lives of of pi Eminent Philosophers Loeb Classical Library Vol. 2, Translated by Hicks, R. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1925.

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Available at: [Accessed: 7th December 2014]. Fantham, E., Foley, H., Kampen, N., Pomeroy, S and Alan Shapiro, H. Women in the Classical World Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1994. Fantuzzi, M. and Hunter, R. Tradition And Innovation In Hellenistic Poetry Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2004. [e-book] Available at: [Accessed: 31st December 2014]. Feeney, D. The Gods in Epic: Poets and Critics of the Classical Tradition Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1991. Foley, J. A Companion To Ancient Epic Malden: Blackwell Publishing, 2005. [e-book] Available at: [Accessed: 3rd January 2015]. Fusillo, M. Apollonius Rhodius as Inventor of the Interior Monologue, in T. Papanghelis and A. Rengakos (eds), A Companion to Apollonius Rhodius Leiden: Brill, 2001, pp. 127-146. [e-book]. Available at: [Accessed: 10th January 2015]. Green, P. Hellenistic History And Culture Berkeley: University of California Press, 1993. [e-book] Available at: [Accessed: 29th December 2014]. Griffiths, E. Medea London: Routledge, 2006. Gutzwiller, K. A Guide to Hellenistic Literature Oxford: Blackwell Publishing, 2007. Of Pi. [e-book] Available at: [Accessed: 31st December 2014].

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Hunter, R. The Poetics of Narrative in the Argonautica, in T. Papanghelis and A. Rengakos (eds), Brills Companion to Apollonius Rhodius (2 nd ed), Leiden: Brill, 2008, pp. 115-146. [e-book] Available at: [Accessed: 4th January 2015]. Hutchinson, G. Hellenistic Poetry Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1988. [e-book] Available at: [Accessed: 29th December 2014]. Kenny, E. Est deus in nobis : Medea meets her Maker, in Nursing Theory Essays, T. Papanghelis and A. Rengakos (eds), Brills Companion to Apollonius Rhodius (2 nd ed), Leiden: Brill, 2008, pp. 363-386. [e-book] Available at: [Accessed: 4th January 2015]. Klooster, J. Poetry as Window and Mirror Positing the Poet in Hellenistic Poetry Leiden: Brill, 2011. Knight, V. Apollonius, Argonautica 4.167-70 and Euripides Medea Classical Quarterly , Vol. 41, No. 1, 1991, pp.

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Available at: [Accessed: 10th January 2015]. Parca, M. The Women of Ptolemaic Egypt: The View from Papyrology in S. Life Chapter 1 Summary. James and S. Dillon (eds), A Companion to Women in the Ancient World Oxford: Blackwell Publishing, 2012, pp.316-328. [e-book]. Constructivist Learning Vygotsky. Available at: [Accessed: 11th January 2015]. Pavlock, B. Eros, Imitation, and the Epic Tradition Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 1990. Pomeroy, S. Women in Hellenistic Egypt: From Alexander to of pi, Cleopatra New York: Schocken Books, 1984. [e-book] Available at: [Accessed: 11th January 2015]. Pomeroy, S. Introduction. Goddesses, Whores, Wives and Slaves Women in Classical Antiquity (2 nd ed) London: Pimlico, 1994. Rose, A. Clothing Imagery in Apolloniuss Argonautika Quaderni Urbinati di Cultura Classica , Vol. 21, No. 3, 1985, pp. 29-44. Available at: [Accessed: 30th December 2014].

Shipley, G. The Greek World After Alexander 323 30 BC London: Routledge, 2000. Thalmann, W. Apollonius of Rhodes and life chapter, the Spaces of Hellenism Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2011. [e-book] Available at: [Accessed: 10th January 2015]. Walbank, F. The Hellenistic World Glasgow: Fontana Paperbacks, 1981. [1] Lefkowitz (2001:52) states what is known of of diffusion Apollonius comes from two scholia about Argonautica , an entry in Suda and life chapter, an entry on Essay River a damaged papyrus ( P.Oxy.1241) . [3] Gow and of pi chapter, Page (1965:II.251) cited in Klooster (2011:151); Fraser (1972:I.599) cited in Klooster (2011:151); Klooster 2011:151. [4] Pindar Pythian 4 ; Apollodorus Library 3.13.

