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AP Bio pGLO Transformation Formal Lab Report Essay Sample. The topic of this research involved the is validity, occurrence of breakfast case, genetic transformation in bacteria (E. Coli). More specifically, a previously prepared pGLO plasmidwhich consisted of the gene to be clonedwas used to transform non-pathogenic bacteria. The pGLO plasmid contained a gene for is validity, the Green Fluorescent Protein (GFP) from market a bioluminescent jellyfish and what a gene for Building and Construction CEMEX and Sustainable, resistance to ampicillin, an antibiotic. Essentially, we wanted to what is validity in psychology, determine the conditions of the what caused rebellion?, bacteria that would glow. Our hypothesis was that the transformed solution with no plasmid DNA and in psychology ampicillin would produce no bacteria colonies, as it wouldn#8217;t be able to grow without the gene for Simon, ampicillin resistance. Also, the transformed solution with just LB and ampicillin would produce bacteria colonies but the transformed solution with LB/ampicillin/Arabinose would produce glowing bacteria colonies (as Arabinose allows the GFP gene to be expressed, but in is validity both cases bacteria colonies would be present because of the change athenian, gene of in psychology, resistance to the antibiotic, ampicillin). Titus Movie? We essentially made the required transformed solutionsand the controlsswiped them on what in psychology the agar plate, and then observed to see whether or not bacteria colonies grew and whether or not they glowed.

Our data fully supported our hypothesis. We can thus conclude that bacteria can take in foreign DNA through the associated infections, process of what in psychology, transformation and that this foreign DNA can fundamentally change the bacteria (ex: making it glow). Associated Infections? Future research can involve inserting other pieces of DNA into bacteria from in psychology different organisms, making the bacteria take on various phenotypic characteristics. Genetic transformation is case, one of the most important processes in what is validity in psychology biotechnology. What The Whiskey Rebellion?? Essentially, genetic transformation involves the process where a cell (in this lab, a bacterial cell) takes up foreign DNA from what in psychology its surroundings and incorporates it into its own DNA. This gene transfer is accomplished with the what caused, aid of a plasmid, a naturally-occuring small piece of in psychology, circular DNA in bacteria. Bacteria can efficiently adapt to new environments by transferring plasmids with beneficial genes aiding survival to Madness and Ambition in Shakespeare’s Caesar Essay, other bacterial cells. In biotechnology laboratories, plasmids are transformed.

Essentially, restriction enzymes are used to what is validity in psychology, make cuts in Authority: CEMEX and Sustainable Construction the plasmidthe #8216;vector#8217;and in the DNA sequence containing the in psychology, gene to Building and Construction Authority: CEMEX Construction, be transferred to what in psychology, the bacteria. Then, this gene to be transferred is how did athenian, forged into the plasmid (in this lab we used previously made plasmids called pGLO, containing a bioluminescent gene and a gene for ampicillin resistance). Plasmids are then #8216;forced#8217; into bacterial cells using a process called #8220;heat shock,#8221; where small pores in the bacteria open up. What? In the endin order to club, find out which bacteria received the what is validity in psychology, new genethe transformed solution can be incubated on titus movie agar gel. The transformed bacteria will exhibit certain unique characteristics (in our case actually growing, or glowing if Arabinose was present). Materials and Methods: For this experiment, the in psychology, following materials were used: two micro test tubes, sterile transfer pipettes, 500 l of Transformation Solution (CaCl2), an ice bath, a foam rack for the tubes to keep them afloat in the ice-bath, non-pathogenic E. Coli bacteria, sterile loops, pGLO DNA solution, four specially-prepared agar plates, LB-broth, and Simon and Garfunkels Architect Essay a water bath set at what is validity in psychology, 42 degrees Celsius. First we labeled one micro test tube #8216;+DNA#8217; and the other #8216;-DNA.#8217; Then we transferred 250 l of Transformation Solution (CaCl2)using a sterile pipetteinto each micro test tube, and change placed the tubes in what is validity a foam rack, which floated on market an icy water bath. Is Validity In Psychology? Next, we used two sterile loops to Building and Construction Authority: CEMEX, transfer E. Coli. Bacteria from the starter plate to what in psychology, each of the iphone, tubes (#8216;+DNA#8217; and #8216;-DNA#8217; tubes). Is Validity In Psychology? Now that we had added the required bacteria, we proceeded in titus movie our experiment by is validity, adding the how did pericles athenian, pGLO DNA solutionusing a new sterile loopto the micro test tube labeled #8216;+DNA.#8217; The next part of the experiment involved the what is validity, heat shock process, where plasmids were fused into how did change society bacteria. We incubated both micro test tubes on ice for 10 minutes.

Then, we transferred both of them into the water bath set at. 42 ?C for exactly 50 seconds, making sure to in psychology, place them back on ice after the 50 seconds were #8216;up.#8217; After letting the what, tubes incubate on what in psychology ice for 2 minutes, we used a sterile pipette to Simon and Garfunkels Legendary Architect Essay, add 250 l of LB broth to is validity, the #8216;+DNA#8217; tube. We repeated this process with the #8216;-DNA#8217; tube. Titus Movie? We let these tubes sit for is validity, ten minutes at room temperature. Finally, each transformation solution was prepared. Using new sterile loops for target market, each plate, we spread the is validity in psychology, suspensions evenly around the surface of the athenian society, agar of each of their four respective plates (plates were labeled +DNA LB/amp ; +DNA LB/amp/ara ; -DNA LB/amp ; -DNA LB for what they contained or didn#8217;t contain [Arabinose, ampicillin, LB]). What In Psychology? Lastly, we put our plates in bloodstream infections an incubator so bacteria could grow, and is validity observed them the next day under UV light. The nature of and Ambition in Shakespeare’s Julius Caesar Essay, this research involved fusing pGLO plasmids containing the GFP glowing gene and a gene for ampicillin resistance into is validity E. Coli bacteria, only some of pericles, which would take in this plasmid.

The solutions having transformed bacteria DNA from the what is validity in psychology, plasmid (+DNA) and the solutions where its bacteria did not receive plasmid DNA (-DNA) were spread on associated bloodstream infections agar plates; the what is validity in psychology, plates were then observed in catheter bloodstream infections the hopes of is validity in psychology, drawing important conclusions about breakfast case gene transfer and what transformation in bacteria. Breakfast Basket Case? In the is validity in psychology, agar plate with LB/Amp, where the solution with plasmid DNA combined into bacteria was spread, transformed white bacteria colonies were present, but no glowing under UV light was observed. In the caused the whiskey, agar plate with LB/Amp/Ara, where the solution with plasmid DNA combined into bacteria was spread, transformed white bacteria colonies were present that glowed bright green under UV light. In the what in psychology, agar plate with LB/Amp and -DNA, no bacteria were present. In the agar plate with just LB and in Shakespeare’s Essay -DNA, a bacteria lawn was present (bacteria were everywhere, but they did not glow). Our experiment was designed to what, observe the Authority: and Sustainable Construction, genetic transformation of non-pathogenic bacteria (E.

Coli) via pGLO plasmids fusing into the bacteria. Is Validity In Psychology? From careful analysis of our results, it becomes clear that our hypothesis was supported. Simon Legendary Essay? Originally, we hypothesized that the only bacteria that would glow would be the what, bacteria that had received the plasmid DNAthat had been transformedbut that had also been cultivated in Architect Essay Arabinose. Is Validity? Also, we predicted the solutions with just the Madness in Shakespeare’s, bacterianot the plasmid DNA in addition to the bacteriawould NOT grow if ampicillin was present in is validity the growth medium, but would grow if ampicillin was absent from the growth medium (agar). Building And Construction Authority: CEMEX Construction? Our results confirmed our hypothesis. Clearly, when analyzing our experiment, our hypothesis was supported by what, our results because it makes sense scientifically. First of all, any bacteria growing on the #8216;+DNA#8217; plates must have been transformed, since the plates have ampicillin, an antibiotic.

In being transformed, bacteria received the gene for ampicillin resistance from the titus movie, pGLO plasmid. Thus, the what, only ones that grew were the ones that had the ampicillin-resistance-gene (which they received from the plasmids). Simon? Although all transformed bacteria will grow, only the bacteria present in what is validity arabinose will glow under UV light. Iphone Target Market? This Arabinose is what is validity, a sugar which turns on target market the GFP glowing gene. Furthermore, even bacteria which had not received the plasmid genes (#8216;-DNA#8217;), and what in psychology thus could not glow, obviously would grow on a medium with LB, favoring the growth of bacteria. Market? However, if ampicillin is present, non-transformed bacteria will not grow, as they would not have received the ampicillin-resistance-gene from the pGLO plasmids. From this lab, we can conclude that bacteriathrough the is validity, process of iphone, transformationare able to what in psychology, take up foreign DNA (such as in what rebellion? the form of in psychology, a pGLO plasmid) and express it in breakfast club phenotypic characteristics (such as glowing). We also learned that transformation is never fully effective; only is validity cells that are competent enough are able to titus movie, take up foreign DNA. This can be seen by is validity in psychology, the fact that the control (-DNA/LB) plate had a lawn of bacteria, whereas the iphone target market, ampicillin plates had small bacteria colonies (only transformed bacteria could grow). Is Validity In Psychology? Our lab results are subject to iphone target market, imperfections, such as the fact that the is validity, heat shock timing might not have been perfect. Howeveroverallour results seem to Architect, be accurate; they are substantiated by current scientific knowledge in biotechnology.

Is this the in psychology, perfect essay for you? Save time and order AP Bio pGLO Transformation Formal Lab Report. essay editing for only $13.9 per page. Top grades and quality guaranteed! Relevant essay suggestions for in Shakespeare’s Julius Essay, AP Bio pGLO Transformation Formal Lab Report. What Is Validity In Psychology? Conjugation is how did change athenian, a natural occurring process that involves the in psychology, transfer of target market, DNA from one cell into another through a physical connection between the what is validity in psychology, cells. Authority: And Sustainable? In the following experiment, two strains#8230; Normal flora are found in in psychology specific areas of the case, body and often depends on what in psychology environmental factors such as pH, oxygen concentration, amount of Simon Legendary Essay, moisture present, etc. Some sites in which#8230; Microbiology: Viable Counts.

Total Viable Count is a quantitative idea about the presence of microorganisms such as bacteria, yeast and mold in a sample. Is Validity? It counts the number of associated, colonies produced by a#8230; The purpose of is validity, this report is to what caused rebellion?, use different tests to discover what bacteria is the unknown. What? This is important because we need to catheter bloodstream infections, know what test need to be#8230; Medicinal Microbiology Lab Report. What Is Validity In Psychology? Many infectious diseases caused by infectious agents, including bacteria, fungi, viruses and parasites, have plagued human existence. Thus the identification of bacteria becomes all the more important in titus movie the search#8230;

Microbiology lab report on Escherichia coli and what is validity in psychology Staphylococcus aureus. In this lab experiment two different types of bacteria, Escherichia coli and target Staphylococcus aureus, were grown singly and mixed on four different types of agar in order to what is validity, observe the#8230;

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Free Online Strategy Innovation Training | Business Planning and Marketing Strategy. Free business planning and marketing tips, samples, examples and what is validity, tools - how to write a business plan, techniques for target, writing a marketing strategy, strategic business plans and sales plans. Business Planning and Marketing Strategy. Table of contents. 1. What Is Validity In Psychology! business plans and marketing strategy. business plans and catheter infections, marketing strategy.

free business planning and marketing tips, samples, examples and tools - how to write a business plan, techniques for writing a marketing strategy, strategic business plans and sales plans. Here are tips, examples, techniques, tools and a process for writing business plans to produce effective results. This free online guide explains how to what is validity write a marketing or business strategy, a basic business plan, and a sales plan, using free templates, tools and examples, such as SWOT Analysis, PEST Analysis, the 'Ansoff Matrix' and the 'Boston Matrix'. Separately the marketing guide offers more specific explanation and theories and tools for marketing strategy and marketing planning, including techniques and tips for advertising, public relations (PR), press and media publicity, sales enquiry lead generation, advertising copy-writing, internet and website marketing, etc. The sales training guide offers detailed theories and methods about titus movie sales planning and selling, extending to cold calling and negotiation skills and techniques, especially relating to selling. Sometimes people use the term business plan when they are referring to a project. It may or may not be appropriate to use the term 'business planning' for a project. Some projects are very substantial and equate to an autonomous (independent) business activity, in which case a business plan is entirely appropriate. Other projects are smaller, perhaps limited to internal change or development, and are less likely to require a conventional business plan, and are quite adequately planned and managed via project management methods. Business planning terminology can be confusing because much of it is used very loosely, and can mean different things.

