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How to Write a Summary, Analysis, and Response Essay Paper With Examples. VirginiaLynne has been a University English instructor for over 20 years. She specializes in helping people write essays faster and easier. A summary is plots telling the main ideas of the article in your own words. These are the steps to Human Cloning writing a great summary: Read the article, one paragraph at a time.

For each paragraph, underline the schild main idea sentence (topic sentence). If you can't underline the The World's First National book, write that sentence on your computer or a piece of paper. When you finish the article, read all the schild plots underlined sentences. In your own words, write down one sentence that conveys the main idea. Functional Literacy In High School! Start the sentence using the name of the author and title of the article (see format below). Continue writing your summary by writing the other underlined sentences in your own words. Remember that you need to change both the words of the sentence and the word order. For more information, see video below.

Don't forget to use transition words to link your sentences together. See my list of schild plots, transition words below to City Virginia Budget Year help you write your summary more effectively and schild make it more interesting to read. Make sure you include the name of the author and article and use author tags (see list below) to let the The World's First National reader know you are talking about what the author said and not your own ideas. Re-read your piece. Does it flow well? Are there too many details? Not enough? Your summary should be as short and concise as possible. Author Tag : You need to start your summary by telling the name of the article and the author.

Here are three examples of how to do that (pay close attention to the punctuation): In How the Civil War Began, historian John Jones explains. John Jones, in his article How the Civil War Began, says that the real reason. How the Civil War Began, by historian John Jones, describes. First Sentence: Along with including the plots article's title and author's name, the first sentence should be the main point of the Functional Literacy School Students Essay article. It should answer the question: What is this essay about? (thesis). Plots! Example: In How the Civil War Began by John Jones, the author argues that the real reason for the start of the Civil War was not slavery, as many believe, but was instead the Trials clash of cultures and greed for cash.

Rest of schild plots, Summary: The rest of First Essay, your essay is going to give the plots reasons and evidence for City of Alexandria, Virginia Budget Year Essay, that main statement. In other words, what is the main point the writer is trying to make and what are the supporting ideas he or she uses to prove it? Does the author bring up any opposing ideas, and if so, what does he or she do to refute them? Here is a sample sort of plots, sentence: ___________ is the issue addressed in ( article's title) by ( author's name) . The thesis of this essay is Human Cloning Essay ___________ . The authors main claim is schild plots ___________ and his/her sub claim is ___________ . The author argues ___________ . Other people argue ___________ . The author refutes these ideas by saying ___________ . His/her conclusion is ___________ . How Often Do You Mention the Author? While you don't have to use an author tag in every sentence, you need to be clear when you are giving ideas that are taken from the article, and when you are saying your own ideas. In general, you want to be sure that you always use the author's name and the article title when you start summarizing, and that you use the author's last name in the last sentence as well to make it clear you are still talking about the author's ideas.

In a research paper, you would then put a parenthetical citation or footnote, which tells the reader you are finished using that source. Men and Women in Conversation: Example response essay to Deborah Tannen's article about City Virginia Budget Essay, how divorce can be prevented if people learn the communication signals of the opposite plots, gender. Response Essay about Getting a Tattoo: Responds to a personal experience article from the New York Times about a man who gets a dragon tattoo. The Year that Changed Everything: Sample paper written by of Alexandria, Budget Fiscal Year Essay, a college English class about an article by Lance Morrow suggesting that three lesser-known events of 1948 had a great impact on history. How is this written? Who is the audience? Is it effectively written for that audience? If you've done a literary analysis, you can apply what you know about analyzing literature to schild analyzing other texts.

You will want to consider what is effective and ineffective. You will analyze what the author does that works and what doesn't work to support the author's point and persuade the audience to agree. Sometimes, especially when you're just getting started writing, the task of fitting a huge topic into an essay may feel daunting and you may not know where to start. It may help you to use a thing called TRACE when talking about the rhetorical situation. TRACE stands for Text, Reader, Author, Context, and Exigence: Text , Reader , and Author are easy to understand. When writing the analysis, you need to think about what kind of text it is and what the author wanted to have the audience think, do, or believe. Human Cloning Trials Essay! The main question your analysis will answer is, How effective was the author at convincing that particular audience? Context means several things: how the article fits into the history of discussion of that issue, the historical moment in plots, time when the Human article is written, and plots the moment in time when a person reads the article. In this context, Exigence is synonymous with assumptions, bias, or worldview.

Breaking the large idea down into these five parts may help you get started and organize your ideas. In your paper, you'll probably want to The World's First National Park. Essay address from schild plots three to all five of these elements. Each of the following elements can be one paragraph of Listening Journey, your analysis. You can answer the questions to help you generate ideas for each paragraph. Schild! To make it easier, I've included the sparknotes last two TRACE elements (Context and Exigence) as part of Author and Reader. How is the essay organized? What is effective or ineffective about the schild plots organization of the Human essay? How does the author try to interest the reader? How well does the schild plots author explain the house sparknotes main claims? Are these arguments logical? Do the support and evidence seem adequate?

Is the support convincing to the reader? Does the evidence actually prove the point the author is schild plots trying to Human Essay make? Who is the author? What does he or she know about this subject? What is the author's bias? Is the bias openly admitted? Does that make his or her argument more or less believable? Does the author's knowledge and background make her or him reliable for this audience?

How does the schild plots author try to relate to the audience and establish common ground? Is it effective? How does the author interest the audience? Does she or he make the reader want to Trials Essay know more? Does the author explain enough about the history of this argument? Is anything left out? Who is the plots reader? How would they react to these arguments? How is City 2011 Essay this essay effective or ineffective for this audience? What constraints (prejudices or perspectives) would make this reader able to hear or not hear certain arguments? What is the exigence (events in this moment in schild plots, time which affect the need for this conversation) that makes the audience interested in this issue?

Michael Critchton's Let's Stop Scaring Ourselves argues that we are overdoing caution and fear. See my Sample Reading Response to this essay and Functional Literacy in High School Essay also check out Lisa Rayner and schild plots Don Fraizier's response. Text : Analyzing the text is very much like doing literary analysis, which many students have done before. Use all of Functional Literacy in High, your tools of schild, literary analysis, including looking at the metaphors, rhythm of sentences, construction of Human Cloning Trials, arguments, tone, style, and use of language. Example: The organization of essay title is effective/ineffective because ___________ . The essay's opening causes the reader to ___________ . The essay's style is ___________ and the tone is schild shown by First National, ___________ . The language used is___________ . Schild! The essay's argument is constructed logically/illogically by ___________. The essay is organized by ___________ ( give a very brief description of the structure of the essay, perhaps telling where the description of the problem is, where claims are made, and where support is Listening Journey locatedin which paragraphsand why this is effective or ineffective in proving the schild point ). Author: Youve probably also analyzed how the authors life affects his or her writing. You can do the same for this sort of analysis. For example, in my sample reading the response about Michael Crichton's Let's Stop Scaring Ourselves article, students noted that the fact that Crichton is the author of doomsday thrillers like Andromeda Strain and Jurassic Park makes his argument that we shouldn't pay much attention to current doomsday scenarios like global warming rather ironic. If you don't know anything about the of Alexandria, Virginia Budget Fiscal Year 2011 author, you can always do a quick Google Search to schild find out.

Sample format: The author establishes his/her authority by sparknotes, ___________ . The author's bias is shown in schild, ___________ . The author assumes an audience who ___________ . Park. Essay! He/She establishes common ground with the audience by ___________ . Reader: You can write this section by schild, inferring who the intended reader is, as well as looking at the text from the viewpoint of other sorts of readers. For example, Readers are interested in this issue because of the exigence of ___________. Functional In High! Constraints on the reader's reaction are ___________. I think the reader would react to this argument by schild plots, ___________. I think that the author's ___________ is effective. ___________ is Listening Journey less effective because ___________ includes ___________. The support is adequate/inadequate and plots is relevant/irrelevant to Functional Literacy School the authors claim. What do you think? Does this article persuade you?

Generally, your response will be the end of your essay, but you may include your response throughout the schild plots paper as you select what to a doll house summarize and analyze. Your response will also be evident to schild plots the reader by the tone that you use and Essay the words you select to talk about the article and writer. However, your response in the conclusion will be more direct and schild plots specific. It will use the information you have already provided in your summary and Functional Literacy School Students analysis to explain how you feel about this article. Most of the time, your response will fall into one of the following categories: You will agree with the author and back your agreement up with logic or personal experience. You will disagree with the plots author because of your experience or knowledge (although you may have sympathy with the author's position). You will agree with part of the in High Students author's points and plots disagree with others. You will agree or disagree with the author but feel that there is a more important or different point which needs to be discussed in addition to City Virginia Fiscal 2011 Essay what is in the article. How will this article fit into your own paper? How will you be able to use it?

Here are some questions you can answer to help you think about plots, your response: What is your personal reaction to the essay? What common ground do you have with the author? How are your experiences the City of Alexandria, Budget Fiscal Year same or different from the author's and how has your experience influenced your view? What in schild plots, the essay is Virginia Budget 2011 new to you? Do you know of any information the article left out that is relevant to the topic? What in this essay made you re-think your own view? What does this essay make you think about?

What other writing, life experience, or information would help you think about this article? What do you like or dislike about the essay and/or the ideas in the essay? How much of your response is related to your personal experience? How much is schild related to your own worldview? How is this feeling related to the information you know? How will this information be useful for you in writing your own essay? What position does this essay support? Or where might you use this article in your essay?

You can use your answers to the questions above to help you formulate your response. A Doll House! Here is a sample of how you can put this together into your own essay (for more sample essays, see the plots links above): Before reading this article, my understanding of this topic was ___________. House Sparknotes! In my own experience, I have found ___________ and because of this, my reaction to this essay is ___________. Interestingly, I have ___________ as common ground with the author/audience . What was new to me is ___________. This essay makes me think ___________. I like/dislike ___________ in the essay. I will use this article in plots, my research essay for The World's First, ___________. Summary Analysis Response to Men and Women in Conversation.

by Virginia Kearney 7. Summary, Analysis, Response Essay Example. by Virginia Kearney 0. Reading Response Sample Paper on Why We Crave Horror Movies by Virginia Kearney 6. How to schild plots Write a Proposal Essay/Paper.

by Laura Writes 40. 100 Argument or Position Essay Topics with Sample Essays. by Virginia Kearney 37. 100 Science Topics for Research Papers. by Virginia Kearney 108. Virginia Kearney 2 weeks ago from United States. Hi Cathy, I tell my students that you want to of Symbolism the Purpose of Bradbury’s Fahrenheit include the examples you need to make your point clear, but you don't want to schild plots summarize everything. Hello, Thank you so much for your guide.

Is it necessary to include the author's examples in an analytical argumentative essay? Virginia Kearney 6 weeks ago from United States. Rodsy, I'm so glad that this has helped you. Listening Journey! I hope you will continue to use my other guides and schild sample papers to complete your other projects. Rodsy Karim Taseen 6 weeks ago.

Thank you so much for of Symbolism to Support Fahrenheit 451, making it easy. Now I along with my group members can complete our assignment on writing summary on different research papers, based on schild, the filed of Budget Year, International Business. Thank you so much! I really appreciate the effort put into your work. :) this will really help me now and in future. Virginia Kearney 4 months ago from United States. Hi, Chloe! It would depend in part what sort of assignment you've been given. Generally, in doing a summary, you do not need to put the information exactly in the same order as the plots original paper.

The important thing in summarizing is that you actually understand the information clearly enough that you can put it into your own words. I'm guessing that with the Essay title, the article has a number of plots, reasons why we should allow the drugs. School Essay! If the schild plots reasons can be grouped, into 3-4 types of reasons, that would be your best organization technique. For example, I can image that the reasons to allow performance enhancing drugs are probably: We can't prevent athletes from getting around the rules. We have better athletic contests if we allow drugs. We don't have the Virginia Year 2011 right to plots tell athletes what they are doing with their own bodies. I'm not sure what your article says, but I'm guessing that you could group the reasons around a few themes and National Park. organize your summary that way. hi there, i am doing a science report on Why we should allow performance enhancing drugs in sport and the article has 12 subheadings and i am supposed to summarize all of them.

What structure would i put the paragraphs in so it isn't just random information summarizing the subsections, and i have an actual format to follow? Thank you :) Virginia Kearney 4 months ago from United States. Hi, Brad! You are probably needing one of schild, my other articles if you are doing an argumentative essay. Listening Journey! When you do an argument, you actually need to have a main claim that you want to persuade your audience to believe.

The analysis part of plots, that sort of essay means that you evaluate the pros and cons of other ideas about that claim. I don't use the term analytical argumentative essay in my class but I do teach this same idea. I call it persuasive essay, or argument essay and I have several articles that tell you how to write that sort of City of Alexandria, Virginia Budget, essay. Schild Plots! Look at the links to the side or search for them on Letterpile using my name. Would this be considered an house outline for an analytical Argumentative essay? Virginia Kearney 5 months ago from United States.

Hi--If you are doing a summary, analysis, and schild response, then you do it the same as we've described here except that you would summarize the story and then analyze whether it was told effectively and finally give a response. If you are actually talking about writing a narrative paper about something that happened to you, you need to see my article on How to Write a Reflective Essay with Sample Essays. Search for it on Letterpile or on my profile page. cletusoe12 @gmail.com 5 months ago. How can I write a story of Human Essay, a personal encounter in an accident. In narrative essay. Please can you give me example? Virginia Kearney 6 months ago from schild United States. Hi Mimi--In the response section, you can explain how you are going to use that article in your research paper. You might want to see my article on How to do an Annotated Bibliography, which also includes a sample. Virginia Kearney 6 months ago from United States.

Glad this is Literacy Students helpful to you Flor. I am not currently doing online tutoring but it is interesting for you to ask this because I've been considering setting up a website with videos and some live instruction help. what a great way to explain you have used here. Are you interested in doing tutoring online? I would love to have the opportunity to be tutor by you.

Hello, I am actually working on three articles and my supervisor asked to make a summary including analysis.But what I would like to schild plots know how can I show that these three articles are related to Human Cloning Trials Essay my future research paper?how can I analyze them?can you please help me? I love the way this website gives steps and examples. I love how you can distinguish all of this into your on understanding. All of this explaining is a great source for anything. You have to love everything about this site. Schild Plots! This is the best.

Virginia Kearney 9 months ago from United States. Hi Brianna--If you are doing a summary of an article, then I would do that first. If you are not responding to a particular article, then you should give a summary of the situation around this law and the different sides of the argument. First National Park.! Then pose a question which is schild plots interesting to you. Your response will be more interesting if you go beyond just the idea of whether this is good or bad. Here are some ideas: Is this an effective strategy for pro-life groups to use? Does just raising the issue of burial change the conversation about Cloning Trials Essay, abortion? Should women considering abortion have to think about burying their baby?

How can I come up with a theme for my response paper. I am responding to the Texas new law that requires burial for aborted fetuses. Any ideas? Virginia Kearney 9 months ago from United States. Thanks for letting me know Seza!

This type of essay is schild not very well explained in many textbooks and that is Cloning Trials Essay what led me to write these instructions and ask my students to post examples. Since I've been using these instructions, I've found my students do a much better job at plots, writing these kinds of essays, which is important because the thinking you do while writing these essays is Trials what prepares you for plots, doing good research. This post has been of of Alexandria, Virginia Budget Fiscal Year 2011, great help for plots, me and my friends. Thank you very much. Excellent lesson. It helped me with reviewing summarizing with some of my students who were still having difficulty. I especially liked the chart. However, please change adjective to Human Cloning adverbs. Thanks for schild plots, the information. Very good insight on analysis description.

I want to thank you for your time and effort in helping people be all they can be. Keep up the great work. Virginia Kearney 12 months ago from United States. Thanks Singapore! I love the fact that what I write and use to teach has helped people all over the world. I'm approaching 8 million views now!

Thanks from Singapore! It's for literature :) Virginia Kearney 12 months ago from United States. Thanks Simon! I've done a lot of Listening Journey Essay, writing over the years and I enjoy experimenting with different styles. I like the schild plots style of your post writing.

It's very rare to find something like this. This my second semester in the university and I have to write. Analysis essay I find your site very helpful for me. Really thank you. Virginia Kearney 16 months ago from United States. Hi Ercan! Since I started writing online in 2008, I've been amazed to see people from all over the world reading my work and being helped by the information I've developed for to Support the Purpose of Bradbury’s 451, my students at college here in the United States. Having had students from many other countries in schild plots, my own classroom, I know that sometimes they have not gotten much instruction from native English speakers.

I am glad to be able to provide help for City Virginia Fiscal Year Essay, free to improve student's written English. Ercan Oztoktay 16 months ago. Thanks so much from plots turkey. My first time to Journey Essay write a summary of a 4-page research paper, this useful article really helped me, thanks :) I don't know why I should go to school. This is the right place. It's helping me in my English composition 2 class.thank you.

Virginia Kearney 22 months ago from United States. Hi Ed, I'm not sure what your instructor means by schild plots, writing with authority. They may mean they want you to house sparknotes quote reliable, authoritative sources. In speech, we show authority by using declarative sentences which tell people what to do, such as, Be sure you write clear sentences using concrete adjectives and vivid adverbs. I suggest you ask your instructor for some examples of plots, what they want you to do.

Hello Professor Lynne. I have to write an essay with authority, can you advise me why type of a doll sparknotes, words I can use to show my point? By the plots way the topic is dealing Information Technology. Virginia Kearney 2 years ago from United States. Thanks yakul for your comment.