[5] Pausanias Description of Greece 2.3.10-1. [10] Apollonius 4.350-95; Euripides Medea 465-519. [11] Euripides Medea 465-519; Apollonius 4.350-95; Hunter, 1993:61; Hunter, 2008:142. [12] Euripides Medea 292-356, 709-19; Apollonius 4.690-748, 4.1000-28. [13] Euripides Medea 324, 710; Apollonius 4.695, 4.1029. [21] Euripides Medea 1040-64.

[23] Euripides Medea 166-7, 1334. [24] Apollonius 4.415-60, 4.557-62. [25] Apollonius 4.713; Knight, 1991:248. [29] Euripides Medea 475-90; Apollonius 4.358-68. [31] Apollonius 3.1025-62, 4.123-64. [36] Euripides Medea 465-8, 493-6. [39] Hunter, 1993:61; DeForest, 1994:129. [40] Apollonius 4.356-7; Euripides Medea 167, 483-4.

[49] Apollonius 3.870-86; Homer Odyssey 6.80-4. [56] Euripides Medea 379, 1185-95. [57] Euripides Medea 330, 434, 485. [59] Hunter, 1987:131; Knight, 1991:249-50; Hunter, 1993:61. [60] Euripides Medea 945-58; Apollonius 4.421-44. [62] Rose, 1985:29-44; Knight, 1991:249. [67] Euripides Medea 1159-66. [70] Fantham et al, 1994:140, 163-8; Pomeroy, 1994:120; Shipley, 2000:104-5. [72] Aristophanes Lysistrata 17-19, 880-1; Luschnig, 2007:7.

[73] Pomeroy, 1994:73, 79-80. [74] Fantham et al, 1994:69; Blundell, 1995:140. [76] Euripides Medea 214, 465-519. [77] Dillon (2012:231-2) references Hellenistic grave reliefs from Delos that document women who travelled widely. [81] Apollonius 4.92-8, 4.1128-69. [83] Apollonius 4.368-9, 1073-109; Byre, 1996:8-9. [84] Dyck, 1989:458; Luschnig, 2007:14. [85] Fantham et al, 1994:140. [86] P.Elephantine 1 translated by Pomeroy, 1984:86-7; Blundell, 1995:199.

[87] P.Giessen I . 2 translated by Rowlandson (1998) cited in Parca, 2012:324. [89] Walbank, 1981:176-7; Meyer, 2001:227-8; Thalmann, 2011:219. [91] Shipley, 2000:240; Apollonius 1.496-511 (Orpheus song of the cosmos); Apollonius 3.980-1007 (Ariadne and Nursing Metaparadigm and Nursing Theory Essays, Theseus); Apollonius 4.253-93 (Argus and the Pillars of Aea); Clare (2002:125) observes Apollonius attempted to construct a geographically plausible return for 1 summary the Argonauts. [92] Hunter (1989) cited in constructivist theory, Clauss, 1993:9; Gutzwiller, 2007:79. [94] Diogenes Lives of Eminent Philosophers 6.7.96-7; St Jerome Chronicle 203. [95] Lefkowitz and Fant (1995) cited in Shipley, 2000:104. [97] Decree of Priene translated by Burstein (1985:59) states Phile was the first female stephanephoros cited in Fantham et al, 1994:156. [99] Fantham et al, 1994:169.

[101] Nyberg (1992) cited in Griffiths, 2006:89. [102] Apollonius 3.467; Clare, 2002:242. [103] Feeney, 1991:65; Gutzwiller, 2007:79. [107] Levin, 1971:15; Feeney, 1991:64-5; Lefkowitz, 2007:179. [109] Euripides Trojan Women 914-1032; Euripides Hippolytus 887-91, 1161-72. [110] Apollonius 4.385-90; Pavlock, 1990:67. [112] Euripides Hippolytus 393-430.

[113] Euripides Hippolytus 1389-1439. [115] Apollonius 4.413, 1016-7, 1040; Feeney, 1991:80-4.