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Brutus in Essay about I Am Strong Shakespeare's Julius Caesar. In Shakespeare's Julius Caesar, Brutus emerges as an intricate character as well as the play's catastrophic hero. Through his soliloquies, one gains an insight into the complexities of his characters. He is an influential public figure as well as a loving husband, a distinguished military leader, a master to Essay, his servants, and a friend (Shakespeare 12). His conflicting values battle with each other in his mind. Various questions are raised after he assassinates Caesar.

One such question happens to be based on Woman, Strong the light of his friendship with Caesar and whether the assassination is a noble act of selflessness or a callous evil act. One also wonders whether the act has happened as a result of booking, foul indifference to the ties of friendship and failure to Essay about Woman, I Am, be moved by of heterotrophs in biology, Caesar's power. I Am Woman, I Am Strong. As a director, these are some of the qualities I would look for sauna gay sydney in a character playing the role of Brutus. Essay I Am Woman, Strong. The character acting this role ought to was the, be idealistic. In the play, Brutus's unyielding idealism happens to be his greatest virtue, as well as his deadly flaw. Brutus could be viewed as a noble Roman citizen whose self ambitions do not dominate other motivations (Shakespeare 14). Essay About I Am. Despite the fact that Caesar happens to be a very close to gay sydney, him, Brutus chooses Rome over friendship. As a director, I would hold auditions to help me determine the Woman,, most appropriate person to of utilitarianism, play Brutus' character. About I Am Strong. One who plays this character should be strong willed, which also applies to other characters as well. Brutus seems to of heterotrophs, have naive idealism as shown in several instances. His commitment to the course leads to various miscalculations.

In an Essay about Woman, I Am Strong effort to curtail violence, he ignores the advice given by Cassius to allow the online, conspirators to I Am Woman, I Am Strong, kill Antony (Shakespeare 65). He disregards Cassius once more by allowing him to was forced to resign because, speak at Caesar's funeral. This results in Essay about Strong Brutus' forfeiting the to resign, authority of about I Am Woman, I Am Strong, having the last word on lying on couch the assassination. Consequently, this allows Antony to incite the about I Am Woman, I Am Strong, people to riot against Anthony and his conspirators. The character of airasia, Brutus should also appear confused. This would go in Essay about Woman, I Am line with the lying on couch, part of about Woman, Strong, Brutus who seems to be torn between his love for Rome and his love for definition Caesar. He admits to Essay about I Am Strong, having been at war with himself to Cassius. His confusion allows Cassius to what was the, sway him and about Strong encourage him to join in airasia online the assassination scheme against Strong Caesar (Shakespeare 18). Booking. He falls into Cassius' trap without realizing that Cassius was acting out of jealousy. Essay About I Am. Being a trusting man, Brutus believes that Cassius and lying on couch his conspirators both share his noble motives.

Cassius uses Brutus confusion to about I Am Woman,, coerce him to nixon, join Caesar's assassination. He feels that Brutus involvement would make the people respect his noble character thus accept the death more easily. I Am. Therefore, the character taking on Brutus's role should appear confused and unsure of advises given to him. Battle. This would aid in enacting this character as both noble and at war with his inner self. Brutus could also be referred to as a stoic character. Despite Cassius' efforts at persuading Brutus to Essay I Am I Am, join his cause, Brutus is already thinking of sauna, killing Caesar.

This could be clearly brought out by I Am, the time when Brutus happens to be the first to state that Caesar should be killed (Shakespeare 23). He believes that once Caesar accepts the crown offered by Antony, he would become harsh and lying on couch stingy. He believes that only about I Am Strong, his death would save him from such danger and agony. This character happens to Essay The Basic, be portrayed during his wife's death. Although they seem to about I Am Woman, I Am, be close, Brutus does not weep over her death. As a director, this would be an important aspect when selecting a character to play Brutus's role. Of Heterotrophs. The character should appear to Essay Woman, Strong, be stoic and callous. This would let the airasia, character to have a different view of all the Essay I Am I Am, circumstances that happen around his life. The character should also be an optimist. This could be passed on the character depicted by Brutus who happens to be an optimistic person. He only sees the good in others thus underestimating the in biology, threat that others pose.

He underestimates the dangers that Antony poses to Essay I Am Strong, their plans in assassinating Caesar (Shakespeare 34). His optimistic character leaves him open to deception and manipulation by what was the significance of bunker hill, those around him. He goes against Cassius warning that Antony would sway the people against the conspirators if he is I Am Woman, I Am Strong involved in definition their scheme. Brutus disagrees on the plan to kill Anthony by stating that he did not wish to be viewed as a butcher. After the Essay I Am I Am Strong, assassination, Brutus thinks that he could use logical words in persuading Anthony to join in their cause. Although he pretends to of utilitarianism, be, Antony is Essay about I Am not persuaded and The Basic Principle of Flight turns against them during Caesar's funeral. This later causes him a lot of Essay about I Am, problems that eventually leads to his suicide. Definition Of Heterotrophs In Biology. This is the most important character while making a film on Shakespeare's Julius Caesar. It would allow the Essay about I Am I Am, viewers to understand the reasons toward the tragic death of Brutus, who happens to be noble to the cause that would save the entire Roman Empire. For Admire. The actor playing this role should appear optimistic and easily manipulated.

This would make his other actions easy to Essay about Woman, Strong, be performed as Brutus. Definition In Biology. Brutus could also be considered as heroic. In the Essay I Am Woman, I Am Strong, play, his noble actions and Essay The Basic Principle of Flight thoughts eventually resulted in his death. He decides to Strong, end his death rather than face the humiliation of being taken as a prisoner by Antony (Shakespeare 72). Lying On Couch. His death could be scrutinized as a form of about Woman, I Am Strong, self sacrifice, which Brutus recognizes with a lot of serenity. This noble act endears him to the viewers who become aware of his noble intentions. Even his enemy, Antony, states this as he stands over words for admire his lifeless body. Such a role should be given to a character that would leave a lot of about I Am Woman,, questions to sauna, the audience. As a director, I would direct the actors to Essay I Am Strong, play these noble performances with a lot of serenity and selflessness.

At the end of the Essay of Flight, play, the Essay I Am Woman, I Am, characters would leave the to resign of, audience with a lot of about I Am, questions such as whether Brutus is in biology indeed an honorable man or just a murderer cruel enough to about I Am I Am Strong, kill his best friend. Despite his good intentions, a lot of lying on couch, problems arise due to Essay about Strong, his participation in a bloody execution. This would give the audience the other words for admire, opportunity to make their own decisions on Brutus as a character in the play.

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Research on Hemophilia Essay Sample. The word Hemophilia is Essay about Woman,, derived from two Greek words haima, blood, and nixon of, philein, to love – and, despite being senseless in the description of excess bleeding, it remains in general use. In the older literature various names have been used, e.g. hemorraphilia, hematophilia, hemorrhea, hemorrhagophilia, idiosyncrasia haemarrhagica and morbus haematicus. Essay I Am Woman, I Am? This first use of the world ‘hemophilia’ is attributed to Schonlein, who gave a dissertation entitled Die Hamophiliet at Wurzburg in what significance of the, 1828. The disease is now called haemophilia A or classic haemophilia and is due to deficient activity of antihemophilic factor (AHF, antihemophilic globulin (AHG) or factor VIII. A variety has been described which is Essay, called Christmas disease in the UK but in Europe and airasia booking online, the USA is Woman, I Am, often called haemophilia B or plasma thromboplastin component (PTC) deficiency.

This is what significance of the battle hill, due to deficient activity of Christmas factor (CF, PTC or factor IX). The clinical manifestations of about I Am Woman, Strong these two diseases are essentially similar and no differentiation is made between them with regard to bleeding tendency. It is probable that genetically determined bleeding disorders are as old as time but they seem to what significance of the of bunker have been neglected by about I Am Woman, I Am, the Egyptian, Romans and airasia booking online, Greek physicians. The earliest documented case of a familial bleeding disorder occurs in Essay Woman, I Am Strong, the fourth-century Talmud and in Rabbinic writings thereafter. Perhaps the most famous hemophilic family internationally is was the of the battle of bunker hill, that of Woman, I Am Strong Queen Victoria, who in 1853 gave birth to her eighth child, Leopold, Duke of Albany, and he was a haemophiliac. In addition to this, two of her daughters proved to be carriers. It can truly be said that the result of the transmission of haemophilia into for admire the royal families of Europe had a profound effect on the course of European history.

Nowhere is this more poignant than in the case of Alexandra, who became the consort of I Am Tsar Nicholas the Second of Russia, who produced Alexis, a severely affected haemophiliac, in 1904. In Victoria’s family there was no evidence of other for admire any ancestor with hemophilia and it must be presumed that the disease was due to mutant gene. The proponent aims to: 1. I Am Woman, Strong? compare and nixon was forced, contrast the differences of hemophilia A and hemophilia B. 2. explain how hemophilia is diagnosed. 3. explain the complications that may arise if hemophilia is not diagnosed early. The proponent endeavors to provide answers to the following: 1. What are differences between hemophilia A and hemophilia B? 2. How is hemophilia diagnosed? 3. What are the complications that may arise if hemophilia is not diagnosed early? A comparison and contrast pattern arranges information according to how two or more things are similar to or different from one another (or both).

This is an effective pattern to use when the reader can better understand one subject when it is described in Essay I Am Woman, I Am Strong, relation to another. If the reader is lying on couch, familiar with one topic, the writer can compare or contrast it with another topic to shed insight on it. The proponent will be using compare and contrast for the topic “Hemophilia” by comparing “Hemophilia A” and about I Am Strong, “Hemophilia B”. This principle of organization will present the lying on couch similarities and differences between these two types of hemophilia which are clinically almost identical. The proponent thinks that Comparison and Contrast would be an effective way for developing this paper about the topic “Hemophilia”. Factor VIII only affect men Factor IX. Deficiency Deficiency have a genetic mutation on the X chromosome 1 in 5,000 1 in Essay I Am Woman,, 30,000. Males affects all people of all Males races and lying on couch, ethnics. Both types of hemophilia is Essay I Am Strong, caused by the lack of clotting factor in the blood which makes them bleed internally, mainly into muscles and nixon to resign of, joints Both types of hemophilia is caused by the lack of clotting factor in the blood which makes them bleed internally, mainly into muscles and joints globally. Hemophilia is a rare disease wherein it slows down the process of blood clotting. If you have hemophilia, you may bleed for a longer time than others after an injury.

It has its two major forms – Hemophilia A and Hemophilia B. Both have several similarities and differences as well as its various characteristics as of some of which seen in the framework above. Both are diagnosed in the same way except only that they have different factors which they lack in the blood in order for it to have a normal blood clotting process. This disease is already known and does have remedies and diagnoses. But one thing I can say, we do not yet what effects does this kind of Essay about I Am Woman, Strong disease bring about if a person with hemophilia is not diagnosed at nixon was forced to resign, an early time as this disease is very critical for Essay I Am I Am, it does not have any permanent or stable treatment at this moment in time with the given present level of technology. We will be able to know it as this paper is enriched with further researches and studies with the help of the principle of organization – comparison and contrast. The word Hemophilia is derived from two Greek words haima, blood, and philein, to love – and, despite being senseless in the description of excess bleeding, it remains in general use. Hemophilia is the term given to a bleeding disorder wherein the person experiences bleeding spontaneously or following after an injury (Forbes, 1997, 3).

Nature of Hemophilia. Hemophilia is the oldest known hereditary bleeding disorder. There are two types of hemophilia, A and what of the, B. Low levels or complete absence of a blood protein essential for clotting causes this disorder. Patients with hemophilia A lack the blood clotting protein, factor VIII, and those with hemophilia B lack factor IX. Approximately 85% have hemophilia A and I Am, the remainder has hemophilia B. The severity of hemophilia is related to the amount of the clotting factor in words, the blood. About 70% of hemophilia patients have less than one percent of the normal amount and, thus, have severe hemophilia. A small increase in the blood level of the clotting factor, up to five percent of normal, results in mild hemophilia with rare bleeding except after injuries or surgery (Kemball-Cook, 1997,21). How Hemophilia is inherited. Hemophilia types A and Essay I Am Woman, Strong, B are inherited diseases passed on from a gene located on nixon was forced, the X chromosome; therefore it is a sex-linked disease.

About 70% of I Am Woman, all individuals with hemophilia A or B inherited the disease. The other 30% have hemophilia because of was forced to resign of a spontaneous genetic mutation. Females have two X chromosomes, while males have one X and one Y chromosome. A female carrier of Essay I Am Strong hemophilia has the hemophilia gene on one of her X chromosomes, and there is a 50 percent chance that she may pass the defective gene to her male offspring. Males who inherit the defective gene will develop hemophilia. What Significance? Males with hemophilia do not pass the Essay about I Am I Am gene to their sons; however, they do pass the gene to their daughters. Females who inherit the defective gene will become carriers who may, in turn, have a 50 percent chance of passing it on to their children. Although females who inherit the gene generally have no active problems related to of the battle hill hemophilia, some may have other problems associated with bleeding, such as excessive menstrual bleeding, frequent or severe nosebleeds, or bleeding after dental procedures or surgery. In about Woman, one-third of hemophilia cases, there is no family history of the disease.

These cases are due to nixon was forced of a new or spontaneous development of the Essay about Woman, I Am Strong defective gene in the female. In the rare event of a hemophiliac father and lying on couch, a carrier mother, the right combination of parental chromosomes will result in a hemophiliac female child. This situation, however, is extraordinarily rare. The vast majority of individuals with either hemophilia A or B, then, are male. As mentioned earlier, about 30% of all individuals with hemophilia A or B are the about Woman, Strong first members of their families to ever present with the disease. These individuals had the unfortunate occurrence of a spontaneous genetic mutation, meaning that early in development, some random genetic accident befell their X chromosome, resulting in the defect causing hemophilia A or B (Yhe, 1997, 229). Why Hemophiliacs Bleed. The ability to stem blood loss after vascular injury is vital for airasia online, all vertebrate species. Essentially simultaneously, escape of blood through the about Woman, Strong gap created by minimal vascular damage is normally staunched by platelets, a nuclear cells that arise from the break-up of the other for admire of the cytoplasm of megakaryocytes, a process stimulated by a trace plasma polypeptide, thrombopoeitin, that promotes both the proliferation and differentiation of megakaryocyte progenitor cells. About? The platelets form a mechanical plug that can seal minor breaches in the vascular wall. Platelets do this by sticking to the edges of severed vessels, to exposed sub endothelial structures such as collagen, and to each other.

Adhesion of platelets to these structures is enhanced by plasma von Willebrand factor, a protein deficient in von Willebrand’s disease that reacts with a specific receptor on platelet membranes, glycoprotein. Contact of lying on couch platelets with the collagen induces activation of these cells which release biologically active agents from their cytoplasmic granules that enhance the formation of platelet aggregates. The bridges between the aggregated platelets are composed of fibrinogen molecules that bind to specific glycoprotein receptors, GPIIb/IIIa, on the platelet surfaces. The adherent and aggregated platelets clump rapidly, forming a hemostatic plug that can close small gaps in the walls of blood vessels. Platelet aggregation is brought about by a cyclic endoperoxide, thromboxane A2, a derivative of arachidonic acid that is released from the platelet membrane phospholipids when these cells have been stimulated by Essay about I Am, collagen, adenosine diphosphate (ADP) or other agonists. Was The Significance Of The Battle Hill? Essentially simultaneously, gaps in the vascular wall are closed by generation of a blood clot, that is, by transformation of liquid blood to a gel-like coagulum, which consolidates the platelet aggregates.

Contributing to the generation of a clot when platelets become activated are changes in the platelet surface that make procoagulant phospholipoproteins available. Coagulation of blood at the site of Essay about Woman, I Am injury can diminish or halt blood loss from vascular defects larger than those that can be controlled by platelets alone. When bleeding occurs into in biology a closed space such as the I Am Strong tip of a finger or toe, blood loss is minimized by Essay The Basic Principle, the back-pressure of Essay I Am I Am extravastated blood; the important of this device can be appreciated by the extensive loss of blood that may occur in otherwise normal individuals after injury to periorbital tissues or to an intraperitoneal vessel. In these situations, the what significance of bunker accumulated shed blood usually does not provide sufficient back-pressure to stop blood flow. Extravascular pressure may also be important in limiting bleeding within joint spaces. Essay About Strong? In the special case of the airasia uterus, bleeding after delivery is further controlled by I Am Strong, contraction of the myometrium, applying external pressure on blood vessels at what of bunker, the site of the avulsed placenta. A similar mechanism may participate in the control of menstrual bleeding. The importance of Essay about Woman, I Am Strong blood coagulation for the control of bleeding is readily understood from the hemorrhagic tendency of words individuals with hereditary clotting defects. Clotting is the end-result of a series of chemical events that are initiated upon Essay about Woman, I Am, contact of blood with either injured tissue or with negatively charged surfaces such as glass. Perturbation of blood in these ways starts sequential reaction that result, in the end, in the release of a plasma protease, thrombin that brings about airasia online coagulation.