As a writer, I know I am always learning and improving too! Matty Fernandez 2 years ago from Passaic, NJ. I have to turn in a summary page for Critical Thinking. You've helped me lots! Please follow me. Christy Maria 2 years ago. I am a student in a doll house, University right now and I have to schild plots write response papers so often. This article is extremely useful for me so im going to make sure to save it and look back on it when I have my next paper due! Thankyou. Najat 2 years ago from Rottherdam - NL. i like your hub, great sharing, i love the Essay instructions.

greeting from Hijama. Virginia Kearney 2 years ago from United States. Aesta--glad to know this helped you. My class is structured so that my students have to plan before they write, and schild plots then get feedback from peers before re-writing. Many of them don't like that process because they want to get it all done in one sitting, but after they have gone through this process for a semester, they begin to realize that stopping to organize their thoughts first often means that the writing goes much more quickly.

In the end, it takes less time! Mary Norton 2 years ago from Ontario, Canada. Enjoyed reading your hub as it is really well written and very substantial. I need to digest this information and start applying this in my work. I often just write spontaneously, no outline, and I organize this after. Armed with these questions to ask as I write, maybe I can really put substance into my random thoughts. Lloyd Jenkins 3 years ago.

This was great information, it will help me in my English class this semester. The Significance Of Symbolism Of Bradbury’s Fahrenheit! Organization is plots key in City Virginia Budget Year, writing a good summary and response. Virginia Kearney 3 years ago from United States. Organised Kaos--do you really live in Tasmania? That seems like a fairy tale place to me. Schild Plots! Of course, as I write that, I realize that the places I've lived, Southern California, Texas and Florida may seem like fairy tale places to of Symbolism the Purpose of Bradbury’s Fahrenheit 451 people in other parts of the world! Good luck on your college career.

I went back to schild graduate school after 10 years of working and found that I enjoyed going to school so very much more than I had when I was younger. I actually enjoyed the chance to The World's First Park. learn things. As a professor, I really enjoy having students like yourself because their life experiences make their writing much more interesting. Plots! Actually, that reminds me that last semester I had a student from Australia who was older because he had been a professional Rugby player for First, several years before coming to the U.S. to go to schild plots college and play American football. The whole class enjoyed all of his experiences and I'm sure your classmates will enjoy yours too. Anne 3 years ago from Hobart, Tasmania. Australia.(The little bit broken off the bottom of Journey Essay, AUS) Thanks for a great hub. Just about to go back to plots college after 20 years and am a little nervous about having forgotten this kinda stuff.

Will be following you too as I want to of Alexandria, Virginia Fiscal Year 2011 be able to refer at a later date, back to your instruction. Virginia Kearney 3 years ago from United States. How interesting Maddie--thanks for letting me know. My husband is a scientist and I love doing technology and science papers with my class in schild, the second semester. I will have to National think about doing some more topic ideas for science classes. I'm doing this for science. Anarkali Suits 4 years ago. “Words can be like X-rays if you use them properly -- they’ll go through anything. You read and you’re pierced.” This page is a great method to connect to others. Schild! Congratulations on a job well achieved.

I am anticipating your next. Virginia Kearney 5 years ago from United States. B. Leekley--absolutely! I'm so glad that you recognized that responsive reading doesn't just have to be to texts. Anything that provides us something to think about can be put into School Essay, a responsive reading. You've reminded me that I need to add my own Hub which responded to a Harvard Study on the effect of going to 4th of schild, July celebrations to my links. Brian Leekley 5 years ago from School Students Essay Kalamazoo, Michigan, USA. Thank you for this interesting and helpful hub.

I have bookmarked it. Schild Plots! I can foresee myself writing hubs that are responses to hubs that argue for a philosophical or political position. Virginia Kearney 5 years ago from Listening Journey United States. I'm glad! I'm just now grading my student's Summary, Analysis and Response essays and I'm so pleased that they have really understood how to schild do this paper. I'm hoping my directions this semester have been clearer. We did two days of peer editing, which I think helped. This paper is similar to the Reading Response paper, and both of these Hubs are are the very top in number of hits, so I think that many people have trouble on of Symbolism to Support the Purpose Fahrenheit, these essays and the textbooks don't always describe them well. Many thanks Virginia..you made things a lot simpler for me!

Virginia Kearney 5 years ago from United States. johnsdfd--good question. Yes--I should add that to the hub. You do a bibliographic entry in either mla or apa style at the top, then the plots summary/analysis/response is Listening Journey Essay below. htodd 5 years ago from United States. Great post virginialynne..Thanks. Virginia Kearney 5 years ago from United States. Glad I helped you nico!

My class is just starting on this essay now and so I was looking at schild plots, my Hubviews and very surprised to find this one had over 3,000! I really published it for First Essay, my own classes, but the class I'm teaching now is the first one that will use it. Guess there are a lot of other people out there needing help! Virginia Kearney 6 years ago from United States. Thanks! I think that a lot of the instructions given for essays really don't help you know how to organize them. I've actually learned a lot about writing by trying to figure out how to teach other people!

Rose Clearfield 6 years ago from Milwaukee, Wisconsin. Well written. I like how you break everything down. Copyright 2017 HubPages Inc. and respective owners. Other product and company names shown may be trademarks of schild plots, their respective owners. HubPages ® is Functional Essay a registered Service Mark of HubPages, Inc.

HubPages and Hubbers (authors) may earn revenue on schild plots, this page based on affiliate relationships and advertisements with partners including Amazon, Google, and Essay others. Copyright 2017 HubPages Inc. and respective owners.

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Introduction: Tell #8217;em what youre gonna tell em. Introduce the plots, topic and briefly outline the points youre going to make in your essay in the order you#8217;re going to write about them. If the Human Cloning Trials Essay, essay is meant to argue a point, your teen should make it clear in the introduction what their argument/point of view is. Schild? Body Paragraphs: Tell em. At high school an essay will usually have 3-5 paragraphs. Of Alexandria, Fiscal Year 2011 Essay? Each paragraph contains its own main point that contributes to the overall theme or argument of the essay. (These paragraphs follow their own structure see tip # 2) Conclusion: Tell em what you told em. Schild? Sum up what the essay was about. 2. Each body paragraph must have a proper structure. Not only does the essay as a whole need structure, each paragraph needs to Listening Essay meet certain requirements.

S = Statement: This is the main point of the paragraph. Schild Plots? What part of the film is being discussed and what did it mean to the film? What was important about an historical event and Cloning Trials how did it affect later events? Basically, whats the plots, point youre about to discuss in National Essay this paragraph. E = Explanation: Explain what you said in your statement. Tell the reader why your statement is true. Why did the setting reflect how the main character was feeling?

In what way did the weather affect the plots, outcome of the battle? This part should make up the bulk of the paragraph. X = eXample Give an example! A quote, an example, a fact. Something concrete that gives evidence to your statement. House Sparknotes? I = Importance Why is the schild plots, point youve made in this paragraph important? What does it mean to City Year the story, or the film, or the event? Tell the reader why it matters. This one might not always be applicable, but if you can then go for it. 3. Every essay needs an essay plan. You wouldnt go on a road trip without a map and essays are just the same.

Before your teen starts writing an essay they should make a quick plan of what theyre going to schild write about. Human Cloning Essay? An essay plan does not have to be a big thing. Plots? Not at all. It only house takes a few minutes but will save your teen SO much time overall. Essay plans instantly give an essay structure, they prevent you from forgetting to include any important points, and schild plots they prevent you from losing your way as you write. An essay plan can be quickly scribbled in Journey Essay a margin, or the first page of an exam book that isnt marked.

Here is an example of the way I would do an plots essay plan before I started writing. (It#8217;s for the film The Matrix #8230;) Essay Plan Example. Each of the The World's, three #8216;fingers#8217; coming off each paragraph make up #8216;SEXI#8217;. I haven#8217;t done the #8216;I#8217; part, but within each paragraph I would try and emphasize why this point was important to the setting of the film. Every time your teen writes an essay, whether it#8217;s just for practise or in an exam, they need to jot down the points that are going to fill their SEXI for each paragraph. Plots? The detail that they list here means they dont have to Functional Literacy Essay worry about forgetting anything important while theyre writing. This depends on what situation the schild plots, essay is being written in. If its being written for Literacy in High School Students Essay, homework and your teen doesnt have the time pressure of an exam, it can be a good idea to go and do something else for a while once theyve finished writing. You know when you come back to look at something youve written and you see all the little mistakes you didnt notice before? This is schild plots, why. Your teen should check that the paragraphs are written in a logical order.

Simply put does the a doll, essay make sense? Does each paragraph follows SEXI? Get them to read their essay aloud (or in schild plots their head) so they can see how it flows (or doesnt as it may be). If the essay is First National, being written in an exam your teen won#8217;t have the plots, luxury of time. A Doll House Sparknotes? So the number one rule here is: stay until the schild plots, end! While it may seem like eternity to a high school student, exams arent actually that long. And a few minutes of proof reading can often make the Virginia Fiscal Year 2011, difference between one grade and another. Its worth staying right to the end. Writing essays can be practised! Many students go through a whole year at school and only do one or two practice essays (that they were forced to do).

They may know the subject backwards, but if they dont know how to write a good essay then theyre screwed. Make sure your teen includes practice essays as part of their exam preparation. Getting a hold of past exams and using them to practise is a great idea. If you can then have a read of their work yourself thats fantastic. They might need an adult eye to pick up something thats not quite right. Even better, get your teen to ask their teacher to mark it. Most teachers would love an interested student to ask them to mark a practice essay! If you think your teen would benefit from exam tips, including how to write fantastic exam essays, it might be worth checking out schild, our Exam Survival Package. You can read what other parents have said about it here.

Was this helpful? Similar articles: This is a great article! I love it for its succinctness and think it would make a great poster in a high school classroom! I forwarded it to The Significance to Support of Bradbury’s all three of my kids! i looooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooved this article. it really helped me making an essay in my 5th grade class and guess what I got a 4 by just remebering these tips! I am in fifth grade And I have to write an essay in an hour and a half tomorrow.

This really helped me understand and I will post my grade when I am informed of it. Thank you so much for schild plots, the tips and I will be sure yo use them on a doll house my essay. Dear Clare and Chris: I#8217;m a Mexican teacher of English as a foreign language and I#8217;m constantly searching for schild, guidance to improve my teaching. I teach a preparation course for the FCE by Cambridge. Essay? I truly appreciate your generosity to share these great guidelines.. I live in Merida, Yucatan. Schild? That is the Yucatan peninsula, just 3 hour drive from of Alexandria, Virginia Year Essay, Cancun.

I#8217;d love to be of any help if you ever plan on travelling down here. This article has helped me a lot because I#8217;ve been trying to write a 1000 word essay due at school and hadn#8217;t started but I did an essay plan and that has helped me a lot. Plots? Thanks. tell em about sexi. The Study Gurus says. A Doll House? Thanks so much for your feedback Lisa!

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Now i understand what SEXI means in essay writing. Thanks fr the wonderful information. Functional Literacy School Essay? This is fantastic. My children, 12 and 9, found this very useful as booster for their previous knowledge. Thanks for this good work. Please continue.

But you do not get enough time to schild make a structure plan in Listening Essay the exam#8230;. Is there any alternative for schild, that#8230;?? I would be waiting for an example. Hi there, we hope that this article has given a few simple tips on how your son should do about writing a good essay. Functional In High School? You can check out all of our posts on schild essay writing here. Our Exam Survival Package also has a great video on writing essays in exams. In High Students? Plus there are hundreds of other tips all centered around getting fantastic exam results in the videos too! Check it out here. This is a great resource very informative and plots accessible!

A small grammar gripe you misuse practice (noun)/practise (verb) throughout and of Symbolism to Support the Purpose of Bradbury’s 451 the title doesn#8217;t need an apostrophe. Writing essays should be practised! Actually, the apostrophe is okay. Thank you for this outline. Hi Erin, thanks for your comments! Yes thank you for pointing out the schild plots, practice/practise error. This article is Trials, a few years old now and I#8217;ve since been schooled on the difference between the two, but I don#8217;t believe they distinguish between the schild, two in the US, so someone is always going to think that I am wrong #128578; [#8230;] While a school essay is of Bradbury’s Fahrenheit, not the same as writing for a business or website, I wanted to recommend this great blog post I just read about writing school essays. [#8230;] [#8230;] You can help your teen make their writing simpler and more like a straight-A students by helping them plan their essays. [#8230;] [#8230;] may not understand how to apply what they have learnt in class to the essay format, or how to structure an essay, or how to structure paragraphs or sentences, or how to schild plots convey what they understand about the topic to the reader in a clear and concise [#8230;] Also get our free 2-week email course and study articles sent to your inbox. Everything we know about exam study in one digital package. Does your teen struggle with math?

We explain how to study high school's most hated subject. City Essay? Motivation and Procrastination Package. Is a lack of motivation holding your teen back? We want to help you help your teenager succeed academically, at schild plots, school and of Alexandria, Virginia Fiscal 2011 Essay beyond.

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contrastive essay Literary Terms and Definitions: C. This page is under perpetual construction! It was last upda ted January 5, 2017. CACOPHONY (Greek, bad sound): The term in poetry refers to schild the use of words that combine sharp, harsh, hissing, or unmelodious sounds. It is the opposite of euphony . CADEL (Dutch cadel and/or French cadeau , meaning a gift; a little something extra): A small addition or extra item added to an initial letter. Common cadels include pen-drawn faces or grotesques. First Essay! Examples include the plots faces appearing in the initial letters of the First Essay Lansdowne 851 manuscript of Chaucer's Canterbury Tales . CADENCE : The melodic pattern just before the end of a sentence or phrase--for instance an interrogation or an exhortation. Plots! More generally, the natural rhythm of language depending on the position of stressed and unstressed syllables.

Cadence is a major component of individual writers' styles. A cadence group is a coherent group of The Significance to Support the Purpose of Bradbury’s 451 words spoken as a single rhythmical unit, such as a prepositional phrase, of schild parting day or a noun phrase, our inalienable rights. CADENCE GROUP : See discussion under cadence . CAESURA (plural: caesurae ): A pause separating phrases within lines of poetry--an important part of poetic rhythm . The term caesura comes from the Latin a cutting or a slicing. Some editors will indicate a caesura by inserting a slash (/) in the middle of a poetic line. Others insert extra space in this location. Others do not indicate the caesura typographically at Journey Essay, all. CALQUE : An expression formed by individually translating parts of a longer foreign expression and then combining them in a way that may or may not make literal sense in the new language. Algeo provides the example of the English phrase trial balloon , which is a calque for the French ballon d'essai (Algeo 323).

CALLIGRAPHIC WORK : In medieval manuscripts, this is (as Kathleen Scott states), Decorative work, usually developing from schild plots, or used to make up an important or introductory initial, or developing from ascenders at Listening Essay, the top of the page and descenders at plots, the bottom of the justified text; a series of strokes made by holding a quill constant at one angle to produce broader and narrower lines, which in combination appear to The Significance of Symbolism of Bradbury’s overlap one another to form strap-work (Scott 370). CANCEL : A bibliographical term referring to a leaf which is plots, substituted for one removed by the printers because of an of Alexandria, Budget Fiscal Year 2011 Essay error. For instance, the first quarto of plots Shakespeare's Troilus and Cressida has a title page existing in both cancelled and uncancelled states, leaving modern readers in some doubt as to whether the Students Essay play should be considered a comedy, history, or tragedy. CANON (from Grk kanon , meaning reed or measuring rod): Canon has three general meanings. Schild Plots! (1) An approved or traditional collection of works. Originally, the term canon applied to the list of books to be included as authentic biblical doctrine in the Hebrew and Christian Bible, as opposed to Trials Essay apocryphal works (works of dubious, mysterious or uncertain origin). Click here for more information. (2) Today, literature students typically use the word canon to refer to those works in anthologies that have come to be considered standard or traditionally included in the classroom and published textbooks. Schild! In this sense, the Virginia Year 2011 Essay canon denotes the entire body of literature traditionally thought to be suitable for admiration and study. (3) In addition, the word canon refers to the writings of an schild author that scholars generally accepted as genuine products of said author, such as the Chaucer canon or the Shakespeare canon. Chaucer's canon includes The Canterbury Tales , for instance, but it does not include the apocryphal work, The Plowman's Tale, which has been mistakenly attributed to him in the past. Likewise, the Shakespearean canon has only two apocryphal plays ( Pericles and house the Two Noble Kinsmen ) that have gained wide acceptance as authentic Shakespearean works beyond the thirty-six plays contained in the First Folio. NB : Do not confuse the spelling of cannon (the big gun) with canon (the official collection of plots literary works).

The issue of canonical literature is a thorny one. Traditionally, those works considered canonical are typically restricted to dead white European male authors. Many modern critics and teachers argue that women, minorities, and non-Western writers are left out of the literary canon unfairly. Additionally, the canon has always been determined in part by philosophical biases and Functional in High School Essay political considerations. In response, some critics suggest we do away with a canon altogether, while others advocate enlarging or expanding the existing canon to achieve a more representative sampling. CANTICLE : A hymn or religious song using words from any part of the Bible except the Psalms. CANTO : A sub-division of an epic or narrative poem comparable to a chapter in schild, a novel. Examples include the Listening Essay divisions in Dante's Divine Comedy , Lord Byron's Childe Harold , or Spenser's Faerie Queene . Cf. fit . CANZONE : In general, the plots term has three meanings. First National Essay! (1) It refers generally to the words of a Provençal or Italian song. (2) More specifically, an Italian or Provençal song relating to love or the praise of beauty is a canzone. (3) Poems in English that bear some similarity to Provençal lyrics are called canzones --such as Auden's unrhymed poem titled Canzone, which uses the end words of the first twelve-line stanza in each of the following stanzas.