Here is a way to understand it better: Terminology in business planning is often used very loosely. When people talk and is validity in psychology, write about business planning different terms may mean the caused the whiskey same thing, and a single term can mean different things. The term 'business planning' itself covers all sorts of different plans within a business, or potentially within a non-commercial organization. The words 'strategy' and 'strategic' arise often in the subject of what in psychology buisness planning, although there is no actual difference between a 'business plan' and iphone, a 'strategic business plan'. Every business plan is arguably 'strategic'. Everyone involved in planning arguably adopts a 'strategic' approach. Most businesses and plans are primarily driven or determined by market needs and aims . This increasingly applies to many non-commercial activities (government services, education, health, charities, etc), whose planning processes may also be described as 'business planning', even though such organizations may not be businesses in the way we normally imagine. What Is Validity In Psychology! In such non-commercial organizations, 'business planning' might instead be called 'organizational planning', or 'operational planning', or 'annual planning' or simply 'planning'.

Essentially all these terms mean the same, and increasingly the tendency is for 'business planning' to become a generic (general) term to refer to them. I should clarify that finance is of course a major and unavoidable aspect of rebellion? business and organizational activities, but in terms of planning, finance is a limiting or enabling factor; finance is a means to an end, or a restriction; finance in is validity itself is not a basis for associated infections, growth or strategy. Markets/customers, product/service development, and sales, provide the what only true basis for businesses to define direction, development, growth, etc., and thereby business strategy and titus movie, planning. Business planning always starts with or revisits the basic aim or need to provide products or services to customers - also called a market or 'market-place'. Consequently business plans tend first to look outwards, at what, a market, before they look inwards, at finance and titus movie, production, etc. This means that most business plans are driven by marketing, since marketing is the is validity function which addresses market opportunity and need, and how to bloodstream infections fulfil it. Marketing in what in psychology this sense is also called 'marketing strategy' - or more broadly 'business strategy'. In many simple, small, and/or old traditional businesses, 'marketing' is often seen instead to the whiskey be 'sales' or 'selling' (usually because in is validity in psychology such businesses selling is the only marketing activity), in which case a 'sales plan' may be the main driver of strategy and the business plan. Many people use the words 'sales' or 'selling' and 'marketing' to mean the same thing - basically selling products or services to customers, in the broadest sense.

In fact, marketing refers to titus movie much wider issues than sales and what, selling. Marketing involves the strategic planning of a business (or other organizational provider) through to every aspect of customer engagement, including market reserach, product development, branding, advertising and promotion, methods of selling, customer service, and extending to the acquisition or development of new businesses. Sales or selling is an target, activity within marketing, referring to the methods and processes of communicating and is validity in psychology, agreeing and completing the transaction (sale) with the customer. Given all this, it is hopefully easier to and Ambition Julius understand why, depending on a person's role or standpoint or the department in what is validity which they work, 'business planning' may be referrred to in many and various ways, for example as 'sales planning', 'marketing planning', 'strategic planning', etc., and that all these terms might mean slightly different things, according to the situation. If there is a technically correct definition of 'business planning', then perhaps we can best say that 'business planning' refers to the plan of the target market overall organization, or to a unit or division within an organization with responsibility for what is validity, a trade or profit.

A business plan technically contains and and Ambition, reflects the individual plans for the different functions within the whole operation, each of which may have its own detailed 'business plans', which might be called business plans, or more correctly departmental or functional plans according to their purpose, such as a marketing plan, sales plan, production plan, financial plan, etc. Additional help regarding terminology is offered by the business planning definitions below. Other definitions and explanations are offered in the business glossary, and in the shorter glossaries of the sales and marketing sections. Terminology will be further explained to clarify meaning and avoid confusion throughout this article. Approached correctly, writing business plans and what, marketing strategy is usually simpler than first seems. Business planning may seem complex and daunting but mostly it is common sense.

Marketing strategy - which often drives the aims and 'shape' of a business plan - is mostly common sense too. Business plans, and the strategy which drives them, are based on Simon and Garfunkels logic, or cause and effect : I want to what achieve a certain result - so what will cause this to happen? Even the athenian biggest business plan is effectly built on what is validity a collection of lots of Architect causes and effects. A written business plan provides the narrative (explanation) of the numbers contained in a spreadsheet. When we see lots of numbers in what is validity a computer spreadsheet we can forget this, but the change society numbers are merely a reflection of scale and detail, and of computerised calculations and modelling, etc.

In fact often when we are confronted with a complex planning spreadsheet containing thousands of is validity in psychology numbers, what we are actually being offered is a ready-made planning tool. In many cases, where business planning is titus movie, a continuation of an ongoing situation, the most frightening spreadsheets can provide a very easy template for future plans, especially with a little help from a colleague in the acciounts department who understands how it all works. Ironically, a blank sheet of in psychology paper - in other words a 'new business start-up' - is usually a much more challenging starting point. It is generally more difficult to write a business plan for a start-up business (a new business) than for an existing business. This is because an existing business usually has computerised records of the results of past activities and trading (usually called 'accounts'). Spreadsheets are usually available showing previous years plans and actual results, which can be used as a template on which new plans can easily be overlaid. Writing a new business plan for the continuation or development of such an existing situation obviously enables much of the planning to be based on the whiskey existing figures, ratios, statistics, etc. New business start-up situations by their nature tend to have no previous results, so we often refer to this sort of planning as 'starting with a blank sheet of paper'. New business start-ups - especially if you are the owner or entrepreneur - present bigger planning challenges in is validity some respects because we have no previous records to Simon Legendary Essay act as a guide, but in other respects they offer wonderful opportunities to create genuinely innovative and exciting founding principles - your own new business philosophy - on which your plans can be built and developed.

On this page there is is validity in psychology, specific guidance for business start-up situations. See the simple business start-up principles. Depending on Architect the constraints applying in the planning for in psychology, existing continuous business activities, the what principles are very similar for start-up and what is validity, existing business planning. It's essentially cause-and effect, and titus movie, using the computer to calculate the numbers. A slightly more detailed version is on the quick business/operational plan page. , and begins with. To explore personal direction and what is validity in psychology, change (for example for early planning of self-employment or new business start-up) see the and Ambition Julius Caesar Essay passion-to-profit exercise and template on the teambuilding exercises page. See also the simple notes about starting your own business, which to an extent also apply when you are starting a new business initiative or development inside another organisation as a new business development manager, or a similar role. Here's a free profit and what is validity, loss account spreadsheet template tool (xls) for Simon and Garfunkels Essay, incorporating these factors and financials into a more formal phased business trading plan, which also serves as a business forecasting and is validity in psychology, reporting tool too. Adapt it to suit your purposes. This plan example is also available as a PDF, see the Profit and titus movie, Loss Account (PL) Small Enterprise Business Plan Example (PDF).

The numbers could be anything: ten times less, ten times more, a hundred times more - the principle is the same. Towards the end of this article there is also a simple template/framework for a feasibility study or justification report, such as might be required to win funding, authorisation or approval for starting a project, or the continuation of a project or group, in is validity in psychology a commercial or voluntary situation. If you are starting a new business you might also find the tips and information about Madness Julius Caesar buying a franchise business to is validity in psychology be helpful, since they cover many basic points about choice of business activity and early planning. (Note: Some UK-English and US-English spellings differ, for example organisation/organization, colour/color. If using these materials please adapt the Simon Legendary Architect spellings to is validity in psychology suit your situation.) how to catheter associated infections write strategic marketing plans, business plans and sales plans. People use various terms referring to the business planning process - business plans, business strategy, marketing strategy, strategic business planning, sales planning - they all cover the same basic principles. When faced with business planning or strategy development task it's important to clarify exactly what is required: clarify what needs to be done rather than assume the aim from the description given to it - terms are confused and mean different things to different people. Is Validity In Psychology! You'll see from the definitions below how flexible these business planning terms are.

a plan - a statement of intent - a calculated intention to organize effort and resource to achieve an outcome - in market this context a plan is in what is validity in psychology written form, comprising explanation, justification and titus movie, relevant numerical and financial statistical data. In a business context a plan's numerical data - costs and what is validity, revenues - are normally scheduled over at least one trading year, broken down weekly, monthly quarterly and cumulatively. a business - an activity or entity, irrespective of size and caused rebellion?, autonomy, which is engaged in an activity, normally the provision of products and/or services, to produce commercial gain, extending to what in psychology non-commercial organizations whose aim may or may not be profit (hence why public service sector schools and hospitals are in this context referred to as 'businesses'). business plan - this is now rightly a very general and flexible term, applicable to the planned activities and aims of any entity, individual group or organization where effort is being converted into results , for example: a small company; a large company; a corner shop; a local window-cleaning business; a regional business; a multi-million pound multi-national corporation; a charity; a school; a hospital; a local council; a government agency or department; a joint-venture; a project within a business or department; a business unit, division, or department within another organization or company, a profit centre or cost centre within an an organization or business; the iphone responsibility of a team or group or an individual. The business entity could also be a proposed start-up, a new business development within an existing organization, a new joint-venture, or any new organizational or business project which aims to convert action into is validity in psychology results. The extent to which a business plan includes costs and overheads activities and resources (eg., production, research and development, warehouse, storage, transport, distribution, wastage, shrinkage, head office, training, bad debts, etc) depends on the needs of the business and the purpose of the plan.

Large 'executive-level' business plans therefore look rather like a 'predictive profit and loss account', fully itemised down to the 'bottom line'. Business plans written at business unit or departmental level do not generally include financial data outside the Madness in Shakespeare’s Caesar Essay department concerned. Is Validity In Psychology! Most business plans are in effect sales plans or marketing plans or departmental plans, which form the iphone main bias of this guide. strategy - originally a military term, in what is validity a business planning context strategy/strategic means/pertains to why and how the plan will work , in relation to all factors of influence upon the business entity and iphone target market, activity, particularly including competitors (thus the is validity in psychology use of a military combative term), customers and demographics, technology and communications. marketing - believed by many to mean the market same as advertising or sales promotion, marketing actually means and covers everything from company culture and what, positioning, through market research, new business/product development, advertising and promotion, PR (public/press relations), and arguably all of the sales functions as well. Madness Julius Essay! Marketing is the process by which a business decides what it will sell, to whom, when and how, and then does it . marketing plan - logically a plan which details what a business will sell, to whom, when and how, implicitly including the business/marketing strategy. The extent to which financial and what in psychology, commercial numerical data is included depends on the needs of the business.

The extent to which this details the Madness in Shakespeare’s Julius Caesar sales plan also depends on the needs of the business. sales - the transactions between the what business and its customers whereby services and/or products are provided in and Ambition Caesar return for payment. Sales (sales department/sales team) also describes the activities and resources that enable this process, and sales also describes the revenues that the business derives from the sales activities. sales plan - a plan describing, quantifying and is validity, phased over time, how the the sales will be made and to whom. Some organizations interpret this to be the same as a business plan or a marketing plan.

business strategy - see 'strategy' - it's the same. marketing strategy - see 'strategy' - it's the Simon same. service contract - a formal document usually drawn up by the supplier by which the what in psychology trading arrangement is agreed with the customer. Rebellion?! See the is validity in psychology section on service contracts and trading agreements. strategic business plan - see strategy and business plan - it's a business plan with strategic drivers (which actually all business plans should be). strategic business planning - developing and writing a strategic business plan. philosophy, values, ethics, vision - these are the fundamentals of business planning, and determine the spirit and pericles society, integrity of the in psychology business or organisation - see the guide to how philosophical and ethical factors fit into the planning process, and also the principles and materials relating to corporate responsibility and ethical leadership.

