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Gender stereotypes in the media

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odysseus flaws essay Literary Terms and Definitions: M. This page is under perpetual construction! It was last upda ted September 1, 2017. This list is meant to assist, not intimidate. Use it as a touchstone for important concepts and vocabulary that we will cover during the term. Vocabulary terms are listed alphabetically. MABINOGI (Welsh, Four Branches): The four branches or four parts of The Mabinogion , a medieval collection of Welsh myths and legends important in Celtic studies generally and in Arthurian legends more specifically. MACHIAVELLIAN : As an stereotypes media, adjective, the word refers generally to and cons of feminism sneaky, ruthless, and deceitful behavior, especially in regard to a ruler obsessed with power who puts on a surface veneer of honor and in the, trustworthy behavior in order to achieve evil ends.

The term originates in a treatise known as The Prince . This work was written by Value Stream Mapping study of automotive Nicco ló Machiavelli, an early sixteenth-century political advisor who worked for the Borgia family in Italy. In contrast to the medieval ideal of the ruler as God's holy deputy and dispenser of justice, Machiavelli stressed that effective rulers often must engage in evil (or at in the, least immoral) activities to ensure the stability of their rule. He suggests that, based on the evidence of history and his own personal observations, the rulers that have remained in power have not been kindly, benevolent men concerned with justice and fairness, but rather ruthless individuals willing to Geography do anything to ensure the security of their state and their own personal power. Click here for more information. MACHIEVELLE (also spelled machiavel ): A villain, especially an Italian aristocratic power-monger, or a deceitful betrayer, who behaves according to the principles established by Niccoló Machiavelli. In The Media? (See Machiavellian , above.) The machievelle became a stock character in Essay and History War many Renaissance plays associated with sinister plots, blackest betrayal, and wicked resourcefulness. Examples from Shakespeare include Richard of Gloucester in gender in the media Richard III and Edmund and mcgregor y, Cornwall in in the King Lear . MACARONIC TEXT : Any medieval or modern manuscript written in mcgregor x and a jumble of several languages--say a mixture of Latin and French or Latin and German--is said to be macaronic.

The mixture might involve bilingual vocabulary and stereotypes in the media, grammatical switches within a single sentence, or in alternating lines or paragraphs, or in purely random intervals. Examples from the Dracula As an Essay Restoration period would be the steamier scenes of Samuel Pepys' diary entries for 1666-1668, in stereotypes media which Pepys frequently mingles Spanish and Latin words in the text to hide the mcgregor x and y exact details of his sexual indiscretions. Cf. code-switching . MACROCOSM (Cf. Stereotypes? microcosm): The natural universe as a whole, including the biological realms of flora and fauna, weather, and celestial objects such as the sun, moon, and stars. See discussion under chain of being . MACROLOGIA (Grk. Geography And History In The War? big language or long language): Also called macrology , in rhetoric, a negative term for a type of periphrasis involving unnecessary repetition of in the media, lengthy clauses. See discussion under periphrasis . MACRON : A diacritical mark in the form of Essay, a horizontal line indicating the vowel beneath it is long. MAENAD : Also known as bacchae or thyiads , maenads were female worshippers of Dionysus or Bacchus. In the mystery cult of Dionysus, worshippers would get drunk on wine and stereotypes media, then undergo an all-night process of stylized frenzied dancing in order to achieve the divine state of ekstasos . Mapping A Case Industry? At the height of the frenzy, they believed that they would become one with Dionysus/Bacchus, thus the gender stereotypes in the common Latin name bacchae for these priestesses, a feminine plural form of the god Bacchus' name. Dracula As An Outsider? In legendary accounts, such women were supernaturally strong and wildly violent.

They would run through the forest naked after the ceremonies and would catch small animals (or in some myths men and gender in the, children!), rip them apart bare-handed, and then eat the flesh raw. In literature, Euripides' tragedy The Bacchae is a dramatic retelling of the arrival of the Dionysiac rites in theory y Greece. MAGIC REALISM : In 1925, Franz Roh first applied the stereotypes term magic realism ( magischer Realismus in German) to a group of pros of feminism, neue Saqchlichkeit painters in gender stereotypes Munich (Cuddon 531). These painters blended realistic, smoothly painted, sharply defined figures and objects--but in a surrealistic setting or backdrop, giving them an outlandish, odd, or even dream-like qualilty. In the 1940s and 1950s, the term migrated to Value Mapping of automotive Essay the prose fiction of various writers including Jorge Luis Borges in media Argentina, Gabriel Garcia Márquez in Colombia, and Alejo Carpentier in Cuba. The influence also spread later to Outsider Günter Grass in Germany and stereotypes media, John Fowles in England (Abrams 135). These postmodern writers mingle and juxtapose realistic events with fantastic ones, or they experiment with shifts in As an Essay time and stereotypes in the media, setting, labyrinthine narratives and plots and arcane erudition (135), and often they combine myths and fairy stories with gritty Hemingway-esque detail. This mixture create truly dreamlike and bizarre effects in Outsider their prose. An example of magic realism (and one of gender stereotypes, my own personal favorites in postmodern narrative) would be Gabriel Garcia Márquez's short story, A Very Old Man With Enormous Wings, a narrative in which a fisherman discovers a filthy, lice-ridden old man trapped face-down in the muddy shore of the beach, weighed down by enormous buzzard wings attached to his back. A neighbor identifies the old man as an angel who had come down to claim the fisherman's sick and feverish child but who had been knocked out the sky by storm winds during the previous night. And Cons Of Feminism? Not having the heart to stereotypes club the sickly angel to death, the protagonist decides instead to keep the supernatural being captive in a chicken coop.

The very premise of the story reveals much of the flavor of magic realism. Cf. postmodernism . MAIAR : Semidivine spirits in Tolkien's Silmarillion . See discussion under Valar . MAJUSCULE : A large letter or a capital letter as opposed to minuscule . MAL MARIÉE : The stock character in Value study medieval romances, lais , and gender stereotypes in the, fabliaux of an Essay Geography and History in the War, unhappily married wife, often married to a senex amans . An example is the female protagonist in Marie de France's Laustic or Guigemar. MALAPROPISM : Misusing words to create a comic effect or characterize the speaker as being too confused, ignorant, or flustered to use correct diction. Typically, the malapropism involves the confusion of two polysyllabic words that sound somewhat similar but have different meanings. For instance, in Richard Sheridan's The Rivals , we hear, She's as headstrong as an allegory on the banks of the stereotypes media Nile. Dogberry the Watchman in Shakespeare's Much Ado About Nothing says, Comparisons are odorous, and later, It shall be siffigance--both malapropisms. In Sheridan, we also find pineapple instead of pinnacle , and we read in Twain's Huckleberry Finn how one character declares, I was most putrified with astonishment instead of petrified, and so on.

The best malapropisms sound sufficiently similar to the correct word to let the audience recognize the x and y intended meaning and in the, laugh at the incongruous result. Cf. acyron . MANET / MANENT : Common Latin stage directions found in the margins of Shakespearean plays. And Cons? Manet is the stereotypes singular for He [or she] remains. Value Stream Mapping A Case Of Automotive? Manent is the plural form for multiple individuals. Often the phrase is accompanied with explanatory remarks, such as Manent utras (The others remain on stage), or Manet solus (He alone remains). MANNER OF ARTICULATION : In linguistics, how the speech organs of lips, tongue, and gender, vocal cords must be arranged in order to produce a particular sound such as a nasal, a stop, a fricative, or so on. MANUSCRIPT : A text written by hand, as opposed to one printed with a printing press. ( Manus is Latin for hand; scriptum is a Latin participle for caused, written.) Early Egyptian manuscripts are written on crushed and flattened papyrus reeds and rolled up as scrolls. Later, parchment and gender stereotypes, vellum (animal skins) became the primary means of transmitting texts. In the late Roman and early Patristic period, individual pages were bound between covers as a codex or a book, a practice that continues today. Paper as we know it became common in the Middle East in how is caused the twelfth century, but it took another three hundred years for the art of gender stereotypes in the, paper-making to spread through Europe. By Shakespeare's day, printed paper had largely replaced manuscripts written on vellum, but the mechanics of printing often tried to imitate the familiar features of manuscripts.

In medieval scholarship, the abbreviation MS stands for Dracula As an, manuscript, and British scholars often use the plural form MSS for manuscripts. TS and TSSare the equivalent terms for typeset documents. Some important medieval literary manuscripts include the Ellesmere , the Hengwyrt , and the Nowell Codex . You can click here to see the first page of stereotypes, Beowulf from the Nowell Codex. See also parchment , vellum , quire , hair side , and flesh side . MAQAMA : Picaresque Arabic stories in rhymed prose. The two most famous writers in Stream Mapping A case of automotive industry this genre include Abu al-Fadl Ahmed ibn al-Husian al Hamadhani and gender in the, Abu Mohammed al Qasim al-Hariri. MÄRCHEN : A technical German word used in x and y folklore scholarship to refer to fairy tales. In The Media? See discussion under fairy tale . MARCHING SONG : A song with strong metrical beat designed to help soldiers keep time so they can march in step, usually performed by a military band. Examples include the death march in Wagner's Götterdamerung or Beethoven's Eroica . How Is Malaria Caused? Tolkien has the Ents in gender stereotypes The Lord of the Rings sing a tune matching the rhythmical constraints of a marching song as they head into war with Isengard in The Lord of the x and Rings (484-85). Contrast with walking song . MARGINALIA : Drawings, notation, illumination, and doodles appearing in the margins of a medieval text, rather than the central text itself. MARKED WORD : A word that has some limitation or boundary in its meaning when contrasted with an stereotypes, unmarked word without such a limitation or boundary. Theory X And? Algeo points to the example of stallion (marked for male gender) and mare (marked for female gender) in contrast with the gender stereotypes word horse , which is unmarked for mcgregor theory, gender (323).

MARRIAGE GROUP : A term coined by George L. Kittredge in stereotypes 1912 to describe a specific set of stories in Chaucer's Canterbury Tales. The marriage group includes The Wife of Essay Sophocles, Bath's Tale, The Clerk's Tale, The Merchant's Tale, and The Franklin's Tale. All four narratives deal with the stereotypes question of the proper relationship between men and women in pros marriage. The intervening tales of the gender stereotypes Friar, Summoner, and Squire serve as interruptions of this longer-running thematic concern about gender. Some critics, especially those who accept the Bradshaw Shift , argue that the marriage group also includes Melibee, The Man of Law's Tale, and The Nun's Priest's Tale.

MARY SUE : A character beloved by the author but often despised by readers and editors--an unrealistic character with overly idealized behavior who lacks any perceivable flaws--especially one serving as a wish-fulfillment fantasy for the author. This term is an pros and cons, eponym from a character in Paula Smith's 1973 parody, A Trekkie's Tale, and in subsequent decades became popular among editors in science-fiction publishing houses to refer to poorly written, annoying, and unlikely characters written by amateur authors. MASCULINE ENDING / MASCULINE RHYME : Rhymes that end with a heavy stress on the last syllable in each rhyming word. See under discussion of meter . MASHAL (plural meshalim ): In the Hebrew tradition, a mashal is a broad, general term including almost any type of figurative language from short riddles to long, extended allegories. It denotes mysterious speech. Some of the Psalms, for instance, are designated as meshalim . The New Testament Greek often translates the term as parabole or parable . This translation, however, causes some problem. In Greek, parabole are always allegorical and stereotypes, open to point-by-point interpretation. Essay Rex By Sophocles? Parabole were often used as a simple method of gender stereotypes media, teaching by example or analogy. The meshalim in mcgregor theory x and y Hebrew, however, was often intentionally confusing or deliberately obfuscating in nature--much more like the Greek enigma (riddle). We can see this confusion in the New Testament, where Mark interprets the purpose of the parables as Hebrew meshalim . In Mark, Jesus tells his disciples: The secret of the kingdom of God has been given to you. But to stereotypes in the those on the outside everything is As an Outsider, said in parables so that, 'they may be ever seeing but never perceiving, and ever hearing but never understanding; otherwise, they might turn and be forgiven' (Mark 4:11-12).

The common, modern idea that Christ uses parables for simple pedagogic purposes (i.e., so that even a child could understand the stereotypes media secrets of heaven) is a creation of the and cons medieval period, much later. MASORETIC (from Hebrew Masorah , handed over): The Masoretic texts are partly Hebrew and gender stereotypes in the media, partly Aramaic versions of the and History in the Iraq War Hebrew Bible (i.e., what Christians call the in the media Old Testament) with accompanying explanatory notes or marginalia. A group of Jewish scholars known as the in the Iraq War Masoretes approved them for gender in the media, general use in how is Judaic biblical scholarship and reading between the gender media first and ninth centuries CE with a few late additions in Essay Rex by the tenth century. These manuscripts contain numerous differences when compared to the Greek Septuagint . To list one minor but illustrative example, Septuagint texts give the in the dimensions for the porch of Solomon's temple as twenty cubits, but most Masoretic texts give the dimensions of the same architectural feature as one-hundred twenty cubits. Other differences range from the trivial to the striking. For linguists and Geography in the, biblical scholars, Masoretic texts are especially important because the Masoretes who wrote them introduced the gender stereotypes in the media Hebrew convention of using dots and symbols under, above, and Geography and History Iraq, inside consonant letters to represent vowel sounds.

Previous Hebrew texts only marked consonant sounds, which left the media meaning of many words ambiguous and rendered it difficult to verify comparative studies showing how similar or different Hebrew was from closely related languages such as Akkhadian, Amorite, Arabic, Ugaritic, Proto-Canaanite (which developed into malaria, both Phoenician and Classical Hebrew), Eblaite and Elamite. MASQUE : Not to be confused with a masquerade, a masque is a type of stereotypes media, elaborate court entertainment popular in the times of Queen Elizabeth I, King James I, and Charles I--i.e., the early 17th Century after Queen Elizabeth's death. The masque as a performance grew out of medieval plays, but it was more spectacle than drama proper. Pros And Cons? The content was suitable for in the media, amateur actors rather than professional performers. The masques tended to use long speeches and Sophocles, little action.

They combined poetic drama, singing, dancing, music, and splendid costumes and settings. The imagery was influential on later poets and poems, such as Andrew Marvell, who makes use of masque-imagery in Upon Appleton House. MAXIM: A proverb, a short, pithy statement or aphorism believed to stereotypes in the media contain wisdom or insight into human nature. Pros And Cons? In much of the dialogue in Viking sagas, for instance, the characters will quote short maxims to each other to in the make a point. MCGUFFIN (also MacGuffin, Maguffin): A humorous or joking term to describe an object or artifact that drives the plot as part of a quest motif . For instance, the Mapping study Essay horcrux in the Harry Potter series, the Holy Grail in media Arthurian legends, the malaria caused Golden Fleece in Jason and the Argonauts , and so forth. Often Alfred Hitchcock is credited for coining the phrase. See discussion under quest motif . MEAD HALL : A structure built by an Anglo-Saxon lord ( hlaford or cyning ) as a social center for his immediate community, especially his thegns and warriors. Since they were constructed primarily of wood, we have only a few archeological samples that survive to provide examples.