CAPTIVITY NARRATIVE : A narrative, usually autobiographical in origin, concerning colonials or settlers who are captured by Amerindian or aboriginal tribes and live among them for some time before gaining freedom. Schild Plots! An example would be Mary Rowlandson's A Narrative of the The Significance to Support the Purpose of Bradbury’s Captivity and Restauration of Mrs. Schild Plots! Mary Rowlandson , which details her Indian captivity among the Wampanoag tribe in City of Alexandria, Year 2011, the late seventeenth century. Contrast with escape literature and schild plots slave narrative . CARDINAL VIRTUES (also called the Four Pagan Virtues ): In contrast to the three spiritual or Christian virtues of of Alexandria, Budget Fiscal Year fides (faith), spes (hope), and caritas (love) espoused in the New Testament, the four cardinal virtues consisted of prudence, temperance, fortitude, and justice. Schild! Theologians like Saint Augustine argued Christians alone monopolized faith in a true God, hope of a real afterlife, and the ability to Virginia 2011 Essay love human beings not for schild, their own sake, but as a manifestation of Cloning Essay God's creation. Schild Plots! However, these early theologians argued that pagans could still be virtuous in the cardinal virtues, the old values of the Roman Empire before the coming of Christianity. In Latin terminology, pagan Rome espoused the four cardinal virtues as follows:

The Latin four-fold classification--later adopted by Saint Augustine and Saint Thomas Aquinas--originates in much older Greek philosophy. In The Republic , Plato uses similar virtues as a way to dissect the roles different citizens would play in an ideal state. Cf. pietas . Cf. Seven Deadly Sins . CARET (Lat., it lacks): Also called a wedge , an up-arrow , or a hat , this editorial mark looks much the Greek letter lambda or an arrowhead pointing upwards. Here is an example: ^ . An editor will write a caret underneath a line of Listening Journey Essay text to indicate that a word, letter, or punctuation mark needs insertion at the spot where the two lines converge. CARMEN : (Lat. song or poem): The generic Latin term for a song or poem--especially a love-song or love-poem. After Ovid was banished to Tomis by the Emperor in the year 8 AD, he wrote that his crime was carmen et error (a song and a mistake). This has led some scholars to wonder if his scandalous poem The Ars Amatoria (The Art of Love) may have invoked the wrath of Emperor Augustus whose Julian Marian laws sought to curb adultery and illicit sexuality.

CARPE DIEM : Literally, the phrase is Latin for schild, seize the day, from carpere (to pluck, harvest, or grab) and the accusative form of die (day). The term refers to a common moral or theme in classical literature that the reader should make the most out of life and should enjoy it before it ends. Poetry or literature that illustrates this moral is often called poetry or literature of the carpe diem tradition. Examples include Marvell's To His Coy Mistress, and First Park. Essay Herrick's To the Virgins, to Make Much of Time. Schild Plots! Cf. A Doll House! Anacreontics , Roman Stoicism , Epicureanism , transitus mundi , and the ubi sunt motif. CASE : The inflectional form of a noun, pronoun, or (in some languages) adjective that shows how the word relates to plots the verb or to other nouns of the Functional Literacy in High School Students Essay same clause. For instance, them is the objective case of they , and their is the possessive case of plots they . Common cases include the nominative, the accusative, the genitive, the dative, the ablative, the vocative, and the instrumental forms.

Patterns of Literacy in High School Students particular endings added to words to indicate their case are called declensions . Click here for expanded information. CASTE DIALECT : A dialect spoken by specific hereditary classes in schild plots, a society. Often the use of caste dialect marks the speaker as part of that particular class. For instance, a dalit or untouchable is the a doll house lowest caste in the Indian Hindu caste system while a brahmin is the highest caste. Although the schild plots two groups may frequently share a common language, they each also have specialized vocabulary and speech mannerisms that to First Essay a native speaker may quickly advertise their social background. CATACHRESIS (Grk. misuse): A completely impossible figure of speech or an implied metaphor that results from plots, combining other extreme figures of speech such as anthimeria , hyperbole , synaesthesia , and metonymy . The results in each case are so unique that it is hard to state a general figure of speech that embodies all of the possible results. It is a doll sparknotes, far easier to plots give examples. For instance, Hamlet says of Gertrude, I will speak daggers to her.

A man can speak words, but no one can literally speak daggers. House! In spite of that impossibility, readers know Shakespeare means Hamlet will address Gertrude in a painful, contemptuous way. In pop music from the 1980s, the schild plots performer Meatloaf tells a disappointed lover, There ain't no Coup de Ville hiding the a doll bottom of plots a crackerjack box. The image of a luxury car hidden as a prize in the bottom of house sparknotes a tiny cardboard candybox emphasizes how unlikely or impossible it is his hopeful lover will find such a fantastic treasure in someone as cheap, common, and unworthy as the plots speaker in these lyrics. Sometimes the catachresis results from stacking one impossibility on top of another. Consider these examples: There existed a void inside that void within his mind. Joe will have kittens when he hears this! I will sing victories for you. A man that studies revenge keeps his own wounds green.--Bacon I do not ask much: / I beg cold comfort. Listening Journey! --Shakespeare, ( King John 5.7.41) His complexion is schild, perfect gallows--Shakespeare, ( Tempest 1.1.33) And that White Sustenance--Despair--Dickinson The Oriel Common Room stank of logic --Cardinal Newman O, I could lose all Father now--Ben Jonson, on the death of his seven-year old son. The voice of your eyes is deeper than all roses --e.e. cummings.

For a more recent example, consider the disturbingly cheerful pop song by Foster the People, Pumped Up Kicks, which deals with a school shooting. Here, the shooter/narrator thinks, I've waited for a long time. Yeah, the sleight of Functional Literacy Students my hand is now a quick-pull trigger. Plots! / I reason with my cigarette. One can reason with induction or deduction, but how does one reason with a cigarette? Here, the catachresis might evoke the City of Alexandria, Budget 2011 idea of the cool kid using personal style instead of a persuasive argument, or it might evoke the schild imagery of torture--burning victims with a cigarette-butt to make one's point. This sort of evocative, almost nonsensical language is the heart of good catachresis. Other examples, in The Lord of the Rings, Tolkien uses catachresis to describe Legolas's disgusted outburst at encountering an Orc by asserting, 'Yrch!' siad Legolas, falling into his own tongue.' One call fall into Human Cloning Trials Essay, a pool of water or fall into a bed, but how does one fall into a language? As Milton so elegantly phrased it, catachresis is all about blind mouths. Such catachresis often results from hyperbole and schild synaesthesia . A special subtype of catachresis is Cloning Trials, abusio , a mixed metaphor that results when two metaphors collide. Schild Plots! For instance, one U. S. senator learned of an unlikely political alliance. The Significance Of Symbolism The Purpose 451! He is said to have exclaimed, Now that is a horse of a different feather.

This abusio is the schild result of house two metaphors. The first is the schild cliché metaphor comparing anything unusual to a horse of a different color. The second is the proverbial metaphor about First National Park. Essay, how birds of a feather flock together. However, by taking the two dead metaphors and schild plots combining them, the resulting image of a horse of a different feather truly emphasizes how bizarre and unlikely the The Significance to Support Fahrenheit 451 resulting political alliance was. Intentionally or not, the senator created an ungainly, unnatural animal that reflects the ungainly, unnatural coalition he condemned. Purists of languages often scrowl at abusio with good reason. Too commonly abusio is the result of plots sloppy writing, such as the history student who wrote the dreadful hand of totalitarianism watches all that goes on around it and growls at its enemies. (It would have been better to stick with a single metaphor and state the Park. eye of totalitarianism watches all that goes on around it and glares at schild plots, its enemies. We should leave out the mixed imagery of watchful hands growling at people; it's just stupid and inconsistent.) However, when used intentionally for Listening Journey, a subtle effect, abusio and catachresis can be powerful tools for originality. CATALECTIC : In poetry, a catalectic line is a truncated line in which one or more unstressed syllables have been dropped, especially in the final metrical foot. For instance, acephalous or headless lines are catalectic, containing one fewer syllable than would be normal for the line. For instance, Babette Deutsche notes the second line in this couplet from A. E. Housman is catalectic:

And if my ways are not as theirs, Let them mind their own affairs. On the other hand, in trochaic verse, the final syllable tends to be the truncated one, as Deutsche notes about the first two lines of Shelley's stanza: Music, when soft voices die, Vibrates in the memory-- Odours, when sweet violets sicken,

Live within the senses they quicken. The term catalectic contrasts with an acatalectic line, which refers to a normal line of poetry containing the expected number of syllables in each line, or a hypercatalectic line, which has one or more extra syllables than would normally be expected. CATALEXIS : Truncation of schild plots a poetic line--i.e., in poetry, a catalectic line is shortened or truncated so that unstressed syllables drop from a line. Cloning Trials Essay! The act of plots such truncation is called catalexis. If catalexis occurs at the start of a line, that line is said to The Significance of Symbolism to Support the Purpose 451 be acephalous or headless.

See catalectic . CATALOGING : Creating long lists for poetic or rhetorical effect. The technique is common in schild plots, epic literature, where conventionally the poet would devise long lists of famous princes, aristocrats, warriors, and mythic heroes to be lined up in battle and house sparknotes slaughtered. The technique is also common in plots, the practice of giving illustrious genealogies (and so-and-so begat so-and-so, or x, son of y, son of z etc.) for famous individuals. An example in American literature is Whitman's multi-page catalog of of Symbolism the Purpose of Bradbury’s Fahrenheit 451 American types in section 15 of Song of Myself. An excerpt appears below: The pure contralto sings in the organ loft, The carpenter dresses his plank, the tongue of his foreplane whistles its wild ascending lisp, The married and unmarried children ride home to their Thanksgiving dinner, The pilot seizes the schild plots king-pin, he heaves down with a strong arm, The mate stands braced in the whale-boat, lance and harpoon are ready, The duck-shooter walks by silent and cautious stretches,

The deacons are ordained with crossed hands at the altar, The spinning-girl retreats and advances to the hum of the big wheel, The farmer stops by the bars as he walks on a First-day loaf and looks at the oats and rye, The lunatic is carried at last to house sparknotes the asylum a confirmed case. [etc.] One of the more humorous examples of cataloging appears in the Welsh Mabinogion . In one tale, Culhwch and Olwen, the protagonist invokes in an oath all the schild names of King Arthur's companion-warriors, giving lists of their unusual attributes or abilities running to six pages.

CATASTROPHE : The turning downward of the plot in a classical tragedy. By tradition, the Essay catastrophe occurs in the fourth act of the play after the climax. (See tragedy .) Freytag's pyramid illustrates visually the normal charting of the catastrophe in a plotline. CATCH : A lyric poem or song meant to be sung as a round, with the words arranged in each line so that the audience will hear a hidden (often humorous or ribald) message as the groups of singers sing their separate lyrics and space out the schild plots wording of the poem. For example, one might write a song in which the first line contained the words up, the word look appears in the middle of the third line, the word dress appears in First Essay, the second line, and the word her appears in schild plots, the middle of the fourth line. When the song or poem is sung as a round by Year 2011 Essay, four groups of singers, the word order and timing is schild, arranged so that the singers create the Cloning Trials hidden phrase look up her dress as they sing, to schild plots the amusement of the audience as they listen to an otherwise innocent set of lyrics. Robert Herrick's To the Virgins, to Listening Essay Make Much of Time is an example of a catch, and schild plots when William Lawes adapted the The World's First Park. poem to music for schild, Milton's masque Comus , it became one of the most popular drinking songs of the 1600s (Damrosche 844-45). CATCHWORD : This phrase comes from printing; it refers to a trick printers would use to keep pages in their proper order. Functional Literacy! The printer would print a specific word below the text at the bottom of a page. This word would match the first word on the next page. Schild! A printer could thus check the order by flipping quickly from one page to the next and making sure the catchword matched appropriately. This trick has been valuable to modern codicologists because it allows us to note missing pages that have been lost, misplaced, or censored.

CATHARSIS : An emotional discharge that brings about a moral or spiritual renewal or welcome relief from tension and anxiety. City Virginia Fiscal Year Essay! According to Aristotle, catharsis is the marking feature and ultimate end of any tragic artistic work. He writes in his Poetics (c. 350 BCE): Tragedy is an imitation of an action that is serious, complete, and schild plots of a certain magnitude; . . Functional In High School Students Essay! . through pity [ eleos ] and plots fear [ phobos ] effecting the the Purpose of Bradbury’s Fahrenheit 451 proper purgation [ catharsis ] of these emotions (Book 6.2). (See tragedy .) Click here to plots download a pdf handout concerning this material. CAVALIER : A follower of Charles I of England (ruled c. 1625-49) in his struggles with the Puritan-dominated parliament. The term is used in contrast with Roundheads , his Puritan opponents. Cavaliers were primarily wealthy aristocrats and courtiers.

They were famous for National, their long hair, fancy clothing, licentious or hedonistic behavior, and their support of the arts. Plots! See Cavalier drama and First Park. Essay Cavalier poets , below. Ultimately, Cromwell led the plots Roundheads in Human Essay, a coup d'état and established a Puritan dictatorship in England, leading to the end of the English Renaissance and its artistic, scientific, and cultural achievements. To see where Charles' reign fits in English history, you can download this PDF handout listing the reigns of English monarchs chronologically. CAVALIER DRAMA : A form of English drama comprising court plays that the Queen gave patronage to in the 1630s. Schild Plots! Most critics have been underimpressed with these plays, given that they are mostly unoriginal and written in sparknotes, a ponderous style. The Puritan coup d'état and the later execution of King Charles mercifully terminated the dramatic period, but unfortunately also ended their poetry, which was quite good in comparison. CAVALIER POETS : A group of Cavalier English lyric poets who supported King Charles I and wrote during his reign and who opposed the Puritans, his political enemies. The major Cavalier poets included Carew, Waller, Lovelace, Sir John Suckling, and Herrick. Schild Plots! They largely abandoned the sonnet form favored for Listening Journey Essay, a century earlier, but they still focused on the themes of love and sensuality and their work illustrates technical virtuosity as J. A. Cuddon put it (125). They show strong signs of Ben Jonson's influence.

CAVE, THE : Not to be confused with Plato's allegorical cave , this term is a nickname for a gathering of plots Tolkien and fellow Oxford English scholars in the 1930s before the Listening Journey Inklings formed. As Drout's J.R.R. Plots! Tolkien Encyclopedia summarizes the details, the name comes from I Samuel 22:1-2, where the Cave of Adullam became the place for David's conpiracies against King Saul, possibly implying that the members of the Cave at Oxford saw themselves as righteously subversive of the academic establishment. Members of the Cave included C.S. The Purpose 451! Lewis, J.R.R. Tolkien, Neville Coghill, Hugh Dyson, and Cleanth Brooks. They were distinguished scholars of various fields. Eventually, in 1933, C.S. Lewis's brother Warnie retired to Oxford after a bout with alcoholism and could not regularly make meetings at the Cave. C.S.

Lewis took it upon himself to raid the Cave for similarly-minded scholars to plots become a part of the new Inklings group (Lobdell cited in The World's Essay, Drout 88). Plots! Cf. Inklings and Cave, Plato's below. CAVE, PLATO'S : In Plato's Republic , Socrates, Plato, and several of their fellows debate the house sparknotes nature of plots ideal government. In the section on The World's First Park., education in this ideal Republic, they argue about the purpose of education. As part of Socrates' argument, the discussion veers into an allegory in which human existence is being trapped in schild plots, a cave of ignorance, chained in place and unable to view anything except shadows cast on the wall.

Some of those shadows are vague outlines of actual unseen truths beyond the Listening perception of the schild senses; others are false images deliberately designed to mislead the cave-dwellers, keeping them content and unquestioning. The purpose of education becomes freeing the imprisoned human and forcing him to leave the cave, to look at the actual objects that make the Human Cloning Trials shadows. Cf. Platonic Forms . While reading Plato's cave as an schild allegory of education is a common interpretation, some philosophers (especially medieval readers) often took a more mystical approach to the Greek text, interpreting the cave as the material or physical world, while the shadows were mere outline of a doll a greater spiritual truths--hidden and eternal beyond the physical world. C. S. Lewis coopts this idea in The Last Battle , in which the plots characters discover after death that Narnia has merely been a crude approximation of heaven, and the further they travel in the onion ring, the in High Students larger and more beautiful and more true the schild inner rings become. CELLERAGE : The hollow area beneath a Renaissance stage--known in Renaissance slang as hell and entered through a trapdoor called a hellmouth . In High School Essay! The voice of the ghost comes from plots, this area in Hamlet , which has led to scholarly discussion concerning whether or not the ghost is really Hamlet's father or a demon in sparknotes, disguise. CELTIC : A branch of the Indo-European family of languages. Celtic includes Welsh and Breton. Celtic languages are geographically linked to plots western Europe, and they come in two general flavors, goidelic (or Q-celtic) and brythonic (or P-celtic).

CELTIC REVIVAL : A literary movement involving increased interest in Welsh, Scottish, and Irish culture, myths, legends, and Listening Journey Essay literature. Schild! It began in the late 1700s and City Essay continues to this day. Thomas Gray's Pindaric ode The Bard (1757) and Ieuan Brydydd's publication of Some Specimens of the Poetry of the Ancient Welsh Bards (1764) mark its emergence, and Charlotte Guest's translation of The Mabinogion in 1839 marks its continued rise. Matthew Arnold's lectures on Celtic literature at Oxford helped promote the schild plots foundation of a Chair of Celtic at that school in Listening Journey Essay, 1877. The Celtic Revival influenced Thomas Love Peacock, Alfred Lord Tennyson, Gerard Manley Hopkins, and W. B. Yeats, and probably led to the creation of the Abbey Theatre . A continuing part of the Celtic Revival is the plots Irish Literary Renaissance , a surge of extraordinary Irish talent in a doll house, the late nineteenth and schild twentieth century including Bram Stoker, James Joyce, William Butler Yeats, Samuel Beckett, George Bernard Shaw, and The World's First National Essay Seamus Heaney. CENOTAPH : A carving on a tombstone or monument, often in schild, the form of Essay a verse poem, biblical passage, or literary allusion appearing after the deceased individual's name and date of birth/death.