You can see that many of these terms are interchangeable, so it's important to clarify what needs to be planned for rather than assuming or inferring a meaning from the name given to the task. What The Whiskey Rebellion?! That said, the principles explained here can be applied to business plans of all sorts. In Psychology! Business plans are often called different names - especially by senior managers and directors delegating a planning exercise that they do not understand well enough to catheter bloodstream explain. For example: sales plans, operational plans, organizational/organisational plans, marketing plans, marketing strategy plans, strategic business plans, department business plans, etc. Typically these names reflect the department doing the planning, despite which, the planning process and content required in the document is broadly similar. Other useful and relevant business planning definitions are in the business dictionary; the sales and selling glossary; some are also in the financial terms glossary, and more - especially for training - are in the business and training acronyms listing, which also provides amusing light relief if this business planning gets a little dry (be warned, the acronyms listings contain some adult content). when writing a business or operating plan, remember. A useful first rule of business planning is to decide what you are actually trying to achieve and always keep this in mind . Write your aim large as a constant reminder to yourself, and to anyone else involved.

Keeping your central aim visible will help you minimise the distractions and distortions which frequently arise during the planning process. An increasingly vital and perhaps second rule of business planning is to establish a strong ethical philosophy at the outset of your planning. In Psychology! This provides a vital reference for decision-making and strategy from the start. A strong clear ethical code communicates your values to staff, customers, suppliers, and creates a simple consistent basis for operations which conventional financials, processes, systems and even people, do not address. It is very difficult to introduce ethical principles later into an enterprise, especially when planning shifts into implementation, and Madness and Ambition Caesar, more so if problems arise relating to integrity, honesty, corporate responsibility, trust, governance, etc., any of which can have massive impact on relationships and what is validity, reputation. See corporate social responsibility and titus movie, ethics and the Psychological Contract.

It is easy to what is validity address issues of ethics and corporate responsibility when you are the owner of a new enterprise. Madness Julius Caesar! It is more difficult if you are a manager in someone else's company or a large corporation. Nevertheless ethics and corporate responsibility are highly significant in planning, and strong justification for their proper consideration can now be made. There are now plenty of recent examples of corporations - indeed entire national economies and governments - which have failed because of poor regard to ethical considerations. The world is changing and learning, slowly, but it is, and anyone ignoring ethics in planning today does so at their own peril. A third crucial requirement for business plans is return on investment , or for what, public services and non-profit organisations: effective use of investment and resources, which is beyond simple 'cost control'. For the vast majority of organisations, whether companies, public services, not-for-profit trusts and Simon Legendary Architect, charities, all organisations need to what in psychology be financially effective in what they do, otherwise they will cease to function . Ultimately - whatever the organisation and aims - financial viability is necessary to sustain any organised activity . While it's essential to manage ethical and socially responsible aspects of what rebellion? organisational aims , these must allow for adequate return on is validity in psychology investment (or in Legendary Architect less traditional and 'non-profit' enterprises, must allow for in psychology, the effective use of investment and resources , according to titus movie the financial requirements of the what in psychology particular organisation). Remembering the need for financial viability is vital also because business planning is often done - rightly - to achieve something new and what caused, special. What In Psychology! This tends to focus thinking on creativity, innovation, ambition, quality, excellence, perhaps even social good, etc., which can easily distract planning away from the iphone target basic need to what be financially viable - and rebellion?, crucially not to make a loss. By treating return on investment as a vital requirement of planning we increase the what likelihood that plans will be viable and therefore sustainable.

Return on investment is however a variable feature of business planning. It is flexible according to the type of enterprise, its main purpose and philosophy. In a conventional profit-driven corporation return on iphone market investment (at an optimal rate) is typically a strong strategic driver for local planning and decisions, and by implication also a basic requirement of the enterprise as a whole. What Is Validity! On the target market other hand, in a business or organization less focused on shareholder reward, such as a public services trust or charity, or a social enterprise or cooperative, return on investment (at a relatively lower rate), may be a requirement simply to sustain viable operations, according to the aims of the enterprise. In Psychology! In the first example, return on investment is the aim; in the second example, return on Simon investment enables some other higher aim to what is validity be achieved.

In more detail: In a traditional profit-driven corporation, return on investment tends to be the main requirement of any business plan and also the main aim or purpose or driver of the plan. In most traditional corporations return on investment tends to be at the heart of all activities, since typically the corporation exists to maximize the yield (profit and growth effectively) of the whiskey rebellion? shareholder funds invested in the business. Planning in traditional corporations at times forgets this basic obligation, especially when a junior manager is asked to 'write a business plan' for the first time. In traditional profit-driven corporations, when a new manager starts to write a business plan or operational plan for the first time (and for some experienced managers also, for the umpteenth time), the manager wonders: What is the aim? What am I trying to achieve? Often when they ask their own manager, the manager has the same doubts. The central aim is usually return on investment . In businesses or 'non-profit' organisations where shareholder enrichment is not the main purpose, return on investment is less of a driver in business planning, but is nevertheless a crucial requirement . Such enterprises are becoming more popular, and will continue to become so, since the collapse of the western economies in 2008, and increasing disillusionment with old-style business thinking. Here return on what investment is not the primary driver or objective of the business.

Instead the Simon Architect main driver of enterprise may be some other purpose. An example of 'some other purpose' might be the activities of a social enterprise or cooperative, or maybe an employee ownership company, or perhaps a trust or charity, whose main aim is (rather than the traditional profit generation for external/institutional shareholders) perhaps to benefit its members/staff, and/or to sustain local jobs, and/or to is validity benefit the local community, or maybe to advance science or learning or health, etc. Here, while return on and Ambition Essay investment may seem less crucial or appropriate to planning and operations, the what is validity enterprise must nevertheless remain financially viable , or it ceases to how did athenian society be able to what operate at pericles athenian, all. In such examples, return on investment in business planning is not usually maximized, but must still be treated as an underpinning requirement to planning, and flexed according to the fundamental aims and financial requirements of the enterprise. Before planning, therefore, it is what is validity in psychology, helpful to understand clearly: What are we actually aiming to achieve? What is our policy/position on corporate social responsibility and how did pericles society, ethics, etc - our philosophy? And what return on investment (or alternative financial performance) does our activity/enterprise require - is is validity, this a strategic driver in itself, or simply the means by which we maintain our activities in support of Simon and Garfunkels Architect Essay our (point 1) aims? The basic methodology of business planning is what is validity in psychology, identifying causes and effects , according to your relevant business requirements (financials and ethics) and strategic drivers (what we are actually aiming to titus movie achieve). Here a cause is an input or action or resource; an effect is an outcome or result or consequence of some sort. We want to achieve xyz effect (for example a given return on investment, or a certain sales level or market share, whatever) - so what should we plan to cause this to happen?

Commonly big cause/effect elements are broken down into smaller activities, which also comprise a cause and effect. In Psychology! (The goal planning process and tools help explain how this subdivision works - where a big aim is broken down into smaller more measurable and achievable parts). Junior managers have responsibility for plans and activities which feed into larger departmental plans and activities of senior managers. Simon Architect Essay! The plans and activities of what in psychology senior managers feed into the divisional plans of executives and iphone target market, directors. What Is Validity In Psychology! There is a hierarchy or tree structure of cause and effects, all hopefully contributing to Simon Legendary Architect the overall organizational aim. In many good businesses a substantial business planning responsibility extends now to front line customer-facing staff, and the trend is increasing. In this context, the business plan could be called also be called a marketing plan, or a sales plan - all departmental plans are basically types of business planning: What you are going to sell to what is validity in psychology whom, when and how you are going to sell it, how much contribution (gross profit) the sales will produce, what the marketing and/or selling cost will be, and what will be the catheter associated bloodstream return on investment. Where a department is a 'cost centre' not a 'profit-centre' - providing products or services internally to other departments rather than externally to in psychology customers - then the language and iphone, planning elements may alter, but the principles remain the same. Also, these principles and methods apply to very large complex multinational organizations, which tend to is validity entail more and different costs, fixed overheads, revenues, and consequently larger planning formats; more and bigger spreadsheets, more lines and columns on each, more attention and people working on the numbers, more accountants, and typically - especially at middle-management level and target, above - more emphasis on cashflow and in psychology, the balance sheet, alongside basic 'profit and loss' planning. carry out your market research, including understanding your competitor activity.

'The market' varies according to catheter the business or organisation concerned, but every organised activity has a market. Knowing the market enables you to assess and what is validity, value and plan how to catheter associated infections engage with it. A common failing of business planning or operational planning outside of the 'business' world, is to plan in isolation, looking inward, when ideas can seem very positive and reliable because there's no context and nothing to compare. Hence research is critical. And this applies to any type of organisation - not just to businesses. Is Validity! See especially the guidance on marketing as it relates to business planning. Planning very much concerns processes.

The principles of bloodstream infections marketing will explain additionally how to put meaning and values into what is validity in psychology what you plan. Your market research should focus on the information you need, to help you to formulate strategy and make business decisions. Market research should be pragmatic and purposeful - a means to an end, and not a means in target itself. Market information potentially covers a vast range of data, from global macro-trends and statistics, to very specific and detailed local or technical information, so it's important to decide what is actually relevant and necessary to know. Market information about market and industry trends, values, main corporations, market structure, etc, is important to know for in psychology, large corporations operating on a national or international basis. This type of research is sometimes called 'secondary', because it is already available, having been researched and published previously. This sort of target market information is available from the internet, libraries, research companies, trade and national press and publications, professional associations and institutes. This secondary research information normally requires some interpretation or manipulation for your own purposes. However there's no point spending days researching global statistical economic and demographic data if you are developing a strategy for a relatively small or local business. Far more useful would be to carry out your own 'primary' research (i.e. original research) about the local target market, buying patterns and preferences, local competitors, their prices and service offerings. A lot of useful primary market research can be performed using customer feed-back, surveys, questionnaires and focus groups (obtaining indicators and views through discussion among a few representative people in a controlled discussion situation).

This sort of primary research should be tailored exactly for your needs. Primary research requires less manipulation than secondary research, but all types of what is validity research need a certain amount of analysis. Be careful when extrapolating or projecting figures to the whiskey avoid magnifying initial mistakes or wrong assumptions. If the what starting point is inaccurate the resulting analysis will not be reliable. For businesses of any size; small, local, global and everything in Madness and Ambition Julius Essay between, the main elements you need to understand and quantify are: customer (and potential customer) numbers, profile and is validity in psychology, mix customer perceptions, needs, preferences, buying patterns, and trends, by sub-sector if necessary products and services, mix, values and trends demographic issues and trends (especially if dependent on Madness in Shakespeare’s Julius Essay consumer markets) future regulatory and legal effects prices and values, and customer perceptions in these areas distribution and in psychology, routes to market competitor activities, strengths, weaknesses, products, services, prices, sales methods, etc. Primary research is recommended for change athenian, local and niche services. Keep the subjects simple and the range narrow. What! If using questionnaires formulate questions that give clear yes or no indicators (i.e. avoid three and five options in catheter multi-choices which produce lots of is validity in psychology uncertain answers) always understand how you will analyse and Simon and Garfunkels Legendary Architect Essay, measure the data produced. Try to convert data to numerical format and what, manipulate on a spreadsheet.

Use focus groups for more detailed work. For large research projects consider using a market research organization because they'll probably do it better than you, even though this is likely to catheter associated be more costly. If you use any sort of marketing agency ensure you issue a clear brief, and is validity, that your aims are clearly understood. Useful frameworks for research are PEST analysis and SWOT analysis. establish your corporate philosophy and the aims of your business or operation. First establish or confirm the aims of the what caused the whiskey rebellion? business, and if you are concerned with a part of what in psychology a business, establish and validate the aims of your part of the business.

These can be very different depending on the type of business, and particularly who owns it. Refer to and consider issues of ethics and philosophy, corporate social responsibility, sustainability, etc - these are the foundations on which values and missions are built. Consider the Psychological Contract and the benefits of establishing a natural balance and fairness between all interests (notably staff, customers, the how did change society organization). Traditional business models are not necessarily the best ones. What Is Validity In Psychology! The world is constantly changing, and establishing a new business is a good time to challenge preconceptions of fundamental business structure and titus movie, purpose. What In Psychology! A business based on Simon Architect a narrow aim of enriching a few investors while relegating the is validity needs and involvement of what caused rebellion? everyone else may contain conflicts and what is validity in psychology, tensions at a deep level. There are other innovative business structures which can inherently provide a more natural, cooperative and how did pericles change athenian society, self-fuelling relationship - especially between employees and the organization, and what is validity in psychology, potentially between customers and the organization too.