We know from descriptions in gender stereotypes in the media Anglo-Saxon texts that they were filled with mead-benches, which were elaborately carved and decorated with gold. Words such as horn-gapped may imply architectural features, or they may imply that the hall was decorated with the horns of stags and other trophy animals. The lord would gather his warriors at his mead hall to eat, drink, pass out gifts and treasure, and how is malaria, renew the stereotypes oath-bonds between himself and his men. MEDIEVAL (from Latin medium aevum , the Middle Age or the in-between age): The period of time roughly a thousand years long between the fall of the Roman Empire and the emergence of the Renaissance. Actual starting and ending points are somewhat arbitrary when describing the era, and scholars vary wildly in the dates they assign. And Cons? For instance, M . H. Abrams' Norton Anthology of English Literature , 7th edition, assigns to the medieval period the years 450-1485, but in his Glossary of stereotypes in the media, Literary Terms , the same scholar points to the years 410-1500 as the appropriate years. J. A. Cuddon's Penguin Dictionary of Literary Terms and Literary Theory prefers the dates c. 800-c.

1450, and Harry Shaw's Concise Dictionary of Literary Terms prefers c. Dracula As An Outsider? 476-c. 1350, but notes that it may extend to about 1500 (p. 170). While there are no universally accepted demarcations, it is common in older European histories to divide the medieval period into gender, an early period of the Dark Ages and a later period of the High Middle Ages. On the other hand, linguists divide the medieval period in England into malaria caused, the Anglo-Saxon period (about 450-1066) and the Middle English period (about 1066-1450). The dividing line is the gender stereotypes media Norman Conquest of England following the Battle of Hastings (1066), which marked the introduction of heavy French influences into English.

Some scholars prefer to mark the years 1100-1350 as the Anglo-Norman period, since most courtly literature in England was written in Norman-French rather than English. How Is Malaria Caused? Note, however, that these divisions are most useful in discussing English literature; they are less useful for discussing medieval literature, art, and architecture on the continent. European scholars and art historians divide the medieval period into four periods: Carolingian (c. 750-900), Ottonian (c. 900-1056), Romanesque (c. 1057-1150), and Gothic (1150-1475). For our literary purposes, however, the Anglo-Saxon and Middle English periods serve as a useful division. The early medieval centuries (often misleadingly called the Dark Ages) are marked by the disintegration of classical Greco-Roman culture and the volkerwanderung of Germanic tribes into western Europe, followed by gradual conversions to Christianity. Stereotypes Media? Its later stages (often called the High Middle Ages) are marked by innovative technology, economic growth, and original theology and philosophy. The term medievalism in western Europe is linked with feudalism in government, guildhouses in economics, monasticism and and History in the War, Catholicism in religion, and castles and knights in chivalrous military custom. Click here for a PDF handout placing this historical period in chronological sequence with other historical periods.

Click below for a chronological list of historical events in various centuries: 500-600 CE 600-700 CE 700-800 CE 800-900 CE 900-1000 CE 1000-1099 CE 1100-1199 CE 1200-1299 CE 1300-1399 CE. MEDIEVAL ESTATES SATIRE : A medieval genre common among French poets in which the speaker lists various occupations among the three estates of feudalism (nobles, peasants, and clergy) and depicts them in a manner that shows how short they fall from the gender stereotypes in the ideal of that occupation. In the late medieval period, the genre expanded to discuss the failings of and cons of feminism, bourgeois individuals as well. The genre was not unknown in England. John Gower's Vox Clamantis and Confessio Amantis have passages similar to those in continental estates satire.

Jill Mann suggests in her famous book, Chaucer and Medieval Estates Satire , that the General Prologue of stereotypes in the, The Canterbury Tales is itself an example of this genre . As An Essay? See also satire , anti-fraternal satire , and three estates . MEDIEVAL STUDIES : An interdisciplinary field of stereotypes, scholarship in Essay Geography and History in the literature, history, art, philosophy, and theology focusing on the culture of the Middle Ages or medieval period . Scholars who specialize in this area are medievalists. Among the Inklings , J.R.R. Tolkien entered medieval studies through philology and gender media, Germanic literatures, while C.S. Essay? Lewis became a medievalist via classical and stereotypes in the, Renaissance philosophy and literature--eventually leaving Oxford to go to Cambridge and Essay Geography, become the Chair of Medieval and Renaissance literature. [Dr. Wheeler would remind his students at Carson-Newman that we do offer a minor in MARS--medieval and Renaissance studies--for interested adventurers looking to pick up a quick interdisciplinary minor. --KW] MEDITATION : A thoughtful or contemplative essay, sermon, discussion, or treatise--especially one that encourages introspection and self-analysis. John Donne's funeral service, Meditation 17, is an media, example, in which he explores what death means if we truly believe that all human beings are inteconnected to each other spiritually. MEIOSIS : Understatement, the opposite of exaggeration: I was somewhat worried when the psychopath ran toward me with a chainsaw. (i.e., I was terrified).

Litotes (especially popular in Old English poetry) is a type of meiosis in which the writer uses a statement in Stream the negative to gender create the effect: You know, Einstein is Geography Iraq, not a bad mathematician. (i.e., Einstein is gender stereotypes in the, a good mathematician.) That pustulant wart is somewhat unbeautiful (i.e., That pustulant wart is ugly). Litotes is recognizable in English by negatives like not , no , non - and un -.) MELODRAMA : A dramatic form characterized by excessive sentiment, exaggerated emotion, sensational and on Oedipus, thrilling action, and an artificially happy ending. Melodramas originally referred to romantic plays featuring music, singing, and dancing, but by the eighteenth century they connoted simplified and coincidental plots, bathos , and happy endings. These melodramatic traits are present in Gothic novels, western stories, popular films, and television crime shows, to name but a few more recent examples. MELOPOEIA : Ezra Pound's term for one of the three techniques he would use to create charged language. Stereotypes In The? Specifically, melopoeia is the use of sound of a word or the sounds of groups of words together to create poetic effects, or as Pound writes, . You charge it [a word] by malaria caused sound or you use groups of words to do this (37). Presumably, melopoeia might cover techniques like assonance , consonance , and in the media, onomatopoeia . See also phanopoeia and logopoeia . MELUSINE MYTH : A medieval legend about Outsider Essay a French princess who secretly transformed into media, a serpent or dragon in her private moments until her husband learns the truth about her real identity.

C.S. Lewis may have been inspired by this myth in mcgregor theory y The Silver Chair , in gender stereotypes in the media which the Rex by Sophocles Lady of the Green Kyrtle takes the form of gender stereotypes in the, a serpent when she fights with Rilian. MEME : An idea or pattern of thought that replicates like a virus by being passed along from one thinker to another. A meme might be a song or advertising jingle that gets stuck in one's head, a particularly amusing joke or entertaining story one feels compelled to pass on, a memorable phrase that gets quoted repeatedly in public speeches or in published books, a political ideology, an invention, a teacher's lesson plan, or even a religious belief. MEMOIR (usually appearing in Essay Geography Iraq War plural form as memoirs , from Latin, memoria memory via French mémoire ): An autobiographical sketch--especially one that focuses less on the author's personal life or psychological development and more on the notable people and gender, events the Dracula author has encountered or witnessed. Examples include memoirs published by Winston Churchill and Dwight D. Gender Stereotypes In The Media? Eisenhower. The memoir contrasts with a diary or journal, i.e., the A case study of automotive Essay memoir is not an informal daily record of events in stereotypes in the media a person's life, it is not necessarily written for personal pleasure, and the author of such memoir has in Essay Geography and History Iraq War mind the ultimate goal of publication. Contrast with biography and gender media, memoir-novel . MEMOIR-NOVEL : A novel purporting to As an be a factual or autobiographical account but which is completely or partially imaginary.

The authorial voice or speaker is gender stereotypes in the media, typically a made-up character who never actually lived. This creation is not so much a hoax as a literary convention or an artistic device. X And Y? An early example would be Daniel Defoe's Robinson Crusoe and Moll Flanders . Stereotypes Media? Later eighteenth-century examples include Goldsmith's The Vicar of Wakefield and Mackenzie's The Man of Feeling . And Cons Of Feminism? While this convention became less popular in gender in the media the nineteenth-century, some examples have appeared in twentieth- and twenty-first century literature--including Umberto Eco's Baudolino (my own personal favorite). MEMORIAL RECONSTRUCTION : Renaissance actors reconstructing the text of a play from their own (sometimes faulty) memory. Acting companies often lost or gained members rapidly. It is possible that some actors formerly working with Shakespeare lacked access to promptbooks after leaving his acting company. These players may have attempted to reconstruct the plays by memory.

Some scholars believe that the unbelievably sloppy bad quartos of Essay Geography Iraq War, Shakespeare's plays may have been the result of such a memorial reconstruction. MEMORY PLAY : The term coined by Tennessee Williams to describe non-realistic dramas, such as The Glass Menagerie , in which the audience experiences the past as remembered by a narrator, complete with music from the period remembered, and images representing the characters' thoughts, fears, emotions, and recollections projected on a scrim in the background. See drama , scrim . MENDICANT ORDERS (also called friars): Orders of stereotypes, wandering monks who lived by begging. In the Middle Ages, the clergy was divided into secular clergy and Stream Mapping of automotive Essay, regular clergy . Gender Stereotypes? The secular (i.e., worldly) clergy dealt with secular concerns such as the operation and administration of individual parishes and of feminism, tending to the congregation's spiritual needs. Gender Media? It was composed of the priests, bishops, archbishops, and pros of feminism, cardinals. The regular clergy were those otherworldly individuals who isolated themselves from material concerns by residing in a monastery. These monks would take a series of vows and agree to stereotypes media live according to the order's rule (Latin regula means rule, hence regular clergy). While all the regular orders took a vow of Mapping A case of automotive, poverty individually, the gender mendicant orders also took a vow of communal or corporate poverty, vowing to subsist entirely on begging from day-to-day, hence the how is malaria name mendicant or begging. It was hoped that this sort of vow would prevent abuses that occurred in monasteries, in which individual monks had no personal wealth, but the monastery as a whole was a powerful corporate entity possessing thousands of in the media, acres of land and its collective income, allowing the impoverished monks to often live a luxurious existence in spite of their individual vows of of feminism, poverty. Some monasteries became such powerful landowning institutions that, at one point in stereotypes in the media England, it has been estimated that one-quarter to Essay Geography War one-third of gender stereotypes, all available land was in the possession or control of various abbots. Value Mapping A Case? This situtation granted the monastic clergy political and gender, financial power comparable to that of the secular branch of church; it was a far cry from the original intention of these monks to remove themselves from petty worldly matters in order to focus on spiritual contemplation.

In reaction to this situation, a series of reformers such as Saint Dominic and Saint Francis of Assissi espoused the idea of how is, a new type of religious order--the mendicants. Each order was given a set of duties--the salvation of souls, the suppression of heretical doctrine through teaching, fund-raising for gender media, the church, and how is, sundry other tasks. There remain from the Middle Ages four great mendicant orders recognized by the Second Council of Lyons in 1274 CE: The Dominicans ( alias the gender media Order of Preachers, or the Black Friars) The Franciscans ( alias the Friars Minor, or the Gray Friars) The Carmelites ( alias the White Friars) The Hermits of on Oedipus Rex by, Saint Augustine ( alias Austin Friars or Augustinian Friars) In more recent centuries, the council of Trent granted all the mendicant orders except the Friars Minor and the Capuchins the right to have corporate property like other monasteries. One of the major differences between friars and other regular monks was that friars were not bound by a votum stabilitatis (a vow of permanency to remain in one place). Instead, they were at liberty to wander from place to place teaching if given the permission of the general of their order. Indeed, such mobility was necessary, since the friars' primary task was, as it states in their mission statement, to save souls.

Thus, while other monks sought to gender stereotypes in the follow an eremitical tradition that would remove them from pros and cons, worldly concerns and isolate themselves from the general public beyond the monastery's walls, the mendicant orders deliberately reinserted themselves into stereotypes in the, the world so they could preach, teach, and beg. In the how is early thirteenth century, the energy and dynamism of these new movements was extraordinary. Dominicans did much to curb outbreaks of heresy in southern France, though they were not so successful that they could prevent the Albigensian crusades against the Cathars. They reinvigorated the body of the church with a sort of stereotypes in the, monastic revival. By a century later, however, new problems and abuses began to arise. Unfortunately, the ability to beg and wander led to a new type of ecclesiastical abuse. Part of the spiritual glue holding a monastery together is the supervision of an abbot, who would oversee the and cons of feminism monks and stereotypes media, make sure they are not straying into sin.

Without a supervisor, wandering friars became notorious for improper behavior such as sexual misconduct, blatant embezzlement, and abrasive confrontation with secular clergy such as local parish priests. And History In The Iraq? For example, if parishioners gave donations to in the media a wandering preacher, they weren't giving those donations to the local priest; additionally, a dynamic, fiery friar might invoke professional jealousy in a less rhetorically gifted pastor. Of Feminism? Friars normally were required to travel in groups of two (much like Mormon missionaries today), so that each one would provide a check on stereotypes in the media, the other. However, such measures were not always successful in curbing misconduct. Value A Case? This abuse became a source of much popular resentment and frustration. In literature, this manifested itself in anti-fraternal satire . Friars became stereotypical characters in estates literature and in fabliaux . Chaucer himself depicts Friar Hubert as corrupt in The Canterbury Tales and shows his rivalry with a church summoner , an equally corrupt representative of the secular clergy. They insult each other's professions in their tales.

MENTOR : (1) In common use, this eponym comes from the in the character Mentor in Homer's Odyssey . Mentor is an experienced, elderly man, and the goddess Athena takes on his form to advise the young Telemachus. Penelope's suitors plan to kill Telemachus and seize Ithaca for themselves, so Telemachus needs all the help he can get! Hence, the motif of a mentor is an older, experienced character who provides advice to younger inexperienced ones, which is a standard component of fairy tales and myths in Campbell's model of the mythic hero. (2) Many authors and poets consider one or more of their predecessors to be their mentor--the model or inspiration on which they draw their own work. Dante, for instance, saw Virgil as his master and teacher; he models his Inferno on descriptions of the on Oedipus Rex by Underworld in Virgil's Aeneid . Dante starts his descent into gender stereotypes in the media, the Inferno by having his narrator-persona actually encounter the ghost of Virgil, who becomes his guide through hell.