Often used synonymously with epitaph . CENSORSHIP : The act of hiding, removing, altering or destroying copies of plots art or writing so that general public access to it is partially or completely limited. Contrast with bowdlerization. Click here to download a PDF handout discussing censorship in great detail. Human Cloning! The term originates in schild, an occupational position in the Roman government. Trials Essay! After the fifth century BCE, Rome commissioned censors. These censors at first were limited to conducting the census for schild plots, tax estimations, but in latter times, their job was to impose moral standards for citizenship, including the removal of unsavory literature.

See also the Censorship Ordinance of 1559 and the Profanity Act of 1606 . CENSORSHIP ORDINANCE OF 1559 : This law under Queen Elizabeth required the Functional in High School Essay political censorship of public plays and all printed materials in matters of religion and the government. The Master of Revels was appointed to monitor and control such material. All of schild Shakespeare's early works were written under this act. We can see signs of alteration in his early works to conform to the requirements of the censors. Trials Essay! Contrast with the Profanity Act of 1606 . CENTAUR MYTH : In mythology and literary use, a common motif is the centaur (a hybrid of schild horse-body with a human torso where the City of Alexandria, Virginia Budget Year 2011 Essay horse's head would be). This mythic creature has gone through a number of schild allegorical transformations in different literary periods. Sparknotes! In classical Greek artwork and literature, centaurs were associated with sex and violence. Plots! Their lineage traces them to Centaurus, the twin brother of King Lapithes. Literacy Students! Both Centaurus and Lapithes were the offspring of Apollo and a river nymph named Stilbe. Stilbe gave birth to twins, with the elder Lapithes being strong, brave and handsome, but the younger twin Centaurus was ugly, brutish, and schild plots deformed.

Unable to find a woman willing to marry him, Centaurus engaged in bestiality with mares, who in Functional in High School Students, turn gave birth to half-human, half-horse hybrids that terrorized the land, becoming the first centaurs. Many Greek temples such as the Parthenon included a prominent carved scene called a centauromachia , which depicted the battle between Pirithous, a later king of the plots Lapith tribe, as he battled with centaurs who party-crashed his wedding and sparknotes attempted to abduct the bride and bridesmaids. The scene was also popular in Greek pottery and wall-painting, and it helped cement the Greek idea that centaurs were generally loutish creatures symbolizing bestial natures--especially the lower passions of gluttony, rapine, and sexuality. Only a few exceptions (such as Chiron) were exceptions to schild this rule, and City of Alexandria, Budget Year Greek heroes like Hercules spent a great deal of plots time beating up centaurs who sought to Virginia Year 2011 kidnap their wives and lovers. Later, medieval bestiaries revisited and Christianized the centaur myth. One medieval bestiary/commentary used centaurs as symbols of hypocrisy. After pews gradually become common in late medieval churches near the turn of the Renaissance, such bestiaries depicted the centaur as standing in a pew so that only the human-looking upper half of the body was visible while the lower animal half was unseen. The commentators stated that even thus wicked people in churches would look virtuous in their public appearance, but their truly monstrous nature would remain concealed. By the Enlightenment, pastoral artwork and paintings tended to depict centaurs more as frolicking, playful creatures--erasing earlier overtones of rape and evil, and by the late 19th-century, fantasy writers at the time of George MacDonald rehabilitated them, making them deuteragonists and tritagonists that heroes would encounter on their quests. Among the Inklings of the 1940s, C.S.

Lewis in particular become fascinated with idealizing centaurs as noble creatures and developed them into a private symbol for spiritual and bodily perfection. Lewis saw the upward human half of a centaur as being an emblem of reason and plots nobility, and the lower half being an emblem of natural biological or animal passions. Thus, the centaur became his emblem for the healthy union of the material body and house sparknotes the intellectual/spiritual domains--an organism as God intended humans to be before the fall, or the perfect amalgamation of the schild chariot-driver, chariot, and horses in the allegory of the charioteer that Plato retells in Phaedrus . CENTUM LANGUAGE : One of the two main branches of Indo-European languages. These centum languages are generally associated with western Indo-European languages and they often have a hard palatal /k/ sound rather than the sibilant sound found in equivalent satem words. See discussion under Indo-European . CHAIN OF BEING : An elaborate cosmological model of the universe common in the Middle Ages and the Renaissance. Cloning Trials! The Great Chain of Being was a permanently fixed hierarchy with the Judeo-Christian God at the top of the chain and inanimate objects like stones and mud at the bottom. Intermediate beings and objects, such as angels, humans, animals, and plants, were arrayed in schild plots, descending order of intelligence, authority, and capability between these two extremes. The Chain of Being was seen as designed by God.

The idea of the Chain of Being resonates in City of Alexandria, Fiscal Essay, art, politics, literature, cosmology, theology, and philosophy throughout the Middle Ages and Renaissance. It takes on schild plots, particular complexity because different parts of the Chain were thought to correspond to each other. (See correspondences .) Click here for more information. CHANSON (French song): A love-song or French love-poem, especially one the City Budget Fiscal Year 2011 Provençal troubadour poets created or performed. Conventionally, the chanson has five or six stanzas, all of identical structure, and schild plots an envoi or a tornada at the end. They were usually dedicated or devoted to a lady or a mistress in the courtly love tradition. CHANSON DE GESTE (French, song of deeds): These chansons are lengthy Old French poems written between the eleventh and fourteenth centuries glorifying Carolingian noblemen and their feudal lords. The chansons de geste combine history and legend . Journey! They focus on plots, religious aspects of chivalry rather than courtly love or the knightly quests so common in the chivalric romance . Typical subject-matter involves (1) internal wars and intrigue among noble factions (2) external conflict with Saracens, and (3) rebellious vassals who rise up against their lords in acts of Journey betrayal. Typical poetic structure involves ten-syllable lines marked by plots, assonance and stanzas of varying length. The chansons de geste are in many ways comparable to epics . The World's Essay! Over eighty texts survive, but The Song of Roland is by far the most popular today. CHANSON À PERSONNAGES (French, song to people): Old French songs or poems in dialogue form.

Common subjects include quarrels between husbands and wives, meetings between a lone knight and a comely shepherdess, or romantic exchanges between lovers leaving each other in plots, the morning. Journey Essay! See aubade . CHARACTER : Any representation of an individual being presented in a dramatic or narrative work through extended dramatic or verbal representation. The reader can interpret characters as endowed with moral and dispositional qualities expressed in what they say ( dialogue ) and what they do ( action ). E. Schild Plots! M. Forster describes characters as flat (i.e., built around a single idea or quality and unchanging over the course of the narrative) or round (complex in temperament and motivation; drawn with subtlety; capable of growth and change during the course of the narrative). The main character of to Support the Purpose of Bradbury’s a work of a fiction is typically called the protagonist ; the character against whom the protagonist struggles or contends (if there is schild, one), is the National antagonist . If a single secondary character aids the protagonist throughout the narrative, that character is the schild plots deuteragonist (the hero's side-kick). A character of tertiary importance is Literacy School Students, a tritagonist . These terms originate in classical Greek drama, in which a tenor would be assigned the role of protagonist, a baritone the plots role of deuteragonist, and a bass would play the tritagonist. Compare flat characters with stock characters . CHARACTERIZATION : An author or poet's use of description, dialogue, dialect, and action to create in the reader an emotional or intellectual reaction to a character or to make the Virginia Fiscal Essay character more vivid and realistic. Careful readers note each character's attitude and thoughts, actions and reaction, as well as any language that reveals geographic, social, or cultural background. CHARACTONYM : An evocative or symbolic name given to a character that conveys his or her inner psychology or allegorical nature. For instance, Shakespeare has a prostitute named Doll Tearsheet and a moody young man named Mercutio . Steinbeck has the sweet-natured Candy in Of Mice and Men . Spenser has a lawless knight named Sansloy (French, without law) and an arrogant giant named Orgoglio (Italian, pride). On a more physical level, Rabelais might name a giant Gargantua or C.S. Lewis might call his talking lion Aslan (Turkish for lion).

These names are all simple charactonyms. Schild! Cf. eponym . CHASTUSHKA (plur. chastushki ): In 19th-century Russian literature, a short song, usually of four lines--usually epigrammatic and humorous and City Virginia Fiscal Year Essay nature, commonly focusing on topics such as love and commonly associated with young artists. Chastushki on political topics became more common in the 20th century. Schild! Most modern examples rhyme and use regular trochaic meter, though in the oldest examples, these features are less regular, with cadences that are feminine or dactylic (Harkins 121). CHAUCERISM : In the Renaissance, experimental revivals and new word formations that were consciously designed to imitate the sounds, the feel, and verbal patterns from an older century--a verbal or grammatical anachronism . The Significance To Support The Purpose Fahrenheit 451! Spenser uses many Chaucerisms in The Fairie Queene . CHEKE SYSTEM : As summarized by Baugh, a proposed method for indicating long vowels and standardizing spelling first suggested by Sir John Cheke in Renaissance orthography. Cheke would double vowels to indicate a long sound. For instance, mate would be spelled maat , lake would be spelled laak , and so on. Silent e 's would be removed, and the letter y would be abolished and an i used in its place (Baugh 209). It did not catch on.

CHIASMUS (from Greek, cross or x): A literary scheme in which the author introduces words or concepts in schild, a particular order, then later repeats those terms or similar ones in City Fiscal 2011, reversed or backwards order. It involves taking parallelism and schild deliberately turning it inside out, creating a crisscross pattern. For example, consider the chiasmus that follows: By day the frolic, and the dance by Essay, night . If we draw the words as a chart, the schild words form an x (hence the word's Greek etymology, from chi meaning x): The sequence is typically a b b a or a b c c b a . I lead the life I love ; I love the life I lead . Naked I rose from the earth ; to the grave I fall clothed . Biblical examples in the Greek can be found in Philippians 1:15-17 and Colossians 3:11, though the Listening Journey Essay artistry is often lost in English translation. Chiasmus often overlaps with antimetabole . CHICANO / CHICANA LITERATURE : Twentieth- and schild twenty-first-century writings and poetry by Mexican-American immigrants or their children--usually in English with short sections or phrases in Spanish. House Sparknotes! An example would be Sandra Cisneros' writings, such as The House on Mango Street or My Wicked Wicked Ways . Following the grammatical conventions for gender in plots, Spanish, the adjective Chicano takes an The World's First Essay -o suffix in reference to male authors and schild plots an -a suffix in reference to female authors. Cf. Latino Writing . CHIVALRY : An idealized code of military and Fiscal social behavior for schild plots, the aristocracy in the late medieval period. The word chivalry comes from Old French cheval (horse), and The World's First National chivalry literally means horsemanship. Normally, only rich nobility could afford the schild expensive armor, weaponry, and warhorses necessary for mounted combat, so the act of becoming a knight was symbolically indicated by giving the knight silver spurs. A Doll House! The right to schild knighthood in the late medieval period was inherited through the father, but it could also be granted by the king or a lord as a reward for services.

The tenets of chivalry attempted to civilize the brutal activity of warfare. Functional Literacy Students Essay! The chivalric ideals involve sparing non-combatants such as women, children, and plots helpless prisoners; the protection of the Listening Essay church; honesty in schild plots, word and bravery in deeds; loyalty to one's liege; dignified behavior; and single-combat between noble opponents who had a quarrel. Other matters associated with chivalry include gentlemanly contests in arms supervised by the Purpose of Bradbury’s Fahrenheit, witnesses and heralds, behaving according to the manners of polite society, courtly love , brotherhood in arm s , and schild plots feudalism . See knight for additional information. This code became of great popular interest to British readers in the 1800s, leading to a surge of The World's National historical novels, poems, and paintings dealing with medieval matters. Plots! Examples of this nineteenth-century fascination include the Pre-Raphaelite Movement , William Morris's revival of medieval handcrafts, Scott's novels such as Ivanhoe , and the earnestly sympathetic (though unrealistic) depiction of knighthood in Tennyson's Idylls of the King . First Essay! In Tennyson's poem Guinevere , King Arthur describes the ideals of knighthood thus:

I made them lay their hands in plots, mine and swear. To reverence the King, as if he were. Their conscience, and their conscience as their King. To break the heathen and First Park. uphold the Christ, To ride abroad redressing human wrongs, To speak no slander, no, nor listen to it, To honor his own word as if his God's, To lead sweet lives in purest chastity, To love one maiden only, cleave to her, And worship her by years of noble deeds, Until they won her.

For the best modern scholarly discussion of chivalry as a historic reality in schild plots, the Middle Ages, read Maurice H. Keen's Chivalry (Yale University Press, 1984). CHORAGOS (often Latinized as choragus ): A sponsor or patron of Literacy in High a play in classical Greece. Often this sponsor was honored by serving as the leader of the chorus (see below). CHORIC FIGURE : Any character in any type of narrative literature that serves the same purpose as a chorus in drama by remaining detached from the main action and commenting upon or explaining this action to the audience. Schild! See chorus , below. CHORUS : (1) A group of singers who stand alongside or off stage from the principal performers in a dramatic or musical performance. (2) The song or refrain that this group of singers sings. In ancient Greece, the chorus was originally a group of male singers and dancers ( choreuti ) who participated in religious festivals and dramatic performances by singing commenting on the deeds of the characters and interpreting the significance of the events within the play. This group contrasts with the First actors (Greek hypocrites ). Plots! Shakespeare alters the traditional chorus by replacing the singers with a single figure--often allegorical in nature. For instance, Time comes on stage in The Winter's Tale to explain the passing years. Cloning Essay! Likewise, Rumor appears in schild plots, Henry IV, Part Two to summarize the Listening Journey Essay gossip about schild, Prince Hal. See also choragos and choric figure , above.

CHRISTIAN NOVEL : A novel that focuses on Christianity, evangelism, or conversion stories. Sometimes the plots are overtly focused on this theme, but others are primarily allegorical or symbolic. Traditionally, most literary critics have rated these works as being of lower literary quality than the canon of great novels in a doll sparknotes, Western civilization. Examples include Bodie Thoen's In My Father's House , Catherine Marshall's Christy , Par Lagerkvist's Barabbas , Henryk Sienkiewicz's Quo Vadis , and Lloyd C. Plots! Douglas's The Robe . CHRISTOLOGICAL FIGURE : In theology, Christology is the study of Jesus' nature, i.e., whether Christ had both a human and divine nature, whether he had one sentient will alone or one human will and one divine will, whether he was theoretically capable of The Significance of Symbolism to Support the Purpose 451 sin like humanity or perfectly righteous like the schild plots other persons in the trinity, whether he shared in the Father's omniscience or suffered from human afflictions like doubt or ignorance, whether he existed or not before his biological birth, whether he was equal in authority and power to the other persons in the trinity, and whether he actually had a physical body (the orthodox view) or was composed entirely of spirit (the Arian view). In literary studies, the term christological has been commandeered to refer to (1) an object, person, or figure that represents Christ allegorically or symbolically, or (2) any similar object, person, or figure with qualities generally reminiscent of Christ. Examples of house christological figures include the Old Man in Hemingway's The Old Man and schild plots the Sea , who after his struggle with the fish ends up bleeding from his palms and lying on the floor in a cruciform pattern; the lion Aslan in Cloning Trials, C. S. Lewis's The Chronicles of plots Narnia , who allows himself like the lion of the tribe of Judah to be slain in order to redeem a traitorous child; and the unicorn in medieval bestiaries, which would lie down and place its phallic , ivory-horned meekly in a maiden's lap so that hunters might kill it--which medieval monks interpreted as an allegory of The Significance to Support the Purpose 451 Christ allowing himself to enter the womb of the schild plots virgin Mary so that he might later be sacrificed. Zora Neale Hurston creates a christ-figure in Delia Jones, who in Human Trials Essay, the short story Sweat suffers to plots support her ungrateful husband and crawled over the earth in Gethsemane and up the rocks of Calvary many, many times . . . and so on. CHRONICLE : A history or a record of events. It refers to any systematic account or narration of events that makes minimal attempt to interpret, question, or analyze that history.

Because of this, chronicles often contain large amounts of folklore or other word-of-mouth legends the National Park. writer has heard. Schild! In biblical literature, the book of Chronicles is one example of a chronicle. Medieval chronicles include Joinville's account of the Crusades and Geoffrey of Monmouth's History of the Kings of Britain , a source for much Arthurian legend. In the Renaissance , Raphael Holinshed, Edward Hall, and other chroniclers influenced Shakespeare. Chronicles were popular in Budget Fiscal Year, England after the schild British defeated the Spanish Armada in 1588. The accompanying patriotic fervor increased the public's demand for plays about English history. If Chronicles are written in a doll house sparknotes, the form of annual entries, they are also called annals . See also lepotis . CHRONOLOGICAL SNOBBERY : C. S. Lewis's term for what he describes as the uncritical acceptance of . Schild Plots! . . the assumption that whatever has gone out of date is on that account discredited, i.e., the unthinking belief that past ideas or literature are obsolete and that current or present ideas are superior to them, the myth that all change is beneficial progress.

Lewis initially felt torn between his love of medieval literature and the sense that it made him a dinosaur out of touch with the 20th century, and he felt depressed to think the fictions of the past as beautiful lies. In a fierce philosophical debate ( The Great War ) with Owen Barfield, Barfield convinced him that such a view was wrong, and Lewis states Barfield made short work of my chronological snobbery (qtd. in house sparknotes, Duriez 45). CHRONOLOGY (Greek: logic of plots time): The order in which events happen, especially when emphasizing a cause-effect relationship in history or in a doll, a narrative. CHTHONIC : Related to the dead, the grave, the underworld, or the fertility of the earth. Plots! In Greek mythology, the Greeks venerated three categories of spirits: (1) the Olympian gods, who were worshipped in First, public ceremonies--often outdoors on schild plots, the east side of large columned temples in the agora , (2) ancestral heroes like Theseus and Hercules, who were often worshipped only in local shrines or at in High School, specific burial mounds, (3) chthonic spirits, which included (a) earth-gods and death-gods like Hades, Hecate, and Persephone; (b) lesser-known (and often nameless) spirits of the departed; (c) dark and bloody spirits of vengeance like the Furies and Nemesis, and (d) (especially in Minoan tradition) serpents, which were revered as intermediaries between the schild surface world of the living and Human Cloning Trials the subterranean realm of the dead. Plots! This is why snakes were so prominent in the healing cults of Essay Aesclepius. It became common in schild plots, Greek to speak of the Olympian in Essay, contrast to schild the cthonioi (those belonging to the earth).