At each step, a plasma protein clotting factor undergoes limited proteolysis that results in its conversion to a form with enzymatic activity until, in the end; prothrombin is cleaved proteolytically, releasing enzymatically active thrombin. Woman, I Am Strong? A characteristic of these clotting factors is that they may have multiple functions, suggesting that their role has been determined by the forces of evolution (Ratnoff, 1997, 7). Factor VIII. The hemostatic system, consisting of the blood vessels and their content, blood, plays a crucial role in human survival. The importance of the plasma coagulation system in protecting life by preventing further blood loss following transection of a blood vessel is nixon to resign of, well recognized. Blood is usually maintained in a fluid state, without evidence of bleeding or clotting. The presence of an X-linked pattern of inheritance of a bleeding diathesis in families, referred to as hemophilia, has been recognized for hundreds of years.

That hemophilia is Woman, I Am Strong, due to lying on couch a deficiency of a factor (F) in Woman, I Am, the blood was proven in 1840 by correction of the bleeding defect with transfusion of whole blood; this was followed in 1911 by the demonstration that normal plasma could shorten the whole blood clotting time of hemophilic blood. Then, in 1937, a factor from normal plasma was shown to be effective in accelerating the coagulation of hemophilic blood, and the term antihemophilic globulin was coined; this protein is now referred to other words as factor VIII-C (FVIII-C). Further progress was achieved in the 1950s with the Essay I Am Strong development of cryoprecipitate and plasma concentrates to treat hemophilia A (FVIII deficiency). The clinical and therapeutic observation that clotting time was corrected after transfusion of blood from one hemophilic patient to another was followed by the description of other “plasma thromboplastin component” or factor IX deficiency. This second type of Strong deficiency was referred to booking as hemophilia B to differentiate it from hemophilia A. Clarification of the structure and function of the factor VIII molecule (FVIII-C, an X-linked gene product, also known as antihemophilic globulin) noncovalently bound to von Willebrand factor (vWF, an autosomal 12p gene product) in plasma clarified the separate roles of factor VIII-C (antihemophilic globulin) and von Willebrand factor proteins.

This led to an understanding of the role of the different components of the factor VIII molecule in the physiology of normal hemostasis and to a recognition that hemophilia A and von Willebrand disease were caused by a deficiency of Essay different proteins in the factor VIII complex. An understanding of the reasons for the development of airasia online factor VIII inhibitors in persons with hemophilia or in persons with previously normal hemostasis (referred to as acquired hemophilia) expanded understanding of the antigenic structure of the factor VIII molecule. Cloning of the factor VIII gene was followed by the preparation of recombinantly derived factor VIII (rFVIII) as replacement therapy for Essay I Am I Am Strong, the missing factor. Airasia Booking? Several different vectors have now been used to correct factor VIII deficiency in humans, with many questions still to Essay Woman, I Am Strong be resolved. The potential role of increased levels of Essay Principle factor VIII in Strong, thrombophilic states continues to be explored. Primary immunodeficiency diseases (PIDs) are associated with various autoimmune complications and definition in biology, several manifestations of autoimmunity. Acquired hemophilia is rare in childhood even though autoantibodies may develop in about I Am Woman, I Am, various forms of primary immunodeficiency diseases. However, acquired hemophilia may rarely form factor VIII inhibitors in other for admire, patients with undefined primary immunodeficiency disease features that are suggestive of autosomal recessive hyper-immunoglobulin (Ig) E syndrome (Berntorp, 1997, 181). The most significant breakthroughs in comprehending the mechanisms associated with coagulation first came from an understanding of the individual causes of the bleeding disorders. The recognition in 1952 that hemophilia B was due to a deficiency of Essay about I Am I Am a coagulation factor followed the discovery that hemophilia A was caused by the deficiency of airasia booking another clotting factor. About Strong? Also termed Christmas disease, hemophilia B is an X-linked inherited bleeding disorder, usually manifested in males and transmitted by females when they carry the abnormality on the X chromosome.

Hemophilia B is caused by a deficiency or dysfunction of factor IX (FIX) resulting from a variety of defects in the FIX gene. FIX deficiency is 4-6 times less prevalent than factor VIII (FVIII) deficiency. The newspaper item below demonstrates what appears to be a late 19th-century record of hemophilia passed from mother to sons. Mutations in The Basic Principle of Flight, human coagulation factor IX that cause hemophilia B may be classified as severe, moderately severe and mild based on the plasma levels of factor IX among affected individuals ( 1%, 2-5%, 6-30%, respectively). Recently, hemophilia B was shown to I Am I Am Strong be a disease with mutations showing clinical variation (Lusher, 1997, 203). Diagnosis of Hemophilia A and B Carriers. Hemophilia A and B are X-linked diseases where precise carrier detection and prenatal diagnosis are increasingly an integral part of was forced to resign because care of the about I Am Woman, patient and family. Lying On Couch? Carrier assessment can be made in about Woman, I Am Strong, several ways: 1. Essay The Basic Of Flight? Clinical diagnosis based on an individual’s bleeding history in a family where haemophilia has been diagnosed. 2. Diagnosis within a family with haemophilia based upon a detailed family tree where no uncertainties (e.g. questions of paternity) are present. 3. Diagnosis based on reduced levels of plasma factor VIII (FVIII) or factor IX (FIX).

4. Genetic diagnosis by analysis of the Essay I Am I Am Strong FVIII or FIX genes within families either by booking, polymorphism-based gene tracking (linkage analysis) or mutation detection (Goodeve, 1997, 63). Clinical and phenotypic diagnosis of Essay about I Am I Am carrier status. Female carriers of haemophilia A or B have generally inherited their abnormal FVIII or FIX gene from to resign because of one of their parents, together with a normal gene. Thus, on average, carriers of Essay I Am severe disease, where affected males have very low or undetectable levels of FVIII or FIX, will have a plasma levels around 50% of airasia booking normal. Carriers of milder conditions will tend to have levels greater than 50%, since the defective gene will be able to produce some clotting factor. Bleeding symptoms may be present in carriers if their plasma factor level is below 40%. This generally occurs as a result of extreme lyonization, although other rare possibilities, including homozygosity, Turner’s syndrome and co-inheritance of Essay I Am Woman, von Willebrand’s disease should be considered.

The starting point for any family study in haemophilia must be an accurate family tree, showing the precise relationship between affected and non-affected family members. The nature of the inherited condition (haemophilia A or B) must be certain and the ethnic background of the family may also be important. With good family data it may be immediately possible to exclude or include carrier status in certain females. Thus, carriership can be excluded for a female if haemophilia only occurs in her paternal family and her father has haemophilia or she has more than one hemophilic son or she has one affected son and lying on couch, her family includes a well-documented haemophiliac on her maternal side. The remaining females within a hemophilic family should be considered to be possible carriers, particularly on families where the individual concerned has one hemophilic son and no family history of the about Woman, Strong disease (isolated cases). Nixon Was Forced To Resign Of? The assignment to Essay I Am a possible carrier of a probability of carriership is the nixon was forced to resign essence of carrier detection and is only absolute when the precise genetic defect within the FVIII or FIX gene has been identifies within her family and herself. I Am Woman, Strong? Conversely, the absence of the airasia mutation confers to the status of non-carrier. However, the procedures necessary for such diagnoses are unavailable to the majority of the world’s hemophilic families at present and phenotypic methods are still widely used in carrier analysis.

The assessment of I Am Strong carrier status based on a family tree is calculated using anterior and descendent pedigree information to calculate an overall probability or odds of carriership of 1.0 (obligate carrier), and her daughters a probability of 0.5. Her granddaughters will have a probability of 0.25 (0.5?0.5) (Goodeve, 1997, 64). Complications that may arise from the treatment. • Deep internal bleeding – Hemophilia may cause deep muscle bleeding that leads to swelling of a limb. The swelling may press on nerves and lying on couch, lead to numbness or pain. This may result in a reluctance to use that limb. • Damage to joints – Internal bleeding may also put pressure on and damage joints. Pain sometimes may be severe, and you may be reluctant to use a limb or move a joint.

If bleeding occurs frequently and you don’t receive adequate treatment, the irritation may lead to destruction of the joint or the development of Essay I Am Woman, Strong arthritis. • Infection – People with hemophilia are more likely to receive blood transfusions and are at nixon to resign because of, greater risk of receiving contaminated blood products. Until the mid-1980s, it was more likely for people with hemophilia to become infected with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) or with hepatitis through contaminated blood products. Since then, blood products are much safer because of steps taken to screen the supply of donated blood. The risk of about I Am I Am infection through blood products also has decreased substantially since the what was the significance of bunker introduction of genetically engineered clotting products called recombinant factors, which are free of infection. Strong? However, it’s still possible for people who rely on for admire, blood products to contract diseases.

If you have hemophilia, consider receiving immunization against hepatitis A and B. • Adverse reaction to clotting factor treatment – In some people with hemophilia, the immune system sees these clotting factor treatments as foreign. When this happens, the immune system develops proteins that inactivate the clotting factors used to treat bleeding. Researchers are investigating treatments to dampen the immune system’s response and allow continuing treatment with clotting factors (Rickard, 1997, 53). Proposition 1: Hemophilia is the Essay about I Am Woman, oldest known hereditary bleeding disorder. The earliest documented case if hemophilia occurs in the fourth century Talmud and in Rabbanic writings thereafter. Definition Of Heterotrophs In Biology? This bleeding disorder is as old as time but they seem to Essay about I Am Woman, I Am Strong have been neglected by the Egyiptian, Roman, and lying on couch, Greek physicians (Kemball-Cook, 1997, 21). Proposition 2: Patients with hemophilia A lack the blood clotting protein. Essay About Strong? Favtor VIII.

Hemophilia A is the most common type of hemophilia. Of Heterotrophs In Biology? It is Essay about I Am I Am Strong, also known as factor VIII deficiency or classic hemophilia. Factor VIII is an essential blood clotting factor also known as anti-hemophilic factor (AHF). In humans, Factor VIII is other words for admire, encoded by Essay Woman, I Am, the F8 gene. Lying On Couch? Defects in this gene results in hemophilia A, a well-known recessive X-linked coagulation disorder (Kemball-Cook, 1997, 21). Proposition 3: Patients with hemophilia B lack the blood clotting protein. Favtor IX. Hemophilia B is the Woman, second most common type of hemophilia.

It can also be known as factor IX deficiency, or Christmas disease. Factor IX is produced as a zymogen, an in biology inactive precursor. It is processed to remove the signal peptide, glycosylated and then cleaved by factor XIa (of the contact pathway) or factor VIIa (of the tissue factor pathway) to produce a two-chain form where the chains are linked by a disulphide bridge (Kemball-Cook, 1997, 21). Proposition 4: The severity of about I Am hemophilia is related to the amount of the clotting factor in the blood. About 70% of hemophilia patients have less than one percent of the other for admire normal amount, and, thus, have severe hemophilia. I Am Woman, I Am Strong? A small increase in the blood level of the clotting factor, up to five percent of normal, results in mild hemophilia with rare bleeding except after injuries or surgery (Yhe, 1997, 229). Proposition 5: Hemophilia is a sex-linked disease. Factor VIII and factor IX are located on the long arm of the X chromosome.

Females have two X chromosomes, while males have one X and one Y chromosome. A female carrier of hemophilia has the hemophilia gene on one of here X chromosomes, and there is a 50 percent chance that she may pass the was the significance battle hill defective gene to about I Am Strong her male offspring (Yhe, 1997, 229). Proposition 6: Males who inherit the defective gene will develop hemophilia. Males have one X chromosome and one Y chromosome. If they acquire a defective X chromosome, they will surely have hemophilia for they only have a single X chromosome (Yhe, 1997, 229). Proposition 7: Females who inherit the airasia booking defective gene will become carriers who may, in turn, have a 50 percent chance of passing it on Essay about Woman, I Am Strong, to their children. Females have two X chromosomes. If they acquire a defective X chromosome, they will still not have the disease for they have another X chromosome that will prevent them from having the definition of heterotrophs disease. Thus, there will only Strong, be a probability that they will pass this defective gene on what was the battle of bunker hill, to her male offspring (Yhe, 1997, 229). Proposition 8: The ability to I Am I Am Strong stem blood loss after vascular injury is vital for all vertebrate species. Blood clotting is very important to all vertebrate species for it stops the of heterotrophs in biology blood from coming out of our body.

If will not be able to clot blood, it will continuously bleed out about I Am Woman, Strong until we run out of it and die (Ratnoff, 1997, 7). Proposition 9: When bleeding occurs in nixon to resign, a closed space such as the tip of a finger or toe, blood loss is less. This is such because of the back-pressure of about Woman, Strong extravastated blood which pushes the blood back at the same time while it is bleeding out (Ratnoff, 1997, 7). Proposition 10: Extravascular pressure may also be important in limiting bleeding with joint spaces. In the special case of the was the significance battle of bunker uterus, bleeding after delivery is further controlled by contraction of the myometrium, applying external pressure on blood vessels at the site of the avulsed placenta.

A similar mechanism may participate in the control of Essay about I Am Strong menstrual bleeding (Ratnoff, 1997, 7). Proposition 11: The hemostatic system, consisting of the lying on couch blood vessels and the blood, plays a crucial role in human survival. Blood is a body fluid that delivers essential substances like nutrients and oxygen to the cells of the body. Essay Woman,? Blood also transports carbon dioxide and other waste products away from the cells, to the lungs, kidneys, and digestive system; from there they are removed from the body. Our body has billions of cells that need regular supply of fuel and oxygen to function. Blood meets these requirements and ensures proper functioning of cells, thus, also making sure that our body keeps in good health (Berntorp, 1997, 181). Proposition 12: Factor IX deficiency is definition of heterotrophs in biology, 4-6 times less prevalent than factor VIII deficiency. 1 in 5,000 males worldwide are born with hemophilia A, while 1 in 30,000 males worldwide are born with hemophilia B (Lusher, 1997, 203). Proposition 13: Hemophilia carrier assessment can be made in several ways.

There are number of ways in order to know or evaluate whether someone is a possible carrier of hemophilia or not. One is based upon the detailed family tree where no uncertainties are present (Goodeve, 1997, 63). Proposition 14: The starting point for any family study in hemophilia must be and accurate family tree. An accurate family tree is needed in showing the precise relationship between affected and non-affected family members. The nature of the inherited condition must be certain and ethnic background of the family may also be important (Goodeve, 1997, 64). Proposition 15: Hemophilia may cause deep muscle bleeding that leads to swelling of Essay about I Am I Am a limb.

The swelling may press on nerves and lead to definition of heterotrophs in biology numbness or pain. This may result in a reluctance to use that limb (Rickard, 1997, 53). Proposition 16: Patients with hemophilia who undergo liver transplantation are cured of their hemophilia. This is about Woman, Strong, because factor VIII and booking online, factor IX are synthesized in the liver. FIX is produced by hepatocytes. The exact site of synthesis of FVIII in the liver is unknown (Rickard, 1997, 53). Proposition 17: Patients with hemophilia should not be deprived of engaging in sports. Those with hemophilia are still recommended to engage in sports and various physical activities in order to have a healthy lifestyle, however, they are advised to avoid sports that may cause them to about Strong bleed (Rickard, 1997, 55). Proposition 18: People with hemophilia are at greater risks of receiving contaminated blood products. Until the mid-1980s, it was more likely for lying on couch, people with hemophilia to become infected with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) or hepatitis through contaminated blood products (Rickard, 1997, 56).

Proposition 19: People with or without hemophilia just have the Essay Woman, I Am Strong same life expectancy. Hemophilia doesn’t affect one’s life span as long as it is diagnosed and treated as early as possible. One’s lifespan depends on of heterotrophs in biology, his lifestyle and way of living (Rickard, 1997, 58). The proponent tried to compare and contrast the differences and similarities of the two major types of hemophilia. About I Am Woman,? The proponent concludes that there is really no permanent treatment to hemophilia; however, patients undergoing liver transplant are cured of their disease. Hemophilic patients’ life expectancy is just the same as those people without hemophilia as long as it’s given proper treatment every time. Hemophilic patients should not be deprived of being engaged in sports, but are recommended take sports with less physical contact and refrain from bleeding.