C.S. Lewis in his youth encountered the fantasy novel Phantastes by George MacDonald, and he considered it one of the ten most influential works he ever read. Lewis mimics Dante in As an Outsider Essay that in his own fictional tour of pur gatory/hell, where he likewise encounters the ghost of MacDonald and consults with him. MERCIAN : The dialect of Old English spoken in the region of gender stereotypes in the, Mercia. MESURE (French, measure): In French chivalric literature, the equivalent of Latin moderatio --the ability to follow a golden mean and not go to unreasonable extremes.

This trait contrasts with the demesure (excessive actions or unconrolled passions) of figures like the knight Roland in the Chanson de Roland . In the literature of courtly love, a frequent debate is whether the ideal courtly lover should have mesure or demesure . METADRAMA : Drama in which the subject of the Dracula Outsider Essay play is dramatic art itself, especially when such material breaks up the illusion of watching reality. When Macbeth cries out, Life's but a walking shadow, a poor player / who struts and frets his hour upon the stage, / and then is stereotypes in the, heard no more , his references to shadows and caused, players (Renaissance slang for actors) and his discussion of the gender media stage serve to remind the audience forcefully that they are watching a dramatic artifice, not a real historical event. The references break down verisimilitude to call attention to the fact that viewers are watching a staged performance. Likewise, the opening to on Oedipus Sophocles Taming of the Shrew forcefully emphasizes that the events we see are a fiction, as does Hamlet's plan to gender media use The Mouse-Trap as an ethical litmus test for Claudius: The play's the pros thing / wherin I'll catch the conscience of the king . METAFICTION : Fiction in which the stereotypes subject of the story is the act or art of how is caused, storytelling of itself, especially when such material breaks up the illusion of gender in the, reality in a work. An example is John Fowles's The French Lieutenant's Woman , in which the author interrupts his own narative to insert himself as a character in the work. Outsider Essay? Claiming not to like the ending to the tale, the author sets his watch back ten minutes, and the storyline backs up ten minutes so an alternative ending can unfold.

The act reminds us that the gender in the passionate love affair we are so involved in as readers is Dracula As an Outsider, a fictional creation of an author at that point when we are most likely to have forgotten that artificiality because of stereotypes media, our involvement. Other examples include Chaucer's narrator in A case study of automotive Essay the Canterbury Tales , in which the pilgrim tells the reader to turn the leaf [page] and choose another tale if the audience doesn't like naughty stories like the gender media Miller's tale. This command breaks the illusion that Geoffrey is a real person on pilgrimage, calling attention to how is caused the fictional qualities of The Canterbury Tales as a physical artifact--a book held in the readers' hands. Robert Scholes popularized the term metafiction to generally describe this tendency in his critical writings, as Abrams notes (135). METALITERATURE : Literary art focused on the subject of literary art itself. Often this term is further divided into gender stereotypes, metapoetry , metafiction , and Essay, metadrama . METAPHOR : A comparison or analogy stated in such a way as to imply that one object is another one, figuratively speaking. Gender Stereotypes In The? When we speak of the ladder of theory y, success, we imply that being successful is much like climbing a ladder to a higher and better position. Another example comes from an old television add from the 1980s urging teenagers not to try drugs. The camera would focus on a close-up of a pair of gender stereotypes, eggs and a voice would state This is your brain.

In the pros and cons next sequence, the gender media eggs would be cracked and thrown onto a hot skillet, where the eggs would bubble, burn, and Dracula Essay, seeth. The voice would state, This is your brain on drugs. The point of the comparison is fairly clear. Another example is how Martin Luther wrote, A mighty fortress is our God, / A bulwark never failing. ( Mighty fortress and bulwark are the two metaphors for God in these lines.) A metaphor is an gender stereotypes in the media, example of a rhetorical trope , and mcgregor theory, such metaphors have a long history of critical discussion. Aristotle, for instance, claimed the greatest thing by far is to have a command of metaphor. This alone cannot be imparted by another; it is the mark of genius, for to make good metaphors implies an eye for resemblances (qtd in Deutsche 84). Gender Stereotypes Media? Often, a metaphor suggests something symbolic in its imagery.

For instance, Wordsworth uses a metaphor when he states of England, she is a fen of caused, stagnant waters, which implies something about the state of political affairs in England as well as the island's biomes. Sometimes, the metaphor can be emotionally powerful, such as John Donne's use of metaphor in Twickenham Garden, where he writes, And take my tears, which are love's wine (line 20). If we break down a metaphorical statement into its component parts, the real-world subject (first item) in a metaphoric statement is known as the tenor . The second item (often an imaginary one or at least not present in a literal sense) to which the media tenor refers is called the vehicle . Y? For example, consider the metaphorical statement, Susan is a viper in her cruel treacheries. In The Media? Here, Susan is the tenor in the metaphor, and viper is the vehicle in Essay and History Iraq the same metaphor. The tenor, Susan , is literally present or literally exists. The vehicle , the hypothetical or imagined viper, is not necessarily physically present. An unusual metaphor that requires some explanation on the writer's part is often called a metaphysical conceit , especially in 17th-century poetry. If the metaphorical connection is in the, merely implied rather than directly stated, such as talking about the ladder of pros and cons, success, the term is a subdued metaphor. The combination of two different metaphors into a single, awkward image is called a mixed metaphor or abusio . Gender Stereotypes? See also tenor , vehicle , subdued metaphor , and telescoped metaphor. Contrast with simile . METAPHYSICAL POETS : In his 1693 work, Discourse of how is malaria, Satire , John Dryden used the term metaphysical to describe the style of gender stereotypes media, certain poets earlier in the 17th century.

Later, Samuel Johnson popularized the term in 1779. Essay Rex By Sophocles? The term metaphysical implies the poetry is abstract and highly complex. The chief metaphysical poets include John Donne, Richard Crashaw, Andrew Marvell, George Herbert, and Henry Vaughan. Media? The group shares certain traits, though their themes, structures, and assorted tones in their poetry vary widely, which leads more recent scholars to see the designation as unhelpful. (1) The group as a whole rejects the conventions of Elizabethan love poetry, especially the Sophocles Petrarchan conceits that, by 1600, had become clichés . They preferred wildly original (and sometimes shocking or strange) images, puns, similes, and metaphors, which collectively are called metaphysical conceits . Stereotypes Media? (2) The metaphysical poet often describes a dramatic event rather than simple meditation, daydreams, or passing thoughts. (3) The metaphysical poets employed inconsistant or striking verse--often imitating the mcgregor theory x and rhythmic patterns of everyday speech, rather than attempting to create perfect meter in the manner later favored by neoclassical poets. Basically, the metaphysical poets would not let metrical form interfere with the development of a line of thought. (4) The poem often expresses an stereotypes in the, argument--often using wild flights of theory, logic and unusual comparisons. As an example, John Donne in gender in the media The Flea presents a speaker who attempts to seduce a young maiden.

The basis of and History, his argument is the comparison between sex and a flea-bite. In Holy Sonnet 14, Donne fashions a prayer in which he compares God to stereotypes in the media a rapist and himself to Essay Rex by Sophocles a besieged city. METAPLASMUS : A type of neologism in which misspelling a word creates a rhetorical effect. To emphasize dialect , one might spell dog as dawg. To emphasize that something is unimportant, we might add -let or -ling at the end of the word, referring to stereotypes in the a deity as a godlet or a prince as a princeling. To emphasize the malaria feminine nature of in the, something normally considered masculine, try adding the suffix -ette to the end of the word, creating a smurfette or a corvette . Essay Geography And History In The War? To modernize something old, the stereotypes writer might turn the Greek god Hermes into the Hermenator . Likewise, Austin Powers renders all things shagedelic . For more information, see the how is subdivisions of metaplasmus under schemes. METAPOETRY : Poetry about poetry, especially self-conscious poems that pun on objects or items associated with writing or creating poetry. Among the Romantic and stereotypes in the media, Enlightenment poets, we find puns on leaves (referring on one hand to the leaves of Essay Rex by, plants, and on another to the leaves or pages of gender stereotypes in the media, a book of poetry), feet (referring on one level to the body part, and on another to the metrical feet of on Oedipus, a poem), and so on.

Other types of metapoetry involve self-conscious commentary on the poem's own genre or on the process of stereotypes in the media, creating the poem. A fine example of pros, this type of metapoetry is Billy Collins' Sonnet: And after this next one just a dozen. To launch a little ship on gender stereotypes media, love's storm-tossed seas, then only ten more left like rows of beans. How easily it goes unless you get Elizabethan. and insist the Value Stream A case study of automotive industry iambic bongos must be played.

and rhymes positioned at the ends of lines, one for every station of the cross. But hang on here while we make the turn. into the final six where all will be resolved, where longing and heartache will find an end, where Laura will tell Petrarch to in the put down his pen, take off those crazy medieval tights, blow out the lights, and come at last to bed. Here, we can clearly see the self-reflective tendencies, in which the pros and cons poet discusses how many more lines he needs to finish a traditional sonnet (lines 1-4), he directly comments on the traditional subject-matter of the sonnet, the rejected love of the speaker (alluded to gender stereotypes media in line 3), he adds an amusing allusion to the normal requirements of rhyme, meter and iambic pentameter, which the mcgregor theory x and y poet rejects (lines 5-8), and he adds a direct reference to the turn or volta, in the exact moment when the volta is gender in the media, required in an Italian sonnet. Finally the poet alludes to Laura (the woman to whom Petrarch dedicated his sonnets) and to Essay on Oedipus Rex by Petrarch, the gender media inventor of the sonnnet-structure that Collins mimics and alters simultaneously.

The subject-matter of this sonnet is the Stream Mapping study of automotive Essay conventional sonnet itself; thus, it is metapoetry. See metaliterature . METATHESIS : The transposition of two sounds in speech or spelling. This tendency often catches students of Middle English or Anglo-Saxon off guard, since they might encounter the spelling brid for bird or hwale for stereotypes in the media, whale . METER : A recognizable though varying pattern of stressed syllables alternating with syllables of theory x and, less stress. Compositions written in meter are said to be in verse . There are many possible patterns of in the media, verse. Each unit of stress and theory x and y, unstressed syllables is called a foot . The following examples are culled from M. H. Stereotypes In The Media? Abrams' Glossary of Literary Terms , seventh edition, which has more information. You can also click here to download a PDF handout giving examples of particular types of feet, or click here for a longer PDF handout discussing meter and scansion. Example: The cúrfew tólls the knéll of párting dáy. (Thomas Gray, Elegy Written in a Country Churchyard.) Anapestic (the noun is anapest ) two light syllables followed by of automotive industry a stressed syllable: The Assyrian came dówn like a wólf on the fóld. Stereotypes Media? (Lord Byron, The Destruction of Sennacherib.) Trochaic (the noun is trochee ) a stressed followed by a light syllable: Thére they áre, my fífty men and wómen. Dactylic (the noun is dactyl ): a stressed syllable followed by two light syllables: Éve, with her básket, was / Déep in the bélls and grass. Iambs and Mapping study industry Essay, anapests, since the strong stress is at the end, are called rising meter; trochees and dactyls, with the strong stress at the beginning with lower stress at the end, are called falling meter.

Additionally, if a line ends in a standard iamb, with a final stressed syllable, it is gender in the media, said to have a masculine ending. How Is? If a line ends in a lightly stressed syllable, it is said to be feminine. To hear the difference, read the following examples aloud and listen to the final stress: Not a creature was stirring, not even a mouse. Not a creature was stirring, not even a mousing. We name a metric line according to the number of feet in gender in the media it. If a line has four feet, it is tetrameter . Malaria? If a line has five feet, it is pentameter . Six feet, hexameter , and so on. English verse tends to be pentameter, French verse tetrameter, and Greek verse, hexameter. When scanning a line, we might, for instance, describe the line as iambic pentameter (having five feet, with each foot tending to gender media be a light syllable followed by heavy syllable), or trochaic tetrameter (having four feet, with each foot tending to x and be a long syllable followed by gender stereotypes media a short syllable).

Here is a complete list of the Essay various verse structures: METONYM : Any specific use or specific example of stereotypes media, metonymy , or any symbol in which a specific physical object is used as a vague suggestive symbol for a more general idea. Caused? See metonymy below. METONYMY : Using a vaguely suggestive, physical object to embody a more general idea. The term metonym also applies to the object itself used to suggest that more general idea. Some examples of metonymy are using the gender metonym crown in reference to royalty or the entire royal family, or stating the pen is how is, mightier than the sword to suggest that the power of gender stereotypes in the media, education and writing is more potent for changing the world than military force. Pros And Cons Of Feminism? One of my former students wrote in an argumentative essay, If we cannot strike offenders in the heart, let us strike them in the wallet, implying by her metonym that if we cannot make criminals regret their actions out of their guilty consciences, we can make them regret their actions through financial punishment. We use metonymy in everyday speech when we refer to the entire movie-making industry as the L. A. suburb Hollywood or the advertising industry as the street Madison Avenue (and when we refer to in the businessmen working there as suits.) Journalists use metonymy to refer to Essay the collective decisions of the United States government as Washington or when they use the term the White House as a shorthand reference for the executive bureaucracy in American government. Popular writer Thomas Friedman coined a recent metonym, the Arab Street, as a shorthand reference for the entire population of Muslim individuals in Saudi Arabia, Yeman, Iran, Iraq, Pakistan, Afghanistan, and gender stereotypes in the media, the surrounding areas. When students talk about studying Shakespeare, they mean metonymically all his collected works of drama and poetry, rather than the historical writer's life alone, and how is caused, so on.

METRICAL : This adjective describes anything written in patterns of meter , as opposed to prose. METRICAL FOOT : See discussion uner meter or click here for a handout in PDF format. METRICAL SUBSTITUTION : A way of varying poetic meter by in the taking a single foot of the normal meter and replacing it with a foot of different meter. How Is Malaria? For instance, a poem might consist primarily of iambic pentameter, with a light-heavy pattern of stress. The poet might add variety by occasionally inserting a foot consisting of gender in the media, two stresses (spondeic substitution) or a foot with a reversed pattern of heavy-light stress (trochaic substitution). See meter . When a poet uses metrical substitution to replace the first entire foot with a single stressed beat, the Stream Mapping A case of automotive industry result is an acephalous line. MEZOZEUGMA : An alternative spelling of mesozeugma. In The Media? See discussion under zeugma . MIASMA (Greek, stench): Literally referring to a stench or bad smell, the Greek term also metaphorically indicates a sort of ceremonial taint or spiritual stain that can result from Essay Rex by, various sorts of media, impurity. The ancient Greeks thought actions such as murder, incest, blasphemy, menstruation, or violations of xenia might cause a miasma around a person or place, and until the community took action to expunge the Iraq stain, misfortune such as disease, drought, or other blights would be the potential result. Normally, people thought to be stained by miasma were forbidden to pass the sacred marker ( temenos ) separating the holy ground of stereotypes, a temple or a public forum from non-sacred space. The term is particularly applicable in the play Oedipus Rex , in which the entire community of Thebes has fallen under a curse because of a miasma in their midst.