See Burkert 199-203 for detailed discussion. CHURCH SUMMONER : Medieval law courts were divided into civil courts that tried public offenses and ecclesiastical courts that tried offenses against the church. Summoners were minor church officials whose duties included summoning offenders to appear before the church and receive sentence. By the fourteenth century, the job became synonymous with extortion and corruption because many summoners would take bribes from the individuals summoned to of Alexandria, Budget Fiscal Year court. Chaucer satirized a summoner in The Canterbury Tales . CINQUAIN : A five-line stanza with varied meter and schild plots rhyme scheme, possibly of medieval origin but definitely influenced after 1909 by Japanese poetic forms such as the tanka . Literacy! Most modern cinquains are now based on the form standardized by schild, an American poet, Adelaide Crapsey (1878-1918), in which each unrhymed line has a fixed number of of Symbolism the Purpose of Bradbury’s syllables--respectively two, four, six, eight, and two syllables in each line--for a rigid total of 22 syllables. Here is probably the most famous example of a cinquain from Crapsey's The Complete Poems ; Three silent things: The falling snow. the hour. Before the dawn. the mouth of one. Perhaps under the influence of schild plots diamante poems, many modern elementary school teachers have begun adding an Journey Essay additional set of conventions to the cinquain in which each line has a specific structural requirement:

Line 1 - Consists of the two-syllable title or subject for the poem. Line 2 - Consists of schild two adjectives totaling four syllables describing the subject or title. Line 3 - Consists of three verbs totaling six syllables describing the Functional School subject's actions. Line 4 - Consists of four words totaling eight syllables giving the writer's opinion of the subject. Line 5 - Consists of one two-syllable word, often a synonym for the subject. These secondary conventions, however, are usually limited to children's poetic exercises, and plots professional poets do not generally follow these conventions. CIRCULAR STRUCTURE : A type of Budget Fiscal Year Essay artistic structure in which a sense of schild completeness or closure does not originate in coming to a conclusion that breaks with the earlier story; instead, the sense of closure originates in the way the end of a piece returns to subject-matter, wording, or phrasing found at the beginning of the narrative, play, or poem. An example of circular structure might be The Secret Life of Walter Mitty, which ends with an ellipsis identical to the opening sequence, indicating that the middle-aged protagonist is engaging in First Essay, yet another escapist fantasy.

Leigh Hunt's poem Jenny Kissed Me is an example of a circularly-structured poem, since it ends with the same words that open the speaker's ecstatic, gossipy report. Langdon Smith's poem Evolution is circular in its concluding repetition of the opening phrase, When you were a tadpole, and I was a fish, but it is also thematically circular, in that it implies the plots cycle of reincarnated love will continue again and again in spite of death. In many ways, the Literacy in High School smaller tales within a larger frame narrative act as part of a circular structure, because each small tale begins by breaking the reader away from the schild plots larger, encompassing narrative and concludes by returning the reader to that larger frame-narrative. CITY DIONYSIA : See discussion under dionysia . CIVIC CRITICS : A school of 19th-century Russian literary scholars who judged the value of writing primarily by Essay, its political context and progressive ideas. They commonly wrote in oposition to plots the aesthetic theories of the Parnassian Poets (Harkins 55). Example critics include Belinski (active in in High School Students, the 1840s), Dobrolyubov, and Chernyshevski.

CLANG ASSOCIATION : A semantic change caused because one word sounds similar to another. For instance, the schild plots word fruition in Middle English meant enjoyment. In Modern English, its meaning has changed to Listening Journey completion because it sounds like the word fruit --hence the idea of ripeness, of growing to full size, as Algeo notes (314). CLASSICAL : The term in schild, Western culture is usually used in reference to the art, architecture, drama, philosophy, literature, and history surrounding the Greeks and Romans between 1000 BCE and 410 BCE. Works created during the Greco-Roman period are often called classics . The Golden Age of Classical Greek culture is commonly held to be the fifth century BCE (especially 450-410 BCE).

The term can be applied more generally to any ancient and revered writing or artwork from a specific culture; thus we refer to Classical Chinese, Classical Hebrew, and Classical Arabic works. For extended discussion, click here. Journey Essay! To download a PDF handout placing the schild plots periods of literary history in order, click here. CLASSICAL HAIKU : Another term for the hokku , the predecessor of the a doll house modern haiku . See hokku and haiku . CLAUSE : In grammatical terminology, a clause is plots, any word-construction containing a nominative and a predicate, i.e., a subject doing a verb. The term clause contrasts with the term phrase . A phrase might contain nouns as appositives or objects, and it might contain verb-like words in the form of participles or gerunds, but it crucially lacks a subject doing a verb. Human Trials Essay! For example, consider this sentence: Joe left the building after seeing his romantic rival. Clause : Joe left the schild plots building.

Phrase : after seeing his romantic rival. If the clause could stand by The World's National Park., itself as a complete sentence, it is known as an independent clause . If the clause cannot stand by itself as a complete sentence (typically because it begins with a subordinating conjunction), it is said to be a dependent clause . For expanded discussion and plots examples, click here. For a discusion of First Park. Essay clauses according to functional type, click here ( TBA). CLERIHEW : In light verse, a funny poem of schild closed-form with four lines rhyming ABAB in City Virginia Budget 2011 Essay, irregular meter, usually about a famous person from history or literature. Typically the historical person's name forms one of the rhymes. The name comes from Edmund Clerihew Bentley (1875-1956), the purported inventor. He supposedly had a habit of schild plots scribbling down such rhymes during dull lectures at school, including this one from house sparknotes, his chemistry class: Sir Humphrey Davy. He lived in the odium.

Of having discovered sodium. CLICHÉ : A hackneyed or trite phrase that has become overused. Clichés are considered bad writing and bad literature. Click here to download a PDF handout for more information. Cliché rhymes are rhymes that are considered trite or predictable. Cliché rhymes in poetry include love and schild dove , moon and June , trees and breeze . Sometimes, to avoid cliché rhymes, poets will go to hyperbolic lengths, such as the trisyllabic rhymes in Lord Byron's Don Juan . CLICHÉ RHYME : Cliché rhymes are rhymes that are considered trite or predictable. They include love and a doll house sparknotes dove , moon and June , trees and schild breeze . Sometimes, to avoid cliché rhymes, poets will go to hyperbolic lengths, such as the a doll house sparknotes trisyllabic rhymes in Lord Byron's Don Juan . CLICK : A sound common in some non-Indo-European languages in Polynesia made by clucking the tongue or drawing in schild, air with the tongue rather than expelling it from the lungs--such as the sound represented by the letter combination tsk-tsk . To Support Fahrenheit! Some linguists indicate this sound in transcribing Polynesian languages by inserting an exclamation mark to indicate the palatal click. For instance, the !chung tribe has a palatal click as part of its name.

CLIFFHANGER : A melodramatic narrative (especially in films, magazines, or serially published novels) in which each section ends at schild plots, a suspenseful or dramatic moment, ensuring that the audience will watch the next film or read the next installment to find out what happens. The term comes from the common 1930's film-endings in the Purpose 451, which the main characters are literally left hanging on the edge of a cliff until the plots story resumes. The term cliffhanger has more loosely been applied to any situation, event, or contest in which the outcome remains uncertain until the last moment possible. CLIMAX, LITERARY (From Greek word for ladder): The moment in house, a play, novel, short story, or narrative poem at which the schild crisis reaches its point of greatest intensity and is thereafter resolved. It is also the peak of emotional response from a reader or spectator and usually the turning point in Trials Essay, the action. The climax usually follows or overlaps with the crisis of a story, though some critics use the two terms synonymously. Plots! (Contrast with anticlimax , crisis , and Trials denouement ; do not confuse with rhetorical climax , below.) CLIMAX, RHETORICAL : Also known as auxesis and crescendo , this refers to an artistic arrangement of a list of schild plots items so that they appear in a sequence of increasing importance. See rhetorical schemes for more information. The opposite Functional Literacy in High, of climax is bathos . CLIP : To form a word by plots, abbreviating a longer expression, or a word formed by the same process. For instance, the word auto (as in auto shop) is a clipped form of automobile . CLOSE READING : Reading a piece of Functional Students literature carefully, bit by bit, in order to schild analyze the significance of every individual word, image, and Budget artistic ornament. Click here for more information.

The term is sometimes used synonymously with critical reading , though I arbitrarily prefer to reserve close reading as a reference for schild plots, analyzing literature and critical reading as a reference for breaking down an essay's argument logically. Cf. Listening Essay! critical reading . CLOSED POETIC FORM : Poetry written in a a specific or traditional pattern according to schild plots the required rhyme, meter, line length, line groupings, and number of lines within a genre of poetry. Examples of a closed-form poetry include haiku , limericks , and sonnets , which have set numbers of syllables, lines, and traditional subject-matter. Contrast with open poetic form . CLOSURE (Latin clausura , a closing): Closure has two common meanings. First, it means a sense of completion or finality at the conclusion of Cloning Trials play or narrative work--especially a feeling in the audience that all the problems have been resolved satisfactorily. Frequently, this sort of closure may involve stock phrases (and they lived happily ever after or finis ) or certain conventional ceremonial actions (dropping a curtain or having the actors in a play take a bow). The narrative may reveal the solution of the primary problem(s) driving the plot, the death of a major character (especially the plots antagonist, the protagonist's romantic interest or even the protagonist herself), or careful denouement . Cloning! An example of extended denouement as closure occurs in George Eliot's Middlemarch , in which the author carefully explains what happened in later years to plots each character in the novel. Closure can also come about by Listening Journey, a radical alteration or change in the imaginary world created by an author.

For instance, in J. R. R. Schild Plots! Tolkien's The Lord of the Rings , much of the closure to the saga comes from the departure of the The World's Park. elves and wizards, who sail across the sea, leaving the world of human men and women forever, an act which apparently causes magic to fade. Schild Plots! Shakespearean comedies often achieve closure by having major characters find love-interests and declare their marital intentions. Other more experimental forms of literature and Fahrenheit poetry may achieve closure by circular structure , in which the poem or story ends by coming back to the narrative's original starting spot, or by schild, returning a similar situation to what was found at the beginning of the tale. See discussion under denouement . Do note that some narratives intentionally seek to frustrate the audience's sense of closure. Examples of literature that reject conventions of closure include cliffhanger serials (see above), which reject normal closure in an attempt to gain returning audiences. Many postmodern narratives influenced by Human Trials, existential philosophy, on the other hand, reject closure as too simplistic and artificial in comparison with the schild plots complexities of human living. Secondly, some critics use the term closure as a derogatory term to imply the reduction of The Significance to Support the Purpose of Bradbury’s Fahrenheit a work's meanings to schild plots a single and complete sense that excludes the claims of other interpretations. For extended discussion of closure, see Frank Kermode's The Sense of An Ending: Studies in the Theory of Fiction , as reprinted in 2001. CLOWN : (1) A fool or rural bumpkin in Shakespearean vocabulary. Examples of this type of clown include Lance, Bottom, Dogberry, and other Shakespearean characters. (2) A professional jester who performs pranks, sleight-of-hand and Essay juggling routines, and who sings songs or tells riddles and schild jokes at Park., court.

By convention, such jesters were given considerable leeway to speak on plots, nearly any topic (even criticizing court policy) as long as the criticism was veiled in The Significance to Support Fahrenheit, riddles and wordplay. Examples of this type in Shakespeare's work include Touchstone, Feste, and schild Lear's Fool. Cf. fool . COCKNEY : Originally, in Middle English times, the term cockney was a derogatory term for a dumb city-dweller. Essay! It comes from cock's egg, the idea that an uneducated urbanite would be so ignorant he or she would not realize that a male rooster (a cock) would be the wrong gender to lay an egg. By Renaissance times, the word was applied to those living in the Bow Bells area of London in Cheapside, a working class district. Today, the term implies most strongly the spoken dialect of that area.

Cockney dialect tends to be non-rhotic, with final -er pronounced as a schwa, and schild it often shows signs of t -glottalization. It frequently substitutes /r/ with /w/, and merges lexical sets like north/force and thought/start . The imprecise term Estuary English refers to spoken English in the southeast of Britain that merges linguistic traits of RP and Cockney, and recent dialect shift that appears to be spreading across the island. See also Cockney Rhyming Slang , below. COCKNEY RHYMING SLANG : A form of slang in which the speaker substitutes one word in a sentence with another word or phrase that rhymes with the implied word--but which leaves out the actual, final rhyming part. Journey Essay! This wordplay is associated with the dialect appearing in the Cheapside district of London's East End. The resulting sentence is baffling for outsiders unfamiliar with the tradition but provides a pleasing word puzzle to Cockney speakers. Schild! For examples, instead of stating that The woman had exquisite legs, a Cockney speaker might say, The woman had exquisite bacons.

Here, the phrase bacon- and-eggs rhymes with legs , so the speaker substitutes it for legs in the sentence, but deletes the final rhyming part of the phrase. CODE-SWITCHING : In bilingual or multilingual speech, rapidly changing from the Listening Journey vocabulary, grammar, and patterns of schild one language to another--often in mid-sentence. An example sentence to illustrate this process using Latin, Spanish, German, and French might read as follows: Imprimus, el commander qui runs his troops y sus attendants to death in a blitzkrieg isn't tres sapiens, n'est-pas? [In the first place, the City of Alexandria, 2011 Essay commander who runs his troops and his attendants to death in schild, a sudden attack isn't very wise, right?] Although the term code-switching is Functional Literacy Students Essay, one used in linguistics, code-switching as a phenomenon does appear in literature. Schild! The character of Salvatori the monk in Umberto Eco's The Name of the Rose engages continuously in code-switching among Latin, Spanish, French, Italian, and German tongues, for instance. Code-switching is a common feature in Hispanic American English and in the fiction writings of Human Trials Essay Chicano authors. Cf. dog-latin and plots macaronic texts . CODICOLOGY (from Latin codex , book): The study of books as physical artifacts. COGNATE : Cognates are words that (1) match each other to some degree in sound and meaning, (2) come from a common root in an older language, but (3) did not actually serve as a root for each other. Trials! For instance, in schild, European Romance languages, many words trace their roots back to Latin. The Latin word unus (one) later became the root for a number of words meaning one such as une (French) and uno (Spanish). Une and uno are cognates --cousins or siblings on the family tree of languages--but unus is the root or ancestor for these relatives.

The Hebrew shalom , Arabic salaam , and the Aramaic shelam are similar cognates all meaning peace. Cognates play an important part in reconstructing dead languages such as proto-Indo-European , and they can be enormously helpful in learning new languages. The amateur philologist should be cautious of false cognates, folk etymology , and faux amis , however. False cognates are words that happen to have a similar sound and The World's First National meaning, but which are actually unrelated semantically and historically. Folk etymologies are erroneous accounts of how a word came into existence. Schild Plots! Typically, the originator of the error hears or reads an unfamiliar word. The orginator then fabricates a spurious source by linking the strange word to a more familiar expression or then fashions a pun based upon sound similarities. Faux amis are technically cognates in Listening Journey Essay, terms of their morphology, but in terms of their meaning, the words have drifted apart from each other across time, such as the English verb embarass (to humiliate) and schild the Spanish embarazar (to impregnate). COLLECTIVE NOUN, COLLECTIVE PRONOUN : A noun such as team or pair that technically refers to a collective group of individuals or individual items. What makes them tricky in Functional Literacy in High School Essay, grammar? They can be singular or plural (e.g., one team , two teams , or one pair, two pairs .) Many students forget that and mistakenly treat the grammatically singular word as if it were always plural.

Likewise, collective pronouns like some use the schild modifier rather than the headword for singular versus plural structure. For instance, Some of the the workers are gone uses a plural verb, but Some of the Functional Literacy in High School Students Essay work is schild plots, done uses a singular verb. COLLECTIVE UNCONSCIOUS : In twentieth-century Jungian Psychology , this term refers to a shared group of archetypes (atavistic and universal images, cultural symbols, and recurring situations dealing with the fundamental facts of human life) passed along to each generation to Human Trials Essay the next in folklore and stories or generated anew by the way must face similar problems to those our ancestors faced. Schild Plots! Within a culture, the collective unconscious forms a treasury of powerful shared images and symbols found in our dreams, art stories, myths, and religious icons. See more detailed discussion under archetypal criticism . COLLOCATION : The frequency or tendency some words have to Cloning Essay combine with each other.

For instance, Algeo notes that the phrases tall person and schild plots high mountain seem to fit together readily without sounding strange. A non-native speaker might talk about The Significance of Symbolism of Bradbury’s Fahrenheit 451, a high person or tall mountain, and this construction might sound slightly odd to plots a native English speaker. The difference is in collocation. COLLOQUIALISM : A word or phrase used everyday in plain and relaxed speech, but rarely found in formal writing. (Compare with cliché , jargon and slang .) COLONIAL PERIOD : American and British historians use this term somewhat differently. American scholars usually use the term colonial period to refer to the years in the American colonies before the Functional Literacy School Students American Revolution against the British Monarchy--usually dating it from 1607 (when Jamestown was founded) to 1787 (when Congress ratified the Federal Constitution). Plots! This period coincides roughly with the Reformation in England and continues up through the end of the Enlightenment or Neoclassical Period. American writers from the Listening Journey Essay colonial period include Ben Franklin, Thomas Paine, and plots Anne Bradstreet. See also Neoclassic . Click here to Literacy School Students Essay download a PDF handout placing this period in historical context with other literary movments. When British historians use the plots term, they sometimes tend to apply the word colonial in more general reference to the British expansions into the Americas, the Indies, India, Africa, and the Middle-East over the course of several centuries, even up to the nineteenth century and early twentieth century. See colonialism , below.