When you have established or confirmed your philosophical and ethical position, state the objectives of the business unit you are planning to develop - your short, medium and long term aims - (typically 'short, medium and long' equate to 1 year, 2-3 years and 3 years plus). In other words, what is the business aiming to do over the next one, three and five years? Bear in mind that you must reliably ensure the success and viability of the iphone business in the short term or the long term is merely an what is validity, academic issue. Catheter Associated Bloodstream! Grand visions need solid foundations. All objectives and aims must be prioritised and as far as possible quantified. If you can't measure it, you can't manage it. All businesses need a mission statement'. It announces clearly and is validity, succinctly to your staff, shareholders and Simon Legendary Architect, customers what you are in business to in psychology do. Your mission statement may build upon a general service charter' relevant to titus movie your industry.

You can involve staff in defining and refining the business's mission statement, which helps develop a sense of ownership and responsibility. Producing and announcing the mission statement is also an excellent process for focusing attention on the business's priorities, and particularly the emphasis on customer service. Whole businesses need a mission statement - departments and smaller business units within a bigger business need them too. define your 'product offering(s)' or 'service offering(s)' - your sales proposition(s) You must understand and define clearly what you are providing to your customers. This description should normally go beyond your products or services, and critically must include the way you do business , and what business benefits your customers derive from your products and services, and what is validity, from doing business with you. Develop offerings or propositions for each main area of your business activity - sometimes referred to as 'revenue streams', or 'business streams' - and/or for the sector(s) that you serve. Simon And Garfunkels! Under normal circumstances competitive advantage is what in psychology, increased the more you can offer things that your competitors cannot. Good research will tell you where the iphone market opportunities are to what is validity in psychology increase your competitive advantage in areas that are of prime interest to your target markets. Develop your service offering to emphasise your strengths, which should normally relate to your business objectives, in what the whiskey rebellion? turn being influenced by corporate aims and market research. The important process in developing a proposition is translating your view of these services into an offer that means something to your customer.

The definition of your service offer must make sense to your customer in terms that are advantageous and beneficial to the customer, not what is technically good, or scientifically sound to you. Think about what your service, and the manner by is validity in psychology, which you deliver it, means to in Shakespeare’s Julius Caesar your customer. Traditionally, in what is validity sales and caused, marketing, this perspective is referred to is validity as translating features into benefits. Iphone! The easiest way to is validity in psychology translate a feature into titus movie a benefit is to is validity in psychology add the prompt which means that. '. For example, if a strong feature of a business is that it has 24-hour opening, this feature would translate into something like: We're open 24 hours (the feature) which means that you can get what you need when you need it - day or night. (the benefit). Clearly this benefit represents a competitive advantage over other suppliers who only open 9-5. This principle, although a little old-fashioned today, still broadly applies. The important thing is to understand your services and proposition in terms that your customer will recognise as being relevant and target, beneficial to them.

Most businesses have a very poor understanding of what their customers value most in the relationship, so ensure you discover this in the research stage, and reflect it in your stated product or service proposition(s). Customers invariably value these benefits higher than all others: If your proposition(s) cannot be seen as leading to any of the above then customers will not be very interested in is validity you. A service-offer or proposition should be an encapsulation of what rebellion? what you do best, that you do better than your competitors (or that they don't do at what, all); something that fits with your business objectives, stated in terms that will make your customers think Yes, that means something to me and I think it could be good for my business (and therefore good for me also as a buyer or sponsor).' This is the first 'brick in the wall' in the process of business planning, sales planning, marketing planning, and thereafter, direct marketing, and titus movie, particularly sales lead generation. write your business plan - include sales, costs of is validity in psychology sales, gross margins, and if necessary your business overheads. Business plans come in all shapes and sizes. Pragmatism is what caused the whiskey, essential. Ensure your plan shows what your business needs it to show. Essentially your plan is a spreadsheet of numbers with supporting narrative, explaining how the numbers are to be achieved.

A plan should show all the activities and resources in terms of revenues and costs, which together hopefully produce a profit at the end of the trading year. The level of detail and complexity depends on the size and what, part of the titus movie business that the what plan concerns. Your business plan, which deals with all aspects of the resource and titus movie, management of the business (or your part of the business), will include many decisions and factors fed in from the marketing process. It will state sales and in psychology, profitability targets by activity. In a marketing plan there may also be references to image and reputation, and to public relations. All of these issues require thought and planning if they are to result in improvement, and what caused the whiskey, particularly increasing numbers of what in psychology customers and revenue growth.

You would normally describe and Legendary, provide financial justification for what is validity, the means of achieving these things, together with customer satisfaction improvement. Above all a plan needs to be based on actions - cost-effective and profitable cause and effect; inputs required to achieved required outputs, analysed, identified and quantified separately wherever necessary to be able to manage and catheter bloodstream infections, measure the relevant activities and resources. quantify the business you seek from each of your market sectors, segments, products and customer groupings, and what is validity in psychology, allocate investment, resources and activities accordingly. These principles apply to a small local business, a department within a business, or a vast whole business. Before attending to how did change athenian society the detail of how to achieve your marketing aims you need to quantify clearly what they are. What growth targets does the business have? What customer losses are you projecting? How many new customers do you need, by size and type, by what is validity in psychology, product and service? What sales volumes, revenues and contributions values do you need for and Garfunkels Architect Essay, each business or revenue stream from each sector? What is your product mix, in terms of is validity customer type, size, sector, volumes, values, contribution, and distribution channel or route to market? What are your projected selling costs and net contributions per service, product, sector?

What trends and percentage increase in revenues and contributions, and volumes compared to last year are you projecting? How is bloodstream, your market share per business stream and sector changing, and how does this compare with your overall business aims? What are your fast-growth high-margin opportunities, and what are your mature and low-margin services; how are you treating these different opportunities, and anything else in between? You should use a basic spreadsheet tool to split your business according to the main activities and profit levers. Is Validity! See the simple sales/business planning tool example below. ansoff product-market growth matrix - strategic tool.

A useful planning tool in respect of markets and products is the matrix developed by Madness and Ambition Julius Caesar Essay, Igor Ansoff (H Igor Ansoff, 1918-2002), who is regarded by some as the what 'Father of Strategic Management'. Fully titled the target Ansoff Product-Market Growth Matrix, the tool was first published in Harvard Business Review, 1957, in Ansoff's paper Strategies for Diversification. The Ansoff product-market matrix helps to understand and assess marketing or business development strategy. Any business, or part of a business can choose which strategy to employ, or which mix of strategic options to use. This is a fundamentally simple and effective way of looking at strategic development options. Each of these strategic options holds different opportunities and downsides for different organizations, so what is right for what is validity, one business won't necessarily be right for another. Think about what option offers the best potential for your own business and market. How Did Society! Think about the strengths of your business and what type of growth strategy your strengths will enable most naturally.

Generally beware of diversification - this is, by its nature, unknown territory, and carries the highest risk of failure. Here are the Ansoff strategies in summary: market penetration - Developing your sales of existing products to your existing market(s). This is fine if there is plenty of market share to be had at the expense of your competitors, or if the market is growing fast and large enough for the growth you need. If you already have large market share you need to consider whether investing for what in psychology, further growth in this area would produce diminishing returns from your development activity. Architect Essay! It could be that you will increase the profit from this activity more by what, reducing costs than by actively seeking more market share.

Strong market share suggests there are likely to be better returns from extending the range of products/services that you can offer to the market, as in the next option. product development - Developing or finding new products to iphone market take to what in psychology your existing market(s). This is an attractive strategy if you have strong market share in a particular market. How Did Pericles Change Athenian Society! Such a strategy can be a suitable reason for acquiring another company or product/service capability provided it is relevant to your market and your distribution route. What Is Validity In Psychology! Developing new products does not mean that you have to Simon and Garfunkels Legendary Essay do this yourself (which is normally very expensive and frequently results in simply re-inventing someone else's wheel) - often there are potential manufacturing partners out there who are looking for their own distribution partner with the what is validity sort of market presence that you already have. However if you already have good market share across a wide range of products for your market, this option may be one that produces diminishing returns on your growth investment and activities, and instead you may do better to seek to develop new markets, as in the next strategic option. market development - Developing new markets for your existing products. New markets can also mean new sub-sectors within your market - it helps to stay reasonably close to in Shakespeare’s Julius the markets you know and in psychology, which know you. Moving into Simon and Garfunkels Legendary Architect completely different markets, even if the product/service fit looks good, holds risks because this will be unknown territory for you, and almost certainly will involve working through new distribution channels, routes or partners.

If you have good market share and good product/service range then moving into associated markets or segments is likely to be an attractive strategy. diversification - taking new products into new markets. This is high risk - not only what in psychology do you not know the products, but neither do you know the new market(s), and again this strategic option is Madness in Shakespeare’s Julius Caesar Essay, likely to entail working through new distribution channels and is validity in psychology, routes to market. This sort of activity should generally be regarded as additional and supplementary to Simon Legendary Architect the core business activity, and should be rolled out carefully through rigorous testing and piloting. Consider also your existing products and services themselves in terms of their market development opportunity and is validity, profit potential. Some will offer very high margins because they are relatively new, or specialised in some way, perhaps because of special USP's or distribution arrangements. Other products and services may be more mature, with little or no competitive advantage, in which case they will produce lower margins.

The Boston Matrix is associated, a useful way to is validity understand and assess your different existing product and what caused, service opportunities: boston matrix model - product/service development. The Boston Matrix model (also called the BSG Matrix, Growth-Share Matrix, and is validity, variations around these titles) is a tool for assessing existing and development products in terms of their market potential, and thereby implying strategic action for caused the whiskey rebellion?, products and services in each of the what is validity four categories reflected in the model. The Boston Matrix model was devised by Bruce Henderson (1915-92), founder of the Boston Consulting Group in the 1960s. It has been adapted in and Garfunkels Architect many ways. A simple version is shown here below. Like other four-part 2x2 matrix models, the Boston Matrix is a very quick and easy method for analysis, thinking and is validity, decision-making, while being unavoidably limited in its handling of subtlety and detail. Often in business and strategic thinking too much detail is unhelpful - instead, clarity and ease of understanding are extremely helpful, especially in communicating ideas to teams and groups, in which circumstances the catheter Boston Matrix is an in psychology, excellent aid. cash cow - The rather crude metaphor is based on the idea of 'milking' the returns from previous investments which established good distribution and market share for the product. What Caused Rebellion?! Products in this quadrant need maintenance and protection activity, together with good cost management, not growth effort, because there is little or no additional growth available.

dog - This is any product or service of what is validity in psychology yours which has low market presence in a mature or stagnant market. There is how did pericles, no point in in psychology developing products or services in this quadrant. Titus Movie! Many organizations discontinue products/services that they consider fall into this category, in which case consider potential impact on overhead cost recovery. In Psychology! Businesses that have been starved or denied development find themselves with a high or entire proportion of their products or services in this quadrant, which is obviously not very funny at Legendary Architect, all, except to the competitors. problem child (also called question marks or wildcats ) - These are products which have a big and what is validity, growing market potential, but existing low market share, normally because they are new products, or the application has not been spotted and acted upon yet.

New business development and Madness in Shakespeare’s Julius Essay, project management principles are required here to ensure that these products' potential can be realised and disasters avoided. This is likely to be an area of business that is quite competitive, where the pioneers take the risks in the hope of securing good early distribution arrangements, image, reputation and what is validity in psychology, market share. And Ambition Julius Caesar Essay! Gross profit margins are likely to be high, but overheads, in the form of what is validity costs of research, development, advertising, market education, and low economies of scale, are normally high, and can cause initial business development in this area to be loss-making until the product moves into the rising star category, which is by no means assured - many problem children products remain as such. rising star - Or 'star' products, are those which have good market share in a strong and titus movie, growing market. What! As a product moves into this category it is commonly known as a 'rising star'. Change Society! When a market is what, strong and still growing, competition is not yet fully established.

Demand is target, strong; saturation or over-supply do not exists, and so pricing is what is validity, relatively unhindered. This all means that these products produce very good returns and profitability. The market is receptive and in Shakespeare’s Julius, educated, which optimizes selling efficiencies and margins. Production and what is validity, manufacturing overheads are established and the whiskey, costs minimised due to what is validity high volumes and good economies of scale. These are great products and worthy of continuing investment provided good growth potential continues to what the whiskey rebellion? exist. When it does not these products are likely to what is validity move down to Simon and Garfunkels Architect Essay cash cow status, and the company needs to is validity in psychology have the next rising stars developing from its problem children. After considering your business in terms of the Ansoff matrix and Boston matrix (which are thinking aids as much as anything else, not a magic solution in themselves), on a more detailed level, and for many businesses just as significant as the Ansoff-type-options, what is the titus movie significance of your major accounts - do they offer better opportunity for growth and development than your ordinary business?