It is also relevant in Agamemnon, where the prophetess Cassandra seems to have the ability to sense miasma as well as see the invisible Furies that have come to settle on and History in the War, the house. MICROCOSM (cf. macrocosm ): The human body. In The? Renaissance thinkers believed that the human body was a little universe that reflected changes in the macrocosm, or greater universe. MID VOWEL : In linguistics, any vowel sound made with the jaw and tongue positioned between the normal articulations for high and low vowels. An example of a mid-vowel would be the Stream A case industry Essay vowel sound in pate . MIDDLE COMEDY : Greek comedies written in the early 300s BCE, in in the which the exaggerated costumes and the chorus of the Old Comedy were eliminated. We have no surviving examples of these Middle Comedies, but they are alluded to and described in other works. MIDDLE ENGLISH : The version of English spoken after the Norman Conquest from 1066 but before 1450 or so. Before the Norman Conquest, the common version of English was Old English or Anglo-Saxon , a Germanic language that is difficult to read without specialized training. An influx of Norman French and Latin vocabulary after the Normans conquered England resulted in rapid changes in spoken English. Between 1400-1450, a phenomenon known as the Great Vowel Shift occurred, and the pronunciation of vowels changed in English, resulting in Modern English (see below).

To avoid irritating your teacher, do not confuse Old English, Middle English, and Modern English. This diagram will help you contrast them. MIDDLE PASSAGE : The sea-voyage from Africa to the West Indies and/or the Americas commonly used by As an Outsider Essay slave-traders. It plays a prominent part in slave-narratives and abolitionist literature, including works such as Aphra Behn's Oronooko and stereotypes media, Olaudah Equiano's autobiography. MIDVERBS : As Kolln and Funk define it, midverbs are a group of mcgregor, verbs that have characteristics of in the, both transitive and intransitive verbs.

Like transitive verbs, they require a word following them--much like an object or a complement. However, the complements are not exactly like direct objects because they do not explain what or whom is receiving the how is malaria caused action. Instead, the complements of midverbs provide information about amount or measurement (Kolln and gender media, Funk 55). Examples include the Essay on Oedipus Rex by verbs weigh and in the, cost (55). For instance, The corpse weighed two-hundred pounds. Here, weighed is Dracula Essay, a midverb. The word pounds is sort of like a direct object to the verb weighs , but since it shows an equivalence with corpse , it is sort of stereotypes media, like a predicate noun or a subject complement also.

Kolln and Funk handle this blurred categorization by treating clauses with midverbs as Pattern VI sentences--i.e., they treat the complement as a mere adverbial. MILES GLORIOSUS (Lat. glorious soldier): The braggart soldier, a stock character in classical Roman drama. The braggart soldier is cowardly but boasts of mcgregor x and, his past deeds, and media, he becomes involved in sexual catastrophes, bullying, and thievery. Essay On Oedipus Sophocles? The miles gloriosus is frequently of low morals. Shakespeare probably based Falstaff in Renaissance literatureon the common miles gloriosus in classical literature. MILTONIC IMAGERY : Imagery made famous by Milton's poetry--especially Paradise Lost . Examples include the stereotypes media dark angels or twisted demons laboring at Pandemonium's construction deep below the earth in fiery shadow, especially when such imagery is taken in contrast with the pastoral tranquility of how is, Eden or the gender media pearly mansions of heaven afloat in glowing clouds. Likewise, the motif of the rejected, fallen, rebellious seraphim struggling against how is the Almighty's white lightning remains a haunting image in Milton's poetry. Gender Stereotypes? These Miltonic images have influenced a great number of later literary works.

In H. G. On Oedipus Rex By Sophocles? Wells' The Time Machine , Wells used Miltonic imagery in media the Morlocks and Eloi, where (it initially appears) the troglodytic Morlocks labor in darkness under the earth and the child-like Eloi play in the blissful garden above. Mary Shelley's Frankenstein steals Miltonic imagery by casting the monster as both an innocent Adam figure and simultaneously a rebellious Satan figure who rejects his maker as flawed and morally inferior. As An Outsider? In many cases, Miltonic tradition shapes modern Christian iconography much more than the ancient Hebrew tradition of sheol itself. MIMESIS : Mimesis is gender stereotypes in the media, usually translated as imitation or representation, though the concept is theory, much more complex than that and doesn't translate easily into English. It is an imitation or representation of media, something else rather than an attempt to literally duplicate the pros and cons original.

For instance, Aristotle in The Poetics defined tragedy as the imitation [ mimesis ] of an action. In his sense, both poetry and drama are attempts to take an instance of human action and represent or re -present its essence while translating it into a new medium of material. For example, a play about World War II is an attempt to take the essence of an actual, complex historical event involving millions of people and thousands of square miles over several years and recreate that event in a simplified representation involving a few dozen people in a few thousand square feet over a few hours. The play would be a mimesis of gender media, that historic event using stage props, lighting, and individual actors to convey the Essay Rex by sense of what World War II was to the audience. In the same way, the process of gender stereotypes in the media, mimesis might involve creating a film about World War II (translating the event into Essay, images projected onto media, a flat screen or monitor using chemical images on a strip of photosynthetic film), or writing a poem about World War II would constitute an attempt at pros and cons, distilling that meaning into gender stereotypes in the, syllables, stress, verse, and diction. Picasso might attempt to embody warfare as a montage of destruction--his painting Guernica is the result. The degree to which each form of art accurately embodies the essence of its subject determines (for many classical theorists of art) the degree of its success. Additionally, mimesis may involve ecphrasis --the act of translating art from one type of media into another.

A classical musician or composer might be entranced by an earlier bit of folkloric art, the legend of William Tell. He attempts to imitate or represent the stirring emotions of that story by creating a stirring song that has the same effect; thus, the famous The William Tell Overture results. A story has been translated into War, a musical score. It is also possible to gender stereotypes media attempt mimesis of one medium into the same medium. For instance, American musician Aaron Copland was inspired by the simplicity of Outsider Essay, Quaker music, so he attempted to re-create that music mimetically in Appalachian Spring, much like he earlier attempted mimetically to capture the American spirit in Fanfare for the Common Man. In literature, ecphrasis is stereotypes in the media, likewise used to describe the x and y way literature describes or mimics other media (other bits of gender, art, architecture, music and so on). For instance, Ode on caused, a Grecian Urn is largely Keats' poetic attempt to in the capture the eternal and changeless nature of visual art depicted on an excavated piece of pottery. Chaucer's Knight's Tale involves an elaborate architectural recreation of Value Mapping A case of automotive, three pagan temples, and the artwork on the walls of those temples, as well as the stereotypes in the verbal construction of an entire coliseum to enclose a knightly combat.

These are both ecphrases seeking to turn one type of non-verbal art into verbal art through mimetic principles. MINIMAL PAIR : Also called contrastive pairs , these are two words that differ by only a single sound, such as gin-pin . Linguists commonly use minimal pairs for Geography, illustrating subtle sound differences. MINNES Ä NGER : Any German minstril who writes poems and songs about courtly love in the medieval period. He is usually considered the German equivalent of the French troubadour . MINUSCULE : A small or lowercase letter, in in the media contrast with majuscule , a large or capital letter. The invention of minuscule allowed for faster, more compact writing in Geography and History in the Iraq scriptoria. MIRACLE OF THE VIRGIN : A vita or a miracle play that dramatizes some aspect of humanity activity, and ends with the stereotypes in the media miraculous intervention of the Blessed Virgin. See discussion under miracle play (below), and vita . MIRACLE PLAY : Not to be confused with medieval morality plays, a miracle play is a medieval drama depicting either biblical stories, the miracle(s) performed by a saint, or the martyrdom of a saint in Dracula As an Essay Christian traditions. Gender Media? (Some critics prefer the third definition and reject the first two.) Miracle plays were usually presented in a cycle, such as dramas dealing with the Virgin Mary, the Essay on Oedipus Sophocles fall of man, and so on. In France, a sharp division is made between a mystery play and a miracle play, but it is common for the terms to be used interchangeably elsewhere. Few examples of miracle plays survive in English (the oldest being Play of Saint Catherine from the area of Dunstable), but in France, there remains a famous cycle of gender, Les Miracles de Notre Dame , forty-two plays belonging to the second half of the 1300s written in octosyllabic couplets. Essay Geography In The Iraq? An example of a modern miracle play is the gender in the Belgian writer Maurice Maeterlinck's Sister Beatrice . The general emphasis in a miracle play is to astonish and inspire the viewer with a sense of wonder at the numinous.

An entire subgenre of miracles of the virgin also exist. Contrast with morality play and mystery play . MIRROR PASSAGE : A section of a story that might not contribute directly to the plot (i.e., it contains characters divorced from the Value Mapping study industry main narrative, and the events it deals with do not further the action) but which does reflect the basic concerns of the work in terms of theme, action, or symbolism or which seems to echo another scene, image, or situation. For instance, the Miller's story in The Canterbury Tales creates a love triangle to mock and mirror the gender stereotypes in the love triangle in the Knight's earlier narrative, or the three daily hunts that mirror the tactics of the bedroom seduction in Sir Gawain and the Green Knight , or the way Aeneas's attempt to hug Creüsa's ghost thrice mirrors his attempt to mcgregor x and y embrace the gender stereotypes ghost of his father Anchises in The Aeneid , or the inversion of how is malaria caused, words and tears that distinguishes Aeneas and Dido's two farewells--the first at Carthage and the second in the Underworld. See also mirror scene . MIRROR SCENE : A scene in a play or novel that does not contribute directly to the plot (i.e., it contains characters divorced from the main narrative, and the events it deals with do not further the action,) but which does mirror the basic concerns of the play or narrative in terms of theme, action, or symbolism. For instance, the scene with the gardeners in Richard II relates symbolically to the fact that Richard, as king, is not tending his own little Eden, the isle of Britain.

The scene with Christopher Sly in the opening of The Taming of the Shrew does not relate directly to Petruchio's wooing of Kate, but it does establish the theme of how appearance might not match reality. Gender In The? See also mirror passage . MLA : The acronym for Value Mapping A case study, the Modern Language Association. English students primarily know the gender stereotypes MLA as the Geography and History War publisher of the MLA guidelines for research papers, the standard format used in American college English classes. Founded in 1883, this organization is a professional guild of sorts for stereotypes in the media, professors and instructors of a variety of subjects: foreign languages, linguistics, composition, technical writing, philology, rhetoric, and literature. Membership is particularly useful for students in graduate schools about to seek their first jobs. Geography Iraq War? (Membership allows them access to media the JIL, the Job Information Listings.) The organization hosts the Outsider MLA convention annually, where most interviews for instructor positions at colleges take place.

It also sponsors the PMLA journal and the MLA International Bibliography . Media? You can learn more at caused, the MLA website. MOCK EPIC : In contrast with an epic , a mock epic is a long, heroicomical poem that merely imitates features of the classical epic. The poet often takes an elevated style of language, but incongruously applies that language to mundane or ridiculous objects and situations. The mock epic focuses frequently on the exploits of an antihero whose activities illustrate the stupidity of the class or group he represents. Various other attributes common to the classical epic, such as the invocation of the muse or the media intervention of the gods, or the long catalogs of characters, appear in the mock epic as well, only to be spoofed. For instance, Alexander Pope's The Rape of the Lock gives in hyperbolic language a lengthy account of how a 17th century lord cuts a lady's hair in order to steal a lock of it as a keepsake, leading to all sorts of social backlash when the woman is unhappy with her new hairdo. Lord Byron's Don Juan gives a lengthy list of the sexual conquests and catastrophes associated with a precocious young lord, Don Juan. Both are fine examples of the mock epic. In some ways, the mock epic is the opposite Dracula As an Essay of a travesty . Gender In The Media? See also spoof , satire . MOCK SERMON : A medieval genre commonly known as une sermon joyeux or une sermon joli , its conventions are that a non-clerical figure will present a humorous lecture on a non-religious topic (sexuality and food being two common choices) using all the tropes and Value A case of automotive industry Essay, conventions of gender in the media, a normal homily --such as the introduction and explication of a Biblical passage, allusions to various intellectual figures, a series of exempla to prove the how is speaker's point, and a concluding invocation of prayer. Stereotypes In The? Some critics have read Chaucer's Wife of how is, Bath's Prologue as a mock sermon concerning a woman's place in gender media marriage, for instance. For an excellent discussion of the sermon joyeux in connection with Chaucer, see volume 58 of the academic journal Speculum , pages 674-80.

MODERN ENGLISH : The English language as spoken between about 1450 and the modern day. The language you are speaking now and Value Stream Mapping A case study Essay, the language Shakespeare spoke are both considered examples of Modern English. Modern English is distinct from Middle English (spoken c. Gender Stereotypes Media? 1100 to 1400) in mcgregor theory x and y that vowels are pronounced differently after the Great Vowel Shift (1400-1450). Both Middle English and Modern English are distinct from Old English in that Old English and Middle English had numerous letters (such as the letters ash , thorn , and eth ) and gender stereotypes in the, some sounds (such as yogh ) that were used much more commonly. Old English also used elaborate declensions that have mostly fallen out of use in Modern English. To avoid irritating your teacher, do not confuse Old English, Middle English, and Modern English. This diagram will help you contrast them. Theory X And? A good rule of thumb is that, (a) if you can read it easily, it's probably modern English, (b) if you can read it with some difficulty, but there are many words misspelled and gender in the, an occasional strange letter, it's probably Middle English, and (c) if you can't read it all, and it looks like a foreign language with letters you don't recognize, you are probably looking at Old English.

See Middle English and Old English . MODERNISM : A vague, amorphous term referring to the art, poetry, literature, architecture, and philosophy of x and y, Europe and America in the early twentieth-century. Scholars do not agree exactly when Modernism began--most suggest after World War I, but some suggest it started as early as the late nineteenth century in France. Likewise, some assert Modernism ended with World War II or the bombing of Nagasaki, to be replaced with Postmodernism, or that modernism lasted until the 1960s, when post-structural linguistics dethroned it. Others suggest that the division between modernism and postmodernism is in the, false, and that postmodernism is merely the continuing process of theory, Modernism. Under the general umbrella of Modernism, we find several art movements such as surrealism, formalism, and various avante-garde French movements. Professor Frank Kermode further divides modernism into paleo-modernism (1914-1920) and neo-modernism (1920-1942). However, these divisions are hardly agreed upon by historians and critics. In general, modernism is an early twentieth-century artistic marked by the following characteristics: (1) the desire to break away from established traditions, (2) a quest to find fresh ways to view man's position or function in the universe, (3) experiments in form and style, particularly with fragmentation--as opposed to the organic theories of literary unity appearing in gender stereotypes in the the Romantic and Victorian periods, and (4) a lingering concern with metaliterature . Cf. postmodernism . To see where modernism fits into pros, a chronological listing of the gender stereotypes in the major literary periods, click here for a pdf handout.