COLONIALISM : The term refers broadly and generally to the habit of powerful civilizations to colonize less powerful ones. On the obvious level, this process can take the form of a doll house sparknotes a literal geographic occupation, outright enslavement, religious conversion at schild, gun-point, or forced assimilation of native peoples. On a more subtle level, this process can take the form of bureucratic policy that incidentally or indirectly leads to the extinction of a minority's language or culture, economic exploitation of cheap labor, and globalistic erasure of cultural differences. The term is Human, often applied in academic discussion of literature from the colonial period. We can see the concerns of colonialism and imperial ambition in the works of George Orwell's Shooting an plots Elephant, in Rudyard Kipling's fictional tales about India, and in Josef Conrad's novella, Heart of Literacy in High School Darkness . See Colonial Period , above.

COMEDY (from Greek: komos , songs of merrimakers): In the original meaning of the word, comedy referred to a genre of drama during the Dionysia festivals of ancient Athens. The first comedies were loud and boisterous drunken affairs, as the word's etymology suggests. Later, in medieval and Renaissance use, the word comedy came to mean any play or narrative poem in which the main characters manage to avert an impending disaster and have a happy ending. The comedy did not necessarily have to be funny, and indeed, many comedies are serious in tone. Schild! It is only in the nineteenth and of Bradbury’s twentieth centuries that comedy's exclusive connotations of humor arose. See also Low Comedy, High Comedy, Comedy of the Absurd , Comedy of Humors , and Comedy of Manners . COMEDY OF THE ABSURD : A modern form of comedy dramatizing the meaninglessness, uncertainty, and pointless absurdity of human existence. A famous example is Samuel Beckett's Waiting for Godot . Cf. existentialism . COMEDY OF HUMORS : A Renaissance drama in which numerous characters appear as the embodiment of stereotypical types of people, each character having the physiological and behavioral traits associated with a specific humor in the human body. The majority of the schild cast consists of such stock characters. (See humors, bodily for more information.) Some of Shakespeare's characters, including Pistol, Bardulph, and others, show signs of having been adapted from the stereotypical humor characters. In literature, a humor character was a type of flat character in whom a single passion predominated; this interpretation was especially popular in Elizabethan and other Renaissance literature. See also stock character . COMEDY OF INNOCENCE : We have two definitions here. (1) In anthropological terms, a comedy of innocence is a ritualized symbolic behavior (or set of such behaviors) designed to alleviate individual or communal guilt about an execution or sacrifice or to hide the blame for such an Journey Essay action.

In ancient Greece, the ax or dagger used in a sacrifice might be put on trial (instead of the priest wielding it). The sacrificial animal might be required to volunteer by shaking its head or by schild plots, walking up to the altar to eat the grain sitting on it. The sacrificial victim might be condemned to execution after being released where it could set foot in a forbidden holy grove or taboo sacred mountain (cf. Exodus 19:12-13 and Judges 11:30-40). In America, we see remnants of the comedy of innocence in customs such as the 19th-century's hangman's black mask (to erase the Human Cloning executioner's identity) or the custom of granting the schild plots condemned prisoner's last request or final meal (to alleviate any sense of The Significance of Symbolism cruelty on the jailer's part). (2) A specific myth told by later generations to erase or hide ancient evidence of what looks like the practice of plots human sacrifice in Cloning Essay, earlier times. For instance, a number of local Greek myths describe characters like Leucothea, Palaemon, and Glaucus; they fall or are thrown into the sea where they are magically transformed into plots, sea-gods.

Given the relative insignificance of these gods in the Greek pantheon , it is likely this sort of tale either (a) developed out of local hero cults or (b) the tale alludes to The World's First National Park. an ancient or prehistoric belief that drowned sacrificial victims would live on as animistic spirits. Another common version of the comedy of innocence is the schild motif of a human sacrificial victim (usually a child) who is of Symbolism the Purpose 451, miraculously saved ( deus ex machina ) and an animal substituted in plots, his or her place. For example, in some Greek myths, Iphigenia is replaced by a white hind before her father can sacrifice her to First National Park. Essay gain good winds for the Trojan voyage. Phrixus gets whisked to safety by a Golden Ram, which is then sacrificed in the young boy's place. In the Hebrew Bible, Yahweh stops Abraham from killing Isaac, and he directs Abraham's attention to a ram with its horns caught in a thicket (Genesis 22:9-13). Scholars of mythology often see the dozens of such tales appearing cross-culturally and schild plots interpret them as having their origins in the comedy of Human Trials innocence. COMEDY OF MANNERS : A comic drama consisting of five or three acts in which the attitudes and customs of a society are critiqued and satirized according to schild plots high standards of intellect and morality. The dialogue is usually clever and sophisticated, but often risqué . Characters are valued according to their linguistic and intellectual prowess.

It is the opposite of the slapstick humor found in a farce or in a fabliau . COMIC OPERA : An outgrowth of the Journey Essay eighteenth-century ballad operas, in which new or original music is composed specially for the lyrics. (This contrasts with the ballad opera , in which the lyrics were set to plots pre-existing popular music.) COMIC RELIEF : A humorous scene , incident, character , or bit of dialogue occurring after some serious, tragic, or frightening moment. Comic relief is deliberately designed to relieve emotional intensity and simultaneously heighten and highlight the seriousness or tragedy of the action. Macbeth contains Shakespeare's most famous example of comic relief in the form of a drunken porter. Another is a doll house, just after the climactic scene in Dante's Inferno , in schild plots, which Dante encounters Satan himself frozen in ice. The World's First National! The demon initially terrified Dante, but the schild plots narrator's fear falls way to the reader's laughter in a comic reversal in First Park. Essay, which Dante and Virgil climb down Satan's body and move through the center of the earth's gravity, at which point Dante is confused by the way gravity reverses, looks upward, and schild plots finds himself directly staring at Satan's nether regions, writing, . . . I beheld him upward hold his legs. Trials Essay! // And if I then become disguieted, / Let stolid people think who do not see / What the point is schild plots, beyond which I had passed (34.90-93). COMING-OF-AGE STORY : A novel in which an adolescent protagonist comes to adulthood by a process of experience and disillusionment. Sparknotes! This character loses his or her innocence, discovers that previous preconceptions are false, or has the security of childhood torn away, but usually matures and strengthens by this process. Examples include Wieland's Agathon , Herman Raucher's Summer of '42 , Ray Bradbury's Dandelion Wine , Joyce's A Portrait of the Artist as a Young Man , and Jane Austen's Northanger Abbey . The most famous examples are in German. In German, a tale in the genre is called a Bildungsroman or a Erziehungsroman . Schild! Examples include Goethe's Die Leiden des jungen Werthers and Thomas Mann's Königliche Hoheit . COMITATUS : (Latin: companionship or band): The term describes the tribal structure of the Anglo-Saxons and other Germanic tribes in which groups of men would swear fealty to a hlaford (lord) in exchange for food, mead, and Literacy School Essay heriot , the loan of fine armor and weaponry. The men who swore such an oath were called thegns (roughly akin to modern Scottish thane), and they vowed to fight for their lord in battle.

It was considered a shameful disaster to outlive one's own lord. The comitatus was the functional military and government unit of early Anglo-Saxon society. The term was first coined by the classical historian Tacitus when he described the Germanic tribes north of plots Rome. COMMEDIA DELL'ARTE : A genre of Italian farce from the sixteenth-century characterized by Human Cloning, stock characters , stock situations, and spontaneous dialogue. Typically, the plot is an intrigue plot and it involves a soubrette who aids two young lovers in foiling the rigid constraints of schild their parents. In many such plays, a character named Sganarelle is a primary figure in the work. The World's First National! Often there is a zani , or foolish-servant, who provides physical comedy in contrast to the anguish of the schild plots young lovers. In the end, the couple achieves a happy marriage. Commedia dell'arte may have influenced Shakespeare's comedies, such as The Merry Wives of Windsor , and Moliere's plays, such as L'amour Medecin , commonly translated into English as Love is the Doctor . COMMON MEASURE : Also called common meter , common measure consists of closed poetic quatrains rhyming ABAB or ABCB , in which the lines of to Support the Purpose of Bradbury’s Fahrenheit iambic tetrameter (eight syllables) alternate with lines of schild iambic trimeter (six syllables). This pattern is most often associated with ballads (see above), and it is occasionally referred to as ballad measure.

Many of in High Emily Dickinson's poems are in loose common measure using slant rhyme , for plots, instance: Much Madness is divinest Sense-- To a discerning Eye-- Much Sense--the starkest Madness-- 'Tis the Majority. A fun and Park. simple test to recognize common measure in poetry is to take a stanza and try singing it aloud to schild plots a well-known tune written in common meter, such as Gilligan's Isle, Amazing Grace, or House of the Rising Sun. City Of Alexandria, Virginia Budget! If the syllabification fits these familiar ditties, you are looking at a case of common measure. COMMONIZATION : The linguistic term for an eponym--a common word that is derived from the proper name of a person or place. For instance, the sandwich gained its name from its inventor, the schild plots fourth Earl of Sandwich. The word lynch comes from Captain William Lynch, who led bands of vigilantes to City Virginia Fiscal Year Essay hang hoboes and bums residing near Pittsylvania County.

The verb shanghai , meaning to schild plots kidnap or press into forced labor, comes from the practices of The World's Park. Essay conscription common in the oriental city of Shanghai. The word stentorian comes from the loud-mouthed Stentor in Greek legend, and schild herculean comes from the Listening Journey Essay muscle-bound Hercules, and so on. COMPERT (plural: comperta ): Specifically, birth-tales in Old Irish literature that detail the schild conception and birth of a hero. Examples include the in High Compert Con Culainn ( Birth of Cú Chulainn ). Schild! Usually supernatural or extraordinary events involve themselves in the conception, such as the Druid Cathbad's seduction of Nessa after prophesying what the hour would be lucky for (begetting a king upon a queen!) or the visitation of a god like Lug to a woman who then becomes pregnant after the divine visitation. The birth-tale in a doll house sparknotes, general is not limited to schild plots Old Irish Literature, but is found worldwide (Duffy 102-03). Examples outside of of Alexandria, Budget Fiscal Year Essay Irish literature include the birth of Jesus, or the Buddha, or Leda and Hercules in Greek myth, Pryderi's conception in the First Branch of The Mabinogion , or King Arthur's conception in Arthurian legends. COMPLETENESS : The second aspect of Aristotle's requirements for a tragedy. Schild! By completeness, Aristotle emphasizes the logic, wholeness, and National closure necessary to satisfy the audience.

COMPOSITE MONSTER (in architecture, often called a chimera after the Greek monster): The term is one mythologists use to plots describe the fantastical creatures in Functional Literacy School Students, Assyrian, Babylonian, Greek, and medieval European legends in which the beast is composed of the body-parts of various animals. For instance, in schild plots, Greek mythology, the chimera has the body of a lion, tale of a serpent, wings of a bat, and a goat-head, a lion-head, and a serpent's head. Human Essay! Likewise, the sphinx has a lion's body and a woman's head and breasts; the schild centaur has a horse's body and human torso and a human head where the horse-head should be; the minotaur has a bull's head and a man's body; and the harpy has an avian body and a woman's head, breasts, and arms. Earlier examples in Mesopotamian mythology include the ekimmu (a bloodsucking albino ghost with a bull's head) and the lamassu (a winged horse with a human head). In the medieval period, composite monsters include the formecolion, with an ant's body and a lion's head; the Human Cloning mermaid, with a human top and a fish bottom; and the cockatrice, which mingles parts of a rooster and a serpent. Contrast with additive monster , above. Composite monsters were common in the legends of classical and ancient cultures, but diminished in favor after the Renaissance. Many theories propose to schild plots explain the common tendency to create composite monsters.

Theories include mistranslation in traveler's tales, in Essay, which an animal is schild, describing as having a head like such-and-such a creature, but the simile is lost in translation; the encounter of The Significance to Support the Purpose of Bradbury’s Fahrenheit fossil remnants of extinct animals, or bones found jumbled together and misassembled; and the heraldic practice of dimidiation , in plots, which a nobleman's son might take two animals found on his father's and The World's Park. mother's coats of arms combine them into a composite creature to schild illustrate his genealogy. An example in 20th century films includes The Fly . In this 1950s horror classic, a fly and a human trade bodies and heads. Cf. therianthropic and theriomorphic . COMPOSITOR : A typesetter in a Renaissance print shop. To speed the The Significance of Symbolism the Purpose Fahrenheit 451 printing process, most of plots Shakespeare's plays appear to have been set by multiple compositors. As Greenblatt notes, Compositors frequently followed their own standards in spelling and punctuation. They inevitably introduced some errors into the text, often by selecting the wrong piece from the type case or by setting the correct letter upside-down (1141). COMPOUNDING : A term from linguistics used to The Significance of Symbolism 451 describe the creation of a new word ( neologism ) that comes about by plots, taking two existing words and sticking them together to create a brand new concept (Horobin 192). All languages do this to some extent.

For instance, the word hydrogen comes from two Greek words meaning water and stuff. However, Germanic languages and Germanic poetry (including derivatives like English) are particularly prone to creating new words this way. Thousands of English words result from two older words being compounded together, such as bathtub (bath + tub), eyesore (eye + sore); window (from two Old Norse words meaning wind and eye), and so on. However, poets regular invent neologisms by compounding to create artificial words of their own. Even Chaucer engaged in this trick, coining the word newfangled from the Listening Essay English new and the Middle French fanglere , meaning to make or to fashion.

See neologism , blending , and kenning . COMPURGATION : In addition to schild trial by ordeal , compurgation was the medieval law practice among Christianized Anglo-Saxon tribes to determine innocence. A man accused of a crime would publicly swear to his innocence. Of Symbolism To Support The Purpose Fahrenheit 451! The judge then gave the schild plots defendant thirty days to to collect a number of oath-helpers who would also swear to his innocence (or at least his good character). If he was unable to find the Human Cloning Essay required number, he was either found guilty or he could appeal to trial by ordeal. Schild! If the defendant had been caught in the act, or was considered untrustworthy, the procedure could be reversed, and the plaintiff would bring forth oath-helpers to prove his charge through similar compurgation.

CONCEIT (also called a metaphysical conceit) : An elaborate or unusual comparison--especially one using unlikely metaphors, simile, hyperbole, and contradiction. Before the beginning of the seventeenth century, the term conceit was a synonym for thought and roughly equivalent to idea or concept. It gradually came to denote a fanciful idea or a particularly clever remark. In literary terms, the word denotes a fairly elaborate figure of speech, especially an extended comparison involving unlikely metaphors , similes , imagery , hyperbole , and oxymora . One of the a doll sparknotes most famous conceits is schild, John Donne's A Valediction: Forbidding Mourning, a poem in Human Cloning, which Donne compares two souls in love to the points on a geometer's compass. Schild! Shakespeare also uses conceits regularly in his poetry. In Richard II , Shakespeare compares two kings competing for power to City Fiscal Essay two buckets in a well, for instance. A conceit is usually classified as a subtype of metaphor . Contrast with epic simile and schild dyfalu . CONCRETE DICTION / CONCRETE IMAGERY : Language that describes qualities that can be perceived with the five senses as opposed to using abstract or generalized language. For instance, calling a fruit pleasant or good is abstract , while calling a fruit cool or sweet is concrete . The preference for abstract or concrete imagery varies from century to century. Philip Sidney praised concrete imagery in poetry in his 1595 treatise, Apologie for Poetrie . A century later, Neoclassical thought tended to value the generality of abstract thought. In the early 1800s, the Romantic poets like Wordsworth, Coleridge, and Shelley once again preferred concreteness. Listening! In the 20th century, the distinction between concrete and abstract has been a subject of some debate.

Ezra Pound and schild plots T. E. Hulme attempted to create a theory of concrete poetry. T. S. Eliot added to this school of a doll house sparknotes thought with his theory of the objective correlative. Contrast with abstract diction / abstract imagery . CONCRETE POETRY : Poetry that draws much of its power from the schild way the house sparknotes text appears situated on plots, the page. The actual shape of the Human Trials Essay lines of text may create a swan's neck, an altar, a geometric pattern, or a set of wings, which in some direct way connects to schild the meaning of the words. Functional Literacy In High! Also called shaped poetry and schild plots visual poetry, concrete poetry should not be confused with concrete diction or concrete imagery (see above). The object here is to Journey present each poem as a different shape. It may appear on the page, on glass, stone, wood, or other materials. The technique seems simple, but can allow great subtlety. Famous concrete poets include Apollinaire, Max Bill, Eugen Gomringer and the Brazilian Noigandres Group, which exhibited a collection of schild plots concrete art at a doll, Sào Paulo in 1956. In Germany, this school of poetry is called konkretisten by critics. It includes Ernst Jandl, Achleitner, Heissenbüttel, Mon, and plots Rühm.

Since World War II, further experimentation in concrete poetry has taken place by British poets, including Simon Cutts, Stuart Mills, and Ian Hamilton Finlay. See also diamante . CONFLATION : In its more restricted literary sense, a conflation is Human Essay, a version of a play or narrative that later editors create by schild plots, combining the text from more than one substantive edition. Literacy! For example, Greenblatt notes that most versions of King Lear published since the 1700s are conflations of the Quarto and First Folio editions of the original Renaissance texts. CONFLICT : The opposition between two characters (such as a protagonist and an antagonist), between two large groups of people, or between the protagonist and a larger problem such as forces of nature, ideas, public mores, and so on. Conflict may also be completely internal, such as the protagonist struggling with his psychological tendencies (drug addiction, self-destructive behavior, and so on); William Faulkner famously claimed that the most important literature deals with the subject of the human heart in conflict with itself. Conflict is the engine that drives a plot. Examples of narratives driven mainly by schild plots, conflicts between the protagonist and nature include Jack London's To Build a Fire (in which the Californian struggles to save himself from freezing to death in Alaska) and Functional School Stephen Crane's The Open Boat (in which shipwrecked men in a lifeboat struggle to plots stay alive and Functional Literacy in High Students Essay get to schild plots shore).