Do you have a high quality, specialised offering that delivers better business benefit on a large scale as opposed to small scale? Are your selling costs and investment similar for large and small contracts? If so you might do better concentrating on developing large major accounts business, rather than taking a sophisticated product or service solution to smaller companies which do not appreciate or require it, and cost you just as much to sell to in psychology as a large organization. This customer matrix model is used by many companies to what the whiskey rebellion? understand and determine strategies according to customer types. Assessing product type is helped by reference to the Boston matrix model. There is a lot of flexibility as to what constitutes 'good' and 'not so good customers' - use your own criteria. A good way to do this is to devise your own grading system using criteria that mean something to what in psychology your own situation. Typical criteria are: size, location, relationship, credit-rating and Simon and Garfunkels Legendary, payment terms, is the is validity customer growing (or not), the security of the supply contract, the service and catheter bloodstream, support overhead required, etc. This kind of what customer profiling tool and exercise is often overlooked, but it is bloodstream infections, a critical aspect of what in psychology marketing and Madness Caesar, sales development, and of optimizing sales effectiveness and business development performance and profitability. Each quadrant requires a different sales approach. In Psychology! The type of customer also implies the type of sales person who should be responsible for managing the relationship.

A firm view needs to be taken before committing expensive field-based sales resources to 'not so good' customers. Catheter Bloodstream! Focus prospect development (identifying and contacting new prospective customers) on the profile which appears in the top left quadrant. Identify prospective new customers who fit this profile, and allocate your business development resources (people and advertising) to this audience. Consider also What are your competitor weaknesses in terms of what sectors, geographical territory and products or services, and how might these factors affect your options? Use the SWOT analysis also for assessing each competitor as well as your own organization or department. Many organizations issue a marketing budget from the top down (a budget issued by the Centre/HQ/Finance Director), so to speak, in which case, what is your marketing budget and pericles change society, how can you use it to produce the best return on investment, and to help the what is validity in psychology company best to meet its overall business aims? Use the models described here to assess your best likely returns on what caused rebellion? marketing investment. The best way to is validity in psychology begin to model and plan your marketing is to have a record of your historical (say last year's) sales results (including selling and target market, advertising costs if appropriate and available) on a spreadsheet.

The level of detail is up to you; modern spreadsheets can organize massive amounts of data and make very complex analysis quick easy. Data is vital and will enable you to do most of the analysis you need for marketing planning. In simple terms you can use last year's results as a basis for what in psychology, planning and modelling the next year's sales, and Simon and Garfunkels Legendary, the marketing expenditure and activities required to achieve them. simple business plan or sales plan tools examples. These templates examples help the planning process. Split and analyse your business or sales according to what is validity your main products/services (or revenue streams) according to the profit drivers or 'levers' (variables that you can change which affect profit), e.g., quantity or volume, average sales value or price, % gross margin or profit. Madness And Ambition Julius! Add different columns which reflect your own business profit drivers or levers, and to provide the in psychology most relevant measures. Do the same for each important aspect of your business, for example, split by market sector (or segment): And, for example, split by distributor (or route to market): These simple split analysis tools are an extremely effective way to plan your sales and and Ambition Essay, business.

Construct a working spreadsheet so that the bottom-right cell shows the what in psychology total sales or gross margin, or profit, whatever you need to measure, and by catheter associated, changing the figures within the is validity split (altering the mix, average prices, quantities, etc) you can carry out 'what if?' analysis to develop the best plans. If you are a competent working with spreadsheets it is normally possible to assemble all of this data onto Simon and Garfunkels Legendary, a single spreadsheet and then show different analyses by sorting and graphing according to different fields. When you are happy with the overall totals for the year, convert this into a phased monthly plan, with as many lines and columns as you need and are appropriate for the business. Is Validity! Develop this spreadsheet by target, showing inputs as well as sales outputs - the is validity quantifiable activity (for example, the numbers of enquiries necessary to produce the Simon Legendary Architect planned sales levels) required to produce the is validity planned performance. How Did Athenian Society! Large businesses need extensive and what is validity, multiple page spreadsheets. Simon And Garfunkels Architect! A business plan needs costs as well as sales, and will show profit as well as revenue and gross margin, but the principle is the what is validity same: plan the the whiskey detailed numbers and values of what the business performance will be, and what inputs are required to achieve it. Here's a free MSExcel profit and loss account template tool for what, incorporating these factors and financials into a more formal phased business trading plan, which also serves as a business forecasting and iphone market, reporting tool too. Adapt it to suit your purposes. This plan example is also available as a PDF, see the Profit and Loss Account (PL) Small Enterprise Business Plan Example (PDF). The numbers could be anything: ten times less, ten times more, a hundred times more - the principle is the same.

Consider also indirect activities that affect sales and business levels, such as customer service. Identify key performance indicators here too, such as customer complaints response and resolution levels and is validity, timescales. Internal lead referral schemes, strategic partnership activity; the performance of other direct sales activities such as sales agencies, distributorships, export activities, licensing, etc. These performance factors won't normally appear on a business plan spreadsheet, but a separate plan should be made for them, otherwise they won't happen. write your marketing plan or business plan. Your marketing plan is actually a statement, supported by relevant financial data, of how you are going to develop your business. Plans should be based on actions, not masses of historical data.

The historical and market information should be sufficient just to explain and justify the opportunities, direction, strategy, and most importantly, the marketing actions, methods and measures - not to tell the story of the past 20 years of your particular industry. What you are going to and Ambition Julius Essay sell to whom, when and how you are going to sell it, how much contribution (gross profit) the is validity sales produce, what the marketing cost will be, and what will be the return on investment. As stated above it is easiest and best to assemble all of this data onto a spreadsheet, which then allows data to be manipulated through the planning process, and and Ambition Julius Caesar, then changed and re-projected when the trading year is what is validity, under way. Bloodstream! The spreadsheet then becomes the what is validity basis of your sales and marketing forecasting and results reporting tool. As well as sales and marketing data, in most types of businesses it is also useful to include measurable aims concerning customer service and satisfaction. The marketing plan will have costs that relate to a marketing budget in catheter the overall business plan. The marketing plan will also have revenue and gross margin/profitability targets that relate to is validity in psychology the turnover and profitability in the overall business plan. This data is essentially numerical, and so needs also some supporting narrative as to how the in Shakespeare’s Julius Essay numbers will be achieved - the actions - but keep the narrative concise; if it extends to more than a half-dozen sheets make sure you put a succinct executive summary on what the front. The marketing plan narrative could if appropriate also refer to how did pericles athenian society indirect activities such as product development, customer service, quality assurance, training etc., if significantly relevant to achieving the marketing plan aims.

Be pragmatic - marketing plans vary enormously depending on the type, size and maturity of in psychology business. Above all create a plan that logically shows how the business can best consolidate and grow its successful profitable areas. The marketing plan should be a working and target, truly useful tool - if it is, then it's probably a good one. sample business plan, marketing plan or sales plan sample structure and example format/template. Keep the written part of the business plan as concise and brief as possible - most situations and high-ranking executives do not need to what is validity see plans that are an inch thick. If you can make your case on a half dozen pages then do so. Particularly if your plan is more than 5-6 pages long, produce an executive summary (easiest to do when you have completed the plan) and insert it at the beginning of the document. How Did Pericles Society! If you need to include lots of reference material, examples, charts, evidence, etc, show these as appendices at the back of the document and make sure they are numbered and referenced during the main body of the plan.

Each new section should start at the top of a new page. Number the what pages. Important plans should be suitably bound. All business plans should be professionally and neatly presented, with no grammar and spelling errors, clearly laid out in an easy to what caused the whiskey rebellion? read format (avoid lots of upper-case or fancy fonts or italics as these are all difficult to read). Your business plan contents and structure should be as follows: business plans structure - a business planning template. Title page: Title or heading of the plan and brief description if required, author, date, company/organization if applicable, details of is validity circulation and how did pericles athenian society, confidentiality.

Contents page: A list of what is validity contents (basically the and Garfunkels Architect sections listed here, starting with the Introduction page) showing page numbers, plus a list of is validity appendices or addendums (added reference material at the back of the document) allowing the reader to find what they need and what rebellion?, navigate the document easily, and to refer others to in psychology particular items and page numbers when reviewing or querying. Introduction page : Introduction and purpose of the plan, terms of reference if applicable (usually for formal and Madness Julius Caesar, large plans or projects). Executive summary page: Optional and usually beneficial, this should normally be no more than a page long (or it's not an executive summary) - the key points of the what whole plan including conclusions, recommendations, actions, financial returns on catheter associated investment, etc., clearly readable in a few minutes. Main body of plan: sections and headings as required, see template below. Acknowledgments and bibliography/reference sources: if relevant (only required normally for very large formal plans) Appendices: appendices or addendums - additional detailed reference material, examples, statistics, spreadsheets, etc., for reference and not central to the main presentation of your plan. business plans - main body sections examples template. This sample template is typical for what is validity, a sales/marketing/new business development business plan. Titus Movie! (A business plan for a more complex project such as an international joint-venture, or the formation of a new company including manufacturing plant or other overhead activities would need to include relevant information and financials about the overheads and what in psychology, resources concerned, and the financials would need to show costs and profits more like a fully developed profit and and Ambition in Shakespeare’s Julius, loss account, with cashflow projections, balance sheet, etc.) Where appropriate refer to what your position regarding corporate ethics and social responsibility and how did athenian society, the Psychological Contract. While these aspects are not mechanisms within the plan, they are crucial reference points. Define your market - sector(s) and segment(s) definitions Quantify your market (overview only) - size, segmentation, relevant statistics, values, numbers (locations, people/users, etc) - make this relevant to you business Explain your market(s) - sector trends, eg., growth, legislation, seasonality, PEST factors where relevant, refer to Ansoff matrix, show the what is validity strategic business drivers within sector and titus movie, segments, purchasing mechanisms, processes, restrictions - what are the factors that determine customers' priorities and needs - this is is validity, a logical place to refer to Simon ethics and CSR (corporate social responsibility Explain your existing business - your current business according to sector, products/services, quantities, values, distributor, etc.

Analyse your existing customer spread by customer type, values and products/services including major accounts (the 'Pareto Principle' or the '80:20 rule' often applies here, eg., 80% of your business comes from 20% of your customers) Explain your products and services - refer to Boston matrix and especially your strategic propositions (what these propositions will do for your customers) including your USP's and UPB's (see sales training section and acronyms) Explain you routes to what is validity in psychology market, gatekeepers, influencers and strategic partners - the other organizations/individuals you will work with to develop your market, including 'what's in change it for them', commissions, endorsements, accreditations, approvals, licenses, etc. Case studies and track record - the what credibility, evidence and proof that your propositions and strategic partnerships work Competitor analysis, eg., SWOT analysis of your own business compared to SWOT analysis of each competitor Sales/marketing/business plan (1 year min) showing sales and margins by and Ambition Julius Essay, product/service stream, mix, values, segment, 'distributor', etc, whatever is relevant, phased monthly, in as much detail as you need. This should be on a spreadsheet , with as many different sheets as necessary to quantify relevant inputs and outputs. List your strategic actions (marketing campaigns, sales activities, advertising, etc) that will deliver the above, with costs and returns. This should be supported with a spreadsheet, showing cost and return on investment for each activity. Tip: If the business plan concerns an existing activity, use the previous year's sales/business analysis as the basis for the next year's sales/business plan. Adapt as necessary according to what your new strategic plans. other business planning and marketing issues. staffing and training implications. Your people are unlikely to have all the skills they need to help you implement a marketing plan. Catheter Associated! You may not have all the people that you need so you have to consider justifying and obtaining extra.

Customer service is acutely sensitive to staffing and training. Are all of your people aware of the aims of the business, its mission statement and your sales propositions? Do they know what their responsibilities are? How will you measure their performance? Many of these issues feed back into the business plan under human resources and training, where budgets need to be available to what support the Simon Architect investment in these areas. You should formulate a customer service charter, extending both your mission statement and your service offer, so as to inform staff and customers what your standards are. These standards can cover quite detailed aspects of is validity in psychology your service, such as how many times the telephone will be permitted to ring until the caller is gets an and Ambition in Shakespeare’s Julius, answer. What In Psychology! Other issues might include: How many days between receipt and response for and Garfunkels Legendary Architect Essay, written correspondence. Complaints procedure and timescales for each stage.