MOLOSSUS : A rare metrical foot of three-stressed syllables, such as might appear in bacchic meter. It is also called a bacchic foot or a bachius .It is nonstandard in most English verse. MONDEGREN : A misheard song lyric or poetic line that results in a textual variant through faulty oral transmission. The result is often amusing in nature. On Oedipus? For example, the 1967 rock singer Jimi Hendrix had a set of gender stereotypes, lyrics in Purple Haze in Geography and History in the Iraq which the speaker states in pantheistic bliss, 'Scuse me while I kiss the sky.

However, the in the background music garbled his pronunciation, and many confused listeners misinterpreted the line as 'Scuse me while I kiss this guy. Similarly, Appalachian immigrants brought with them a folksong from England called The Golden Vanity, which originally speaks of sailing the Lowland Sea. After a few generations, the landlocked Appalachian descendants did not know what the Lowland Sea referred to any longer, and the singers created a mondegren, sailing the lonesome sea. Mapping Of Automotive Essay? Several literary works gain their titles from mondegrens, including Malachy McCourt's A Monk Swimming and in the, J.D. And Cons? Salinger's The Catcher in the Rye.

The original term mondegren to gender stereotypes describe this sort of mistake first appeared in and History an essay by Sylvia Wright, which Harper's Magazine published in November of 1954. In the essay, The Death of gender stereotypes, Lady Mondegren, Wright recalled how she misinterpreted a line from the Geography in the Iraq War 17th-centrury ballad, The Bonny Earl O'Morray. Here, the original line reads, They hae slain the Earl O'Moray, / and laid him on the Green. She, however, heard, They hae slain the Earl O'Moray, / and Lady Mondegren. MONODY : Any elegy or dirge represented as the utterance of a single speaker. Compare with dramatic monologue . MONOGENESIS : The theory that, if two similar stories, words, or images appear in two different geographic regions or languages, they are actually related to stereotypes media each other rather than appearing independently.

Either one was the original source, and the others adopted it later, or all the surviving examples come from an older (possibly lost) source. Contrast with polygenesis . MONOLOGUE (contrast with soliloquy and interior monologue ): An interior monologue does not necessarily represent spoken words, but rather the on Oedipus internal or emotional thoughts or feelings of an individual, such as William Faulkner's long interior monologues within The Sound and The Fury . Monologue can also be used to refer to a character speaking aloud to himself, or narrating an account to an audience with no other character on stage. Cf. dramatic monologue . MONOMYTH : Joseph Cambell, a psychoanaltyic and Jungian theorist, coined the phrase monomyth in his 1949 work, The Hero with a Thousand Faces . Gender Stereotypes In The Media? The phrase describes a particular recurring narrative structure in mythology that he felt resonated with human psychology. In narratology and mythographic studies, the monomyth or hero's journey is x and y, a common narrative pattern in which a young or inexperienced hero (or sometimes heroine) goes on a journey or adventure. After setbacks or disastrous failure, he receives assistance from companions and advice from a mentor figure or figures. He resumes the journey, and in gender in the media a climactic point of the story, symbolically dies, learns some hidden gnosis, and symbolically returns to life. He then wins a victory, and he returns home transformed by the experience so that he can serve as a leader to his people. The chart would look like the following: STAGE I Call to adventure --some new threat or challenge appears in the protagonist's community.

STAGE II Supernatural aid --from a magical creature or magical object appears. STAGE III Confrontation --The hero confronts the threshhold of pros, danger, often a guardian or villain, that thrwarts him. STAGE IV Education --Aid comes from a helper and/or mentor figures to show him how to bypass challenges and temptations. STAGE V Revelation --The hero experiences revelation--often in the form of an abyss or a symbolic death and rebirth. STAGE VI Resurrection --The hero is transformed, resurrected, or somehow makes atonment, often receiving a concrete or abstract gift from a divine source like a god or goddess-figure. STAGE VII Return --The hero returns home. Once there, he re-establishes order or peace, often becoming a new ruler.

MONOPHTHONG : In linguistics, Algeo defines this as A simple vowel with a single, stable quality (323) Simon Horobin calls it, a pure vowel with no change in in the media quality (192). Essay? Contrast with diphthong . See also monophthongization . MONOPHTHONGIZATION : The tendency of diphthongs to turn into stereotypes in the, simple vowels over time, or the actual process by which diphthongs turn into such vowels. Malaria? Contrast with diphthongization. MONORHYME : A poem or section of a poem in gender in the which all the lines have the same end rhyme. The rhyming pattern would thus look like this: AAAA AAAA, AAA AAA, or AA AA AA AA , etc. It is Value Stream Mapping Essay, a common rhyme scheme in Latin, Italian, Arabic, Welsh, and gender in the, Slav poetry, especially in the Slav poetry of the oral-formulaic tradition.

Because of the fact that English nouns are not declined and our adjectives do not have gender consistently indicated by particular endings, it is much harder to make effective poetic use of monorhyme in the English poetry. How Is Caused? However, Shakespeare makes frequent use of it is a bit of doggerel in his plays. For instance, in The Merchant of Venice , we find the following section in monorhyme: Seven times tried that judgment is. That did never choose amiss. Some there be that shadows kiss.

There be fools alive iwis, Silvered o'er, and so was this. Take what wife you will to bed. I will ever be your head. So be gone; you are sped. (2.9.62-71) MONOSYLLABIC : Having only one syllable. MOOD (from Anglo-Saxon, mod heart or spirit): (1) In literature, a feeling, emotional state, or disposition of mind--especially the predominating atmosphere or tone of a literary work. Stereotypes In The? Most pieces of literature have a prevailing mood, but shifts in this prevailing mood may function as a counterpoint, provide comic relief, or echo the changing events in the plot. Essay On Oedipus? The term mood is often used synonymously with atmosphere and ambiance . Students and critics who wish to gender in the media discuss mood in their essays should be able to on Oedipus Sophocles point to specific diction, description, setting, and characterization to illustrate what sets the mood. (2) In grammar, an aspect of verbs. Gender In The? Click here for more information on grammatical mood . MORALITY PLAY : A genre of medieval and early Renaissance drama that illustrates the way to live a pious life through allegorical characters.

The characters tend to be personified abstractions of vices and virtues. For instance, characters named Mercy and Mapping of automotive industry, Conscience might work together to stop Shame and Lust from stealing Mr. Poorman's most valuable possession, a box of gold labeled Salvation. Unlike a mystery play or a miracle play , a morality play does not necessarily use Biblical or strictly religious material, i.e., the media morality play usually does not contain specific characters found in the Bible, such as saints or the disciples or Old Testament figures. Unlike the miracle play, which depicts astonishing and malaria, moving miraculous events believed to have occurred literally to gender stereotypes specific historical figures in specific settings, the morality play takes place internally and Value Mapping A case study of automotive, psychologically in media every human being. The protagonist often has a name that represents this universality, such as Everyman, Mankind, Soul, Adam, or whatnot.

The most famous morality play is probably Everyman , a fifteenth-century drama in which a grim character named Death summons Everyman to judgment. On his way to how is meet Death, Everyman discovers that all his old buddies are abandoning him except one. His friend Good Deeds is the only one that will accompany him to meet Death, while Beauty, Fellowship, Kindred, Knowledge, and Strength fall by stereotypes media the wayside on his journey. Other famous examples include The Castle of Perseverance and Mankind . Contrast with mystery play and miracle play . MORPHEME : Linguistically, the smallest collection of sounds or letters in a spoken or written word that has semiotic importance or significance--a unit of meaning that cannot be divided into Stream study, tinier units of meaning. For instance, in the English word rerun , the prefix re- is a morpheme implying again and the word run is a morpheme implying an act of motion. If we try to cut the stereotypes prefix re- into smaller collections of sounds ( /r/ and /I/ phonetically), these sounds no longer have meaning attached to them, and they are no longer morphemes.

Likewise, the morpheme run cannot be further subdivided into Geography and History Iraq, meaningful morphemes. Note that morphemes can be either free or bound . Typically, in English, individual syllables tend to be morphemes, though some occasional morphemes consist of single sounds. Contrast with grapheme and gender stereotypes media, phoneme . MORPHOLOGY : The part of a language concerned with the structure of pros and cons, morphemes and gender stereotypes, how these morphemes combine. Linguists use this term in contrast with syntax . MORPHOSYNTAX : In linguistics, morphosyntax is an impressive word scholars use when most people would simply say grammar. It is the study of Essay and History in the War, how parts of a sentence relate to each other. MOSAIC AUTHORSHIP : The medieval and Renaissance belief that Moses wrote all five books of the Pentateuch. Click here for more discussion. MOT JUSTE, LE (French, The right word): A well-chosen, precise, or exact word, an extremely appropriate or fitting bit of diction . MOTIF : A conspicuous recurring element, such as a type of incident, a device, a reference, or verbal formula, which appears frequently in stereotypes works of literature. For instance, the in the Iraq loathly lady who turns out to be a beautiful princess is gender media, a common motif in malaria caused folklore, and the man fatally bewitched by a fairy lady is a common folkloric motif appearing in Keats' La Belle Dame sans Merci. Stereotypes In The? In medieval Latin lyrics, the Ubi sunt ? [where are . . .?] motif is common, in which a speaker mourns the lost past by repeatedly asking, what happened to the good-old days? (Where are the snows of yesteryear? asks Francois Villon.) The motif of the beheading game is common in Celtic myth, and so on. Theory Y? Frequently, critics use the word motif interchangeably with theme and in the, leit-motif . See also folkloric motif . MOTIF OF THE DISGUISED KING : A common motif in folklore in which the king disguises himself and travels through his domains incognito . Pros Of Feminism? Examples include Prince Hal/Henry V in Shakespeare's plays, in which the gender king dons a cloak to obscure his features and then walks among his troops to converse with them and get a sense of their morale before battle.

In Greek epics, Odysseus returns to his kingdom of Ithaca in disguise and skulks among the suitors to gather intelligence toward the end of The Odyssey . Essay In The Iraq War? In The Lord of the Rings , Aragorn is the rightful king of the west, but he remains disguised as the homeless and stereotypes in the, impoverished Strider. Y? See also the motif of the hidden king , below. MOTIF OF THE HIDDEN KING : A common motif in folklore in which the rightful king of media, a nation is how is, absent or hidden away, but will one day be revealed and gender stereotypes in the, then triumphantly reclaim rule over his kingdom, ushering in a golden age. Examples in Value Mapping study of automotive industry Arthurian literature include King Arthur, who is first hidden when Merlin spirits him away from Uther Pendragon while Arthur is an infant but later revealed as the true ruler when he draws the sword from the gender stereotypes stone. Additionally, at the end of his life, when King Arthur is wounded in the fight with Mordred, he sails away to Avalon in the West, but prophecy asserts he will return from Faerie to rule Britain again in the hour of the island's greatest need. In world religions, some branches of on Oedipus Rex by Sophocles, Islam believe in the Mahdi, a hidden Imam, a rightful spiritual ruler of the Muslim faithful who remains hidden but will eventually reveal himself and return to power.

Some Tolkien scholars identify Aragorn in The Lord of the Rings as another example of the media motif. As Helen Armstrong notes: Aragorn has many of the marks of a mythical hidden king and true hero. His mother (and in an earlier draft his grandmother) prophesis on his behalf. At moments of caused, drama a white flame appears on his brow. He loves a princess of the in the media Elves. How Is? His marriage depends on his success, and the future of stereotypes media, his kingdom depends on his marriage. He is supported and advised by malaria caused a powerful otherworldly woman, Galadriel, and he carries tokens of his heritage and destiny (Andúril, the gender stereotypes in the media Elfstone). The last sapling of the White Tree of Gondor flowers to pros and cons herald his marriage, and he is crowned in gender in the media Gondor by Gandalf, the hierophant in the story. Theory Y? . . Gender Media? . He has powers (such as his ability to control the palantír ) that rest partly in his innate royal authority. Essay On Oedipus Rex By Sophocles? (see Aragorn entry in gender stereotypes in the Drout 23) MULTICULTURAL NOVEL : As Robert Harris defines the term in his glossary, a multicultural novel is.

A novel written by a member of or about a cultural minority group, giving insight into non-Western or non-dominant cultural experiences and values, either in the United States or abroad. Examples: Chinua Achebe, Things Fall Apart. Amy Tan, The Kitchen God's Wife. Forrest Carter, The Education of Little Tree. Margaret Craven, I Heard the Owl Call My Name. James Baldwin, Go Tell It on the Mountain.

Isaac Bashevis Singer, The Penitent. MULTICULTURALISM : In literature, multiculturalism is the belief that literary studies should include writings, poetry, folklore, and plays from a number of different cultures rather than focus on Essay Geography and History in the War, Western European civilization alone. See also Latino writing and Harlem Renaissance for two examples of multicultural writings. MULTIPLICATIVE : Most languages have various systems of numbering, typically at least two systems and sometimes many more. For instance, most languages distinguish between cardinal numbers (like one , two , or three in stereotypes English or unus , duo , and tres in Rex by Sophocles Latin) which indicate a tally and gender, can function as adjectives or substantive adjectives, and ordinal numbers (such as first , second , and third in pros and cons English or primus , secundus , and stereotypes in the media, tertius in caused Latin), which indicate a sequence or ordering. However, a great number of other possible numbering systems exist among the world languages, some of which have no perfect correspondence in English. These include the following:

Multiplicative numbers indicate the number of in the, times something multiplies or recurs, such as the English words single , double , triple , or quadruple , or the Latin words simplex, duplex, triplex , and quater , etc. Proportional numbers indicate comparisons of degree, such as Latin duplus , triplus , quadruplus , etc. English has no directly comparable words, and must express proportion with phrases like twice as great as or three times as much, etc. Numeric adverbs indicate how many times or how often something happens, such as English once , twice , or thrice or the Dracula As an Essay Latin terms semel , bis , ter , or quater , etc. Distributive numbers indicate how many of each or how many at a time, especially when parts of a large number are being distributed among a smaller group. Examples include Latin singuli , bini , terni , and quaterni . Gender Media? English has no comparable system of single number-words, and it must express distributive ideas with phrases like one given to each one, two given to each one, three given to each one, etc. Partitive numbers indicate the number of theory, parts in a greater whole, such as Latin binarius , ternarius , quaternarius , etc. English has no comparable system except for a few limited words like binary or trinary , and it must express more complex partitive ideas or larger numbers with phrases like consisting of twelve parts, or divided into eighteen components. Temporal numbers are single words refering to units of time in the past, such as Latin bimus , trimus , etc.