Examples of narratives driven by conflicts between a protagonist and Essay an antagonist include Mallory's Le Morte D'arthur , in schild plots, which King Arthur faces off against his evil son Mordred, each representing civilization and barbarism respectively. Examples of narratives driven by internal struggles include Daniel Scott Keyes' Flowers for Algernon, in which the hero struggles with the loss of his own intelligence to The World's National congenital mental retardation, and Edgar Allan Poe's The Tell-Tale Heart, in which the protagonist ends up struggling with his own guilt after committing a murder. In complex works of plots literature, multiple conflicts may occur at once. For instance, in Shakespeare's Othello , one level of conflict is the unseen struggle between Othello and the machinations of First National Essay Iago, who seeks to destroy him. Another level of conflict is Othello's struggle with his own jealous insecurities and plots his suspicions that Desdemona is cheating on him. CONFUCIAN CLASSICS : Five ancient Chinese writings commonly attributed to Confucius, though it is likely they are actually compilations of traditional material predating him. The five classics include the I Ching ( The Book of Changes ), the Shu Ching ( The Book of History ), the Budget Essay Shih Ching , ( The Book of Odes ), the Record of Rites ( Li Chi ), and the Spring and Autumn Annals . To see where this material fits in plots, an outline of Chinese history, click here.

CONJUGATION : The inflection of to Support 451 a verb to show its person, number, mood, or tense. Here is a sample conjugation of the present tense indicative forms of to sing in plots, English and The World's National Essay cantar in Spanish: CONNOTATION : The extra tinge or taint of meaning each word carries beyond the minimal, strict definition found in a dictionary. Plots! For instance, the terms civil war , revolution and rebellion have the same denotation; they all refer to an attempt at social or political change. However, civil war carries historical connotations for Americans beyond that of revolution or rebellion . Likewise, revolution is often applied more generally to scientific or theoretical changes, and it does not necessarily connote violence. Rebellion , for many English speakers connotes an improper uprising against a legitimate authority (thus we speak about rebellious teenagers rather than revolutionary teenagers).

In the same way, the words house and of Symbolism of Bradbury’s Fahrenheit home both refer to a domicile, but home connotes certain singular emotional qualities and personal possession in a way that house doesn't. I might own four houses I rent to others, but I might call none of these my home , for example. Much of poetry involves the poet using connotative diction that suggests meanings beyond what the words simply say. Contrast with denotation . CONSONANCE : A special type of plots alliteration in which the Human repeated pattern of consonants is marked by changes in schild plots, the intervening vowels--i.e., the final consonants of the City Virginia Budget Fiscal stressed syllables match each other but the schild vowels differ. As M. H. Abrams illustrates in The Norton Anthology of Listening Journey English Literature , examples include linger , longer , and languor or rider , reader , raider , and ruder . Schild Plots! Do not confuse consonance with a consonant (see below). See also assonance and The World's First National Park. sound symbolism . CONSONANT : A speech sound that is not a vowel. To download a PDF file listing consonants and their symbols in the International Phonetic Alphabet, click here.

CONSUETUDINAL BE : Uninflected use of the verb be to indicate habitual or frequent action. This grammatical structure is characteristic of Black Vernacular . An example would be as follows: What you be doing on Thursdays? I be working every afternoon. Users of standard edited English typically frown on plots, this grammatical formation. CONTEMPORARY LITERATURE : Literature written at the present moment. Although the writers in every century would consider themselves contemporary or modern, when speakers use this term, they almost always mean either modernist or postmodernist literature. COTERIE WRITING : Writing intended originally for the amusement or edification of a small circle of friends or family rather than for publication or public perusal. Often, however, such writings later become adopted or modified for publication. Sometimes, the author does this; in First Park. Essay, other cases, later editors do this posthumously. Famous examples include Mary Shelley originally created Frankenstein as part of a ghost-story contest amongst her friends and literary comrades.

Aphra Behn originally wrote many of her poems as part of plots coterie writing, though most of Literacy School Students her plays, her philosophical treatises, and Oronooko appear to have penned with a deliberate eye toward publication or financial gain. CONTEXTUAL SYMBOL : A unique or original symbol an schild plots author creates within the context of an individual work or an author's collected works. Examples include the Snopes family in Faulkner's collected works, who together function as a symbol of the South's moral decay, or the town of Castle Rock, Maine, which in Stephen King's works functions as a microcosmic symbol of human society. Contrast with cultural symbol , below. CONTRACTION : The squeezing together of sounds or words--especially when one word blurs into Trials, another--during fast or informal speech. Contractions such as I'm (I am), he's (he is), and plots they're (they are) are common in verbal communication, but they are often considered too loose for more formal writing. CONTRAPASSIO (counter-suffering): A thematic principle involving situational irony in which a punishment's nature corresponds exactly to the nature of a crime. Much of Dante's Inferno revolves around elaborate contrapassio . CONTROL TEXT : A specific text upon which a modern edition is based. City Of Alexandria, Budget Year 2011 Essay! For instance, there are at least three dominant manuscript traditions of Langland's Piers Plowman poem: the A-text, the B-text, and the C-text (and possibly a Z-text, as recent scholarship has tentatively suggested). These versions contain different dialogue, different wording, and different spelling; they do not all contain the same passages and do not include identical storylines.

A modern editor must either choose one to use as the schild basis of a modern edition, or she must create a conflation . Several Shakespeare plays vary wildly between the quarto and Human folio versions--including Hamlet and plots King Lear . A Doll House Sparknotes! In other cases, such as Le Morte D'Arthur , a modern editor must choose between using a manuscript source for his control text (such as the Winchester Manuscript) or a printed source (such as Caxton's printed Renaissance edition). CONVENTION : A common feature that has become traditional or expected within a specific genre (category) of literature or film. In Harlequin romances, it is conventional to focus on plots, a male and female character who struggle through misunderstandings and difficulties until they fall in love. In western films of the early twentieth-century, for instance, it has been conventional for protagonists to wear white hats and Functional in High School antagonists to wear black hats. The wandering knight-errant who travels from place to place, seeking adventure while suffering from the effects of hunger and the elements, is plots, a convention in medieval romances. It is a convention for an English sonnet to have fourteen lines with a specific rhyme scheme, abab , cdcd , efef , gg , and so on.

The use of a chorus and the unities are dramatic conventions of Greek tragedy, while, the aside , and the soliloquy are conventions in Human Trials, Elizabethan tragedy. Conventions are often referred to as poetic, literary, or dramatic, depending upon whether the plots convention appears in of Bradbury’s, a poem, short story or novel, or a play. CONVENTIONAL : A conventional linguistic trait is an arbitrary one learned from others, not one determined by plots, some natural law or genetic inheritance. Today, most linguists think most vocabulary and grammar are conventional, but some linguists in previous centuries believed ethnicity affected language development and acquisition. CORPUS CHRISTI PLAY : A religious play performed outdoors in the medieval period that enacts an National Park. Essay event from the Bible, such as the story of schild plots Adam and Human Trials Eve, Noah's flood, the crucifixion, and so on. The word is derived from the religious festival of Corpus Christi (Latin: The Body of schild plots Christ). See also cycle and mystery play . CORRESPONDENCES : An integral part of the medieval and Renaissance model of the universe known as the Chain of Being. The idea was that different links on the Chain of Being were interconnected and had a sort of a doll house sparknotes sympathetic correspondence to schild plots each other. Each type of being or object (men, beasts, celestial objects, fish, plants, and rocks) had a place within a hierarchy designed by God.

Each type of object had a primate , which was by sparknotes, nature the schild plots most noble, rare, valuable, and superb example of its type. For instance, the Listening Essay king was primate among men, the lion among beasts, the schild plots sun among celestial objects, the whale among fish, the oak among trees, and the diamond among rocks. Often, there was a symbolic link between primates of different orders--such as the lion being a symbol of royalty, or the Human Essay king sleeping in a bed of schild oak. The Significance! This symbolic link was a correspondence. However, correspondences were thought to exist in the material world as well as in the world of ideas. Disturbances in nature would correspond to disturbances in the political realm (the body politic ), in the human body (the microcosm ), and in the natural world as a whole (the macrocosm ). For instance, if the king were to become ill, Elizabethans might expect lions and beasts to fall sick, rebellions to break out in the kingdom, individuals to schild plots develop headaches or fevers, and stars to a doll house sparknotes fall from the sky.

All of these events could correspond to each other on the chain of being, and schild each would coincide with the others. Essay! For more information about correspondences and the Chain of Being, click here. COSMIC IRONY : Another term for situational irony--especially situational irony connected to a fatalistic or pessimistic view of life. See discussion under irony , below. COTHURNI : The Greek word for the elevator-shoes worn by important actors on stage. Schild! See discussion under buskins . COTTON LIBRARY, THE : One of the most important collections of Old and Middle English texts. Click here for details. COTTON NERO A.X : The Middle English manuscript that includes Pearl , Cleanness , Patience , Sir Gawain and the Green Knight , and Journey the Legend of Saint Erkenwald . Click here for details. COTTON VITELLIUS A.XV : The Old English manuscript that includes The Passion of Saint Christopher , The Wonders of the East , and The Letter of schild Alexander to Aristotle , Beowulf , and the Old English translation of Judith . Click here for details. COUNTING : A technique of determining stylistic qualities of a piece of writing by counting the numbers of words in paragraphs or sentences, and determining the average number of modifiers, average word lengths, and The World's First National so on. COUPLET : Two lines--the second line immediately following the first--of the same metrical length that end in a rhyme to schild form a complete unit.

Geoffrey Chaucer and sparknotes other writers helped popularize the form in English poetry in the fourteenth century. Plots! An especially popular form in later years was the heroic couplet , which was rhymed iambic pentameter. It was popular from the 1600s through the late 1700s. Much Romantic poetry in the early 1800s used the of Symbolism to Support Fahrenheit couplet as well. A couplet that occurs after the volta in an English sonnet is called a gemel (see sonnet, volta, gemel ). COURT OF LOV E : In medieval convention, a court of schild plots love is an assemblage of City of Alexandria, Virginia Year 2011 women presided over by a queen or noblewoman. At this mock-court, various young knights or courtiers are summoned to court and plots put on trial by the ladies for their crimes against love. These crimes might be neglecting their sweethearts, failing to wear their ladies' tokens at jousts, and so on.

Chaucer himself may have been summoned to a court of School Students Essay love for schild plots, his libelous depiction of Criseyde in Troilus and Criseyde , and Queen Anne may have required him to write The Legend of Essay Good Women as a penance for his literary crimes. In The Wife of schild plots Bath's Tale, we find an The Significance of Symbolism to Support inversion of the normal play-acting in which King Arthur gives Gwenevere and her ladies the right to schild try a rapist-knight for his crimes. Here, the women literally have power of life or death over the subject. Andreas Capellanus discusses the courts of love in his medieval writings, and more recent scholars such as C. S. Lewis ( The Allegory of sparknotes Love ) and Amy Kelly ( Eleanor of schild plots Aquitaine ) discuss the convention at length. Cf. demand d'amour . COURTLY LOVE (Medieval French: fin amour or amour courtois ): Possibly a cultural trope in the late twelfth-century, or possibly a literary convention that captured popular imagination, courtly love refers to a code of The World's National behavior that gave rise to modern ideas of chivalrous romance. Schild Plots! The term itself was popularized by C. S. Lewis' and Gaston Paris' scholarly studies, but its historical existence remains contested in critical circles. First National Park.! The conventions of courtly love are that a knight of schild plots noble blood would adore and worship a young noble-woman from afar, seeking to Virginia Fiscal 2011 Essay protect her honor and win her favor by valorous deeds. He typically falls ill with love-sickness, while the woman chastely or scornfully rejects or refuses his advances in public but privately encourages him.

Courtly love was associated with (A) nobility, since no peasants can engage in fine love; (B) secrecy; (C) adultery, since often the schild plots one or both participants were married to another noble who was unloved; and (D) paradoxically with chastity, since the passion should never be consummated due to social circumstances, thus it was a higher love unsullied by selfish carnal desires or political concerns of arranged marriages. In spite of this ideal of City Budget Fiscal 2011 chastity, the schild plots knightly characters in The World's First National Park. Essay, literature usually end up giving in to their passions with tragic results--such as Lancelot and Guenevere's fate, or that of Tristan and Iseult. We associate courtly love with French literature primarily, but the concept permeated German and Italian literature as well. The German equivalent of fin amour is Minne (hence Minnesänger ), and the Italian poets of the dolce stil nuovo cultivated similar subject matter. The convention of courtly love eventually becomes a source of parody. Andreas Capellanus' Rules of Courtly Love provides a satirical guide to the endeavor, and Chretien de Troyes satirizes the conventions in plots, his courtly literature as well. Similar conventions influence Petrarch's poetry and Shakespeare's sonnets. The World's Essay! These sonnets often emphasize in particular the plots idea of love from afar and in High School Students unrequited love, and make use of imagery and wording common to the earlier French tradition. In terms of whether or not practices of courtly love were a historical reality, scholars are loosely divided into schools of thought, as William Kibler notes. Schild Plots! The first group, the so-called realists, argue that such institutions truly did exist in the Middle Ages and the literature of the time reproduces this realistically. The opposing school, the so-called idealists, argue that (at best) courtly love was a court game taken ironically as a joke, or (at worst) post-Romantic/Victorian readers have superimposed their own ideals and wishes on medieval culture by exaggerating these components.

CRADLE TRICK : A sub-category of the bed-trick , this is a folk motif in which the position of a cradle in a dark room leads one character to climb into Listening, bed with the wrong sexual partner. It appears prominently in Chaucer's The Reeve's Tale. In the Aarne-Thompson folk-index, this motif is usually numbered as motif no. 1363. CREEPYPASTA : A short story posted online designed to shock, frighten, or disconcert the reader. For more discussion, see ghost story . CREOLE : A native language combining the traits of multiple languages, i.e., an advanced and fully developed pidgin.

In the American South, black slaves were often brought in from a variety of African tribes sharing no common language. On the plantation, they developed first a pidgin (limited and simplified) version of English with heavy Portuguese and African influences. This pidgin allowed slaves some rudimentary communication with each other and with their slave masters. In time, they lost their original African languages and plots the mixed speech became the native tongue of their children--a creole. Contrast with pidgin . CRESCENDO : Another term for rhetorical climax . See climax, rhetorical , above. CRISIS (plural: crises ): The turning point of uncertainty and tension resulting from earlier conflict in a plot. Of Symbolism The Purpose Fahrenheit! At the moment of crisis in a story, it is unclear if the protagonist will succeed or fail in his struggle. The crisis usually leads to or overlaps with the climax of a story, though some critics use the two terms synonymously. See climax, literary , above.

CRITICAL READING : Careful analysis of an essay's structure and plots logic in order to The Significance of Symbolism the Purpose of Bradbury’s Fahrenheit determine the validity of an argument. Often this term is used synonymously with close reading (see above), but I prefer to reserve close reading for schild, the artistic analysis of literature. Click here for more information about critical reading. Cf. close reading . CRITICUS APPARATUS : The scholarly notations in a critical edition (especially a variorum edition) in which the Functional School editor indicates all the known variations of a particular text. Plots! The apparatus often appears running along the bottom of each page or sometimes in the back of the book, and Essay often incorporates editorial footnotes and glosses. The apparatus can appear quite cryptic to students unfamiliar with the formulaic abbreviations in scholarly use. For instance, below is an illustrative notation from A. Plots! V. C. The World's Park. Essay! Schmidt's criticus apparatus for Passus I, line 1, of the Everyman edition of schild plots William Langland's Piers Plowman , page 14: Collation WHmCrGYOC2CLMHRF. First Park. Essay! RUBRIC Passus primus de visione Wr (pr] Secundus F; de v.] de petri le ploughman BR; om O); om GC2. This notation indicates subsequent lines are collated together in thirteen of the plots surviving manuscripts, each manuscript being indicated by a special abbreviation.

Furthermore, the Human Trials Essay opening line in manuscripts W and r has a Latin title written in red ink (rubricated) as indicated, but another manuscript F has labeled it as secundus rather than primus, while the B and R manuscripts label it in a combination of French and Latin, and so on. A good criticus apparatus helps document all this diversity by schild plots, gathering it together, line-by-line, for to Support of Bradbury’s Fahrenheit 451, convenient comparison at a glance, but the schild editor presumes the reader knows the dense, standardized abbreviations involved in this notation. For a clearer, hypothetical example, let us imagine Edgar Allan Poe has a poem surviving in sparknotes, three slightly different forms. The most widespread version Poe had published by Smith Publishing early in his career. Ten years later, Poe revised the plots poem for a new publisher, Baker Books, and the Purpose they printed this revision a few years after Poe's death. Last of all, a third unpolished version survives in Poe's own handwritten notes. Scholars discover this last manuscript version squirreled away in the Morgan Library in 2012. Modern editors would compile these three sources and select what they consider the best text. Plots! However, they must not ignore the alternative versions by leaving them unnoted and Functional Literacy in High Students unannotated; that would effectively erase them from history.

Accordingly, the editors might add a criticus apparatus . Here, they would note the relevant line number and plots indicate alternatives. The first version by Smith Books (abbreviated S) has the Functional Essay phrase Conqueror Worme appear in line six. The version by Baker Books (abbreviated B) has a slightly different archaic spelling Conqueror Wyrm in the same spot. Finally, Poe's own original handwritten rough draft of the poem survives among his papers in the Morgan Library (abbreviated Ml). This manuscript uses the abbreviation Conqu. Wm. Schild Plots! scrawled in that line.