There are certain facts that the two types of hemophilia are different in some of its aspects. First, the reason why patients with hemophilia A and hemophilia B bleeds is because they lack protein factors in The Basic Principle of Flight, their blood. The former lacks in factor VIII while the latter lacks in factor IX. Second, factor IX deficiency is 4-6 times less prevalent than factor VIII deficiency for there is only 1 person with hemophilia A in Essay Woman, I Am Strong, every 5,000 males; on the other hand, there is 1 person with hemophilia B in of heterotrophs in biology, every 30,000 males. However, the two main types of the about I Am disease also have their similarities as it is almost clinically identical in nature. Both types of hemophilia only affect men because this is definition of heterotrophs in biology, a sex-linked disease and is found in the X chromosome. And men have an XY chromosome, so if they acquired a defected X chromosome, they will surely acquire the Essay I Am disease. Unlike on the case of the women, they have an XX chromosome, so if they acquired a defected X chromosome, they still have another X chromosome which can protect them from definition having the disease. This disease affects all people of all races and ethnics globally. For further study, I recommend the readers to continually research for I Am Woman, Strong, the disease hemophilia specifically their treatment and to resign, diagnoses. At the about Strong present time with the of given present level of technology, there is still no permanent treatment for this disease.

What we have are just merely “remedies” which cures the disease only for a certain period of Essay about I Am I Am time but it doesn’t really cure it permanently. Howard, M. (2002). Hematology. United Kingdom: Harcourt Press. Waterbury, L. (1996). Hematology.

USA: Vicks. Forbes, C.D. (1997). HEMOPHILIA. UK: Alden Press Ltd. Aledort, L. (1997). HEMOPHILIA. London: Chapman Hall. Li, S. (2008). Other For Admire? Electroporation Protocols Preclinical and Clinical Medicine.

Totowa, New Jersey: Humana Press. Tefferi, A. (2001). Primary Hematology. Totowa, New Jersey: Humana Press. Is this the Essay about Woman, I Am Strong perfect essay for you? Save time and order Research on Hemophilia. essay editing for only $13.9 per page. Top grades and quality guaranteed! Relevant essay suggestions for The Basic, Research on Hemophilia. 1. Why will you want to monitor his fluid status very carefully?

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resume slumdog This is the book on which the Essay Strong movie Slumdog Millionaire was made and is one of the few books that I am reading after watching (and enjoying) the nixon was forced to resign because of movie. Essay About Woman,? I usually tend to have read the definition in biology book before watching the Essay I Am Strong movie. In a nutshell, the story is about a poor boy from the slums of Mumbai and Delhi who somehow manages to get on the popular TV show “Who Wants to be a Billionaire?” and lying on couch, manages to win 1 billion dollars. Essay About Woman,? How does a poor, uneducated boy know the answers to all the questions? Has he cheated, or did he learn from the nixon was forced university of life? Well, that’s the Essay about I Am Strong rest of the other words plot…where he tells his life story showing how he knew the answers to about I Am Woman, I Am Strong, the questions he was asked. I was quite surprised to airasia, find that the Essay Woman, Strong movie deviates quite significantly from the book. The book has far more anecdotes, and details.

I welcome the extra detail but somehow the prose does not do justice to the story. Vikas Swarup’s writing is a bit flat, very straightforward, and I was having difficulties getting into other words, the book. About Strong? The main strengths of the movie were the energy of the kids, the cinematography, the music, and nixon was forced to resign of, the concept of fate. None of these strengths are derived from the book. The book meanders on with various anecdotes from Ram Mohammed Thomas’s life (yes, in the book this is his name, and the story of how he comes by a multi-religious name is as cliched as it comes). The book starts to come to life when Ram goes to Agra and falls in love, and decides to come on to the show…a little over midway through the book. The story picks up the about I Am Strong pace quite nicely and Vikas Swarup even manages to throw in a few twists and turns into the very predictable plot making the nixon was forced because ending quite a nice surprise.

All in all, it’s not too bad a book. Essay About I Am Woman,? But I was somehow expecting it to touch my emotions a little bit more. I think this is one of those rare cases where the airasia movie was more affecting than the about Woman, book. Have any of you read the book and seen the was forced to resign because movie? How did you feel the two compared? Note: I am including this read as one of the books towards completing the South Asian Authors Challenge hosted by about I Am Woman, I Am, S Krishna. Coorg- A Photo Essay.

The Case of the Missing Servant. Top Places and Attractions to Visit in Delhi. Teaser Tuesdays: Delhi Mostly Harmless. Substantially, the nixon to resign post is actually the greatest on that worthw hile topic. I harmonise with your conclusions and will thirstily look forward to your coming updates.

Simply saying thanks will certainly not just be acceptable, for the extraordinary lucidity in your writing. I will certainly promptly grab your rss feed to stay abreast of any updates. Fabulous work and also much success in your business enterprize! I am shocked you didn’t enjoy the about I Am Woman, book as much. I, on the other hand, completely enjoyed it. I watched the movie some time ago, and loved it, but if you were to ask me what happened in the movie all I could tell you was that there was a quiz show, an Indian guy, romance, running with some sense of urgency, and definition of heterotrophs, amazing music.

The book on the other hand, though open to its many criticisms for being too idealistic in its portrayal (a poor boy winning a billion dollars, marrying the love of his life, who is a prostitute by the way, and buying that ferrari he always wanted) has so much more to tell, unlike the movie. As with most movie adaptations of books, they deviate quite dramatically from the original plot of the text. Essay About Strong? Sometimes that’s understandable. Some things you just can’t express visually as you can with the power of booking words. Sometimes you want to Essay Woman,, attract a broader audience, so as a producer you completely remove some essentials of a text to create a film. Fine, we get that.

And if that’s the case, then I guess it’s totally unfair to compare the two (book and film). But since everyone seems to be doing that anyway, I feel the need to say a bit too on this matter. The book, I believe is beautifully written. Airasia Booking Online? In its presentation the author has artfully interwoven tragedy with humour. There is a whole bunch of Essay I Am I Am Strong irony interspersed that can make one smile, burst out in biology laughing or even to gasp in shock. Essay About I Am I Am Strong? For example, in chapter one “The Death of a Hero”, Vikas Swarup (the author) has not simply said ‘Armaan Ali is, OH MY GOD, gay’, but the presentation which he gives us where as readers we read to interpret the culprit of ‘feeling up’ Salim at the cinema to be Armaan Ali and thus gay, is written so well it brings some good shock and humour at the revelation. Quotes from the book: (I’m using a pdf version so I cannot provide the pages numbers)

“The first thing you must know about Salim is that he is my best friend. The second is other words that he is crazy about Hindi films. I Am Woman, I Am? But not all Hindi films. Just the ones featuring Armaan Ali.” “Salim loves Armaan.

Or, more accurately, he worships Armaan.” “Suddenly, a tall man enters through the balcony door and takes the seat next to Salim. Significance Hill? A20. He has two hundred seats to choose from, but he selects A20. It is impossible to see his face, but I can make out Essay Woman, that he is an old man with a long, flowing beard. He is wearing what appears to be a pathan suit. I am curious about this man. Why is in biology he joining the film halfway through? Did he pay half price for his ticket?” Then there is I Am I Am Strong a flashback where Salim learns that there is a ‘rumour’ that his idolized movie star is left by his girlfriend for being gay.

And then fast forward, back to the cinema scene. “I see that the bearded man’s left hand has moved on. The Basic? It is now placed in Salim’s lap and rests there gently. Essay I Am I Am Strong? Salim is so engrossed in the death scene he does not register it. The old man is emboldened. He rubs his palm against Salim’s jeans. As Armaan takes his last few breaths, the man increases his pressure on Salim’s crotch, till he is other almost gripping it.” “The man hastily removes his hand from Salim’s lap and tries to get up from his seat. Essay Strong? But before he can lift himself completely, Salim makes a grab for for admire, him.

He fails to catch the man’s collar, but gets hold of his beard. As Salim tugs, it comes off in his hand. The man leaps out of Essay I Am his seat with a strangled cry and dashes towards the exit, which is hardly twenty feet away.” “At that very instant the electrical power in the theatre fails and was forced to resign because of, the generator kicks in. The screen goes blank and the dark hall is dazzled as the emergency lights flick on….the power comes back. It was only a momentary interruption.

The film resumes on the screen…The man rushes past the black curtains to the red EXIT sign, slams open the Essay Strong door and The Basic, disappears. But in that split second Salim and I have seen a flash of Essay about Woman, hazel-green eyes. A chiselled nose. A cleft chin. As the credits begin to roll over the screen, Salim is left holding in his hand a mass of definition of heterotrophs in biology tangled grey hair smelling vaguely of cologne and spirit gum.

This time he does not see the name of the publicity designer and the PRO, the light men and the spot boys, the fight director and the cameraman. About I Am Strong? He is to resign weeping. Armaan Ali, his hero, has died.” The book, even in Essay I Am Woman,, its elaborate use of irony (as with this example) teaches us a great deal about “appearance versus reality” and even so much more about societal pressures, how people struggle to words, perform actions in keeping with roles ascribed to them by the society. Some persons opt to say the reading of the about Woman, I Am text is boring, because the language is boring, and when persons say that, I have to Principle of Flight, wonder if they’ve actually read the book or just skimmed it. I will admit the language is Essay Woman, not complex, so if you like that kind of writing you may be disappointed; but “boring” cannot define this text either. I’m sure the above excerpt was not boring at all, and those lines are just cut and pasted version of the to resign because of real thing. The real thing is quite better. A lot of persons focus too much on Essay about Woman, Strong the romance of the text (and movie, but then again, the movie revolves around romance for most people) which doesn’t make sense. The romance came in the latter part of the text. For what I have read, the text could exist without Ram meeting Nita.

So many valuable characters have occupied these pages. Ram, Father Timothy Francis (the man who adopted him), Father John Little (the young priest in training who engages in homoeroticism, Salim (his right hand man), Neelima Kumari (the former actress who commits suicide), Gudiya (much of a shocker here), her father (the ex-astronomer, turned drunkard), Maman (the man who preys on children’s innocence and maims them for his own good fortune, and Essay The Basic of Flight, maybe a little for theirs), Colonel Taylor (the spy), Almed Klen (the contract killer), Shankar (the autistic boy disowned by his wealthy mother)…and much more. I Am Strong? So many colourful characters interspersed in Ram’s elaborate tale. And then apart from ‘appearance versus reality’, persons may see the manifestation of Essay Principle of Flight other issues (themes and motifs): deception, death, social class disparity, gender disparity, broken homes/families, poverty, violence/abuse, power versus powerlessness, ‘voicelessness’, traditional versus worldly values, love and friendship. For me, when persons watch a film, things don’t resonate as much as they do when reading.

We have already established that half the characters (named and unnamed) are ripped from the tale inorder to make the movie. Then for films, there is the extreme focus on music/sound, flashing colours etc. When you read a book/text, your sole focus is on words. There is no distraction of other characters on screen, of pretty colours or the quick passing of a scene. You know a girl could be on Essay about I Am Strong screen dressed in raggedy clothes, but unless that director made a conscious decision to Essay Principle, make her look really ugly to show say, her poverty, people might focus on Woman, how slender and good she looks or how nicely her long limbs are shaped etc. (you would be very surprised how what people see when they watch a film). With a text of airasia online words, the texture and feel of words resonate in Essay about I Am, your mind.

That’s your focus. Enough information is given through words to elicit a particular feeling in due strength to what is portrayed by the writer. And if the writer has great control of words and the manipulation of words as does Swarup, you will truly “feel” what is read even without the was forced to resign accompaniment of wonderful music. There are many things that might prevent a fun AND effective reading of a book. 1. You may be forced to Essay about Woman,, read the book so you do some ‘slap dash’ reading. 2. You not like that genre originally or even that style of writing so you set up a psychological block against because, it.

I don’t particularly like simple writing (like in Twilight) but I enjoy complex and pseudo-psychological texts like Stephen King, or action and thriller, like John Sanford’s and James Patterson’s; however anything, no matter how idealistic/unrealistic the Essay about I Am Woman, I Am presentation, as long as it has the ability to teach moral lessons, has humour and can elicit empathy or sympathy from me, I can learn to like it and Essay Principle of Flight, appreciate it for a book well written. I, even if no one else does, commend Vikas Swarup. I absolutely love his text: QA: Slumdog Millionaire. ps. Essay About Woman, I Am Strong? I have the movie soundtrack.

Awesome stuff. I like the way you have write your reviews.Its fun to read and makes one want to words for admire, read those books as well. I’ve just read the book, but haven’t seen the film yet. I think the Essay book was rather good, had no difficulties getting through it. I liked how parts of his parts where reviled one by lying on couch, one, in Essay I Am Strong, the wrong order. Like a puzzle =)

@Mimi: I saw the movie before I read the book, and booking online, I must confess I liked the movie better #128578; i liked this movie. this movie awarded by oscar… .. thank you so much for sharing review of Essay this movie. i liked this movie. this movie awarded by oscar… I have not read the nixon because of book but Ihave seen the movie because it was showcased on Tatasky.

I wasn’t too happy with the film and it looked like the title of the movie made a mockery of all people living in the slums. Essay About I Am? Didn’t the makers of the movie have better things to show about India than this? It’s like marketing poverty to the western world. Booking Online? Maybe all this is new to the West but it doesn’t make any difference to about Woman,, me. Thank This Review.

Create a custom Facebook profile page for free. Chec out the themes here http://5b56bee0.zxxo.net. I tried to read the book several years ago, long before the movie came out, and I couldn’t get through it. I found the same thing you did, that the what was the significance of bunker prose was uninspiring and I didn’t feel connected to the characters. The film was a little too upsetting in parts for my tastes, but generally I thought it was much better than the book. It had more of a zing to it.

I haven’t tried the movie or the book… in U.S. peoople got crazy about the movie and the songs were featured so much in tv it really made my head spin that overall I gave up the idea even to watch the I Am Woman, movie… @Sumana: the movie was nice, definitely better than the book in my opinion, which was nice but written in a rather bland manner. I read the book first and really enjoyed it. The film however was sooo different and I find it a shame that it missed so many important things out. The Book emphasises the definition of heterotrophs ups and about I Am, downs more in the main character’s life which for me was a lot more interesting. The film was also so quickly presented switching from nixon of, scene to scene making it hard to watch. @Paul: Thanks for Essay about Strong, visiting and commenting. I suppose it depends on which you experience first? The book and movie are actually quite different from each other when you think about it. Hello!

I am a tech writer from Bangalore who uses this blog to indulge in other forms of writing. I love to read and then write about what I read. However, I am not all about airasia booking online, reading, and Essay I Am Woman, Strong, this blog reflects that. Essay? To contact me regarding reviews or advertising, email me at Essay Woman, I Am Strong nishikkatgmail.com Enjoy! More about me and the blog.

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50 Inspiring Resume Designs: And What You Can Learn From Them. Your resume or CV may be one of the most important projects you ever design. It can make or break job applications, open doors to new careers, make a great (or dismal) first impression. When you send out your resume, you’re really sending out a piece of yourself. So make sure it’s representing you to your best advantage.

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Creating a distinctive personal brand or style for yourself (such as a personal logo, a color scheme, a nice selection of fonts, etc.) gives your work an extra sheen of professionalism (and an Essay I Am Woman, I Am Strong opportunity to show off your abilities). Plus, once you put the work in, this “brand” is lying on couch something you can use over and over again — on letterhead, business cards, social media profiles, you name it. For a unique take on traditional resume colors, try light text on a dark background, as Abdullah Al Mamun has done here. Just make sure that your font is I Am Woman, weighty enough to be easily readable and not get lost against the background. This clean resume by Patrick Rogan uses a bright splash of what was the significance battle of bunker hill color and whittles down the information to only the basics (skills and past positions). Icons in Woman, Strong the skills section provide a visual reference that still complements the simplistic style. Definition! Printing your resume on textured paper can give an impression of quality, craftsmanship, or luxury. About I Am Woman, Strong! If a color other than white seems inappropriate for your industry, try a white or cream-colored paper with a slight texture for an ultra-professional, upscale look.

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But they should be more than a collection of Essay about pretty pictures; the booking images should, at a glance, tell something about you and complement or enhance the text, like in this resume design by Rachel Winter. If you’re seeking work in an industry where appearance is important, or the job has asked you to include a portrait, try integrating it into your resume. It doesn’t have to be the center of attention, though — you can make it a bit more subtle by Woman, Strong, using a small picture or placing it behind a colored screen, like in The Basic Egotype’s resume template. Mailing out some resumes? Make opening yours up a memorable experience, like Amber Van Mieghem has done with this clever folding resume. Wishing you could infuse a little creativity into your plain, corporate resume? Try a monogram with your initials, like Bill Mawhinney has done for Essay about I Am Strong, this resume template. It adds a little style while still keeping the overall presentation very businesslike. You can use the same graphic on your cover letter to give your application a polished, pulled-together look. If you have some creative leeway in creating your resume, using a non-rectangular shape will be sure to attract attention, like John Mujica’s round resume does here. If you do format your resume in any unusual shape, just make sure all the text is airasia readable.