English has no comparable system and must express temporal numbers in full phrases like two years ago or three minutes in the future or lasting for a period of gender stereotypes media, seven hours, where other languages might use a single word to encompass that idea. MUSES, THE NINE : The nine daughters of Zeus and Mnemosyne who had the power to inspire artists, poets, singers, and writers. They are listed below along with their spheres of influence: MUSIC OF THE SPHERES : In medieval and Renaissance Europe, many scholars believed in a beautiful song created by the movement of the heavenly bodies (sun, moon, and planets). The music of spheres supposedly was infinitely beautiful, but humans were unable to hear it, either (a) because of their sinful separation from Value Stream Mapping A case study of automotive Essay, God, or (b) because they were so used to its presence, their minds automatically filtered it out gender stereotypes, as background noise. This medieval idea influences C. Rex By Sophocles? S. Lewis and J.R.R. Gender Stereotypes Media? Tolkien's fantasy literature, in which Aslan creates Narnia through an act of singing and Essay in the, the elder gods of Middle-Earth build the universe through a symphony that incorporates Melkor's awful, rebellious song into the larger harmonies of the gender media grand creator.

MUTATION : A change in a vowel sound caused by another sound in the following syllable. In Old English and in Celtic languages like Irish Gaelic and Value Mapping A case, Welsh, the type of mutation called i -mutation was especially common. Stereotypes In The Media? Another common type is the eclipsis mutation, a mutation in Dracula As an Essay which a basic consonant sound is eclipsed or replaced by a stronger sound in gender stereotypes media a preceding word. For a chart of the most common Irish mutations as examples, click here. MYSTERY CULT : Unlike the official public cults dedicated to the Olympian gods in ancient Greece and Rome, a number of religious practices involved chthonic deities (like Demeter) and imported foreign gods (Ishtar, Osiris, Mithras, etc.). The cults often shared features such as ritual washing or cleansing in the form of baptism, ritual christening or renaming, symbolically dying and being born again, etc. Possibly some may have offered the Dracula As an Essay hope of an afterlife through metempsychosis (unlike standard Greek and Roman belief which emphasized a gloomy stay in the underworld). Others--in the in the media case of Dionysian worshippers--ritually slew the god and ate him or drank his blood symbolically in mcgregor theory the form of wine. Regardless of specific varying details, these mystery cults shared a common element of secrecy--a distinction between the uninitiated outsider who did not share in their special blessings and the initiated cult member who did. The cult rituals were held to be so sacred that it was blasphemous to gender stereotypes in the media reveal them to outsiders, even to speak of mcgregor theory x and y, them, describe them, or write them down in any way.

The rites were often held in inaccessible areas far from the local city--on mountain-tops or sea-shores or in gender in the catacombs. Some, like the mystery cult of Demeter, were open to any prospective members regardless of race, gender, or nationality as long as they spoke sufficient Greek to Stream A case industry Essay participate in stereotypes in the media the rituals. Others were open to certain professions, such as the Essay Geography and History Iraq War cult of Mithras which only allowed soldiers to stereotypes join after an initial baptism in bull's blood. Others were restricted by family (such as local versions of the Lykian wolf cult) or partly restricted by gender (such as the Rex by maenads of Dionysus). MYSTERY CYCLE : A collection of in the media, mystery plays in A case industry Essay a single manuscript meant to be performed sequentially. See discusion under mystery play , below. MYSTERY NOVEL : A novel focused on suspense and solving a mystery--especially a murder, theft, kidnapping, or some other crime. The protagonist faces inexplicable events, threats, assaults, and unknown forces or antagonists. Conventionally, the hero is a keenly observant individual (such as Sherlock Holmes) and the police are depicted as incompetent or incapable of gender in the, solving the crime by themselves. And Cons Of Feminism? Many of the works of stereotypes, Sir Arthur Conan Doyle, Edgar Allan Poe, and Agatha Christie are mystery novels. Note that this term should not be confused with the medieval mystery play , below.

MYSTERY PLAY : A religious play performed outdoors in the medieval period that enacts an event from the Bible, such as the story of Adam and Eve, Noah's flood, the crucifixion, and so on. Although the origins are uncertain, Mary Marshall and other early scholars like E. K. Pros And Cons Of Feminism? Chambers (author of The Medieval Stage , 1903) suggested that the plays developed out of the gender in the Latin liturgy of the church, in particular out of the Quem Quaeritis trope of Easter Day festivals. These early Easter Day dramatic performances took place in the churchyard. Later, these plays gradually became secular and Value Mapping study of automotive Essay, used vernacular languages rather than Latin, and gender stereotypes in the, they gradually moved out of the churchyard and ecclesiastical control, becoming outdoor performances controlled by the craftsmen in each city, according to this theory. Other scholars such as V. A. Kolve refute this idea, however. In any case, we do know that these religious plays were staged and performed by secular audiences. Typically, the various guilds in each city (such as the Carpenters' Guild, the Butchers' Guild, and so on) would sponsor and perform one play during the Corpus Christi festival, competing with each other for the most elaborate performance.

Each guild would mount the play on a large wagon with a curtained scaffold, with the lower part of the wagon used as a dressing room. Between forty and fifty of these wagons (one for each guild) would move from spot to spot in the city, so that spectators could watch several performances in mcgregor theory x and a single day. The plays often involved elaborate representations of heaven and hell, mechanical devices to gender stereotypes create special effects, and lavish costuming. Malaria Caused? The dramatizations became increasingly elaborate, and they show signs of developing psychological realism. Stereotypes In The? The use of mystery in the name may originate in either the idea of spiritual mysteries, which were the Stream A case focus of stereotypes in the media, each play, or it may result from the Latin word misterium (a guild). The mystery plays were an important precursor to the miracle plays and morality plays (see above) in medieval drama, and they set the stage for the flowering of Renaissance drama that was to Essay on Oedipus Rex by come with Shakespeare. Note that this term should not be confused with the Victorian and modern mystery novel , above. MYSTIC WRITERS : See discussion under mystics , below. MYSTICS : In the word's most general sense, mystics are religious visionaries who experience divine insights. In medieval scholarship, the term mystics or mystic writers is often used as a collective term for a group of stereotypes media, late fourteenth-century and pros of feminism, early fifteenth-century eremites in England who wrote mystical works in Middle English and Latin. These include the anchoress Julian of Norwich, who wrote The Book of Showings ; the illiterate mystic Margery Kempe, who dictated her autobiography The Book of Margery Kempe to two scribes; Richard Rolle, the author of Love is Love that Lasts for gender, Aye; and the anonymous author of The Cloud of Unknowing . On the continent, other famous mystics include Saint Teresa of Avila, Hildegard of Bingen, and Value of automotive, Saint Francis of Assissi.

The mystic writers are marked by media the use of vivid (and sometimes confusing) imagery , intense emotional pathos (in the case of Margery Kempe), paradox (in the case of Richard Rolle), and an intense desire to verbalize what is largely a nonverbal experience (in the case of nearly every mystic). Mystics--regardless of religious background--are often marked by an experience in which they perceive the mcgregor universe as a unity or in media which they feel a sense of being one with the divine. We see signs of this tendency in Julian of Norwich's vision of Christ's blood, which transforms into raindrops falling from the side of a roof and then in turn transforms into the scales on a herring, as if God's physical form were embodied in the entire universe. In a more general sense, the author of the book of how is, Revelation in the Bible (commonly attributed to gender stereotypes media John of Patmos), and study Essay, the poetry of William Blake are said to be visionary or mystical in nature, though scholars usually do not place them in the same category as the medieval mystics. On the other hand, much of religious poetry and writing is not particularly mystic in its nature--as witnessed by C. Stereotypes Media? S. Lewis' The Screwtape Letters or the poetry of Milton and Gerard Manley Hopkins, all three of malaria caused, which are profoundly religious, but which do not necessarily represent a struggle to gender verbalize an Outsider Essay, intense religious vision in stereotypes media the same manner as a mystic writer. MYTH : While common English usage often equates myth with falsehood, scholars use the term slightly differently. A myth is a traditional tale of deep cultural significance to of feminism a people in terms of etiology , eschatology , ritual practice, or models of appropriate and media, inappropriate behavior. The myth often (but not always) deals with gods, supernatural beings, or ancestral heroes.

The culture creating or retelling the myth may or may not believe that the myth refers to mcgregor x and y literal or factual events, but it values the mythic narrative regardless of in the, its historical authenticity for its (conscious or unconscious) insights into the human condition or the model it provides for cultural behavior. See also folklore , legend , mythography , mythos , and mythology . MYTHOGRAPHY : The commentary, writings, and interpretations added to myths. Mcgregor Y? Medieval writers, such as the four anonymous scribes collectively called the Vatican Mythographers, would take Greek and in the media, Roman myths and Value Mapping A case study industry, write elaborate Christianized allegories to explain the meaning of the text. Another example of medieval mythography is the Ovid moralisée , a retelling of Ovid's Metamorphoses in which French scribes interpret the legends as Christological commentary on the New Testament. MYTHOLOGY : A system of stories about the in the media gods, often explicitly religious in nature, that possibly were once believed to be true by a specific cultural group, but may no longer be believed as literally true by their descendents. Like religions everywhere, mythology often provided etiological and Essay and History in the, eschatological narratives (see above) to help explain why the stereotypes in the media world works the way it does, to Stream A case of automotive provide a rationale for stereotypes, customs and observances, to establish set rituals for sacred ceremonies, and to predict what happens to individuals after death. If the protagonist is a normal human rather than a supernatural being, the traditional story is usually called a legend rather than a myth. If the story concerns supernatural beings who are not deities, but rather spirits, ghosts, fairies, and other creatures, it is usually called a folktale or fairy tale rather than a myth (see folklore , below). Samples of myths appear in the writings of Homer, Virgil, and Ovid.

MYTHOPOEIA (Greek myth-making or myth-poetry): (1) J. Value Stream Mapping A Case Of Automotive Essay? R. R. Tolkien's neologism for the deliberate creation of artificial myth , especially the incorporation of traditional mythic archetypes into current fiction, whether that fiction be something akin to stereotypes in the Virgil's propaganda in The Aeneid , the Romantic poetry of William Blake, or the fantasy literature of pros, C.S. Lewis or Tolkien himself. Tolkien connected mythopoeia with his theological doctrine of subcreation (q.v.) (2) Tolkien's poem of the same title, which he wrote in response to an argument he and the other Inklings had regarding C.S. Lewis' atheism shortly after September 19, 1931. C.S. Lewis initially felt he could not believe in a literal resurrection of Christ because the narrative pattern in the Gospels echoed much older myths about sacrificial dying gods, as detailed at length in Sir James Frazer's The Golden Bough . He thus thought that the Gospel stories, though breathed through silver, were merely pretty lies. Tolkien's counter-argument was that, even though much older versions of the stereotypes in the story existed before the time of Christ, that did not matter.

Tolkien argued that, what God did in the incarnation and crucifixion was to take the older stories and make them literally true. Our older myths expressed man's deepest longest for Essay on Oedipus, redemption and gender in the media, resurrection, and that God chose to fulfill those ancient desires by giving Christ to humanity--and thus the older myth could be made flesh and walk among us. MYTHOS : (1) Approaching the world through poetic narrative and Essay on Oedipus, traditional ritual rather than rational or logical thought. (2) The collected myths of a specific culture in a general sense rather than in reference to one particular narrative or character. For instance, we might refer specifically to the myth of in the media, Hercules fighting the Hydra, the myth of Kali drinking demons' blood, or the myth of the giant Ullikummis, but we would more generally say these tales belong to the Greek mythos , the Value A case of automotive Essay Hindu mythos , or the Hittite mythos , respectively. In The? Cf. mythology .

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cover letter for nursing. Should i include collegiate sports in my resume? And if so where? It depends how much professional experience you have. If you are a recent college grad, then it is acceptable to include on your resume. Good luck on the job hunt!

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It provides ample space for your professional experience, while also highlighting your top qualifications. Gender In The! Good luck on the job hunt! hi resume genius.. i need template resume that suitable for Essay and History in the Iraq War trainer and coach.. can u suggest to me with template is suitable.. #128578; I had a job for 7 years and during that time I wore many hats, Executive Admin, Purchasing, Vendor Management, Project Coordination, etc. How would I write that on my resume? Perhaps the Company name and then all the related roles under that and the times I did those jobs? I was always the Executive Admin, but I did other jobs during that period.

Yes, your suggestion is correct. Start with the gender media company name and included the related jobs with their own bullet points underneath. Good luck! Consider trying the Job Hopper or the Executive. They should able to fit all your jobs nicely. Ive never had a job so what should I use? Most of the templates above would suit your situation, but we suggest trying the Career Changer template because it emphasizes skills over Value Mapping A case study the dates of your professional experience. Gender! ( Best of luck! We suggest using the Gatsby Template. Good luck with grad school! As far as style, we suggest our Professional template.

In terms of format, if you want to y include your restaurant experience, then you might want to consider using a functional format: Hope this helps! We suggest using our Entry-Level template. Good luck with the in the internship! Good Day Resume Genius.Im a midwife by Value A case of automotive industry, profession an has worked in a military hospital for 16 years in KSA. Im trying to gender stereotypes in the media apply as a home based ESL educator and an email respondent . Since Im from the medical profession, Im having difficulty in choosing the perfect resume.The skill I know is more on the medical.,clerical which involes data entry for appointments and summary, interpreter and my part time informal english lessons to native speaking arabs. How Is Malaria Caused! What template should I use? Try the gender stereotypes in the media Murray template. Good luck! Hello.

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You should go with the Entry-Level template. Good luck with the job hunt. I have worked 32+ years as a nurse, the last 4 years taking care of my elderly father and online work. Now seeking to get back into the job market for extra income, not necessarily in the health field, just to earn some income and socialize. What resume do you suggest? Try the Job Hopper template.

Good luck with your job search! Hi! What resume template would you recommend for gender stereotypes media a 9th grader trying to apply for pros of feminism a doctor (any)?? Apparently, resume making and interviewing is stereotypes media, our project for the fourth quarter this year. Dracula Outsider! I couldnt find any clear examples on the web, and I was hoping you could help me out with what template I should use.. Try using the Elegant 2.0 template.

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Albert Einstein Essay. Was He a Mad Scientist? Albert Einstein is perhaps one of the most famous scientists in physics of the twentieth century. In the course of his short biography, he made a revolution in scientific thinking and is recognized as the greatest physicist who ever lived. In this Albert Einstein essay, I will write about this Great person. If you need to gender stereotypes media write an essay about scientists, celebrities or historical figures then refer to a paper writer, and she do the best for you! The first information that you can find in all Albert Einstein essays is his childhood. So, a biography of and cons of feminism Einstein began on March 14, 1879. He is from a Jewish middle- class family of the city of Ulm, Germany. He's like most kids, didn't like school and gender preferred to study at home. His father Hermann Einstein, was the Dracula As an Outsider Essay, owner of the stereotypes media, company that sold electrical equipment.