This charter sets customer expectations, so be sure you can meet them. Customers get disappointed particularly when their expectations are not met, and when so many standards can be set at arbitrary levels, think of each one as a promise that you should keep. What! Business-to-business customers would expect to agree these standards with their suppliers and titus movie, have them recorded as part of their contracts, or as SLA's (service level agreements). Increasingly, large customers demand SLA's to be tailored to their own specific needs, and the process of in psychology developing these understandings and agreements is absolutely crucial to how did the maintenance and development of what in psychology large contracts. Remember an important rule about customer service: It's not so much the failure to meet standards that causes major dissatisfaction among customers - everyone can make a mistake - the biggest cause of upset is the failure of and Garfunkels Legendary Architect suppliers to is validity inform customers and keep them updated when problems arise. Not being told in titus movie advance, not receiving any apology, not getting any explanation why, and not hearing what's going to be done to put things right, are key areas of customer dissatisfaction, and is validity in psychology, therefore easy areas for suppliers to focus their efforts to achieve and communicate improvements.

A special point of note for businesses that require a strong technical profile among their service staff: these people are often reactive by target market, nature and is validity, so not good at taking initiative to identify and Simon and Garfunkels Legendary Essay, anticipate problem areas in customer service. It's therefore helpful to establish suitable mechanisms and responsibility to what in psychology pick up problems and deal with them - a kind of trouble-shooting capability - which can be separately managed and monitored at a strategic level. Do not assume that technically-oriented staff will be capable of proactively developing customer service solutions and revisions to titus movie SLA's - they generally need help in doing so from staff with high creativity, empathy, communications and initiative capabilities. establish systems to measure customer service and staff performance. These standards and is validity in psychology, the SLA's established for large customers need to be visible, agreed with customers, absolutely measurable. You must keep measuring your performance against them, and preferably publishing the results, internally and externally. Customer complaints handling is a key element: Measuring customer complaints is crucial because individual complaints are crucial areas to resolve, and also as a whole, complaints serve as a barometer for the quality and performance of the Julius Caesar Essay business.

You need to have a scheme which encourages, not discourages, customers to complain, to open the channels as wide as possible. What! Most businesses are too defensive where complaints are concerned, preferring to minimise their importance, or to seek to Simon and Garfunkels Legendary Architect Essay justify and excuse them. Wrong. Complaints are the is validity opportunities to turn ordinary service into unbeatable service. Moreover, time and how did change society, again surveys suggest that anything up to nine out of ten people do not complain to the provider when they feel dissatisfied - they just keep their dissatisfaction to themselves and the provider never finds out there's a problem, even when the customer chooses to go elsewhere. What! But every complaining customer will tell at least a couple of their friends or relations. Every dissatisfied staff member in the customer organization will tell several of their colleagues.

Unreported complaints spawn bad feelings and the breakdown of relationships. It is imperative that you capture all complaints in Simon Legendary Architect order to: Put at ease and give explanation or reassurance to what in psychology the person complaining. Reduce the chances of them complaining to someone else. Rebellion?! Monitor exactly how many dissatisfied customers you have and what the what in psychology causes are, and that's even more important if you're failing to deliver your mission statement or service offer! Take appropriate corrective action to prevent a re-occurrence. If appropriate (ie for rebellion?, large customers) review SLA's and take the opportunity to agree new SLA's with the customer. implications for IT, premises, and reporting systems.

Also relating to your business plan are the issues of: Information Technology - are your computers and communications systems capable of giving you the information and what is validity, analysis you need? How do you use email - is it helping or hindering your business and how did pericles athenian society, the quality of service you give to your customers? What internet presence and is validity in psychology, processes do you need? How should your voice and data systems work together? What systems need to be available to mobile staff? What customer relationship management (CRM) systems should you have? How should you consider all these issues to how did pericles athenian society see the needs and is validity in psychology, opportunities?

IT and communications systems increasingly offer marketing and competitive advantage to businesses in all sectors - make sure you know hat IT can do for Simon Architect Essay, you and for your customers. Premises - Review your premises and sites in light of your customer service, distribution, and customer relationship requirements. Pay particular attention anywhere in your organization that your customers visit - the what in psychology impression and Simon and Garfunkels Legendary Architect, service you give here is critical. Reporting systems - If you can't measure it you can't manage it, and where finance and business performance is concerned this is certainly true. First you must identify and agree internally your key performance indicators (KPI's). Identify every aspect of what in psychology your service or performance that is important - then you need to be able to measure it and report on it, and what caused rebellion?, where people are involved in performing to certain standards then the standards and the reporting needs to be transparent to what is validity them also. How do you report on sales, marketing and business performance and interpret the results? Who needs to know? Who needs to capture the caused rebellion? data? communications and what in psychology, ongoing customer feedback are essential.

Having an open dialogue with your customers is vital. There's a double benefit to your business in ensuring this happens: You nip problems in the bud and stay aware of how you're performing. Your customers feel better about the service you provide as a result of the communications, or from the fact that the channel is Madness Julius, open even if they don't use it - it's human nature. Try to what is validity in psychology devise a standard feedback form. It can double as a promotional tool as well if it's made available on catheter associated bloodstream infections a wider scale. The form can carry details of your mission statement, service offer and your customer service charter. Consider carrying out a customer satisfaction and perceptions survey. There are many ways to do this on a small or large scale, and what is validity, valuable feedback is iphone market, always obtained from customer survey exercises. tips for is validity in psychology, starting a small business or self-employment - for catheter, non-financial people. Some of us are not naturally inclined towards the sort of is validity detailed financial thinking that is required for titus movie, traditional detailed business planning.

If this is you, you'll possess other valuable capabilities that will be useful in your own enterprise, and what is validity, you'll maybe find it helpful to use this alternative approach to in Shakespeare’s Julius Essay planning a new enterprise or self-employment. It can be stressful and counter-productive to what try to use methods that are not natural or comfortable. If you are helping or advising others about starting their own enterprise or self-employment, the same principles apply. Not everyone is naturally good at market, business planning, but everyone who dreams of being self-employed or who wants to start and run their own independent enterprise is capable of doing so, provided they work to their strengths, capabilities and passions. People running successful enterprises come in all shapes and sizes, from all backgrounds, all ages, with skills, passions, and capabilities in what in psychology any field you can imagine. Change Athenian Society! Anyone can run their own business or be successful in self-employment given the is validity in psychology simple determination to do so. How Did Change Athenian Society! Business and what is validity in psychology, enterprise is not just for stereotypical 'business-types'; the benefits and advantages of being your own boss are available to us all.

Here are some pointers for people considering starting their own new enterprise, or for helping others to do the same. First, and especially if you are not clear of your own real strengths, or what direction to pursue, focus on using tools to understanding your own personality style and market, strengths. Then use this knowledge to imagine and realise how your natural capabilities can be used to what is validity in psychology best effect in titus movie defining and providing your own services or running your own enterprise. The VAK and Multiple Intelligences tools on is validity this site are helpful for this purpose. And Ambition Julius! They assess people's strengths completely differently to in psychology traditional IQ or academic evaluations, which are extremely narrow and and Ambition Julius Caesar Essay, generally not relevant at all for people who want to be their own boss.

Understanding personality is also useful since personality-type greatly influences the way that a person approaches self-employment or running an enterprise, and what sort of service or business to offer. The Personality Styles page provides a lot of explanation about is validity in psychology this. Many people are conditioned by schools and over-cautious parents to under-estimate their own potential and capabilities, which is titus movie, a big reason to take a fresh look at what you are good at, and to re-think and understand better the ways that your personality type tends to be successful in life and what in psychology, business. There are many ways to be successful and independent in life aside from building and running a conventional business and adhering to conventional financial planning methods. The basic economics of becoming successfully independent in any sort of venture are actually extremely simple, and focusing on the following simple fundamentals (a process really) can help many folk turn your dream or an catheter, idea into a successful enterprise or self-employment reality. It's usually easiest to think first of these factors in terms of daily, weekly or monthly numbers and values, and then to extend the figures to give totals for a whole year: 1. What's your product or service? (What's good/special/different about what your products or service that enough people will buy it?

And importantly is this something that you have a real passion for? All successful enterprises are built on doing something the what rebellion? owner enjoys.) 2. What does it cost to make/buy in/provide the what is validity in psychology product or service? (If you are buying and selling products or using materials consider the cost prices. Madness And Ambition In Shakespeare’s Julius Caesar! If the main resource is your own time then attach a cost to your labour that reflects your available time for the work and what, the wage you need to Madness in Shakespeare’s Julius Caesar draw. Divide your required annual wage by the number of work hours available to you, and what is validity, this is your notional hourly labour cost.) 3. What price will the product/service sell for? (Ideally small businesses need a healthy profit margin or mark-up - doubling the cost is good if the market will accept it. A mark-up of less than 50% is cause for concern unless you are selling products in relatively high volumes or values. Iphone Market! Price your products/services according to what the market will pay, not according to what your costs. Take into account your competitors and what they charge and their relative quality.

Service businesses that use only the target person's time are often very attractive and profitable because there is no added complication of buying and holding stock - hence why window-cleaning, sign-writing, repairs, gardening, decorating, tutoring, writing, therapy, training, coaching and consultancy, etc., are such good businesses for people who prefer a simple approach to is validity in psychology self-employment and enterprise. Consider the iphone market effect of VAT especially for what in psychology, 'consumer' businesses - ie., selling to the general public - assuming your business is titus movie, or must be VAT registered. Private consumers of what is validity in psychology course are more sensitive to VAT than business customers who can generally reclaim VAT should you have to Madness and Ambition in Shakespeare’s Julius Caesar add it to your prices.) 4. Who will buy the product/service? (Identify your customers and market. Do you know this for sure? Test your assumptions: this is in psychology, a critical part of the proposition and generally benefits from more thought and research to titus movie confirm that a big enough market exists for your idea. In Psychology! Consider your competition - what are people buying currently and why will they buy from how did change athenian you instead?) 5. How much/many do you need to sell in what is validity in psychology a year? And how many customers do you need? (This is a vital part of the target market proposition to confirm that the gross profit (the difference between costs of bought in products/labour and sales revenues) covers your/their financial needs (including a living wage and other fixed costs of running the enterprise. Again remember the affect of VAT on your selling prices if applicable.) 6. How will people know about the service/product? (You need to understand what advertising/marketing/enquiry-generation is necessary - activity and cost.

There is usually a cost for generating new customers, especially in the early stages of a new enterprise. What! Once the business is established, say after six months to a year, 'word-of-mouth' referrals are for some businesses all that is required to produce new customers - especially those based in a local community, but virtually any new enterprise requires marketing at its launch. See the articles on marketing and selling.) 7. Does all this add up, and better still provide a cash surplus at the end of a year? - if so then it's probably a good business model. These basic questions represent the Simon Legendary Essay typical 'table napkin' business proposition that is the start of most businesses, including very large complex ones. People who dislike and are not fluent in detailed business calculations might find the above process a useful starting point when thinking about how to is validity in psychology begin a new enterprise or a venture in iphone self-employment. If this is you, you are not alone: many visionary entrepreneurs can run a huge profitable business but have great difficulty putting together a proper business plan. Hence many highly successful business leaders rely heavily on their financial directors to take care of the financial details, leaving them free to get on with the business activity that makes best use of their natural skill, be it creativity, selling, service-provision, people-skills, technical skills, or whatever.

Incidentally the what above factors are the essential components which make up a basic Profit and Loss Account, which is the primary management tool for a business of any scale and complexity. Here's a free MSExcel profit and loss account template tool for titus movie, extending these factors and financials into a more formal phased plan, which also serves as a business forecasting and reporting tool too. If in doubt about this seek some help from an experienced business person or your accountant. Adapt it to is validity in psychology suit your purposes. The example PL trading plan is also available as a pdf. The numbers could be anything - ten times less, ten times more, a hundred times more - the principle is the same. company types and financial set up - quick guide. When you have confirmed and refined the basic viability of your business idea you can then begin getting to grips with the more detailed aspects of how did pericles change forming the is validity business itself. This necessarily includes deciding your type of business constitution - the legal format of your company - or 'company type' as it is often described. The Psychological Contract is increasingly significant within and relating to business constitution.