You’ve only got one name. Make it memorable. If it’s unique, highlight it. Make it big and bold, like Fredrik Andresen did on his resume. Give the Essay Woman, I Am hiring manager something to zero in on. Your font choices can change the of heterotrophs in biology whole character of your resume. For instance, the Essay I Am Strong rounded fonts with soft edges that Louis Omari has used for his resume have a more casual, friendly feel than sharper, serif fonts might have. Need to show your qualifications on Essay Principle of Flight the run? Post your resume online and make it mobile-friendly, like Julien Renvoye has done. You can include your resume on Essay about I Am Woman, Strong your personal website or even post it to lying on couch, networking platforms like LinkedIn.

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Cisco Wireless Intrusion Prevention System Configuration Guide, Release 7.4. Cisco Wireless Intrusion Prevention System Configuration Guide, Release 7.4. wIPS Policy Alarm Encyclopedia. View with Adobe Reader on a variety of devices. Chapter: wIPS Policy Alarm Encyclopedia.

The addition of WLANs to the corporate environment introduces a new class of threats for network security. RF signals that penetrate walls and extend beyond intended boundaries can expose the network to about I Am unauthorized users. Definition? Rogue access points installed by employees for their personal use usually do not adhere to the corporate security policy. A rogue access point can put the entire corporate network at risk for outside penetration and attack. Not to understate the threat of the rogue access point, there are many other wireless security risks and intrusions such as mis-configured and unconfigured access points and Essay about I Am I Am Strong, DoS (Denial of The Basic Service) attacks. The Cisco Adaptive Wireless IPS (wIPS) is Essay I Am I Am Strong, designed to help manage against security threats by validating proper security configurations and detecting possible intrusions. Definition In Biology? With the comprehensive suite of I Am Woman, security monitoring technologies, the wIPS alerts the user on definition of heterotrophs more than 100 different threat conditions in the following categories: User authentication and traffic encryption Rogue and ad-hoc mode devices Configuration vulnerabilities Intrusion detection on security penetration Intrusion detection on DoS attacks. To maximize the power of the wIPS, security alarms can be customized to best match your security deployment policy. For example, if your WLAN deployment includes access points made by a specific vendor, the Essay I Am Woman, I Am product can be customized to generate the rogue access point alarm when an access point made by another vendor is words, detected by the access point or sensor. Intrusion Detection—Denial of Service Attack.

Wireless DoS (denial of service) attacks aim to disrupt wireless services by taking advantage of about I Am Woman, I Am various vulnerabilities of WLAN at Layer one and two. DoS attacks may target the for admire physical RF environment, access points, client stations, or the back-end authentication RADIUS servers. For example, an RF jamming attack with a high power directional antenna from a distance can be carried out from the outside of your office building. About Woman, I Am? Attack tools used by The Basic of Flight intruders leverage hacking techniques such as spoofed 802.11 management frames, spoofed 802.1x authentication frames, or simply using the brute force packet flooding method. The nature and protocol standards for wireless are subject to some of these attacks. Because of this, Cisco has developed Management Frame Protection, the basis of 802.11i, to proactively prevent many of these attacks. (For more information on MFP, see the Cisco Prime Infrastructure online Help.) The wIPS contributes to this solution by an early detection system where the attack signatures are matched. The DoS of the wIPS detection focuses on WLAN layer one (physical layer) and two (data link layer, 802.11, 802.1x).

When strong WLAN authentication and encryption mechanisms are used, higher layer (IP layer and above) DoS attacks are difficult to execute. The wIPS server tightens your WLAN defense by validating strong authentication and encryption policies. In addition, the intrusion detection of the wIPS on denial of service attacks and security penetration provides 24 X 7 air-tight monitoring on potential wireless attacks. Denial of service attacks include the following three subcategories: Denial of Service Attack Against Access Points. DoS attacks against access points are typically carried out on the basis of the following assumptions:

Access points have limited resources. For example, the per-client association state table. WLAN management frames and authentication protocols 802.11 and Essay Woman, I Am Strong, 802.1x have no encryption mechanisms. Wireless intruders can exhaust access point resources, most importantly the client association table, by emulating large number of wireless clients with spoofed MAC addresses. Each one of these emulated clients attempts association and significance of the battle of bunker, authentication with the target access point but leaves the protocol transaction mid-way. When the I Am Woman, access points resources and the client association table is filled up with these emulated clients and their incomplete authentication states, legitimate clients can no longer be serviced by the attacked access point. This creates a denial of service attack. The wIPS tracks the client authentication process and identifies DoS attack signatures against Essay The Basic Principle of Flight, the access point. Incomplete authentication and association transactions trigger the attack detection and statistical signature matching process. Detected DoS attack results in setting off wIPS alarms, which includes the usual alarm detail description and about Woman, I Am Strong, target device information. Cisco Management Frame Protection (MFP) also provides complete proactive protection against frame and device spoofing.

For more information on MFP, see the Prime Infrastructure online Help. DoS attacks against access points include the following types: Alarm Description and Possible Causes. A form of lying on couch DoS (denial-of-service) attack is to about I Am Strong exhaust the access point's resources, particularly the client association table, by flooding the access point with a large number of emulated and spoofed client associations. At the was the significance battle 802.11 layer, Shared-key authentication is flawed and rarely used. The other alternative is Open authentication (null authentication) that relies on higher level authentication such as 802.1x or VPN. Open authentication allows any client to authenticate and then associate. An attacker leveraging such a vulnerability can emulate a large number of clients to flood a target access point's client association table by creating many clients reaching State 3 as illustrated below. Once the about I Am Strong client association table overflows, legitimate clients are not able to Principle get associated thus a denial-of-serve attack is Essay Woman, Strong, committed. The Cisco Adaptive Wireless IPS detects spoofed MAC addresses and tracks the follow-up 802.1x actions and data communication after a successful client association to detect this form of DoS attack. The Basic Of Flight? After this attack is Woman,, reported by the Cisco Adaptive Wireless IPS, you may log on to this access point to inspect its association table for to resign because the number of client associations.

Cisco Management Frame Protection (MFP) also provides complete proactive protection against frame and device spoofing. For more information on MFP, refer to the Cisco Prime Infrastructure Configuration Guide or the Online help. Denial of Service Attack: Association Table Overflow. Alarm Description and Possible Causes. Wireless intruders can exhaust access point resources, most importantly the Essay about client association table, by imitating a large number of wireless clients with spoofed MAC addresses. Each one of these imitated clients attempts association and authentication with the target access point.

The 802.11 authentication typically completes because most deployments use 802.11 Open System authentication, which is basically a null authentication process. Other Words? Association with these imitated clients follows the about Woman, I Am Strong authentication process. Definition? These imitated clients do not, however, follow up with higher level authentication such as 802.1x or VPN, which would leave the protocol transaction half-finished. At this point, the attacked access point maintains a state in the client association table for each imitated client. Essay About I Am Woman, I Am? Once the access point's resources and client association table is filled with these imitated clients and for admire, their state information, legitimate clients can no longer be serviced by the attacked access point. This creates a DoS (denial of service) attack. The Cisco Adaptive Wireless IPS tracks the client authentication process and identifies a DoS attack signature against an access point. Incomplete authentication and association transaction trigger the Cisco Adaptive Wireless IPS's attack detection and Essay I Am I Am Strong, statistical signature matching process. Denial of Service Attack: Authentication Flood. Alarm Description and Possible Causes. IEEE 802.11 defines a client state machine for tracking station authentication and association status.

Wireless clients and access points implement such a state machine according to the IEEE standard (see illustration below). On the access point, each client station has a state recorded in was the significance of the battle hill, the access point's client table (association table). This recorded state has a size limit that can either be a hard-coded number or a number based on the physical memory constraint. A form of DoS (denial-of-service) attack floods the access point's client state table (association table) by Essay about Woman, I Am imitating many client stations (MAC address spoofing) sending authentication requests to the access point. Upon reception of each individual authentication request, the target access point creates a client entry in State 1 of the association table.

If Open System authentication is used for of the battle of bunker hill the access point, the access point returns an authentication success frame and Essay Woman,, moves the nixon to resign because client to State 2. If Shared-key authentication is used for the access point, the access point sends an authentication challenge to about I Am Woman, the attacker's imitated client which does not respond. In this case, the online access point keeps the client in State 1. In either case, the access point contains multiple clients hanging in either State 1 or State 2 which fills up the access point association table. Essay I Am Woman, I Am Strong? When the table reaches its limit, legitimate clients are not able to nixon because of authenticate and about Woman, Strong, associate with this access point. This results in a DoS attack. The Cisco Adaptive Wireless IPS detects this form a DoS attack by airasia online tracking client authentication and association states. When the alarm is triggered, the access point under attack is Essay I Am Woman, I Am, identified. The WLAN security analyst can log on to the access point to check the current association table status. Denial of Service Attack: EAPOL-Start Attack.

Alarm Description and Possible Causes. The IEEE 802.1x standard defines the authentication protocol using EAP (Extensible Authentication Protocol) over LANs, or EAPOL. The 802.1x protocol starts with a EAPOL-Start frame sent by the client station to begin the to resign because authentication transaction. The access point responds to an EAPOL-Start frame with a EAP-Identity-Request and some internal resource allocation. An attacker attempts to bring down an access point by flooding it with EAPOL-Start frames to exhaust the access point internal resources. The Cisco Adaptive Wireless IPS detects this form of DoS (denial-of-service) attack by tracking the 802.1x authentication state transition and particular attack signature. Denial of Service Attack: PS Poll Flood Attack. Alarm Description and Essay I Am I Am, Possible Causes. Power management is probably one of the most critical features of wireless LAN devices. Essay Of Flight? Power management helps to conserve power by enabling stations to remain in power saving state mode for longer periods of time and to receive data from the access point only at Woman, specified intervals.

The wireless client device must inform the access point of the was the battle of bunker length of time that it will be in the sleep mode (power save mode). Essay Woman, Strong? At the booking online end of the time period, the client wakes up and checks for about Strong waiting data frames. After it completes a handshake with the access point, it receives the of heterotrophs in biology data frames. The beacons from the access point also include the Delivery Traffic Indication Map (DTIM) to inform the Essay I Am I Am client when it needs to wake up to accept multicast traffic. The access point continues to The Basic of Flight buffer data frames for the sleeping wireless clients. Using the Traffic Indication Map (TIM), the Essay I Am Woman, Strong access point notifies the wireless client that it has buffered data buffered. Multicast frames are sent after the what was the significance of the hill beacon that announces the DTIM.

The client requests the delivery of the I Am Woman, buffered frames using PS-Poll frames to the access point. For every PS-Poll frame, the access point responds with a data frame. Essay The Basic Of Flight? If there are more frames buffered for the wireless client, the access point sets the data bit in the frame response. The client then sends another PS-Poll frame to get the about I Am Woman, Strong next data frame. This process continues until all the buffered data frames are received. A potential hacker could spoof the MAC address of the wireless client and send out a flood of The Basic of Flight PS-Poll frames.

The access point then sends out the about I Am I Am buffered data frames to the wireless client. In reality, the client could be in the power safe mode and would miss the data frames. The Cisco Adaptive Wireless IPS can detect this DoS (denial-of-service) attack that can cause the wireless client to was the battle lose legitimate data. Locate the device and take appropriate steps to remove it from the wireless environment. Cisco Management Frame Protection (MFP) also provides complete proactive protection against frame and device spoofing. For more information on about Woman, I Am MFP, refer to online the Cisco Prime Infrastructure Configuration Guide or the Woman, I Am Strong Online help. Denial of booking Service Attack: Probe Request Flood.

Alarm Description and Possible Causes. A form of Essay Woman, I Am Strong Denial of Service attack allows the attacker to force the was the of bunker hill target AP into a constant stream of Essay Strong wireless packets intended to serve nonexistent clients. During a Probe Request Flood, the attacker will generate large quantities of probe requests targeted at a specific AP. Typical wireless design specifies that an AP will respond to lying on couch a probe request by sending a probe response, which contains information about the corporate network. Due to the volume of probe requests transmitted during a flood attack, the AP will be stuck continuously responding, thus resulting in Essay I Am Woman, I Am Strong, a denial of service for all clients depending on that AP.

The wIPS server monitors the what hill levels of probe request frames detected and will trigger a Probe Request Flood alarm when the threshold is exceeded. Even in cases where the requests are valid, the Essay I Am Strong volume of the frames could cause problems with wireless activity. Airasia? Consequently, the Essay I Am source(s) of the offending frames should be located and removed from the enterprise environment. Denial of Service Attack: Re-association Request Flood. Alarm Description and Possible Causes. A form of Denial-of-service attack is to exhaust the AP's resources, particularly the client association table, by flooding the AP with a large number of lying on couch emulated and Essay about I Am Woman, I Am, spoofed client re-associations.

At the 802.11 layer, Shared-key authentication is flawed and rarely used any more. The only other alternative is Open authentication (null authentication) that relies on higher level authentication such as 802.1x or VPN. Essay? Open authentication allows any client to authenticate and about I Am, then associate. An attacker leveraging such a vulnerability can emulate a large number of in biology clients to flood a target AP's client association table by creating many clients reaching State 3 as illustrated below. Once the client association table overflows, legitimate clients will not be able to get associated thus a denial-of-serve attack is committed.

The wIPS server monitors the Essay Strong levels of re-association requests on the network and triggers this alarm if the threshold is exceeded. Denial of Service Attack: Unauthenticated Association. Alarm Description and Possible Causes. A form of DoS (denial-of-service) attack is to exhaust the access point's resources, particularly the client association table, by flooding the was the significance of the access point with a large number of imitated and spoofed client associations. About Strong? At the 802.11 layer, Shared-key authentication is flawed and rarely used. The other alternative is Open authentication (null authentication) that relies on a higher level of authentication such as 802.1x or VPN. Open authentication allows any client to what hill authenticate and then associate. Essay About I Am I Am? An attacker leveraging such a vulnerability can imitate a large number of clients to for admire flood a target access point's client association table by creating many clients reaching State 3 as illustrated below. Once the I Am Woman, I Am client association table overflows, legitimate clients are not able to get associated causing a DoS attack.

Denial of Service (DoS) attacks are unique in that most ways to contain them will not work. Unauthenticated Association Attack is no different. You have an attacker that is was forced to resign because of, randomly generating hundreds if not thousands of Essay I Am I Am Strong MAC addresses and crafting those as Association frames and sending them as fast as possible to the target Access Point. Wireless containment on this type of attack is clearly not possible. What are your options?

Locating the source of the attack is your best option. Using a wireless analyzer, lock onto the channel where the attack is coming from. Since you will see Association Frames streaming by, take note of signal strength readings from those frames. Using these signal strength numbers, try to of the of bunker locate the source of the attack by walking around the area where you think the attack is being generated from. Denial of Service Attack Against Infrastructure. In addition to about Woman, I Am attacking access points or client stations, the wireless intruder may target the RF spectrum or the back-end authentication RADIUS server for DoS (denial of other words for admire service) attacks. I Am? The RF spectrum can be easily disrupted by injecting RF noise generated by a high power antenna from a distance. Back-end RADIUS servers can be overloaded by a DDoS (distributed denial of service) attack where multiple wireless attackers flood the RADIUS server with authentication requests. This attack does not require a successful authentication to perform the attack. DoS attacks against infrastructure include the in biology following types:

Denial of Service Attack: Beacon Flood. Alarm Description and Possible Causes. A form of Denial of Service attack allows an attacker to inhibit wireless activity for the entire enterprise infrastructure by preventing new associations between valid APs and stations. I Am? Typically, an enterprise AP will broadcast beacon frames to all recipients within range to notify users of the network's presence. In Biology? Upon receipt of Essay about I Am Woman, I Am Strong this beacon, stations can consult their configurations to airasia online verify that this is an appropriate network. During a beacon flood attack, stations that are actively seeking a network are bombarded with beacons from networks generated using different MAC addresses and SSIDs. Essay About I Am I Am? This flood can prevent the valid client from detecting the beacons sent by the corporate APs, and thus a denial of service attack is initiated. The wIPS server monitors the levels of beacon frames detected and The Basic, will trigger a Beacon Flood alarm when the Essay about I Am I Am threshold is exceeded. Even in cases where the nixon to resign of beacons are valid, the volume of the frames could cause problems with wireless activity.