His mother Pauline Einstein, was a housewife. How Is. In 1880, the Einstein family moved to Munich, where in 1885 Albert became a student of a catholic elementary school. Vicious by nature, he was deeply religious. At school he didn#8217;t differ in progress from other students. Acquainted with the gender stereotypes media, philosophical works of Kant, Einstein was fascinated by mathematics and physics. In 1888 he entered the Luitpold high school that is known as a progressive and very liberal, but he didn#8217;t graduate from that school. He moved with family to Milan. Both in catholic elementary school and in Value Mapping A case study industry Essay, high school Albert Einstein hasn#8217;t got a good reputation. The first year in Switzerland.

In October 1895 sixteen-year-old Albert Einstein went from Milan to Zurich to continue his education. In 1896, Einstein entered the Higher Technical College in Zurich. Brilliantly passing the entrance exams in mathematics, physics and gender in the chemistry, he, however, failed miserably other subjects. Einstein thought that for memorizing the material it is unnecessary to notch it, it is enough to understand the material logically. The rector of the college appreciated an outstanding mathematical ability of Einstein and sent him for training at the cantonal school in Aarau, which at that time was one of the best in Switzerland. In 1901 he received the diploma and Swiss citizenship. Pros Of Feminism. After graduation he could become a teacher of physics and mathematics.

For a long time Einstein could not find a teaching position and eventually got the gender in the media, position of technical assistant in Swiss patent office. The first steps of Einstein to the recognition. How Is Malaria. A few months after employment he married his former classmate in Zurich Mileva Maric from Serbia, who was four years older than him. In the patent office, he spent more than seven years as these years were the media, happiest in his life. His life changed and you can learn more about such changing from life changing experiences essay. On Oedipus Sophocles. In 1905, were published three important scientific work of Albert Einstein such as the special theory of relativity, quantum theory and Brownian motion. In his article Einstein introduced for the first time the formula of the interrelation between mass and energy, and in in the media, 1906 wrote down it in the formula E=mc2. It is the basis of the relativistic principle of conservation of energy of all nuclear energy. Using quantum statistics, Einstein along with physicist Bose have discovered the fifth state of matter, which were named in their honor Bose-Einstein condensate. In 1905 Einstein received his doctorate at the University of Zurich.

Soon after that, in and cons, 1908 he began teaching at gender in the media, the University of x and Bern. In 1909 he was recognized as one of the world's best thinkers. In 1910 he became professor of physics at the University of Zurich. Some time later Einstein began teaching at the German University in Prague. In 1912 Einstein and his friend Marcel Grossman began the gravity research. Einstein called his new research the gender in the, general theory of relativity. In 1915 he finally published the final version of this theory. In 1932, Einstein lectured at the California Institute of technology, and in April 1933 he received a professorship at the Princeton Institute for advanced studies. On Oedipus Rex By Sophocles. He was looking for in the media answers on questions of unified field theory that unites gravity and electromagnetism.

Although, unfortunately this program did not materialize, his reputation has not suffered. Everybody knew him as a physicist of global level. But he remained as modest, friendly and how is malaria eccentric. This is the best human traits, as I think, and I read about in character traits essay. He was fond of music and played in an ensemble with other physicists.

After the collapse of Germany during the Second World War, Einstein along with other scientists appealed to the President of the gender, United States. They asked him not to apply the atomic bomb in the war with Japan. This appeal did not prevent the tragedy of Hiroshima and Einstein stepped up his pacifist activities, he became the spiritual leader of campaigns in the struggle for Essay Rex by peace, disarmament, prohibition of atomic weapons, for gender stereotypes media the termination of the cold war. In The Iraq War. The rest of gender stereotypes in the media his life, Einstein spent on conducting a research position at the Institute of advanced study in how is malaria caused, Princeton, New Jersey. The last years of his brief biography Albert Einstein spent searching for a unified theory. The search was in vain.

He died in 1955 without finding the elusive theory. Although his last thoughts were forgotten for decades, physicists continue looking for the same purpose as was in the dreams of Einstein- the great discoverer in the field of physical theory. Gender Media. Why Einstein showed his tongue? In my short essay on Albert Einstein I will open a secret of this comic situation. The vast majority of people perceive Albert Einstein as a mad scientist. This image has been created in the minds of millions of people just because of unusual appearance of the great scientist.

Once he caused a great interest to his person. This happened in celebration of Geography Iraq War his seventy-second anniversary, on stereotypes in the media March 14, 1952. Photographer asked Einstein to make brooding face corresponding to the image of the researcher and the scientist stuck out how is caused his tongue, showing himself not only as a great inventor, but as an stereotypes in the ordinary cheerful person. Subsequently, Albert Einstein sent it to friends as a Christmas greeting card. Albert's friend, the journalist H. Pros Of Feminism. Smith, has got a unique photo there was the signature made by the hand of stereotypes in the a genius of physics, where he wrote that a playful grimace is for all humanity. Most people agree that Albert Einstein was one of the greatest scientists. Essay Rex By Sophocles. But some of the facts of biography are distorted or forgotten over gender stereotypes in the time.

Delving into the life of Einstein, we write interesting information in this essay on Albert Einstein that proves that this great scientist can surprise even now. Value Mapping Study Of Automotive Industry. If you like all information that you have read and want to know more now, take my advice and use professional service for getting it.

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essay image virtue Native Americans and the Land. Wilderness and American Identity. The Use of the Land. Native Americans and the Land Essays. American Indians: The Image of the Indian.

Nature Transformed is made possible by grants from the Arthur Vining Davis Foundations. American Indians: The Image of the Indian. Department of History. University of Victoria, British Columbia. National Humanities Center. An early twentieth-century elementary school textbook quizzed pupils on their grasp of the gender stereotypes, lesson devoted to pros and cons American Indians. It was a time of unblushing certainty about the superiority of civilization to “savagery.” “In what three ways were the Indians different from the gender stereotypes in the media, white men,” the school text asked, and “What did the white people think of the Indians?” Judging from related questions, the As an, correct answer was that the stereotypes, Indians were strange : What was one of the strangest things that the pros and cons of feminism, Indians did? What strange things did the Indians believe about spirits?

What strange things did the Indians do to stereotypes in the media drive the evil spirits away? Today it is difficult even to Essay Sophocles talk about the racial stereotypes once so confidently assumed. Stereotyping as a subject for study may be historical, but the emotions it arouses are eminently present day. Whether we use terms like image, stereotype or construct, we are talking about the same thing: ideas about stereotypes in the a particular group that serve to characterize all the Essay and History in the, individuals within that group. Stereotypes Media! Certain ideas entrench themselves as fundamental, and the rule of thumb is that such ideas are invariably self-servingthey promote the interests of the group that holds them, and they form the reality upon which that group acts. It is a given today that the idea of the mcgregor, American Indian has been historically significant.

It shaped the stereotypes in the media, attitudes of those in the nineteenth century who shaped Indian policy. Indian policybe it removal of the Eastern tribes in the 1830s, reservation isolationism beginning in the 1850s, or allotment of how is caused reservation lands and assimilation in the 1880scannot be understood without an awareness of the ideas behind it. Literature and the visual arts provide revealing guides to nineteenth-century assumptions about the Indian. Traditionally, Indians were divided into two “types”: noble and ignoble savages. The Indian woman was either a princess or a drudge, the Indian man an admirable brave or a fiendish warrior. These venerable images, dating back to stereotypes in the the earliest European contact with American natives, found their most influential literary expression in James Fenimore Cooper’s 1826 novel Last of the Mohicans . Cooper personified good and bad by Dracula Outsider tribe and individualthe noble Delawares Uncas and his father Chingachgook, the evil Hurons Magua and his “bloody-minded hellhounds.” Lasting influence? Students might be encouraged to watch the 1992 Daniel Day-Lewis movie Last of the Mohicans a very free adaptation of Cooper’s novel. Better yet, have them watch Dances with Wolves . It won the Academy Award for in the, Best Picture in 1990, and was a crowd favorite. Besides a sympathetic white hero in line with Cooper’s own Natty Bumppo, it starkly contrasts “good” Indians (the ever-so-noble Lakotas) and “bad” Indians (the villainous Pawnees, with their roach-cuts and face paint making them look like English “punks” on a rampage).

The stark contrast between the noble and ignoble savage obscures their common denominator: savagery . Savagery referred to Essay on Oedipus Rex by a state of social development below civilization and, in some calculations, below an intermediate step, barbarism. Gender In The Media! Since savagery was inferior to civilization, the reasoning went; a savage was naturally inferior to a civilized person. The noble savage might be admired for certain rude virtues, and the ignoble savage deplored as brutal and bloody-minded, but the fate of each was identical. In time, both would vanish from the face of the earth as civilization, in theory, accordance with the universal law of progress, displaced savagery. The ending of Dances with Wolves echoes this sentiment as an admirable culture, unaware of inexorable fate, is about to media be swept away by malaria a more progressive but less admirable one. Swept away.

Such was the theory of the Vanishing American. It held out no long-term hope for Indians, noble or ignoble, unless they could be civilized . Sadly, many Americans in the first half of the nineteenth-century concluded, they could not. For there was another law at work when civilization met savagery, the law of vices and virtues. In confronting white civilization, the reasoning went, Indians lost their savage virtuesindependence, hospitality, couragewhile retaining only their savage vices; worse yet, they added civilization’s vices to the mixture, ignoring civilization’s virtues. This lethal combination of savage vices and civilized vices ensured the Indians’ extinction. The artist George Catlin (17961872), who based his entire body of workincluding over 500 paintings done in the 1830s and several books recounting his travelson the theory of the Vanishing American, provided a vivid description of the gender stereotypes in the, process at work: In traversing the immense regions of the Classic West , the mind of a Philanthropist is filled to the brim with feelings of Rex by admiration; but to gender stereotypes reach this country, one is obliged to descend from the light and glow of malaria civilized atmosphere, through the different grades of civilization, which gradually sink to the most deplorable vice and darkness along our frontier; thence through the gender media, most pitiable misery and wretchedness of savage degradation, where the Rex by Sophocles, genius of gender stereotypes in the media natural liberty and independence have been blasted and destroyed by the contaminating vices and dissipations of civilized society. Mcgregor Theory X And Y! Through this dark and sunken vale of wretchedness one hurries as through a pestilence, until he gradually rises again into gender stereotypes in the, the proud and heroic elegance of caused savage society, in a state of pure and media, original nature, beyond the and cons of feminism, reach of civilized contamination Even here, the gender stereotypes media, predominant passions of the savage breast, of treachery and cruelty, are often found, yet restrained and Essay Iraq War, frequently subdued by the noblest traits of honor and magnanimity,a race of gender media men who live and enjoy life and its luxuries, and Essay Geography in the Iraq War, practice its virtues, very far beyond the usual estimations of the media, world From the first settlements of our Atlantic coast to the present day, the bane of this blasting frontier has regularly crowded upon how is caused, them, from the gender stereotypes, northern to caused the southern extremities of our country, and, like the fire in gender stereotypes, a mountain, which destroys every thing where it passes, it has blasted and sunk them, and all but their names, into oblivion, wherever it has traveled. Pigeon’s Egg Head (The Light) going to. and returning from Washington.

Courtesy of Smithsonian American Art Institute Alcohol symbolized the fatal exchange: it turned once noble savages into “the poor, degraded, and humbled specimens which alone can be seen along our frontiers.” Resistance was futile. Should the theory x and, Indians accept the inevitable and embrace civilization, they would be destroyed by its vices; should they resist civilization and go to war, they would be destroyed by its avenging sword. Not everyone accepted such a grim prognosis. Missionaries always rejected the notion of a race created for extinction, and insisted that substituting good example for in the, bad would find the Indians’ gratefully embracing civilization’s virtues and theory, spurning its vices. Even Catlin held out hope. “The protecting arm of government,” he insisted, “could easily shield them from in the, vices, and civilize them (if necessary) with virtues.” Nevertheless, the mcgregor, thrust of popular opinion, like his own, cleaved to the notion of a vanishing race. “This wild, but noble and gender in the media, unhappy race, is rapidly becoming extinct,” a New York newspaper editorialized in pros of feminism, 1837:

They are rapidly sinking into the stream of oblivion, and soon nothing of them will remain but the memory of their past existence and glory. Gender Stereotypes In The Media! Where are now the descendants of Powhattan, the father of Pocahontas, or Tamenend and of Pontiac? Alas! They are blotted from the Dracula Outsider Essay, face of the stereotypes in the, earth, or swallowed up in the remnants of other tribes. Science buttressed popular understanding of the Indian. In the middle of the nineteenth century, polygenesisthe theory of multiple creation of Value Stream Mapping study of automotive Essay human “types”provided a race-based explanation for permanent differences in racial capacity, thereby reinforcing notions about the incompatibility of savagery and stereotypes, civilization. However, polygenesis clashed with religious orthodoxy, which denied the separate creation of races. All humans shared an and cons of feminism innate capacity for improvement; no race was intended for extinction.

Later, evolutionary theorists, in advancing the in the, case for survival of the fittest, gave new credence to the tradition of the mcgregor theory y, Vanishing Indian, since there had to be losers as well as winners in the struggle for survival. JH Colton, New York, 1855. Ruderman Antique Maps Inc. Artists after Catlin also doted on gender stereotypes in the media, this theme. One popular motif showed the vanguard of civilization scattering Indians and wild animals before its irresistible advance; another placed Indians on a bluff gazing down with melancholy resignation on the thriving civilization below. Progress had made them outcasts in their own land. As for the contrasting images of noble and Essay Rex by Sophocles, ignoble savage, expansion rendered the former something of an Eastern monopoly, the latter a Western one, while the Vanishing American subsumed both.

from Harper’s New Monthly. Magazine , June 1867. Courtesy of Cornell UniversityThus, ambivalence marked Indian imagery at the end of the nineteenth century. In the long struggle for mastery of the media, continent, the pros and cons, image of the bloody savage had always qualified any regret occasioned by the passing of the gender, noble savage. After the frontier moment ended, however, Americans could look upon their native peoples with sentimental regret. It was a short step from celebrating the heroic white pioneers who “won the West” to mourning the losers who, once resistance was over, served as poignant symbols of the cost of progress. James Earle Fraser in 1894 translated popular sentiment into a sculpture of lasting appeal.

End of the Trail shows a mounted Plains Indian, head bowed, shoulders slumped, his spear pointing at the ground, resigned to his fate, which was that of his race. This was the nineteenth century’s legacy to the twentieth, fusing the pros, noble savage with the Vanishing American to create a timeless Indian symbolizing a past already receding into pure nostalgia. Guiding Student Discussion. Racial stereotyping is a minefield, and entering it for gender media, purposes of classroom discussion requires a carefully thought out strategy. The truth is that students are often impatient with the past. They cannot see why people “back then” got everything so wrong, and Dracula As an Essay, they tend to judge them, rather than attempt the more difficultand, we historians like to think, more rewarding!task of gender stereotypes in the understanding why people were the way they were, and why they thought the way they did. In order to discuss historical stereotypes, you have to introduce students to them. This runs the risk of coming across as advocacy. Indeed, in raising anything historically unpleasant, you may be held responsible for the resulting unpleasantnessit would not exist had you not mentioned it! Having introduced stereotypes, you are left to deal with them. Outright condemnation is easy, since it conforms to mcgregor theory y what students already think.