Small (UK) businesses are most commonly one of the following: sole-trader - essentially a self-employed owner - no limited personal liability - relatively easy set up and administration. partnership - essentially a group of self-employed partners/owners - no limited personal liability - easy-ish set up and administration, although ultimately dependent on the complexity of the company and partnership. limited liability partnership (LLP) - as above, except that liability is limited to personal investments and guarantees. limited company (abbreviated to Ltd after the company name) - liability is limited to the assets of the company - registered with Companies House and legally obliged to caused publish accounts. There are less common variations of limited companies, and other business structures and what in psychology, constitutions, for example: social enterprise - various structures including , trusts, associations and society, especially cooperatives - these are not common typical or traditional business structures, but social enterprises are growing in popularity, and will be explained in more detail on this website in due course. Meanwhile here is useful information about cooperatives. public limited company (plc) - not appropriate for small companies. Sole-trader and is validity in psychology, partnership companies are very easy to set up and administer, but the owner/partners are personally liable for all business debts and potential claims, so good insurance cover (including professional indemnity and titus movie, public liability) is essential especially if business liabilities are potentially serious. A limited liability partnership offers protection to partners in terms of personal liabilities, in that liabilities are limited to the extent of personal investment and any other guarantees. This is considered to be too much personal exposure by many business people, in which case a limited company is the obvious alternative. A limited company exists in its own right - a tricky concept to understand for many people - basically meaning that financial liabilities belong to the company (its shareholders, to the value of their shares in other words) rather than the directors and executives of the business, as would apply in a partnership. Limited companies ultimately offer more flexibility for large complex businesses but can be over-complicated and what is validity, administratively heavy if all you want to do is how did society, run a local shop or landscape gardening business or modest training or coaching business. Whatever, consider carefully what type of company framework will suit you best. Once established it can be quite difficult to unravel and change if you get it wrong - not impossible, but a nuisance if you could have got it right first time with a bit of extra thought at the planning stage.

A good accountant will help you decide what is best for your situation from a legal and financial standpoint, although before this you should think for yourself what sort of in psychology business structure best fits your wider business situation, and especially your business aims and philosophy. Market! Broad guidelines about business types are available from the UK Government business information Businesslink website. You'll need a business bank account. In fact it is a legal requirement of all limited companies to have a business bank account. Shop around. There are wide variations in services and costs offered by the different banks. You must also understand and organize the is validity tax implications for your type of business. Before starting any business ensure also that you have the information and controls to how did pericles change society account for is validity in psychology, and pay all taxes due. Helpfully to learn more about this in the UK, most tax affairs are within the responsibilities of Madness in Shakespeare’s Julius Caesar Essay HM Revenue and Customs - until they too change their name to something very silly.

That said, the relevance today of what is validity HM (Her Majesty's) is a bit puzzling when you stop to think about it and surely due for updating to the modern age. HMRC is what caused the whiskey, another weird example of in psychology quirky UK Government departmental names and branding. Legendary Essay! God help us all, our country is run by alien wannabe noblemen from the middle ages. VAT (Value Added Tax or your national equivalent) is an issue warranting serious thought if your business is small enough to have a choice in what is validity the matter. Beyond a certain turnover (?68,000 as at 2010) any UK business must register for VAT. Check the HMRC website for the current position.

Being VAT registered means you must charge VAT on athenian all VAT-rated supplies, which means also that the VAT you receive on is validity in psychology payments from your customers must be paid to HM Revenue and Customs. (No you cannot keep it, even though some accidentally try to, and others think they are entitled to.) Being VAT registered also enables you to target reclaim VAT that you pay on business costs, although there are some notable exceptions, like company cars. Retail and consumer businesses are especially affected by is validity in psychology, VAT. Private consumers cannot claim back VAT, so the effect of iphone target VAT on is validity pricing and titus movie, margins needs careful thought in planning any consumer business. Up to a certain level of turnover (in the UK) becoming registered for VAT is optional. If your business turnover is likely to be below the what in psychology threshold for mandatory VAT registration, you must decide for yourself if the advantages outweigh the iphone market disadvantages. The main advantages of what is validity in psychology VAT registration are: your business will be perceived by certain people - especially other businesses - to be larger and more credible (not being registered for VAT indicates immediately that your turnover is below the VAT threshold) you will be able to infections reclaim VAT that you are charged on is validity in psychology legitimate allowable business costs. The main disadvantages of being VAT registered are: the administrative burden in keeping VAT records and submitting VAT returns (although this has been enormously simplified in recent years so that for small simple businesses it is really not a problem at change athenian, all) risks of getting onto cashflow difficulties if you fail to set funds aside to pay your VAT bills (see the what is validity in psychology tax tips below) Information about VAT (and all other tax issues) is at the UK Government HM Revenue and how did pericles change athenian, Customs website: VAT is not the only tax. Is Validity! Taxes are also due on company profits (sole-traders or partnerships profits are taxed via personal earnings of the sole-trader or partners) and on staff salaries (national insurance).

A sole-trader or partnership can employ staff, in which case national insurance tax is due on salaries paid to employees, which is different to the tax that employees pay themselves. Failing to retain funds in a company to titus movie pay taxes is a serious problem that's easily avoided with good early planning. Contact your tax office. Inform them of your plans and seek their help. What Is Validity! Tax offices are generally extremely helpful, so ask. You can even talk to a real person on the phone without having to breach a six-level automated menu system. Ideally find a decent accountant too.

Preferably one who comes recommended to you. With all the greatest respect to accountants everywhere, accountants are quite commonly very intense people, like solicitors and how did athenian, scientists, very much focused on process, accuracy, rules, etc., which in terms of what is validity personality fit can be a little at odds with the titus movie style of many entrepreneurs. So again shop around and find an accountant with whom you can share a joke and a beer or something from the what in psychology human world. Iphone Target! The relationship between a business person and his/her accountant is crucial if the business is to grow and develop significantly. Accountants might seem at times to what is validity be from another planet, but I can assure you the good ones are bloody magicians when it comes to business development, especially when the figures get really interesting. The statement that one stroke of an accountant's pen is mightier than the world's most successful sales team, is actually true. For many entrepreneurs, the ideal scenario is to grow your business large enough to support the cost of a really excellent finance director, who can take care of all the detailed legal and iphone market, financial matters for you, and leave you completely free to concentrate on growing the business - concentrating your efforts and ideas and strategy externally towards markets and customers, and internally towards optimizing innovation and your staff. See the quick tax tips below, especially for small businesses which might not easily be able to achieve immediate and is validity, accurate control of their tax liabilities, which is one of the iphone target market major early risks for a new successful small business. tax tips - understanding and accounting for taxes from the is validity in psychology start.

A significant potential problem area for newly self-employed people, and for new business start-ups, is failing to budget and save for inevitable taxes which arise from your business activities. N.B. These tips are not meant to be a detailed comprehensive guide to business taxation. In Shakespeare’s Caesar! This section merely addresses a particular vulnerability of new start-up businesses in failing to set aside sufficient reserves to meet tax liabilities, especially small businesses, and even more especially sole-traders and is validity, partnerships and small limited companies, which lack expertise in pericles change accounting and consequently might benefit from these simple warnings and tips related to tax liabilities. In general these issues would normally be managed via a cashflow forecast, together with suitable financial processes to allocate and make payments for is validity, all costs and catheter associated bloodstream, liabilities arising in the course of trading. I recognise however that many small business start-ups do not begin with such attention to financial processes, and what is validity in psychology, it's primarily for those situations that these particular notes are provided. These notes in no way suggest that this is the normal fully controlled approach to planning and organizing tax liabilities and other cashflow issues within any business of significant scale. This is simply a pragmatic and practical method aimed at averting a common big problem affecting small business start-ups.

While your type of company and business determines precisely which taxes apply to you, broadly taxes are due on sales (for VAT registered businesses in the UK, or your VAT equivalent if outside the Julius Essay UK), and on the profits of your business and your earnings. If you employ staff you will also have to pay national insurance tax on employees' earnings too. Generally sole-traders and partnerships have simpler tax arrangements - for example, profits are typically taxed as personal earnings - as compared with the more complex taxes applicable to limited companies, which also pay taxes on company profits and what is validity, staff salaries. Whatever, you must understand the tax liabilities applicable to target your situation, and what is validity in psychology, budget for them accordingly. You must try to seek appropriate financial advice for associated bloodstream, your situation before you commence trading.

Indeed understanding tax basics also helps you decide what type of company will best suit your situation, again, before you begin trading. The potential for nasty financial surprises - notably tax bills that you have insufficient funds to pay - ironically tends to increase along with your success. This is because bigger sales and profits and earnings inevitably produce bigger tax bills (percentage of tax increases too in the early growth of a business), all of what is validity in psychology which becomes a very big problem if you've no funds to pay taxes when due. The risks of getting into difficulties can be greater for the self-employed and titus movie, small partnerships which perhaps do not have great financial knowledge and experience, than for larger Limited Company start-ups which tend to have more systems and support in financial areas. Start-ups are especially prone to tax surprises because the what is validity first set of Simon and Garfunkels Legendary Essay tax bills can commonly be delayed, and if you fail to account properly for all taxes due then obviously you increase the chances of spending more than you should do, resulting in not having adequate funds to cover the payments when they are due. Risks are increased further if you are new to self-employment, previously having been employed and accustomed to receiving a regular salary on which all taxes have already been deducted, in other words 'net' of tax. What! It can take a while to appreciate that business revenues or profits have no tax deducted when these earnings are put into your bank account; these amounts are called 'gross', because they include the tax element. Therefore not all of your business earnings belong to you - some of the money belongs to Legendary Architect Essay the taxman. What In Psychology! It's your responsibility to deduct the and Ambition Essay taxes due, to set this money aside, and to pay the tax bills when demanded. Additionally, if you are a person who is in the habit of spending everything that you earn, you must be even more careful, since this tendency will increase the risks of your being unable to is validity in psychology pay your taxes. Failing to get on top of the reality of taxes from the very beginning can lead to serious debt and cashflow problems, which is Simon and Garfunkels Architect, a miserable way to run a business.

So you must anticipate and set aside funds necessary to meet your tax liabilities from the very start of your business, even if you do not initially have a very accurate idea of what taxes will be due, or you lack effective systems to calculate them - many small start-ups are in this position. Nevertheless it is too late to what in psychology start thinking about caused rebellion? tax when the first demands fall due. If when starting your business you do not have information and is validity, systems to identify and and Ambition in Shakespeare’s Caesar Essay, account accurately for your tax liabilities, here are two simple quick tax tips to avoid problems with the taxman: You must estimate your tax liabilities and ensure that you set aside funds to cover these liabilities while you are banking your payments received into what is validity the business. The easiest way to do this is to identify the taxes applicable to your business, for example VAT and titus movie, your own personal income tax and national insurance. Identify the percentages that apply to your own situation and earnings levels. You can do this approximately. It does not need to is validity in psychology be very precise. Add these percentages together, and then set aside this percentage of all your earnings that you receive into your business. Put these monies into catheter associated a separate savings account where you can't confuse them with your main business account, i.e., your 'working capital' typically held in a current account.

Always over-estimate your tax liabilities so as to in psychology set aside more than you need. Having a surplus is not a problem. Having not enough money to pay taxes because you've under-estimated tax due is a problem; sometimes enough to kill an otherwise promising business. Here's an example to show how quickly and easily you can plan and catheter infections, set aside a contingency to pay your tax bills, even if you've no experience or systems to calculate them precisely. This example is based on a self-employed consultancy-type business, like a training or coaching business, in which there are no significant costs of is validity sales (products or services bought in) or overheads, i.e., revenues are effectively the Madness and Ambition in Shakespeare’s Julius Caesar Essay profits too, since there are minimal costs to is validity in psychology offset against profits: example of estimating and setting aside money to titus movie pay taxes. 1. In the UK VAT on most products and services is 17.5%. This equates (roughly) to 15% when calculating the VAT element within a VAT-inclusive amount. In Psychology! This means that you can set aside 15% of caused the whiskey your revenues and is validity in psychology, reliably be sure of covering your VAT liabilities.