Consequently, the sources of the about I Am I Am offending frames should be located and removed from the enterprise environment. Denial of lying on couch Service Attack: CTS Flood. Attack tool: CTS Jack. Alarm Description and Possible Causes. As an optional feature, the I Am Strong IEEE 802.11 standard includes the what significance of the of bunker hill RTS/CTS (Request-To-Send/Clear-To-Send) functionality to control the station access to the RF medium.

The wireless device ready for transmission sends a RTS frame in order to acquire the right to the RF medium for Essay I Am a specified time duration. The receiver grants the right to the RF medium to the transmitter by sending a CTS frame of the same time duration. All wireless devices observing the CTS frame should yield the media to Essay the transmitter for transmission without contention. A wireless denial-of-service attacker may take advantage of the privilege granted to Woman, the CTS frame to reserve the RF medium for transmission. By transmitting back-to-back CTS frames, an attacker can force other wireless devices sharing the RF medium to hold back their transmission until the attacker stops transmitting the Essay Principle of Flight CTS frames. The Cisco Adaptive Wireless IPS detects the abuse of CTS frames for a DoS attack.

Denial of Service Attack: Destruction Attack. Alarm Description and Possible Causes. MDK3 is a suite of Essay about I Am Woman, hacking tools that allows users to utilize a number of different security penetration methods against definition, corporate infrastructures. MDK3-Destruction mode is Essay Woman,, a specific implementation of the what significance of the battle of bunker suit that uses an array of the tools to effectively completely shut down a wireless deployment. During an Essay Woman, I Am Strong, MDK-Destruction attack, the tool simultaneously: Initiates a beacon flood attack, which creates fake APs within the lying on couch environment, Triggers an authentication flood attack against valid corporate APs, preventing them from servicing clients, and kicks all active connections with valid clients. Additional enhancements allow for the tool to be used to about I Am I Am Strong connect the valid clients to the fake APs generated with the beacon flood, causing further confusion in Essay Principle, the environment. The wIPS server monitors for the combination of about I Am symptoms of an MDK3-Destruction attack and triggers an lying on couch, alarm when they are detected. Due to the dramatic impact that this attack can have on a wireless deployment, it is about, strongly recommended that the source of the attack be identified and removed immediately in order to resume normal network operations. Denial of Service Attack: Queensland University of Technology Exploit. Denial of Service Vulnerability in IEEE 802.11 Wireless Devices: US-CERT VU#106678 Aus-CERT AA-2004.02.

Alarm Description and Possible Causes. 802.11 WLAN devices use Carrier Sense Multiple Access with Collision Avoidance (CSMA/CA) as the basic access mechanism in which the WLAN device listens to the medium before starting any transmission and backs-off when it detects any existing transmission taking place. Collision avoidance combines the in biology physical sensing mechanism and the virtual sense mechanism that includes the Network Allocation Vector (NAV), the time before which the medium is available for transmission. Clear Channel Assessment (CCA) in about I Am Woman,, the DSSS protocol determines whether a WLAN channel is definition, clear so an 802.11b device can transmit on I Am I Am Strong it. Mark Looi, Christian Wullems, Kevin Tham and Jason Smith from the Information Security Research Centre, Queensland University of Technology, Brisbane, Australia, have recently discovered a flaw in the 802.11b protocol standard that could potentially make it vulnerable to DoS (denial-of-service) RF jamming attacks. This attack specifically attacks the definition of heterotrophs CCA functionality. According to Essay Woman, I Am Strong the AusCERT bulletin, an attack against this vulnerability exploits the CCA function at the physical layer and causes all WLAN nodes within range, both clients and access points, to defer transmission of was the hill data for the duration of the attack. When under attack, the Essay about I Am Woman, device behaves as if the channel is always busy, preventing the transmission of any data over the wireless network.

This DoS attack affects DSSS WLAN devices including IEEE 802.11, 802.11b, and low-speed (below 20Mbps) 802.11g wireless devices. IEEE 802.11a (using OFDM), high-speed (above 20Mbps using OFDM) 802.11g wireless devices are not affected by this attack. Words? Devices that use FHSS are also not affected. Any attacker using a PDA or a laptop equipped with a WLAN card can launch this attack on SOHO and I Am Woman, Strong, enterprise WLANs. Switching to the 802.11a protocol is the only solution or known protection against this DoS attack.

For more information on this DoS attack refer to : The Cisco Adaptive Wireless IPS detects this DoS attack and what significance of the of bunker hill, sets off the alarm. Locate the responsible device and take appropriate steps to remove it from the wireless environment. Denial of Service attack: RF Jamming Attack. Alarm Description and Possible Causes. WLAN reliability and efficiency depend on the quality of the RF media. Each RF is susceptible to RF noise impact. An attacker leveraging this WLAN vulnerability can perform two types of DoS (denial-of-service) attacks: Disrupt WLAN service Physically damage AP hardware. Disrupt WLAN service —At the about I Am 2.4GHz unlicensed spectrum, the attack may be unintentional. A cordless phone, Bluetooth devices, microwave, wireless surveillance video camera, or baby monitor can all emit RF energy to disrupt WLAN service.

Malicious attacks can manipulate the RF power at 2.4GHz or 5GHz spectrum with a high gain directional antenna to amplify the attack impact from a distance. With free-space and indoor attenuation, a one kilo-watt jammer 300 feet away from a building can jam 50 to 100 feet into the office area. The same one kilo-watt jammer located inside a building can jam 180 feet into the office area. During the airasia attack, WLAN devices in the target area are out of wireless service. Physically damage AP hardware— An attacker using a high output transmitter with directional high gain antenna 30 yards away from an access point can pulse enough high energy RF power to damage electronics in the access point resulting in it being permanently out of service. Such HERF (High Energy RF) guns are effective and are inexpensive to build. Like any RF based disturbance, your best way to resolve this would be to physically locate the device that is triggering the RF Jamming alarm and about Woman, I Am Strong, take it offline. Alternatively with Cisco CleanAir and its signature library, you can get a better description of this device. Find out the wIPS Access Point that triggered this alarm.

Using a mobile spectrum analyzer, walk around to locate the source of the interference. Once the device is located, turn off or move the device to lying on couch an area that won't affect your WLAN. Alarm Description and Possible Causes. As an optional feature, the IEEE 802.11 standard includes the RTS/CTS (Request-To-Send/Clear-To-Send) functionality to control access to the RF medium by stations. The wireless device ready for transmission sends an RTS frame to acquire the right to I Am Woman, Strong the RF medium for a specified duration. Nixon Of? The receiver grants the right to the RF medium to the transmitter by sending a CTS frame of the same duration. All wireless devices observing the Essay Woman, I Am CTS frame should yield the RF medium to the transmitter for transmission without contention. A wireless denial of service attacker may take advantage of the privilege granted to the CTS frame to reserve the RF medium for nixon was forced because of transmission.

By transmitting back-to-back RTS frames with a large transmission duration text box, an attacker reserves the wireless medium and force other wireless devices sharing the RF medium to hold back their transmissions. The Cisco Adaptive Wireless IPS detects the abuse of RTS frames for denial-of-service attacks. Denial of Service Attack: Virtual Carrier Attack. Alarm Description and Possible Causes. The virtual carrier-sense attack is implemented by Essay about I Am Woman, I Am modifying the 802.11 MAC layer implementation to allow random duration values to be sent periodically. This attack can be carried out on the ACK, data, RTS, and CTS frame types by using large duration values. By doing this the attacker can prevent channel access to legitimate users. Under normal circumstances, the only time a ACK frame carries a large duration value is of heterotrophs in biology, when the ACK is part of a fragmented packet sequence. A data frame legitimately carries a large duration value only when it is a subframe in about I Am, a fragmented packet exchange.

One approach to deal with this attack is to place a limit on the duration values accepted by nodes. Lying On Couch? Any packet containing a larger duration value is truncated to the maximum allowed value. Low cap and high cap values can be used. The low cap has a value equal to the amount of Essay time required to for admire send an ACK frame, plus media access backoffs for that frame. The low cap is used when the about Woman, only packet that can follow the observed packet is an ACK or CTS.

This includes RTS and all management (association, etc) frames. The high cap is used when it is definition in biology, valid for a data packet to follow the observed frame. The limit in this case needs to include the time required to send the largest data frame, plus the media access backoffs for that frame. The high cap must be used in I Am, two places: when observing an ACK (because the ACK my be part of a MAC level fragmented packet) and when observing a CTS. A station that receives an RTS frame also receives the data frame. The IEEE 802.11 standard specifies the Essay The Basic exact times for the subsequent CTS and data frames.

The duration value of Woman, RTS is respected until the following data frame is received or not received. Either the observed CTS is unsolicited or the observing node is a hidden terminal. Other? If this CTS is addressed to a valid in-range station, the valid station can nullify this by sending a zero duration null function frame. If this CTS is addressed to an out-of-range station, one method of about I Am Strong defense is to lying on couch introduce authenticated CTS frames containing cryptographically signed copies of the preceding RTS. With this method, there is a possibility of overhead and feasibility issues.

The Cisco Adaptive Wireless IPS detects this DoS (denial-of-service) attack. Locate the Essay about I Am I Am device and take appropriate steps to remove it from the wireless environment. Denial of Service Attacks Against Client Station. DoS attacks against wireless client stations are typically carried out other for admire, based on the fact that 802.11 management frames and 802.1x authentication protocols have no encryption mechanism and about I Am Woman,, thus can be spoofed. For example, wireless intruders can disrupt the service to a client station by continuously spoofing a 802.11 disassociation or deauthentication frame from the access point to the client station.

Besides the lying on couch 802.11 authentication and association state attack, there are similar attack scenarios for 802.1x authentication. For example, 802.1x EAP-Failure or EAP-logoff messages are not encrypted and can be spoofed to disrupt the 802.1x authenticated state to disrupt wireless service. Cisco Adaptive Wireless IPS tracks the client authentication process and identifies DoS attack signatures. Incomplete authentication and association transactions trigger the Essay attack detection and statistical signature matching process. Detected DoS attack results in airasia online, setting off wIPS alarms that include the usual alarm detail description and target device information. DoS attacks against client station include the following types: Denial of Essay Service Attack: Authentication Failure Attack. Alarm Description and Possible Causes. IEEE 802.11 defines a client state machine for tracking station authentication and association status.

Wireless clients and access points implement this client state machine based on the IEEE standard (see illustration below). Other Words? A successfully associated client station remains in State 3 in Essay about Woman, I Am Strong, order to continue wireless communication. To Resign Of? A client station in State 1 and in about I Am Strong, State 2 cannot participate in the WLAN data communication process until it is authenticated and associated to State 3. IEEE 802.11 defines two authentication services: Open System Authentication and Shared Key Authentication. Wireless clients go through one of these authentication processes to associate with an access point. A denial-of-service (DoS) attack spoofs invalid authentication request frames (with bad authentication service and status codes) from an associated client in State 3 to an access point. Upon reception of the invalid authentication requests, the access point updates the client to airasia online State 1, which disconnects its wireless service. The Cisco Adaptive Wireless IPS detects this form of a DoS attack by monitoring for spoofed MAC addresses and authentication failures. This alarm may also indicate an intrusion attempt. When a wireless client fails too many times in authenticating with an access point, the server raises this alarm to indicate a potential intruder's attempt to breach security. This alarm focuses on 802.11 authentication methods, such as Open System and Woman,, Shared Key.

802.1x and other, EAP based authentications are monitored by other alarms. Denial of Service Attack: Block ACK Flood. Alarm Description and Possible Causes. A form of Denial of Service attack allows an attacker to prevent an 802.11n AP from receiving frames from a specific valid corporate client. With the introduction of the 802.11n standard, a transaction mechanism was introduced which allows a client to transmit a large block of frames at Essay Woman, once, rather than dividing them up into airasia booking, segments. In order to initiate this exchange, the client will send an Add Block Acknowledgement (ADDBA) to the AP, which contains sequence numbers to inform the AP of the I Am Strong size of the block being transmitted.

The AP will then accept all frames that fall within the specified sequence (consequently dropping any frames that fall outside of the range) and transmit a BlockACK message back to the client when the transaction has been completed. In order to booking exploit this process, an attacker can transmit an invalid ADDBA frame while spoofing the valid client's MAC address. This process will cause the AP to ignore any valid traffic transmitted from the client until the invalid frame range has been reached. The wIPS server monitors Block ACK transactions for signs of spoofed client information. When an attacker is detected attempting to Woman, I Am initiate a Block ACK attack, an alarm is triggered. It is The Basic, recommended that users locate the offending device and I Am I Am, eliminate it from the wireless environment as soon as possible. Denial of Service Attack: Deauthentication Broadcast. Attack tool: WLAN Jack, Void11, Hunter Killer. Alarm Description and Possible Causes.

IEEE 802.11 defines a client state machine for tracking the station authentication and airasia booking online, association status. About Strong? Wireless clients and other words for admire, access points implement this state machine according to the IEEE standard. A successfully associated client station remains in State 3 to continue wireless communication. I Am Strong? A client station in State 1 and Essay, State 2 can not participate in WLAN data communication until it is authenticated and associated to State 3. A form of DoS (denial-of-service) attack aims to Essay Woman, I Am send all clients of an access point to the unassociated or unauthenticated State 1 by spoofing de-authentication frames from the access point to the broadcast address.

With today's client adapter implementation, this form of attack is lying on couch, very effective and immediate in about I Am I Am, terms of disrupting wireless services against multiple clients. Typically, client stations re-associate and re-authenticate to regain service until the attacker sends another de-authentication frame. The Cisco Adaptive Wireless IPS detects this form of airasia DoS attack by detecting spoofed de-authentication frames and tracking client authentication and association states. When the alarm is triggered, the access point under attack is Essay about I Am, identified. The WLAN security analyst can log on to the access point to check the current association table status.

Cisco Management Frame Protection (MFP) also provides complete proactive protection against MAC spoofing. For more information on MFP, refer to the Cisco Prime Infrastructure Configuration Guide or Online help. Denial of Service Attack: Deauthentication Flood. Attack tool: WLAN Jack, Void11. Alarm Description and airasia booking online, Possible Causes. IEEE 802.11 defines a client state machine for tracking station authentication and I Am I Am, association status. Wireless clients and access points implement this state machine according to the IEEE standard. A successfully associated client station stays in State 3 in was forced to resign, order to Essay I Am Woman, Strong continue wireless communication. A client station in State 1 and State 2 can not participate in WLAN data communication until it is authenticated and associated to State 3. A form of DoS (denial-of-service) attack aims to send an access point's client to the unassociated or unauthenticated State 1 by spoofing de-authentication frames from the access point to the client unicast address.

With today's client adapter implementations, this form of attack is very effective and immediate in terms of disrupting wireless services against the client. Typically, client stations re-associate and airasia online, re-authenticate to regain service until the Essay about I Am I Am attacker sends another de-authentication frame. An attacker repeatedly spoofs the lying on couch de-authentication frames to keep all clients out of service. The Cisco Adaptive Wireless IPS detects this form of DoS attack by detecting spoofed dis-association frames and tracking client authentication and association states. When the alarm is triggered, the Essay Woman, Strong access point under attack is identified. The WLAN security officer can log on to the access point to check the other for admire current association table status. Denial of Service Attack: Disassociation Flood. Alarm Description and Possible Causes. IEEE 802.11 defines a client state machine for tracking the station authentication and association status. Wireless clients and access points implement this state machine according to the IEEE standard.

A successfully associated client station stays in State 3 in order to continue wireless communication. A client station in State 1 and State 2 can not participate in WLAN data communication until it is authenticated and associated to State 3. A form of DoS (denial-of-service) attack aims to send an access point's client to the unassociated or unauthenticated State 2 by spoofing dis-association frames from the access point to the broadcast address (all clients). About Strong? With today's client adapter implementations, this form of Essay Principle of Flight attack is effective and immediate in terms of disrupting wireless services against multiple clients. Typically, client stations re-associate to regain service until the attacker sends another dis-association frame. An attacker repeatedly spoofs the dis-association frames to keep all clients out of service. The Cisco Adaptive Wireless IPS detects this form of DoS attack by detecting spoofed dis-association frames and tracking client authentication and association states. When the alarm is triggered, the access point under attack is identified. The WLAN security officer can log on to the access point to check the current association table status.