Now, a modern scholar wants to publish an authoritative version of Poe's poem a century later. This modern editor chooses to emend the line to a standardized spelling of Journey Conqueror Worm. The criticus apparatus at the bottom of the page might consist of a footnote such as this: 6 Conqeror Worm ] S: Conqueror Worme ; B: Conqueror Wyrm , Ml: Conqu. Wm . The 6 indicates line six as the section with variant readings. The words before the bracket ] show readers that the editor considers the preceding version the best text for a modern reader--or at least the version the editor has chosen for his edition. The material after the bracket lists each variant source and plots indicates how the differing material appeared in that source as exactly as possible.

A criticus apparatus documents the known variations that might plausibly be accurate and The World's Park. Essay reminds modern readers of the multiple possible versions an earlier audience might have experienced. Schild Plots! This process is especially pertinent in classical and medieval studies, since in the pre-print era, handwritten texts often exhibited striking and even contradictory variant readings. Listening! For instance, in the case of plots The Aeneid , about 3,000 texts survive with each manuscript containing significant variations. Of Symbolism The Purpose Of Bradbury’s Fahrenheit 451! In the case of Chaucer, about 82 versions of the Canterbury Tales survive, all with variant readings. Schild! In the case of Shakespeare, striking differences appear in the F (folio) and Essay Q1, Q2, Q3 (first, second, and third quarto) versions of his plays, and so on.

CROSSED RHYME : In long couplets, especially hexameter lines, sufficient room in the line allows a poet to use rhymes in the middle of the line as well as at plots, the end of Literacy Students each line. Swinburne's Hymn to plots Proserpine illustrates its use: Thou hast conquered, O pale Galilean ; the world has grown grey from Thy breath ; We have drunken of things Lethean , and fed on the fullness of death . Laurel is green for a season , and love is sweet for a day ; But love grows bitter with treason , and laurel outlives not May . In the Journey excerpt above, the words in red are part of crossed rhyme, and the words in green are regular rhyme. Schild! Crossed rhyme is also called interlaced rhyme . Contrast with internal rhyme and leonine rhyme . CROWN OF SONNETS : According to Shipley (142), an interlinked poem or cycle of seven sonnets in which the last line of each of the first six serves as the last line of the next, and the last line of the the Purpose Fahrenheit 451 seventh sonnet serves as the first line of the first sonnet. All other rhymes are used once only in the collection of the entire seven sonnets. Plots! An English example would be Donne's La Corona, though the house sparknotes structure is much more common in Italian poetry. A more complicated alternative structure is the so-called heroic crown of sonnets (alias the sonnet redoublé ), which is similar in structure but consists of 15 rather than 7 sonnets in total, but which follows the same rules for rhyme repetitions (Shipley 530). CTHULHU MYTHOS (also spelled Cthulu and Kutulu , pronounced various ways): Strongly influential in schild, pulp science fiction and early twentieth-century horror stories , the Cthulhu mythos revolves around a pantheon of malign alien beings worshipped as gods by half-breed cultists.

These aliens were invented and popularized by pulp fiction horror writer H. P. Lovecraft. The name Cthulhu comes from Lovecraft's 1928 short story, The Call of Cthulhu, which introduces the creature Cthulhu as a gigantic, bat-winged, tentacled, green monstrosity who once ruled planet earth in prehistoric times. Currently in a death-like state of a doll sparknotes hibernation, it now awaits an opportunity to rise from the schild underwater city of R'lyeh and Listening Journey plunge the earth once more into darkness and terror. August Derleth later coined the term Cthulhu mythos to describe collectively the settings, themes, and alien beings first imagined by Lovecraft but later adapted by pulp fiction authors like Clark Ashton Smith, Robert E. Howard, Robert Bloch, Henry Kuttner, and schild plots Brian Lumley. Some common elements, motifs, and characters of the Listening Essay mythos include the following: CULTURAL SYMBOL: A symbol widely or generally accepted as meaning something specific within an entire culture or social group, as opposed to schild a contextual symbol created by a single author that has meaning only within a single work or group of works. Examples of cultural symbols in house, Western culture include the plots cross as a symbol of Christianity, the American flag as a symbol of a doll house America's colonial history of thirteen colonies growing into fifty states, the gold ring as a symbol of marital commitment, the schild plots Caduceus as a symbol of medicine, and the color black as a symbol of mourning. Examples of The Significance the Purpose cultural symbols in other cultures include white as a symbol of mourning in schild plots, Japan, the of Alexandria, Virginia Fiscal Yin-Yang sphere as an schild oriental symbol of oppositional forces in balance, the white crane as a symbol of longevity in Mandarin China, and so forth. The World's First National! Any writer in a specific culture could use one of these symbols and schild plots be relatively confident that the reader would understand what each symbol represented.

Thus, if a writer depicted a pedophilic priest as trampling a crucifix into the mud, it is likely the reader would understand this action represents the way the priest tramples Christian ideals, and so forth. Contrast with contextual symbol and archetype . CYBERPUNK MOVEMENT : (1) A loose school of science fiction authors including William Gibson, Bruce Stirling, Rudy Rucker, and Human Cloning Essay Neal Stephenson who rose in popularity in the 1980s and 1990s. (2) A science fiction subgenre that shares the concerns and features of those works produced by the cyberpunk school. Features of schild their novels and Literacy Students short stories in this period include the following motifs: Common themes include the dehumanization, commodification, and mechanization of the individual; the plots negative effects of commercialization upon society; and Essay implicit philosophical questions regarding consciousness and sensory reality. Schild Plots! These cyberpunk authors have been profoundly influential in Essay, late twentieth-century science fiction films (such as Strange Days , Robocop , etc.) and Japanese anime , where cyberpunk elements have become so common as to be almost cliché . Plots! The metaverse or the Net imagined by these early authors in the 1980s have been seen as prophetic of the later real-world rise of the Essay internet after 1993. Examples of novels, anthologies, short stories, and schild other literary works from the cyberpunk movement include Neuromancer , Mona Lisa Overdrive , Islands in the Net , and Johnny Mnemonic. (The last of these has been adapted into an awful film that bears little similarity to the original short story.) More recently, Neal Stephenson's Snow Crash has put a more satirical spin on the genre . CYCLE : In general use, a literary cycle is Human Cloning, any group of closely related works. We speak of the Scandinavian, Arthurian , and Charlemagne cycles, for instance. These refer collectively to many poems and schild stories written by various artists over several centuries. A Doll! These cycles all deal with Scandinavian heros, King Arthur and his knights, or the legends of King Charlemagne respectively. More specifically, a mystery cycle refers to the complete set of mystery plays performed during the Corpus Christi festival in medieval religious drama (typically 45 or so plays, each of which depicted a specific event in schild, biblical history from the creation of the Human Cloning Trials world to schild the last judgment).

The major English cycles of mystery plays include the York, Coventry, Wakefield or Towneley, and Chester cycles. See Corpus Christi play , above. See also sonnet cycle . CYHYDEDD HIR : A syllabic verse form in ancient Welsh poetry. The octave stanza consists two quatrains of four lines with five, five, five, and four syllables respectively. The rhyme scheme is AAAx AAAx , with X's indicating unrhymed lines. See octave and rhyme . CYHYDEDD NAW BAN : A syllabic verse form in Functional School, ancient Welsh poetry in which some lines are composed of nine syllables. Plots! The rhyming couplets, when they appear, must rhyme with another line of identical length. CYNGHANEDD (pronounced kun HAN neth , lit.

Welsh for symphony or harmony): A Welsh term that loosely denotes sound similarities peculiar to Welsh poetry, especially alliteration and internal rhyme . Typically, the consonants in one word or line repeat in Essay, the same pattern at the beginning and end of the schild plots next word or line--but the vowel sounds between the consonants change slightly. In the English tradition of poetry, Gerard Manley Hopkins charmingly refers to such devices as chimes , and he makes much use of them in his works such as Spring and Fall. See also awdl and englyn . For an example of cynghanedd in English, click here. CYNING : A king, another term for a doll house sparknotes, an Anglo-Saxon hlaford . Not to be confused with kenning , an Anglo-Saxon poetic device. CYRCH A CHWTA : A Welsh verse form consisting of an octave stanza of six rhyming or alliterating seven-syllable lines plus a couplet. The second line of the schild couplet rhymes with the first six lines. The first line of the couplet cross-rhymes in Literacy in High School Essay, the third, fourth, or fifth syllable of the eighth line. CYRILLIC : Also called, azbuka , the plots alphabet used to write Russian, Serbian, and Bulgarian.

The name comes from the 9th-century Greek missionary Saint Cyril, who traveled from Byzantium to convert Slavic races of Moravia to Christianity. Folklore credits Cyril at the inventor of this script, though it is more likely he invented the Glaglotic , what Harkins refers to as an abtruse alphabet of obscure origin, which soon lost favor (5). Cyrillic, modeled largely on the Greek alphabet, rose to replace Glaglotic, though Cyril retained credit. The alphabet came to Russia later after its Christianization in Functional Literacy Students Essay, 988 or 989. Modern Russian, Ukrainian, Belorussian, Bulgarian, and plots Serbian alphabets were later offshoots of Cyrillic.

Peter the Great simplified the alphabet in 1708, so the lettering required less ornate design, and later modifiers removed four characters as redundant in 1918. The present alphabet consists of thirty letters, mostly phonetic, though it does not show the stress of syllables (5). CYWYDD (plural, cywyddau) : A fourteenth-century metrical form of Welsh lyric poetry consisting of rhyming couplets with each line having seven syllables. Traditionally, in each couplet, the house lines end with alternately stressed and unstressed meter. In terms of content, cywyddau traditionally include examples of dyfalu --strings of unusual comparisons similar to metaphysical conceits. The genre is associated with the plots poet Dafydd ap Gwilym. CYWDD DEUAIR HIRION : In Welsh prosody, the term refers to a form of light verse consisting of a single couplet with seventeen syllables. Cloning Trials! The first line has a masculine ending and the last line a feminine ending. CYWYDD LLOSGYRNOG : A type of Welsh verse consisting of a sestet stanza in which the syllable count is eight, eight, seven, eight, eight, and seven respectively.

The first two lines rhyme and cross-rhyme with the middle syllable of the sixth line and the third and sixth lines rhyme with each other. Rime coueé or tail-rhyme has a similar scheme.

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If you feel you must include them somewhere, follow the same rule as job history: Keep them off the first page. Instead, attach them at the top of the page containing your extensive job history. You have 2 primary goals for your curriculum vitae: Make it easy to read and make every word count. In order to accomplish this, you need to Listening, use a font of at least 10-12 and make each section of your document stand out from the next by schild, staggering blocks of Trials information that take up different levels of horizontal space. For example, you may place your name, physical address, phone number, and email address at the top in plots, the center. For contrast, you would place a sentence outlining your objective; perhaps something like: To obtain consistent and long term employment with a company in which my skills and talents will be utilized and appreciated.

Because that sentence will take the City of Alexandria, Virginia Fiscal entire width of the page, your next sections should be small and centered. This would be a great place to list your skills. If you place your employment in the next section, that would be a great contrast to your skills. Make a table with 2 columns and schild plots a few rows (just enough for your most relevant jobs). Add your title, previous employers, and of Symbolism to Support Fahrenheit 451 their contact information in the left column and your job duties on schild plots the right. Finally, underneath your employment history, enter your education information centered on the page.

Employers may or may not be interested in speaking with your personal references. If there is Cloning Essay any reason why your prospective employers shouldnt speak with your previous supervisors, try to avoid putting their contact information on your Curriculum Vitae. Otherwise, there should be plenty of professional references in your format for them to review. You can post a sentence on schild plots the bottom of Listening Journey your Curriculum Vitae either inviting your potential employer to call contacts from plots your employment history and/or letting him/her know that you have a list of personal references available if requested. If you have room on The Significance of Symbolism of Bradbury’s 451 the page after leaving plenty of plots space in between each section, increase the font size of your name. If you have adequate or advanced linguistic skills, consider writing a short cover letter (3-5 small to moderate paragraphs) introducing yourself and outlining your skills, dedication, ambition, work ethic, and any other relevant piece of information that increases your appeal to an employer but may not have a proper place on a doll your Curriculum Vitae. Cover letters are easy to schild, disregard if an employer isnt interested, and they can help to set you aside from other applicants if there is an interest in learning more about you by reading your cover letter. You can either use the Functional School outline provided in this article or you can create your own curriculum vitae outline containing your name, contact information, and the basic sections you will need to fill out per application. Save the outline and consistent information in a master file, and once youve finished preparing a Curriculum Vitae for a job, choose Save as and create a specific name for it. To find your Curriculum Vitae more quickly and conveniently, consider using the same name and schild changing only the Park. last word.

For example, you may save your resume as MyResumeCompany.doc. Schild? Replace the word Company with each different place to which you submit your curriculum. How to Write a Great Cover Letter. Landing a job is undoubtedly difficult in todays economy. Writing a great cover letter is probably the of Symbolism to Support the Purpose Fahrenheit 451 most important step you can towards landing the job of their dreams. Why is plots writing a cover letter so important? It is the first thing a potential employer sees, and Listening Journey Essay it will dictate whether or not the schild employer even looks at your resume. Even the most polished, professional resume doesnt stand a chance against a poorly written cover letter. How do you write a cover letter that not only a potential employer to read your resume, but also gets you invited for an interview? Writing a winning cover letter is City Virginia Fiscal not difficult if you follow a few simple steps:

Just like an employer wont look at a resume thats attached to a poorly written cover letter, the employer wont even bother to read the cover letter if its a messy jumble of text. To create a professional-looking cover letter, be sure to use plenty of schild white space. You should have, at a minimum, one inch margins and double spaces between paragraphs. Follow the in High School Students guidelines for writing a basic business letter and be sure to include a simple, text-only letterhead. Your letterhead should be the same letterhead that appears on schild your resume. This is your one and only chance to name drop, so take advantage of it. Potential employers want to know how you heard about the position. You should also identify the specific position that you are seeking, and state that you are applying for this position. Yes, its obvious, but cover letters follow a long-established pattern, and this isnt the time to be a rebel. Finally, set the tone for the rest of the letter, and briefly state what you will be discussing.. If you have more than a few years of experience in the field to which you are applying, your professional experience should be presented before your educational experience.

First, write a topic sentence that presents one unified idea. If youve held several jobs in Journey, this career, find the one aspect that these jobs have in common that will most impress your potential employer. You also need to schild, link this paragraph to your educational experience. Similar to your employment paragraph, you need to of Alexandria, Budget Fiscal 2011 Essay, develop one unified idea rather than simply presenting a list of plots all the schools youve attended and courses youve taken. Determine which aspect of your education is Virginia Budget Fiscal 2011 most important to the position youre applying for and present it here. A fourth and even fifth paragraph may be added if you need to present additional relevant information. Schild Plots? Just remember to develop one idea per paragraph, and to keep the entire letter under one page.

This is your opportunity to tie everything together, leading the Trials reader to invite you to an interview. You need to reference your resume and any other included attachments. In addition, you need to politely, yet confidently state that you wish to be invited to an interview. Finally, state the easiest way for the employer to reach you, referring to the phone number and e-mail address in your letterhead. For important documents like cover letters, you need to schild, go beyond your computers spell check and The World's First Park. Essay grammar check. Place the schild plots cover letter aside for a few hours, or overnight if possible, and look at it with fresh eyes. You might find errors that you didnt see previously. As a final step, ask someone, who you trust will do a decent job, to proofread your cover letter. Now, you have a well-written cover letter that will hopefully lead a potential employer to City of Alexandria, Virginia Fiscal Year 2011, read your resume and ultimately invite you to an interview. The rest is up to you! How to prepare for a winning job interview.

In a competitive market for available jobs, potential candidates should put in the necessary time and effort to make a solid impact. You must simply accept that its a buyers market, the buyer, in this case is the organization. Your first job as the seller is to sell yourself. You need to stand out from the other candidates like a house with a shiny red door in a cookie-cutter neighborhood. Schild? Assume your resume and cover letter is in a pile on to Support Fahrenheit 451 a desk with plenty of others, therefore you must find a way to rise to the top. You need to put yourself in a stronger position, instead of you trying to chasing the job, make them convince you to schild plots, take it.

Your mindset dictates the demeanor you portray. If you seem too desperate, you dont make it to the next step, however, too arrogant and doors will close. You have to Functional Literacy Students Essay, put yourself in the shoes of the interviewer and determine your moves every step of the way. Spend about five hours preparing for each hour of schild interview, you want to investigate how you can deliver value to the organization. By researching and probing how you can make an impact in the position, you are going beyond the canned responses of most candidates. First National Park.? Your resume should announce that you are qualified for the position. After the interview, you want to leave the impression that you can start the job tomorrow. Schild? You want to contact somebody who does the same job at the organization or similar enterprise and ask several questions. Its a must that you discover the a doll house current challenges for the position within the organization and the industry as a whole.

The next step is schild succeed where so many candidates fall short, you want to The Significance of Bradbury’s Fahrenheit, show initiative by suggesting ideas for the position. Hiring managers have so many job functions to schild plots, perform, by proving that you not only did research concerning the Essay position, but proposed suggestions, you show tremendous potential. You would be surprised how those that have been performing the job for years have not expressed such aptitude. Be prepared to go beyond lip service, you want to demonstrate the homework you have done. Reaching out to a current employee performing the same job function puts you over the top. Dont be shy or feel like you are intruding. Many employees have innovative ideas about how to plots, perform their jobs better, tap into Human Trials Essay, that information for free and then add your own spin. Plots? Use the power of imagination to City Virginia Budget Year 2011 Essay, stand out from the schild crowd, everybody else is going to Virginia Budget Year 2011, be following the same job interview tips that get recycled over the web.

If you want to make a lasting impression, you must put in schild plots, the sweat and effort. Find someone who you can practice with until it comes out Virginia Year Essay natural. Landing an offer in a tough economy requires considerable effort. If you can demonstrate you can make an schild plots impact in your interview, your name will rise to the top of the pack. Copyright Curriculum-Vitae.In 2013 - Contact : webmaster curriculum-vitae.in.

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