Anything more challenging runs even greater risks. Let me (literally!) illustrate the gender media, problem. You want to talk about Value study stereotypes of African Americans and American Indians, so you show your class a cartoon of an African American eating watermelon and a photograph of a cigar store Indian. If your point is simply that these images prove the ignorance of EuroAmericans in the past, then you will have no controversy. If you introduce the same images to probe the underlying values of a society that considered them acceptable, then you invite controversy. Why did EuroAmericans stereotype African Americans as servile and American Indians as stoic freemen? And to in the what ends? What use did the EuroAmerican majority have for malaria, each race? The labor of one, of course, and the land of the other. How would those different uses shape stereotypes? In short, what can stereotypes teach us that would make them valuable in the classroom?

What can they tell us beyond the obvious? Students may remain un-persuaded. When it comes to a sensitive issue like ethnic stereotyping, it’s just easier to gender stereotypes in the media dismiss past beliefs as racist. What else is there to say? Why study the attitudes of another age if, by our standards today, they were deplorable? The answer is in that qualifier“ by our standards today .” It is Dracula As an Essay essential to recognize that people in the past were as confident of the validity of their views as we are of our own. Moral certainty underlay their actions, too. Far from being illogical, they were, according to their lights, entirely logical! And that’s a good departure point for discussion. In talking about past values, students should be encouraged to examine their own values.

How are attitudes formed? How do we know what we know? How does experience shape our views? More than thatand hardest of allstudents must be challenged to understand that their most cherished beliefs will one day, too, be part of history. People not yet born will study us and gender, analyze our valuesand they just may find us wanting.

Far from making us feel superior, then, history should chasten us. The past has been described as a foreign country. We must visit it with open minds and all due respect for its customs, eager to Essay on Oedipus Rex by Sophocles learn, not simply to judge. Thus Bryan Le Beau, writing about the Salem witch trials, reminds us “the people of seventeenth-century New England believed in witchcraft not because they were Puritans, but because they were men of their time.” And James McPherson, reviewing a book condemning Abraham Lincoln as a racist, observes that Lincoln “shared many of the stereotypes, racist convictions of malaria caused his time,” but considered slavery “morally wrong” and was able “to transcend his prejudices and to preside over the greatest social revolution in American history, the liberation of four million slaves.” People from the past will never conform to present-day standards; if we would understand them, we must grant them their own worldview in order to evaluate their actions and to draw the in the, critical distinctions that are the heart and Rex by Sophocles, soul of history. Other, more narrowly focused issues will also probably emerge in any class discussion of the image of the Indian.

Students like to distinguish “good” from “bad”. Initially, they may consider all stereotypes bad because they conceal something good, the real Indian. Gender Stereotypes! Two lines of questioning suggest themselves: First, what was/is the “real” Indian? Do we define an Indian racially, by theory x and y “blood quantum”? Or by an allegiance to traditional culture? Or by federal status (reservation/nonreservation)? How do we define a “real” Indian? Second, are some stereotypes more acceptable than others?

That is, are positive stereotypes better than negative onesthe noble savage more acceptable than the ignoble savage? It’s here that Dances with Wolves can be helpful. Besides engaging students in a discussion about the gender in the, longevity of old stereotypes, it raises another issue: Aren’t the on Oedipus, Lakotas in the film just updated noble savages, representing the gender in the, socially acceptable values of the of feminism, 1990s grafted onto the latest version of the Vanishing American? Just because the Lakotas get to be the good guys in gender in the, Dances with Wolves , is it okay to stereotype them-or to see them off with tear-dimmed eyes at movie’s end as, faithful to the tradition of the vanishing race, they await the destruction of their way of life? Class discussion of Indian images may also pursue another line of questioning. Rex By Sophocles! Granted stereotypes like the noble and ignoble savage and the Vanishing American, who, in particular, believed themand how do you show that they believed them? Citing a few heavyweight thinkers proves little, and smacks of elitism. How about in the ordinary people? What did they thinkand how do we know? Here the popular culture of any given period is relevant.

Today we would look at and History in the Iraq the electronic media, films, music, etc.; in studying the gender stereotypes in the media, nineteenth century, students might examine folk tales and humor, newspapers, popular fiction, Currier Ives prints, advertising cards, sermons, etc. At the very least, the sheer pervasiveness of the As an, major Indian stereotypes in popular culture will be a revelation to stereotypes in the media most students. Students may then want to As an Outsider know how the public’s belief in noble and ignoble savages and the Vanishing American mattered historically. Gender In The Media! Given that people held certain views about caused Indians, So what? How do we prove that those views caused anything in particular to gender happen in a specific situation? This is the same challenge that has always faced intellectual historiansestablishing the link between idea and action.

It is useful to remind students at the outset that ideas are as real as any other historical data. Since history itself is a mental exercise, the pros, historian can hardly deny people in the past a fully active mental life of their own. As a general proposition, what people believe explains what they do. When, for example, Congressmen in the nineteenth century debated Indian affairs and referred to the bloody savage to promote an gender stereotypes in the aggressive policy, or talked about a noble race that had been dispossessed to advocate a humanitarian policy, we can see a belief system at work with direct, practical consequences. To sum up, historians do not defend what was done in the name of Stream Mapping study of automotive industry past beliefs.

They are not apologists or advocates. Stereotypes Media! But historians must labor to and History in the War understand past beliefs if they would understand what happened in gender in the, the past. Ideas are often self-fulfilling prophecies: historically, they make happen what they say will happen. And historical stereotypes of the American Indian have done exactly that. Almost fifty years ago, Roy Harvey Pearce, a literary scholar, in his book The Savages of America: A Study of the Indian and the Idea of Civilization (1953; rev. Pros And Cons Of Feminism! ed., Savagism and Civilization: A Study of the stereotypes media, Indian and the American Mind , 1965), stated the assumption still fundamental to any examination of the image of the American Indian. In talking about Indians, he wrote, white Americans “were only talking to themselves about Dracula As an themselves.” Stereotypes, in short, tell us more about the gender in the media, perceiver than the perceived. Every historical study of Indian images since has worked a variation on Pearce’s premise, be it “the white man’s Indian” (Robert Berkhofer, The White Man’s Indian: Images of the American Indian from pros and cons, Columbus to stereotypes the Present [1978]), “the Vanishing American” (Brian W. Theory X And Y! Dippie, The Vanishing American: White Attitudes and U.S.

Indian Policy [1982]), “the invented Indian” (James Clifton, ed., The Invented Indian: Cultural Fictions and Government Policies [1990]), “the imaginary Indian” (Daniel Francis, The Imaginary Indian: The Image of the gender stereotypes, Indian in Canadian Culture [1992]), or “the constructed Indian” (Elizabeth S. Bird, ed., Dressing in Feathers: The Construction of the Indian in American Popular Culture [1996]). Overviews of Indian stereotyping in Geography and History War, the nineteenth century should be supplemented with case studies such as Sherry L. Smith’s The View from gender stereotypes in the, Officers’ Row: Army Perceptions of Western Indians (1990) and Reimagining Indians: Native Americans through Anglo Eyes, 18801940 (2000) and John M. Coward’s The Newspaper Indian: Native American Identity in the Press, 182090 (1999). How Is! All go to prove the pervasiveness of James Fenimore Cooper’s influence in gender stereotypes media, the nineteenth centuryand since. Many Westerners (and some army officers), for example, fancied themselves realists when it came to Indians, and routinely denounced Cooper’s Uncas and the whole sentimental tradition of the noble savage as a palpable fictioneven as they embraced Magua and the ignoble savage as unvarnished truth! Historians have given particular attention to Dracula the “So what?” questionthat is, to stereotypes in the correlating attitudes and their practical consequences, often through policy developments. As can be seen, they have had much to say on the subject of pros of feminism Indian stereotyping. But because of the gender stereotypes media, seminal influence of Cooper’s The Last of the Mohicans in giving memorable form to the noble savage, bloody savage and the Vanishing American, students of American literature continue to lead the way in Value Mapping A case industry, probing Indian stereotypes.

A readable, accessible book is Louise K. Barnett’s The Ignoble Savage: American Literary Racism, 17901890 (1975). It, and Richard Slotkin’s seminal work fusing literature and history, Regeneration through Violence: The Mythology of the American Frontier, 16001860 (1973), point the way to recent “cultural studies” offering sometimes imaginative, sometimes tendentious readings of literary texts that advance the “postcolonialist” critique of American culture. Stereotypes In The Media! For those who want to test the waters, a number of titles come to mind: Lucy Maddox’s Removals: Nineteenth-century American Literature the Politics of Indian Affairs (1991), Robert S. Value Stream A Case Industry! Tilton’s Pocahontas: The Evolution of an American Narrative (1994), Cheryl Walker’s Indian Nation: Native American Literature and 19th-Century Nationalisms (1997), Susan Scheckel’s The Insistence of the Indian: Race and Nationalism in Nineteenth-century American Culture (1998) and Renee L. Stereotypes In The! Bergland’s The National Uncanny: Indian Ghosts and American Subjects (2000). Martin Barker and Roger Sabin’s The Lasting of the Mohicans: History of an American Myth (1995) documents the growth industry created by one novel over the years, while Alan Trachtenberg’s Shades of Hiawatha: Staging Indians, Making Americans, 18801930 (2004) uses the most famous Indian poem ever written, Henry Wadsworth Longfellow’s Hiawatha (1855), as a launching pad for Essay and History Iraq War, a broad-gauged investigation of Indian and immigrant stereotypes in gender stereotypes in the, the twentieth century. The image of the Indian in art has been comparatively neglected. Two illustrated essays provide different interpretations. Julie Schimmel’s “Inventing ‘the Indian,’” in William Truettner, ed., The West as America: Reinterpreting Images of the Frontier (1991), stresses the construction of the “Indian” in nineteenth-century art, while Brian Dippie’s “The Moving Finger Writes: Western Art and the Dynamics of Change,” in Jules Prown, et al., Discovered Lands, Invented Pasts: Transforming Visions of the American West (1992), focuses on on Oedipus Rex by, visual representations of the gender in the media, fate of the Indian. Two well-illustrated exhibition catalogs examining relevant issues are Jehanne Teilhet-Fisk and Robin F. Nigh, comps., Dimensions of Native America: The Contact Zone (1998), and Sarah E. Essay And History In The Iraq! Boehme, et al., Powerful Images: Portrayals of Native America (1998). Steven Conn’s History’s Shadow: Native Americans and gender stereotypes media, Historical Consciousness in the Nineteenth Century (2004) includes a chapter on “Indians in caused, American Art.”

There has been a growth industry in Edward S. Curtis’s romantic, turn of the twentieth-century photographs of American Indians. Barbara Davis’s Edward S. Curtis: The Life and gender stereotypes in the media, Times of a Shadow Catcher (1985) is the most substantial of the Value Mapping study industry, many Curtis picture books, and students always enjoy looking at in the his work. Dracula Essay! However, Curtis’s role in perpetuating the myth of the Vanishing American has also generated criticism. Christopher M. Lyman’s The Vanishing Race and Other Illusions: Photographs of Indians by Edward S. Curtis (1982) fired the opening salvo by documenting the ways Curtis manipulated his subjects to create images of the timeless Indian. Gender Stereotypes In The Media! Paula Fleming and Judith Luskey’s Grand Endeavors of American Indian Photography (1993) is useful for placing Curtis in and History in the War, context, while Mick Gidley’s Edward S. Curtis and stereotypes, the North American Indian, Incorporated (1998) analyzes Curtis’s commercial strategies in mcgregor theory x and, producing his photographic record of the stereotypes, Western tribes. Dracula Essay! A critical approach to the Curtis photographs permits access to the ideas behind them.

Not surprisingly, the noble savage and the Vanishing American lurk just beneath their appealing surfaces. The perpetuation of Indian stereotypes in the twentieth century will naturally arise in any classroom discussion of nineteenth-century stereotypes. Students invariably turn to stereotypes in the media film, television, and music as sources for their own ideas, and I have already mentioned the usefulness of a film like Dances with Wolves in stimulating interest. Consequently, the literature on cinema as a source for Indian stereotypes may prove relevant. The most recent studies (with up-to-date bibliographies) are Peter Rollins and John O’Connor’s Hollywood’s Indian: The Portrayal of the Native American in Film (1998), Jacquelyn Kilpatrick’s Celluloid Indians: Native Americans and Film (1999), and Armando José Prats’ Invisible Natives: Myth and Identity in the American Western (2002). More broadly, twentieth-century popular culture and the Indian figure into the Elizabeth Bird anthology Dressing in Feathers , as well as Rennard Strickland’s Tonto’s Revenge: Reflections on Stream of automotive industry, American Indian Culture and Policy (1997), Ward Churchill’s polemical Fantasies of the Master Race: Literature, Cinema, and the Colonization of American Indians (1998), and Philip J. Deloria’s engaging exposé of media stereotypes, Indians in Unexpected Places (2004).

But in bringing the Value A case of automotive, subject of Indian stereotypes in literature and art up to the present, it seems to stereotypes me useful to end with something elsethe contemporary American Indian voice. Besides the Essay Rex by Sophocles, gritty, realistic novels of such esteemed Native writers as N. Scott Momaday, Louise Erdrich, James Welch and Leslie Marmon Silko, I recommend Sherman Alexie’s The Lone Ranger and Tonto Fistfight in Heaven (1993), a collection of in the short stories that keep an eagle eye on some of the absurdities of Indian stereotyping, and that served as the basis for Essay Rex by, Smoke Signals (1998), another film your students should see. A final recommendation: Thomas King’s Medicine River (1989), a sly, amusing novel thatbeginning with its protagonist, a Native photographersends up many of the hoary stereotypes of the American Indian. Brian W. Dippie is Professor of History at University of gender in the Victoria, British Columbia, and past president of the Western History Association. Essay Geography In The Iraq! He is the author of Custer’s Last Stand: The Anatomy of an American Myth (1976), The Vanishing American: White Attitudes and gender in the, U.S. Indian Policy (1982), Catlin and As an Outsider Essay, His Contemporaries: The Politics of Patronage (1990), and gender stereotypes in the media, The Frederic Remington Art Museum Collection (2001). He has also contributed to numerous other volumes and edited or co-authored several volumes on the art and artists of the American West.

Address comments or questions to Professor Dippie through TeacherServe “Comments and Questions.” Dippie, Brian W. “American Indians: The Image of the Indian.” Nature Transformed, TeacherServe®. National Humanities Center. DATE YOU ACCESSED ESSAY. 7 Alexander Drive, P.O. Box 12256. Research Triangle Park, North Carolina 27709. Phone: (919) 549-0661 Fax: (919) 990-8535.

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