Denial of about Service Attack: EAPOL Logoff Attack. Alarm Description and Possible Causes. The IEEE 802.1x standard defines the for admire authentication protocol using EAP (Extensible Authentication Protocol) over LANs, or EAPOL. The 802.1x protocol starts with a EAPOL-Start frame to about I Am Strong begin the authentication transaction. At the end of an battle hill, authenticated session when a client station wishes to Woman, log off, the of the battle of bunker client station sends an about Woman, I Am, 802.1x EAPOL-Logoff frame to significance of the battle of bunker hill terminate the session with the access point. Since the EAPOL-logoff frame is not authenticated, an attacker can potentially spoof this frame and log the user off the access point, thus committing a DoS (denial-of-service) attack. The client station is unaware that it is logged off from the access point until it attempts communication through the Essay about Woman, I Am WLAN.

Typically, the client station discovers the disrupted connection status and re-associates and authenticates automatically to regain the wireless connection. The attacker can continuously transmit the spoofed EAPOL-Logoff frames to be effective on this attack. The Cisco Adaptive Wireless IPS detects the use of FATA-jack by monitoring on spoofed MAC addresses and authentication failures. This alarm may also indicate an intrusion attempt. When a wireless client fails too many times in authenticating with an access point, the Cisco Adaptive Wireless IPS raises this alarm to indicate a potential intruder's attempt to breach security. This alarm focuses on 802.11 authentication methods (Open System, Shared Key, etc). EAP and 802.1x based authentications are monitored by other alarms.

Denial of Service Attack: FATA Jack Tool Detected. Alarm Description and Possible Causes. EEE 802.11 defines a client state machine for tracking station authentication and association status. Wireless clients and access points implement this state machine based on the IEEE standard. A successfully associated client station stays in State 3 in order to continue wireless communication. A client station in words for admire, State 1 and in State 2 cannot participate in the WLAN data communication process until it is authenticated and associated to State 3. IEEE 802.11 defines two authentication services: Open System Authentication and Shared Key Authentication. Wireless clients go through one of these authentication processes to about I Am associate with an access point.

A form of DoS (denial-of-service) attack spoofs invalid authentication request frames (with bad authentication service and status codes) from an definition, associated client in State 3 to Essay about Woman, Strong an access point. Upon reception of the invalid authentication requests, the access point updates the client to what of the battle hill State 1, which disconnects its wireless service. FATA-jack is one of the Essay I Am commonly used tools to run a similar attack. Online? It is a modified version of WLAN-jack and it sends authentication-failed packets along with the reason code of the previous authentication failure to the wireless station. This occurs after it spoofs the MAC address of the Essay access point. FATA-jack closes most active connections and at times forces the user to reboot the station to continue normal activities. The Cisco Adaptive Wireless IPS detects this form of DoS attack by tracking the definition spoofed pre-mature EAP-Failure frames and the 802.1x authentication states for each client station and Essay about, access point. Locate the device and take appropriate steps to remove it from the lying on couch wireless environment. Denial of Service Attack: Premature EAP Failure Attack.

Alarm Description and Essay about I Am Strong, Possible Causes. The IEEE 802.1x standard defines the what authentication protocol using EAP (Extensible Authentication Protocol) over LANs, or EAPOL. The 802.1x protocol starts with a EAPOL-Start frame to begin the authentication transaction. When the 802.1x authentication packet exchange is I Am, complete with the back-end RADIUS server, the access point sends an EAP-Success or EAP-Failure frame to the client to indicate authentication success or failure. The IEEE 802.1X specification prohibits a client from booking online, displaying its interface when the required mutual authentication is not complete. About Woman, I Am Strong? This enables a well-implemented 802.1x client station to avoid being fooled by Essay of Flight a fake access point sending premature EAP-Success packets. An attacker keeps the client interface from Essay about I Am Woman, Strong, displaying (therefore Denial-of-Service) by continuously spoofing pre-mature EAP-Failure frames from the access point to the client to disrupt the authentication state on the client. The Cisco Adaptive Wireless IPS detects this form of was the battle of bunker hill DoS attack by tracking spoofed premature EAP-Success frames and the 802.1x authentication states for each client station and access point. Locate the device and take appropriate steps to remove it from the Strong wireless environment. Intrusion Detection—Security Penetration.

A form of wireless intrusion is to breach the WLAN authentication mechanism to gain access to Essay Principle of Flight the wired network or the wireless devices. About Strong? Dictionary attacks on the authentication method is lying on couch, a common attack against an access point. The intruder can also attack the wireless client station during its association process with an access point. For example, a faked access point attack on a unsuspicious wireless client may fool the client into associating with faked access point. This attack allows the intruder to gain network access to the wireless station and potentially hack into about I Am Woman, I Am Strong, its file system. The intruder can then use the station to access the wired enterprise network. These security threats can be prevented if mutual authentication and nixon was forced to resign because, strong encryption techniques are used. The wIPS looks for weak security deployment practices as well as any penetration attack attempts. The wIPS ensures a strong wireless security umbrella by validating the best security policy implementation as well as detecting intrusion attempts. About Woman,? If such vulnerabilities or attack attempts are detected, the wIPS generates alarms to bring these intrusion attempts to the administrator's notice. Security penetration attacks include the following types:

Alarm Description and Possible Causes. WLAN devices using static WEP key for encryption are vulnerable to the WEP key cracking attack. Cisco Systems introduced LEAP (Lightweight Extensible Authentication Protocol) to leverage the existing 802.1x framework to what was the significance of the of bunker avoid such WEP key attacks. The Cisco LEAP solution provides mutual authentication, dynamic per session and per user keys, and configurable WEP session key time out. The LEAP solution was considered a stable security solution and is easy to configure. There are hacking tools that compromise wireless LAN networks running LEAP by using off-line dictionary attacks to break LEAP passwords After detecting WLAN networks that use LEAP, this tool de-authenticates users which forces them to reconnect and provide their user name and Essay I Am Woman,, password credentials.

The hacker captures packets of legitimate users trying to other words re-access the network. The attacker can then analyze the traffic off-line and guess the password by testing values from a dictionary. The main features of the Woman, ASLEAP tool include: Reading live from any wireless interface in in biology, RFMON mode with libpcap Monitoring a single channel or performing channel hopping to look for target networks running LEAP. Actively deauthenticating users on LEAP networks, forcing them to reauthenticate. This allows quick LEAP password captures. Only de-authenticating users who have not already been seen rather than users who are not running LEAP.

Reading from stored libpcap files. Using a dynamic database table and I Am I Am, index to allow quick lookups on large files. This reduces the worst-case search time to .0015% as opposed to lookups in a flat file. Writing only the LEAP exchange information to a libpcap file. This could be used to significance hill capture LEAP credentials with a device short on Essay disk space (like an iPaq); the LEAP credentials are then stored in the libpcap file on a system with more storage resources to mount the dictionary attack. The source and Win32 binary distribution for the tool are available at http://asleap.sourceforge.net. Cisco Systems has developed the Extensible Authentication Protocol-Flexible Authentication via Secure Tunneling (EAP-FAST) protocol which stops these dictionary attacks. EAP-FAST helps prevent man-in-the-middle attacks, dictionary attacks, and packet and authentication forgery attacks. In EAP-FAST, a tunnel is created between the client and the server using a PAC (Protected Access Credential) to authenticate each other.

After the tunnel establishment process, the client is Essay of Flight, then authenticated using the user-name and password credentials. Some advantages of EAP-FAST include: It is not proprietary. It is compliant with the IEEE 802.11i standard. It supports TKIP and WPA. Essay I Am I Am Strong? It does not use certificates and avoids complex PKI infrastructures.

It supports multiple Operating Systems on PCs and Pocket PCs. The Cisco Adaptive Wireless IPS detects the de-authentication signature of the ASLEAP tool. Once detected, the server alerts the wireless administrator. The user of the attacked station should reset the The Basic Principle password. The best solution to Essay about I Am counter the ASLEAP tool is to replace LEAP with EAP-FAST in the corporate WLAN environment. Cisco WCS also provides automated security vulnerability scanning that proactively reports any access points configured to utilize weak encryption or authentication. For more information on automated security vulnerability scanning, refer to Cisco WCS online help.

Starting with Apple OSX Lion, Apple has a new feature called AirDrop. This new feature is supported on newer MacBook, MacBook Pro and iMac. The Basic Principle? What this new feature allows users to do is Essay about Woman, I Am, quickly setup a wireless file transfer system. To achieve this, both of the users that want to lying on couch share files need to open their finder and click on the AirDrop link. Once both of the Strong systems are in other for admire, range of Essay Strong each other and the link is setup, the users will see the other user's login icon in the AirDrop window. They can then drag-and-drop files onto the other users icon to begin a file transfer.

This could potentially create a security risk due to unauthorized Peer-to-Peer networks being dynamically created in your WLAN environment. File sharing is also a concern here. The system monitors the wireless network for traffic consistent with an definition in biology, AirDrop session. Cisco recommends that you locate users creating AirDrop sessions and inform them of your company policies regarding unauthorized Peer-to-Peer networks. Alarm Description and Possible Causes. Airpwn is a framework for 802.11 packet injection. Airpwn listens to incoming wireless packets, and if the data matches a pattern specified in the config files, custom content is injected (spoofed) from the about wireless access point.

Airpwn utilizes the inherent delay when a client sends a request to the internet. Since the Airpwn attacker is closer, it will be able to definition in biology quickly respond. As an example, the hacker might replace all images on a website that the Essay visitor is trying to view, showing only what the hacker wants the definition in biology visitor to see. Airpwn only Essay about Woman, I Am Strong, works on other words open wireless networks and WEP encrypted networks when the attacker knows the about I Am WEP key. Cisco Enterprise monitors the wireless network for potential traffic that is consistent with an Airpwn attack against of heterotrophs, Open or WEP decrypted Access Points and I Am Woman, Strong, notifies the WLAN administrator.

It is recommended that security personnel identify the of heterotrophs device and locate it using the Floor Plan screen. The attacking station should be removed from the wireless environment as soon as possible. Alarm Description and Possible Causes. The Cisco Adaptive Wireless IPS detects the wireless device running the about Woman, I Am AirSnarf tool. Appropriate action must be taken by the administrator to lying on couch remove the AirSnarf tool from the WLAN environment. Alarm Description and Possible Causes.

Certain frame transmissions from a valid corporate client to I Am Strong an AP can cause a crash in because of, some AP models due to Essay Woman, insufficient or invalid data. A wireless attacker can take advantage of this vulnerability by transmitting the defective frames in The Basic Principle of Flight, order to bring down a corporate AP. By sending EAP-TLS packets with flags set to 'c0' and no TLS message length or data, APs from some vendors can be rendered inoperable until they are rebooted. During this reboot process, attackers may have a brief opportunity to gain access to the corporate network, resulting in Essay I Am I Am, a potential security leak. The wIPS server monitors EAP-TLS transmissions and triggers an alarm if defective or invalid frames are detected.

Although this issue may not always represent a wireless attack, it is an issue that should be remedied in order to maintain the booking health of the overall wireless deployment. Alarm Description and Possible Causes. 802.11 Fuzzing is the process of introducing invalid, unexpected or random data into the 802.11 frames and about I Am I Am, then replaying those modified frames into lying on couch, the air. This can cause unexpected behavior to the destination device including driver crashes, operating system crashes and about I Am I Am, stack based overflows which would allow execution of in biology arbitrary code on the affected system. The CVE website (http://cve.mitre.org/index.html) has numerous reported entries for fuzzing based vulnerabilities on 802.11 frames. The system inspects each beacon frame looking for signs of fuzzing activity. Most common forms of beacon fuzzing involve expanding the Essay Woman, I Am SSID field beyond the limit of 32 bytes and changing the supported data rates to invalid rates. Essay The Basic Principle Of Flight? The system looks for these anomalies and will generate the Beacon Fuzzing alarm when the field values are beyond the 802.11 specification. The system monitors the Essay about I Am Strong wireless network for traffic consistent with Beacon Fuzzing. It is recommended to locate the device and take it offline.

Alarm Description and Possible Causes. A common practice amongst WLAN Administrators is to disable broadcasting of the SSID for an Access Point. Other Words? The idea behind this is Essay I Am Strong, that if people scanning for wireless networks can't see you, then you are safe. Basically you would need to know the other for admire SSID in order to connect to that wireless network. This protects your wireless network from casual drive by users who don't have the tools to extract the SSID from I Am Woman,, hidden networks. But hackers are a different story. They have the tools, the time and energy to extract the SSID from hidden networks. For Admire? There are many tools to perform this type of snooping. If a hidden SSID is not found through normal methods, hackers can use a brute force method using the tool mdk3. With the tool mdk3, they can perform a Dictionary attack or a word list attack on Essay I Am Woman, I Am the hidden network to what of the hill extract the SSID.

Cisco Enterprise monitors the wireless network for potential traffic that is consistent with a brute force attack against a hidden SSID and notifies the WLAN administrator. It is recommended that security personnel identify the device and locate it using the Essay about I Am Woman, I Am Floor Plan screen. The attacking station should be removed from the lying on couch wireless environment as soon as possible. Alarm Description and Possible Causes. This attack takes advantage of an insecure redundancy checking algorithm implemented in the WEP protocol.

By compromising a few known properties, an attacker is able to take an encrypted packet and decrypt it while retrieving the keystream used to encrypt the packet. The way the attack works, is the attacker captures a packet and chops one byte off the end of the Essay I Am Woman, packet before the ICV. The attacker will then append a guess to the decrypted value of the byte. Nixon Because? The packet is fixed by recalculating the ICV then injects this packet to the target AP. If the target AP, re-broadcasts this frame back out, the attacker knows he has correctly guessed the value of the decrypted byte. The attacker then moves onto Essay about I Am the next byte. As the guesses become successful, the packet being injected actually gets smaller and smaller. If the packet doesn't get re-broadcasted, then the attacker changes the guess and repeats the lying on couch process, he or she has 256 possible choices to try and guess. Below is an example of the tool running trying the various possible guesses. Once complete, the attacker will have decrypted the about I Am Woman, entire WEP packet byte by byte, which can then be XORed with the original encrypted packet to produce the plaintext data.

The ChopChop Attack is targeted at WEP based Access Points to of Flight break the about Woman, I Am Strong WEP key and gain direct access to the wireless network. Since this particular attack can take less than 5 minutes to perform, there is a good chance the attacker has already gained access to your wireless network. If possible, migrate your WLAN off WEP. WPA2-AES is recommended. If that's not an option, here are some steps to help troubleshoot the situation. Turn off the to resign because radios for the affected AP. This will disconnect all clients that are currently connected.

Change the WEP key Turn the radios back on You will need to change the WEP key on all of the devices that were currently connected to the new WEP key that was just set. Monitor NCS to Essay see if the nixon was forced because ChopChop alarm happens again. Alarm Description and Possible Causes. DHCP Starvation is an attack where a malicious user broadcasts large amounts of DHCP requests with spoofed MAC addresses. If enough DHCP request frames flood the Essay Strong network, the attacker could use up all of the remaining DHCP IP addresses that are available for valid users. This would create a DoS condition on lying on couch the network.

There are two tools that can do this fairly easily: Gobbler and Yersinia are publicly available tools that can perform this type of attack. This type of attack is especially harmful on guest networks or hotspot networks where the user is Essay about, allowed to hill get an IP address before the authentication happens. Mitigation options for this type of Essay I Am Strong attack can be handled at the switch level. For Cisco IOS switches, enable DHCP Snooping. In Biology? For Cisco CatOS, enable port security. The system monitors the I Am Strong wireless network for traffic consistent with a DHCP Starvation attack. Cisco recommends that you locate the user running the attack or implement tighter switch security.

Day-0 Attack by WLAN Security Anomaly. The Cisco Adaptive Wireless IPS has detected a single Security IDS/IPS policy violation on a large number of online devices in the wireless network. Either the number of devices violating the specific policy in Essay Strong, the time period specified are observed or there is a sudden percentage increase in the number of devices as specified in the threshold settings for the alarm. Depending on the Security IDS/IPS violation, it is suggested that the violation be monitored individually to lying on couch determine the source and destination of this attack. If this is an increase in I Am, the number of rogue devices, it may indicate an attack against the network. If there is a sudden increase in the number of client devices with encryption disabled, it may be necessary to revisit the Corporate Security Policy and enforce users to use the highest level of encryption and authentication according to the policy rules. Day-0 Attack by Device Security Anomaly. The Cisco Adaptive Wireless IPS detects a device violating a large number of Security IDS/IPS policies. For Admire? This device has either generated a number of Security IDS/IPS violations in I Am Strong, the time period specified or there is a sudden percentage increase as specified in the threshold settings for the various alarms. The device should be monitored and significance of the of bunker hill, located to carry out further analysis to Woman, I Am Strong check if this device is compromising the Enterprise Wireless Network in was the significance of the battle of bunker hill, any way (attack or vulnerability).

If this is about Woman,, a rogue device, the WLAN administrator may use the integrated over-the-air physical location capabilities, or trace device on the wired network using rogue location discovery protocol (RLDP) or switchport tracing to find it. Alarm Description and booking, Possible Causes. Cross-Site scripting vulnerabilities are well known and consist of publicized attacks that target web applications to Essay about Woman, gain access to Essay of Flight the underlying server or the I Am web application itself. It does this by injecting a client-side script into other words, web pages viewed by the user. This attack is performed using a device to broadcast the client-side code as the SSID. Once a WLAN monitoring system picks up the malicious SSID and records it, if the system is about I Am, web based and there are Cross-Site Scripting vulnerabilities, then that system will be exploited once the device with the malicious SSID is clicked. Cisco Enterprise monitors the wireless network for Access Points and Ad-hoc devices broadcasting malicious Cross-site scripting (XSS) traffic. It is of Flight, recommended that security personnel identify the device and locate it using the floor plan screen.

The device should then be removed from the I Am wireless environment as soon as possible. Some commonly used scan tools include: NetStumbler (newer versions), MiniStumbler (newer versions), MACStumbler, WaveStumbler, PrismStumbler, dStumbler, iStumbler, Aerosol, Boingo Scans, WiNc, AP Hopper, NetChaser, Microsoft Windows XP scans. Alarm Description and Possible Causes. The Cisco Adaptive Wireless IPS detects wireless devices probing the for admire WLAN and attempting association (i.e. About I Am Strong? association request for because an access point with any SSID). Such devices could pose potential security threats in one of the about I Am following ways: War-driving, WiLDing (Wireless LAN Discovery), war-chalking, war-walking, war cycling, war-lightrailing, war-busing, and war-flying. Legitimate wireless client attempting risky promiscuous association. War-driving, war-chalking, war-walking, and war-flying activities include: War-driving- A wireless hacker uses war-driving tools to discover access points and what was the significance of the battle of bunker hill, publishes information such as MAC address, SSID, and security implemented on the Internet with the access points' geographical location information. War-chalking- War-chalkers discover WLAN access points and mark the WLAN configuration at Woman, public locations with universal symbols War-flying-War-flying refers to sniffing for wireless networks from the air. The same equipment is used from a low flying private plane with high power antennas.

It has been reported that a Perth, Australia-based war-flier picked up e-mail and Internet relay chat sessions from an altitude of 1,500 feet on other words a war-flying trip. To prevent your access points from being discovered by these hacking tools, configure your the I Am Strong access points to lying on couch not broadcast SSIDs. Use the about I Am Cisco Adaptive Wireless IPS to see which access points are broadcasting (announcing) their SSID in lying on couch, the beacons. Alarm Description and Possible Causes. IEEE 802.1x provides an Essay about, EAP (Extensible Authentication Protocol) framework for wired or wireless LAN authentication. What Was The Significance Of The Battle Of Bunker Hill? An EAP framework allows flexible authentication protocol implementation. Essay I Am Woman, I Am? Some implementations of 802.1x or WPA use authentication protocols such as LEAP, MD5, OTP (one-time-password), TLS, and TTLS.

Some of these authentication protocols are based upon the user name and password mechanism, where the user name is transmitted clear without encryption and the password is used to answer authentication challenges. Most password-based authentication algorithms are susceptible to dictionary attacks. During a dictionary attack, an attacker gains the user name from the unencrypted 802.1x identifier protocol exchange. The attacker then tries to for admire guess a user's password to gain network access by using every word in a dictionary of Essay about Strong common passwords or possible combinations of passwords. A dictionary attack relies on the fact that a password is what of the of bunker, often a common word, name, or combination of both with a minor modification such as a trailing digit or two. A dictionary attack can take place actively online, where an attacker repeatedly tries all the possible password combinations. I Am I Am Strong? Online dictionary attacks can be prevented using lock-out mechanisms available on the authentication server (RADIUS servers) to lock out the user after a certain number of invalid login attempts. A dictionary attack can also take place off-line, where an attacker captures a successful authentication challenge protocol exchange and nixon because of, then tries to match the challenge response with all possible password combinations off-line. Unlike online attacks, off-line attacks are not easily detected.

Using a strong password policy and periodically expiring user passwords significantly reduces an off-line attack tool's success. The Cisco Adaptive Wireless IPS detects online dictionary attacks by Essay I Am I Am Strong tracking 802.1x authentication protocol exchange and the user identifier usages. Lying On Couch? Upon detection of a dictionary attack, the alarm message identifies the user name and attacking station's MAC address. The Cisco Adaptive Wireless IPS advises switching user name and password based authentication methods to encrypted tunnel based authentication methods such as PEAP and EAP-FAST, which are supported by many vendors including Cisco. Alarm Description and Possible Causes. The Fake AP tool is meant to protect your WLAN acting as a decoy to confuse war-drivers using NetStumbler, Wellenreiter, MiniStumbler, Kismet, etc.

The tool generates beacon frames imitating thousands of counterfeit 802.11b access points. I Am Woman, I Am? War-drivers encountering a large amount of access points are not able to identify the real access points deployed by the user. This tool, although very effective in fending off war-drivers, poses other disadvantages such as bandwidth consumption, misleading legitimate client stations, and interference with the WLAN management tools. The Cisco Adaptive Wireless IPS does not recommend running the of heterotrophs in biology Fake AP tool in your WLAN. The Cisco Adaptive Wireless IPS recommends that the administrator locate the device running the Fake AP tool and take appropriate steps to remove it from the wireless environment.

Alarm Description and Essay about I Am Woman, Strong, Possible Causes. The Cisco Adaptive Wireless IPS detects such wireless STAs running the of heterotrophs in biology DHCP service and providing IP addresses to unaware users. Once the client is identified and reported, the WLAN administrator may use the integrated over-the-air physical location capabilities, or trace device on the wired network using rogue location discovery protocol (RLDP) or switchport tracing to find the device. The Cisco Adaptive Wireless IPS detects such wireless STAs running the DHCP service and providing IP addresses to unaware users. Once the client is identified and reported, the WLAN administrator may use the Essay I Am Woman, integrated over-the-air physical location capabilities, or trace device on the wired network using rogue location discovery protocol (RLDP) or switchport tracing to of the of bunker find the Essay I Am Woman, Strong device.

Fast WEP Crack (ARP Replay) Detected. Alarm Description and Possible Causes. It is definition of heterotrophs, well publicized that WLAN devices using static WEP key for Essay about I Am I Am Strong encryption are vulnerable to WEP key cracking attack (Refer to Weaknesses in the Key Scheduling Algorithm of RC4 - I by Scott Fluhrer, Itsik Mantin, and Adi Shamir). The WEP secret key that has been cracked by any intruder results in no encryption protection, thus leading to compromised data privacy. The WEP key that is in most cases 64-bit or 128-bit (few vendors also offer 152-bit encryption) consists of the secret key specified by the user linked with the 24-bit IV (Initialization Vector). The IV that is determined by the transmitting station can be reused frequently or in consecutive frames, thus increasing the possibility of the secret key to be recovered by wireless intruders.

The most important factor in any attack against the WEP key is the key size. Definition In Biology? For 64-bit WEP keys, around 150K unique IVs and for 128-bit WEP keys around 500k to Essay Woman, I Am a million unique IVs should be enough. With insufficient traffic, hackers have created a unique way of generating sufficient traffic to perform such an attack. This is called the Principle replay attack based on arp-request packets. Such packets have a fixed length and about I Am Woman, I Am, can be spotted easily. By capturing one legitimate arp-request packet and resending them repeatedly, the other host responds with encrypted replies, providing new and possibly weak IVs. The Cisco Adaptive Wireless IPS alerts on weak WEP implementations and Essay The Basic Principle, recommends a device firmware upgrade if available from the device vendor to correct the IV usage problem. Essay About Woman,? Ideally, enterprise WLAN networks can protect against booking, WEP vulnerability by using the TKIP (Temporal Key Integrity Protocol) encryption mechanism, which is now supported by I Am Strong most enterprise level wireless equipment.

TKIP enabled devices are not subject to any such WEP key attacks. Cisco WCS also provides automated security vulnerability scanning that proactively reports any access points configured to was the significance utilize weak encryption or authentication. For more information on automated security vulnerability scanning, refer to the Cisco WCS online help. Alarm Description and Essay about I Am Woman,, Possible Causes. It is well publicized that a WLAN device using a static WEP key for encryption is vulnerable to various WEP cracking attacks. Refer to Weaknesses in of heterotrophs in biology, the Key Scheduling Algorithm of RC4 - I, by Scott Fluhrer, Itsik Mantin, and Adi Shamir for more information. The Cisco Adaptive Wireless IPS alerts on detecting a potential fragmentation attack in progress, and recommends that WEP not be used in the corporate environment and that appropriate measures be taken to avoid any security holes in the network and Essay I Am Strong, upgrade the wireless network infrastructure and other words, devices to use the more secure IEEE 802.11i standard. HT Intolerant Degradation Services. Alarm Description and Possible Causes.

While 802.11n deployments provide the potential for dramatically increased wireless range and speed over legacy implementations, these benefits can be easily lost or offset if a single legacy device is introduced to the network. To help prevent this situation, the Essay I Am wIPS server will trigger an HT-Intolerant Degradation of Service alarm when it detects packets transmitted between n-capable devices at of heterotrophs in biology sub-n speeds. Alarm Description and Possible Causes. While 802.11n deployments provide the potential for Essay about Strong dramatically increased wireless range and The Basic Principle of Flight, speed over legacy implementations, these benefits can be easily lost or offset if a single legacy device is introduced to the network. To help prevent this situation, the wIPS server will trigger an HT-Intolerant Degradation of Service alarm when it detects packets transmitted between n-capable devices at sub-n speeds. Alarm Description and Possible Causes. The addition of WLANs in the corporate environment introduces a whole new class of Essay I Am Woman, I Am threats for Essay network security. RF signals that penetrate walls and I Am Strong, extend beyond intended boundaries can expose the lying on couch network to unauthorized users. A rogue access point can put the Woman, I Am entire corporate network at risk for outside penetration and attack. Not to understate the threat of the rogue access point, there are many other wireless security risks and intrusions such as mis-configured access points, unconfigured access points, and DoS (denial-of-service) attacks. One of the most effective attacks facing enterprise networks implementing wireless is the use of a honey pot access point.

An intruder uses tools such as NetStumbler, Wellenreiter, and MiniStumbler to discover the airasia online SSID of the corporate access point. About I Am? Then the intruder sets up an access point outside the building premises or, if possible, within the premises and broadcasts the discovered corporate SSID. Nixon To Resign Because Of? An unsuspecting client then connects to this honey pot access point with a higher signal strength. Once associated, the intruder performs attacks against about I Am Woman, I Am, the client station because traffic is diverted through the honey pot access point. Once a honey pot access point is identified and reported by the Cisco Adaptive Wireless IPS, the WLAN administrator may use the integrated over-the-air physical location capabilities, or trace device on the wired network using rogue location discovery protocol (RLDP) or switchport tracing to find the rogue device. Hot-Spotter Tool Detected (Potential Wireless Phishing) Alarm Description and Possible Causes. A hotspot is any location where Wi-Fi network access available for the general public. Hotspots are often found in airports, hotels, coffee shops, and other places where business people tend to congregate.

It is currently one of the definition in biology most important network access service for business travelers. The customer requires a wireless-enabled laptop or handheld to I Am Woman, I Am Strong connect to lying on couch the legitimate access point and to receive service. Most hotspots do not require the about I Am Strong user to have an advanced authentication mechanism to connect to the access point, other than using a web page to log in. The criterion for entry is only dependent on whether or not the subscriber has paid subscription fees. In a wireless hotspot environment, no one should trust anyone else. Due to current security concerns, some WLAN hotspot vendors are using 802.1x or higher authentication mechanisms to validate the nixon of identity of the user.

The four components of about I Am I Am a basic hotspot network are: Hotspot Subscribers-Valid users with a wireless enabled laptop or handheld and valid login for airasia accessing the hotspot network. WLAN Access Points-SOHO gateways or enterprise level access points depending upon the hotspot implementation. Hotspot Controllers-Deals with user authentication, gathering billing information, tracking usage time, filtering functions, etc. This can be an independent machine or can be incorporated in the access point itself.

Authentication Server-Contains the login credentials for the subscribers. In most cases, hotspot controllers verify subscribers' credentials with the authentication server. Hotspotter automates a method of penetration against wireless clients, independent of the encryption mechanism used. Using the Hotspotter tool, the intruder can passively monitors the wireless network for probe request frames to identify the SSIDs of the networks of the Windows XP clients. After it acquires the preferred network information, the intruder compares the network name (SSID) to a supplied list of commonly used hotspot network names. Once a match is found, the Hotspotter client acts as an access point. The clients then authenticate and about I Am Woman,, associate unknowingly to Essay The Basic Principle of Flight this fake access point.

Once the client gets associated, the Hotspotter tool can be configured to run a command such as a script to kick off a DHCP daemon and other scanning against Essay about I Am, the new victim. Clients are also susceptible to this kind of attack when they are operating in different environments (home and office) while they are still configured to include the hotspot SSID in the Windows XP wireless connection settings. The clients send out probe requests using that SSID and of heterotrophs, make themselves vulnerable to Essay I Am Woman, the tool. Once the rogue access point is identified and reported by the Cisco Adaptive Wireless IPS, the to resign because of WLAN administrator may use the integrated over-the-air physical location capabilities, or trace device on the wired network using rogue location discovery protocol (RLDP) or switchport tracing to find the rogue device. Identical Send and Receive Address. Alarm Description and Possible Causes. In order to inhibit wireless activity in a corporate network, attackers will often modify wireless packets to emulate various different characteristics, including changes to about Woman, the packets' Source and Destination MAC information. In cases where these fields are identical, the Identical Send and Receive Address alarm will be triggered in order to alert IT personnel of a potential attack. In a normal network environment, a packet's Source and Destination will never be identical. For Admire? As such, the Essay about I Am I Am Strong enterprise administrators should take immediate steps to locate the root cause of the modified packets. Alarm Description and lying on couch, Possible Causes.

Standard 802.11 deployments allow for certain frames to be transmitted to individual destinations (also known as unicast frames, such as an Essay Woman, I Am Strong, ACK) and other frames to be 'broadcast' to all recipients in the wireless deployment. In general, these two categories should not overlap, e.g., an Association Request frame should not be sent out of heterotrophs, as a broadcast to all listening devices. In this scenario, the wIPS server will trigger an Improper Broadcast Frames alarm to alert staff of a potential problem. Alarm Description and Possible Causes. The Karma tool allows a wireless attacker to configure a client as a soft AP that will respond to any probe request detected. This implementation is designed to respond to queries from stations configured to connect to multiple different networks, e.g., SSID Corporate for work and SSID Home for home use. I Am I Am? In this example, the soft AP may be configured to respond to the probe for Home when the client is at work. In this manner, the attacker tricks the corporate client to route potentially sensitive network traffic to airasia the false AP. The wIPS server will trigger a Karma Tool alarm if a wireless station is discovered using the tool within the corporate environment. About I Am Strong? Users should locate the what of the of bunker attacking device and eliminate it immediately. Alarm Description and Possible Causes.

Man-in-the-Middle (MITM) attack is one of the most common 802.11 attacks that can lead to confidential corporate and private information being leaked to hackers. In a MITM attack, the hacker can use a 802.11 wireless analyzer and monitor 802.11 frames sent over the WLAN. By capturing the wireless frames during the association phase, the hacker gets IP and I Am Strong, MAC address information about the wireless client card and access point, association ID for the client, and the SSID of the wireless network. A commonly used method for performing the MITM attack involves the hacker sending spoofed dis-association or de-authentication frames. The hacker station then spoofs the MAC address of the client to continue an association with the access point. At the what significance of bunker hill same time, the hacker sets up a spoofed access point in about Woman,, another channel to keep the client associated.

This allows all traffic between the valid client and access point to pass through the hacker's station. One of the lying on couch most commonly used MITM attack tools is Monkey-Jack. The Cisco Adaptive Wireless IPS recommends the use of strong encryption and Essay about I Am Woman, Strong, authentication mechanisms to thwart any MITM attacks by hackers. One way to avoid such an attack is to prevent MAC spoofing by using MAC address exclusion lists and monitoring the RF channel environment. Cisco Management Frame Protection (MFP) also provides complete proactive protection against MITM attacks. For more information on MFP, refer to other words the Cisco Wireless Control System Configuration Guide or the WCS online help. Alarm Description and Possible Causes. The Cisco Adaptive Wireless IPS detects a wireless client station probing the about Strong WLAN for an anonymous association (such as an association request for an access point with any SSID) using the NetStumbler tool. The Device probing for Access Point alarm is generated when hackers use recent versions of the NetStumbler tool. Principle Of Flight? For older versions, the Cisco Adaptive Wireless IPS generates the NetStumbler detected alarm.

NetStumbler is the most widely used tool for war-driving and war-chalking. A wireless hacker uses war-driving tools to discover access points and to publish their information (MAC address, SSID, security implemented, etc.) on the Internet with the access points' geographical location information. War-chalkers discover WLAN access points and mark the WLAN configuration at public locations with universal symbols as illustrated above. War-walking is Essay about I Am Woman, Strong, similiar to war-driving, but the hacker is on foot instead of The Basic Principle a car. It can run on a machine running Windows 2000, Windows XP, or better. I Am I Am? It also supports more cards than Wellenreiter, another commonly used scanning tool. War-walkers like to use MiniStumbler and similar products to sniff shopping malls and big-box retail stores.

War-flying is sniffing for wireless networks from the air. The same equipment is used from a low flying private plane with high power antennas. It has been reported that a Perth, Australia-based war-flier picked up email and Internet Relay Chat sessions from an altitude of 1,500 feet on definition of heterotrophs in biology a war-flying trip. To prevent your access points from being discovered by these hacking tools, configure your access points to not broadcast its SSID. You can use the Cisco Adaptive Wireless IPS to see which of your access points is broadcasting an SSID in the beacons. Cisco WCS also provides automated security vulnerability scanning that reports any access points configured to broadcast their SSIDs. Essay Woman,? For more information on lying on couch automated security vulnerability scanning, refer to the WCS online help. To prevent your access points from being discovered by these hacking tools, configure your access points to not broadcast its SSID. You can use the Cisco Adaptive Wireless IPS to about I Am see which access point is broadcasting its SSID in the beacons. Alarm Description and was forced, Possible Causes.

The Cisco Adaptive Wireless IPS detects a wireless client station probing the WLAN for an anonymous association (i.e., association request for an access point with any SSID) using the NetStumbler tool. About I Am Woman,? The Device probing for access point alarm is generated when hackers more recent versions of the NetStumbler tool. For older versions, the what was the battle of bunker Cisco Adaptive Wireless IPS generates the NetStumbler detected alarm. NetStumbler is the most widely used tool for war-driving, war-walking, and war-chalking. A wireless hacker uses war-driving tools to discover access points and publish their information (MAC address, SSID, security implemented, etc.) on the Internet with the access points' geographical location information. War-chalkers discover WLAN access points and mark the WLAN configuration at public locations with universal symbols as illustrated above.

War-walking is similar to Essay Woman, I Am war-driving, but the hacker conducts the illegal operation on foot instead of by car. The NetStumbler web site (http://www.netstumbler.com/) offers MiniStumbler software for use on Pocket PC hardware, saving war-walkers from carrying heavy laptops. Was The Of The Of Bunker? It can run on a machine running Windows 2000, Windows XP, or later. It also supports more cards than Wellenreiter, another commonly used scanning tool. War-walkers typically use MiniStumbler and similar products to sniff shopping malls and Essay about I Am, big-box retail stores. Other? War-flying is sniffing for wireless networks from the air. The same equipment is used, but from a low-flying private plane with high-power antennas. About? It has been reported that a Perth, Australia-based war-flier picked up e-mail and Essay The Basic, Internet Relay Chat sessions from an altitude of 1,500 feet on a war-flying trip. The Cisco Adaptive Wireless IPS alerts the Essay about I Am user when it observes that a station running Netstumbler is associated to a corporate access point. Publicly Secure Packet Forwarding (PSPF) Violation. Alarm Description and Possible Causes.

Publicly Secure Packet Forwarding (PSPF) is a feature implemented on WLAN access points to was forced to resign because of block wireless clients from communicating with other wireless clients. About I Am? With PSPF enabled, client devices cannot communicate with other client devices on the wireless network. For most WLAN environments, wireless clients communicate only with devices such as web servers on the wired network. By enabling PSPF it protects wireless clients from being hacked by a wireless intruder. PSPF is effective in protecting wireless clients especially at words for admire wireless public networks (hotspots) such as airports, hotels, coffee shops, and college campuses where authentication is null and anyone can associate with the access points. The PSPF feature prevents client devices from inadvertently sharing files with other client devices on Essay Woman, Strong the wireless network.

The Cisco Adaptive Wireless IPS detects PSPF violations. If a wireless client attempts to nixon because of communicate with another wireless client, the Cisco Adaptive Wireless IPS raises an alarm for a potential intrusion attack. This alarm does not apply if your WLAN deploys wireless printers or VoWLAN applications because these applications rely on wireless client-to-client communication. Probe Request Fuzzed Frame Detected. Alarm Description and Possible Causes.

802.11 Fuzzing is the process of Essay about Woman, I Am introducing invalid, unexpected or random data into the 802.11 frames and then replaying those modified frames into the air. This can cause unexpected behavior to the destination device including driver crashes, operating system crashes and booking, stack based overflows which would allow execution of arbitrary code on the affected system. I Am I Am? The CVE website (http://cve.mitre.org/index.html) has numerous reported entries for fuzzing based vulnerabilities on 802.11 frames. The system inspects each Probe Request frame looking for signs of was forced to resign because of fuzzing activity. Most common forms of Probe Request fuzzing involve expanding the Essay about Woman, Strong SSID field beyond the limit of 32 bytes and changing the supported data rates to invalid rates. The system looks for these anomalies and will generate the Probe Request Fuzzing alarm when the field values are beyond the 802.11 specification. Probe Response Fuzzed Frame Detected. Alarm Description and Possible Causes.

802.11 Fuzzing is the process of introducing invalid, unexpected or random data into the 802.11 frames and then replaying those modified frames into the air. This can cause unexpected behavior to the destination device including driver crashes, operating system crashes and stack based overflows which would allow execution of lying on couch arbitrary code on the affected system. The CVE website (http://cve.mitre.org/index.html) has numerous reported entries for fuzzing based vulnerabilities on 802.11 frames. The system inspects each Probe Response frame looking for signs of fuzzing activity. Most common forms of Probe Response fuzzing involve expanding the Essay about SSID field beyond the limit of 32 bytes and changing the supported data rates to invalid rates. The system looks for these anomalies and will generate the Probe Response Fuzzing alarm when the field values are beyond the lying on couch 802.11 specification. The system monitors the wireless network for traffic consistent with Probe Response Fuzzing. It is recommended to I Am Woman, I Am locate the device and take it offline. Host AP tools: Cqure AP. Alarm Description and Possible Causes. A hotspot is any location where Wi-Fi network access available for airasia the general public.

Hotspots are often found in airports, hotels, coffee shops, and other places where business people tend to I Am Strong congregate. It is currently one of the online most important network access service for business travelers. Essay About I Am Woman, I Am Strong? The customer requires a wireless-enabled laptop or handheld to connect to the legitimate access point and to receive service. Most hotspots do not require the user to have an advanced authentication mechanism to connect to the access point, other than using a web page to log in. Nixon To Resign Because Of? The criterion for entry is only dependent on Essay I Am Woman, whether or not the definition subscriber has paid subscription fees. In a wireless hotspot environment, no one should trust anyone else. Due to Essay current security concerns, some WLAN hotspot vendors are using 802.1x or higher authentication mechanisms to validate the identity of the user. Basic components of a WLAN Hotspot network. The four components of of heterotrophs in biology a basic hotspot network are as follows: Hotspot Subscribers—Valid users with a wireless enabled laptop or handheld and valid log in for accessing the I Am Strong hotspot network.

WLAN Access Points—SOHO gateways or enterprise level access points depending upon the hotspot implementation. Hotspot Controllers—Deals with user authentication, gathering billing information, tracking usage time, filtering functions. This can be an independent machine or can be incorporated in Essay The Basic Principle, the access point itself. Authentication Server—Contains the log in Essay about I Am Woman,, credentials for of the hill the subscribers. In most cases, hotspot controllers verify subscribers' credentials with the about Woman, Strong authentication server.

Hotspotter automates a method of penetration against wireless clients, independent of the encryption mechanism used. Using the Hotspotter tool, the intruder can passively monitor the wireless network for probe request frames to identify the SSIDs of the words networks of the Windows XP clients. After it acquires the preferred network information, the about I Am I Am intruder compares the network name (SSID) to words for admire a supplied list of about commonly used hotspot network names. Significance Of The Battle Of Bunker Hill? When a match is found, the Hotspotter client acts as an access point. Essay Woman,? The clients then authenticate and Essay, associate unknowingly to this fake access point. When the about Woman, client gets associated, the Hotspotter tool can be configured to lying on couch run a command such as a script to kick off a DHCP daemon and other scanning against the new victim. Clients are also susceptible to Essay about I Am this kind of attack when they are operating in different environments (home and office) while they are still configured to include the lying on couch hotspot SSID in the Windows XP wireless connection settings. The clients send out probe requests using that SSID and make themselves vulnerable to Essay about I Am Woman, the tool.

Soft APs or Software Access points should be treated as a Rogue device. The following steps should help eliminate this threat. Use integrated over-the-air physical location capabilities to words for admire locate the about I Am Rogue device Wireless Containment to lying on couch prevent any devices from connecting to the Soft AP Trace the device on the wired network using rogue location discovery protocol (RLDP) or switch port tracing to find the Essay about rogue device. Alarm Description and lying on couch, Possible Causes. Spoofed mac address detected is a type of attack where a hacker will change their factory assigned wireless mac address to either gain access to Essay I Am Woman, I Am a restricted wireless network by was forced impersonating a valid connected user or to hide their presence on the wireless network. There are two types of Spoofed MAC address attacks, Client based and AP based. For client based Spoofed MAC address attacks, the client could be trying to I Am Woman, impersonate a valid user. An example of this would be a wireless hacker trying to get onto an access controlled hotspot by spoofing their wireless mac address of a client that is Essay The Basic Principle, already connected, in about I Am Woman,, effect piggybacking on the connection. Another popular example would be in a hotel environment where a hacker bypasses the payment process to get on the wireless network by spoofing their wireless mac address of a paid user.

Another type of Spoofed MAC address attack is AP based. In this case, the hacker is trying to hide their presence on the wireless network by spoofing the mac address of other words for admire a corporate access point. This is a typical rogue scenario. Suspicious After Hours Traffic Detected. Alarm Description and Possible Causes. One way to I Am Woman, I Am Strong detect a wireless security penetration attempt is to match wireless usage against the time when there is not supposed to be any wireless traffic. The wIPS server monitors traffic patterns against the office-hours configured for what was the significance battle hill this alarm to generate alerts when an abnormality is found. Specific suspicious wireless usage sought after by the wIPS server during after-office hours include the following: Client station initiating authentication or association requests to the office WLAN that may indicate security breach attempts. Essay Strong? Wireless data traffic that may indicate suspicious download or upload over definition of heterotrophs, the wireless network. For global wIPS deployment, the configurable office-hour range is defined in Essay about Strong, local time.

The access point or sensor can be configured with a time zone to facilitate management. For the office and airasia online, manufacturing floor mixed WLAN, one can define one set of office hours for the office WLAN SSID and another (for example, 6am to 9pm) for the manufacturing floor WLAN SSID. If this alarm is triggered, the administrator should look for devices responsible for the suspicious traffic and about I Am Woman, I Am Strong, take appropriate steps to locate it and remove it from the wireless environment. Unauthorized Association By Vendor List. Alarm Description and Possible Causes.

The Cisco Adaptive Wireless IPS enables network administrators to include vendor information in a policy profile to was the battle of bunker hill allow the system to effectively detect stations on the WLAN that are not made by approved vendors. Once such a policy profile is Essay I Am Strong, created, the system generates an alarm whenever an access point is associating with a station by an unapproved vendor. See the diagram below. As the diagram shows, the access points in ACL-1 should only associate with stations made by Cisco and the access points in ACL-2 can only associate with stations manufactured by Intel. This information is entered in the wIPS system's policy profile.

Any association between the access points and non-Cisco or non-Intel stations is unauthorized and triggers an booking online, alarm. In the enterprise WLAN environment, rogue stations cause security concerns and undermine network performance. They take up air space and compete for network bandwidth. Since an access point can only about Woman, Strong, accommodate a limited number of The Basic stations, it rejects association requests from stations once its capacity is reached. An access point laden with rogue stations denies legitimate stations the Essay I Am Woman, I Am access to the network. Common problems caused by rogue stations include connectivity problems and degraded performance. The Cisco Adaptive Wireless IPS automatically alerts network administrators to any unauthorized access point-station association involving non-conforming stations using this alarm.

Once the alarm has been triggered, the unauthorized station must be identified and actions must be taken to resolve the issue. One way is to block it using the rogue containment. Unauthorized Association Detected. Alarm Description and Possible Causes. In an enterprise network environment, rogue access points installed by employees do not usually follow the in biology network's standard deployment practice and therefore compromise the integrity of the network. They are loopholes in network security and make it easy for intruders to hack into the enterprise wired network.

One of the major concerns that most wireless network administrators face is unauthorized associations between stations in an ACL and a rogue access point. Since data to and from the stations flows through the rogue access point, it leaves the door open for hackers to obtain sensitive information. Rogue stations cause security concerns and undermine network performance. They take up air space and compete for bandwidths on the network. Since an access point can only about I Am Woman, I Am, serve a certain number of stations, it rejects association requests from stations once its capacity is definition, reached. An access point laden with rogue stations denies legitimate stations access to the network. Common problems caused by rogue stations include disrupted connections and degraded performance. The Cisco Adaptive Wireless IPS can automatically alert network administrators to any unauthorized access point-station association it has detected on the network through this alarm. The WLC new feature MAC Address Learning will prevent this violation from happening, it is recommended to enable this feature.

Alarm Description and Possible Causes. The Cisco Adaptive Wireless IPS detects a wireless client station probing the WLAN for an anonymous association (i.e. association request for an access point with any SSID) using the Wellenreiter tool. Wellenreiter is a commonly used tool for war-driving and war-chalking. I Am I Am? A wireless hacker uses war-driving tools to discover access points and to publish their information (MAC address, SSID, security implemented, etc.) on the Internet with the words for admire access points' geographical location information. I Am Woman, Strong? War-chalkers discover WLAN access points and mark the WLAN configuration at public locations with universal symbols as illustrated above. War-walking is similar to war-driving, but the Essay Principle hacker is on foot instead of a car. War-walkers like to use Wellenreiter and similar products to sniff shopping malls and about I Am Strong, big-box retail stores.

War-flying is sniffing for wireless networks from the air. In Biology? The same equipment is used, but from a low flying private plane with high power antennas. Essay I Am? It has been reported that a Perth, Australia-based war-flier picked up e-mail and Internet Relay Chat sessions from an altitude of 1,500 feet on words for admire a war-flying trip. The tool supports Prism2, Lucent, and Cisco based cards. The tool can discover infrastructure and ad-hoc networks that are broadcasting SSIDs, their WEP capabilities, and can provide vendor information automatically. It also creates an ethereal/tcpdump-compatible dumpfile and about I Am Woman,, an Application savefile.

It also has GPS support. Airasia Booking? Users can download the tool from Wellenreiter website. To prevent your access points from being discovered by these hacking tools, configure your access points to not broadcast its SSID. You can use the Cisco Adaptive Wireless IPS to see which of your access points is broadcasting an SSID in the beacons. Cisco WCS also provides automated security vulnerability scanning that reports any access points configured to broadcast their SSIDs.

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With this EAP-NACK message, the attacker is able to determine if the first half of the pin is what was the significance of the, correct. The last digit of the pin is known since it is Essay I Am Strong, a checksum for the pin. This reduces the attempts to brute force the pin down to nixon to resign of 11,000. It is Essay I Am Woman, I Am, recommended to disable the external registrar feature of WiFi Protected Setup on your Access Point. Most manufacturers have this feature on by default. The system monitors the wireless network for traffic consistent with WiFi Protected Setup Pin brute force. It is recommended to was the significance battle hill locate the device and take it offline.

Alarm Description and Possible Causes. The WiFiTap tool allows a wireless attacker to configure a client to communicate directly with another client, without connecting to a corporate AP. This implementation allows the intruder to target an attack against the individual client, bypassing any security measures configured on the corporate network. The attacker then has access to all files and information stored on about I Am I Am the victim client station. The wIPS server monitors for use of the WiFiTap tool and what was the significance of the of bunker hill, triggers an alarm if it is about Strong, detected.

Users should attempt to locate the attacking device and remove it from the wireless environment.

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