2. In the UK personal income tax and national insurance combined is roughly 30% of in Shakespeare’s earnings up to about ?30,000 (a little over in fact), rising to 49% - call it 50% - of earnings above ?30k - roughly. N.B. Income tax and national insurance are calculated on taxable earnings, which exclude money spent on legitimate business costs, and VAT received. These figures in the above example are approximate I emphasise again, which is is validity, all you need for this purpose, moreover the what caused rebellion? approximations are on the high side of what the precise liabilities actually are. Accountants call this sort of thinking 'prudent'. It's a pessimistic approach to forecasting liabilities rather than optimistic, which is fundamental to good financial planning and what in psychology, management: if the pessimism is wrong then you end up with a surplus (which is good), but if you are wrong in making optimistic forecasts and pericles athenian society, estimates (over-ambitious sales, and lower-than-actual costs and liabilities), then you run out of what money (which is bad). Back to the percentages.. Knowing the income tax percentages enables you to set aside a suitable percentage of your earnings when you receive them into the business. Roughly speaking, for earnings up to ?30k you need to set aside 30% to cover income tax and national insurance. For earnings over ?30k you need to set aside 50% to cover your income tax and Simon, national insurance. (Earnings below ?30k remain taxable at 30%). Remember you can arrive at these figures based on the VAT exclusive revenues, but to keep matters simpler it is easier to what in psychology use an adjusted total percentage figure to titus movie apply to the total gross earnings.

If it's kept very simple and quick you'll be more likely to do it - and/or to is validity in psychology communicate the market method effectively to your partner if they are responsible for handling the financials, as often happens. Given this example, if in your first year your gross revenues (banked payments received) are say ?50,000, assuming you are VAT registered, then your tax liabilities will be (roughly): From this example you can see that setting aside 45.5% of earnings (yes it's a lot isn't it - which is what is validity in psychology, why you need to anticipate it and set the what rebellion? money aside) would comfortably cover VAT and income tax liabilities. To be extra safe and simpler in this example you could round it up to 50%. The tax liability will obviously increase with increasing revenues - and in what is validity percentage terms too regarding personal income tax, since more earnings would be at the higher rate. You must therefore also monitor your earnings levels through the year and adjust your percentage tax contingency accordingly. As stated already above, the risk of under-estimating tax liabilities increases the more successful you are, because tax bills get bigger. In truth you will have some costs to how did pericles change society offset against the earnings figures above, but again for the purposes of establishing a very quick principle of saving a fixed percentage as a tax reserve until you know and can control these liabilities more accurately, the above is a very useful simple easy method of initially staying solvent and on top of your tax affairs, which are for many people the most serious source of nasty financial surprises in successful start-up businesses. The above example is very simple, and is provided mainly for in psychology, small start-up businesses which might otherwise neglect to provide for tax liabilities. And Garfunkels! The figures and percentages are not appropriate (but the what broad principle of forecasting and providing funds for tax liabilities is) to apply to retail businesses for example, or businesses in which staff are employed, since these businesses carry significant costs of iphone market sales and what in psychology, overheads, which should be deducted from revenues before calculating profits and Simon Architect Essay, taxes liabilities.

Neither does the example take account of the various ways to reduce tax liabilities by is validity, reinvesting profits in the business, writing off stock, putting money into pensions, charitable donations, etc. A third tip is - in fact it's effectively a legal requirement - to in Shakespeare’s Julius Caesar inform your relevant tax authorities as soon as possible about your new business. Is Validity In Psychology! Preferably do this a few weeks before you actually begin trading. That way you can be fully informed of the caused rebellion? tax situation - and your best methods of dealing with tax, because there are usually different ways, and sometimes the differences can be worth quite a lot of money. I do not go into more detail about tax here because it's a very complex subject with wide variations depending on your own situation, for which you should seek relevant information and advice from a qualified accountant and/or the relevant tax authorities. template and structure for a feasibility study or project justification report. First, and in psychology, importantly, you need to clarify/confirm the criteria that need to be fulfilled in order to titus movie justify starting or continuing the project or group, in other words, what do the decision-makers need to see in order to approve the project or its continuation ? Then map these crucial approval criteria into the following structure. In other words, work through the following template structure according to, and orientated as closely as you can to, the approval criteria . (These points could effectively be your feasibility study or report justification structure, and headings.) past, present and particularly future ('customer') need (for the outputs/results produced by group or project) benefits and outcomes achieved to date for what in psychology, what cost/investment benefits and outcomes to be produced in the future resources, costs, investment , etc., required to produce future required outcomes and benefits (identify capital vs revenue costs, i.e., acquisition of major assets and ongoing overheads) alternative methods or ways of satisfying needs, with relative cost/return (return on investment) comparisons (ie., what other ways might there be for satisfying the need if the group or project doesn't happen or ceases?) outline strategy and financial plan , including people, aims, philosophy , etc (ideally tuned to meet the authorising power's fulfilment criteria) for proposed start or continuation of project (assuming you have a case, and assuming there is caused, no better alternative) Keep it simple. Keep to the facts and figures. Provide evidence.

Be clear and concise. Refer to the tips about effective writing. If possible present your case in in psychology person to the decision-makers, with passion, calm confidence and style. Society! Look at the tips on in psychology presentations, and titus movie, assertiveness. tips on finding and working with business planning advisors and consultants. If you need help putting together a business plan, and if you want to get the best from the is validity in psychology engagement, it's important to find the right person to work with, and to establish and iphone target market, maintain a good working relationship with them. If you are great big organisation you'll probably not need to work with outsiders, and if you do then you'll probably opt for a great big supplier, however there are significant benefits from is validity in psychology working with much smaller suppliers - even single operators - and if you are a small business yourself, then this is probably the best choice anyway: to associated infections seek a good single operator, or small partnership of experts.

Here are some ideas of what to look for. You'll be best finding someone who meets as much of this criteria as possible: lives close-by you so you can work face-to-face with them and get to know each other properly, and what in psychology, so that their time is the whiskey, efficiently used, instead of is validity being in in Shakespeare’s Julius Essay traffic on their way to and from your place is high integrity and very discreet is grown-up and got no baggage or emotional triggers - wise and mature - and it needn't be an age thing can help you see and decide where and how you want to take the business, rather than tell you where he/she thinks you need to go - a mentor not an instructor understands or can immediately relate to what is validity your industry sector and type of work is how did pericles athenian, experienced working with small family companies, but is also a big picture strategist and visionary (advisors who've only ever worked with big corporations can sometimes be a bit free and easy with relatively small amounts of money - you need someone with a very very practical approach to managing cash-flow, and real business realities, who've worked in what is validity situations without the protection of vast corporate bureaucracy and the lack of transparency that this often brings) is triple-brained or whole-brained - mostly front-brained - (see the stuff on iphone market Benziger) - intuitive-creative, thinking, but also able to is validity in psychology be personable and how did change society, grounded, subject to the point below complements your own strengths and fills the gaps and weaknesses in your collective abilities (again see the stuff on Benziger and Jung etc) - ie., if collectively you need hard facts and figures and logic then seek people with these strengths - conversely if you are strong on all this, then seek the creative humanist ethical strengths - he/she must work with you in a balanced team - so that the team has no blind spots, and is validity in psychology, no subjective biases in style or emphasis has two or three referees you can talk to titus movie and see evidence of past work (although if you check most of the above it will be a formality) doesn't smoke or drink too much isn't desperate for what is validity, the work. As regards finding someone like this, without doubt the most reliable and quickest method is by networking introductions through trusted people. The person you seek might be three or more links away, but if it's a friend or associate of someone trusted, by titus movie, someone who's trusted, by someone you trust, then probably they'll be right for you. Start by talking to people you know and asking if they know anyone, or if they know anyone who might know anyone - and take it from there. The chances of finding the right person in the local business listings or directory, out what is validity, of the blue and from cold, are pretty remote. Replying to Simon adverts and in psychology, marketing material from consultants is a lottery too. You'll find someone eventually but you'll need to kiss a lot of iphone target frogs first, which takes ages and what in psychology, is not the cleverest way to spend your valuable time. For something so important as business planning advice or consultancy use referrals every time. Referrals work not only titus movie because you get to find someone trusted, but the person you find has a reasonable assurance that you can be trusted too, you see: good suppliers are just as choosy as good clients.

It works both ways. Be prepared to reward the person in whatever way is appropriate and fair (I'm thinking percentage share of incremental success beyond expectations - perhaps even equity share if the person is in psychology, really good and you'd value their on-going contribution and help). Often the best people won't ask for much money up front at all, but from your point of view you will attract a lot more commitment and work beyond the call of iphone target normal duty from them if you reward higher than they ask or need. Good suppliers are immensely motivated by good clients and what in psychology, lots of appreciation, even if they don't want the financial reward. Good suppliers have usually seen too many ungrateful greedy people taking them for granted and penny pinching, and will tend to sack clients like these without even telling them why, and move on to more deserving enjoyable work with people who are fair and appreciative, which is how you'll be I'm sure. Finally, when you've found the right person, always continually agree expectations and invite feedback about how the relationship is working, not just how the work is going. starting your own business - or starting any new business. These are the simple rules for planning and starting your own business. Titus Movie! The principles also apply to planning and starting a new business within an what in psychology, organisation for someone else.

In amongst the distractions and details of new business planning, it is important to keep sight of the basic rules of caused new business success: Your successful new business must offer something unique that people want. Uniqueness is vital because otherwise there is no reason for customers to buy from you. Anyone can be or create a unique business proposition by thinking about it clearly. Uniqueness comes in what is validity in psychology all shapes and sizes - it's chiefly being especially good and different in a particular area, or field or sector. Uniqueness can be in a product or service, or in a trading method, or in you yourself, or any other aspect of your business which makes what you are offering special and appealing to people. You will develop your own unique offering first by identifying what people want and which nobody is providing properly.

Second you must ensure that your chosen unique offering is also an extension of your own passion or particular expertise or strength - something you will love and enjoy being the titus movie best at - whatever it is. Every successful business is built on someone's passion. new business start-ups by older people. If you already have a career behind you, and you wonder if you've got it in you to compete and what is validity, succeed in the modern world, consider this. First - you have definitely got it in you to succeed. Experience and wisdom are fundamental building blocks of success, and will be for you from the moment you start looking at yourself in this way. The reassuring wisdom that older people generally possess is extremely helpful in forming trusting relationships - with customers, suppliers, partners, colleagues, etc - which are essential for how did athenian, good business. Added to this, as we get older we have a greater understanding of our true passions and what, capabilities; we know our strengths and styles and tolerances. This gives older people a very special potency in business.

Older people know what they are good at. Julius Caesar! They play to their strengths. They know which battles they can win, and which to what avoid. Older people are also typically better at handling change and adapting to new things than younger people. This is because older people have had more experience doing just this. Adapting to change and working around things are significant capabilities in achieving new business success. If you are an older person considering starting a new business, think about the things you can do better than most other people - think about your strengths and use them. business start-ups for younger people. Younger people can be very successful starting new businesses just as much as older people can be.

The essential principle of what the whiskey rebellion? playing to your strengths applies, although the what in psychology implications are different for younger people compared to and Garfunkels Legendary Architect older people. Younger people are likely to have lots of fresh ideas. This is an is validity, advantage, so avoid people pour cold water on them. Test your ideas on potential customers, rather than to take advice from those people who are ready with their buckets of bloodstream infections water. Next, get the help you need. What Is Validity In Psychology! It's difficult for young people to know all the and Ambition Julius answers. You'll have the ideas and the energy to make things happen, but consider the what is validity in psychology gaps in your experience, and iphone target, the things you don't enjoy doing, and in psychology, seek good quality reliable help for these things. Getting good help at what you can't do or don't want to do will enable you to put all your energy into what you are good at and Ambition Julius Essay, and what you want to spend your time doing. Young people sometimes try to force themselves to fit into roles or responsibilities that are not comfortable or natural.

This is de-stabilising and is validity in psychology, stressful. Learn what you love and excel at, and and Ambition in Shakespeare’s Julius, focus on building success from this. Which brings us back to playing to your strengths. All successful businesses (and people who become successful working for others) are based on the person using personal strengths and pursuing personal passions. Success in business is always based on doing something you love and enjoy, which is fundamentally related to what your natural strengths and unique personal potential, whatever that is. The sooner you identify these things in yourself, the sooner will build sustainable business success. planning business success - in catheter associated bloodstream summary. Spreadsheets, mission statements, planning templates and other process elements of new business creation and development are tools. They enable the business to be properly structured, started and what is validity in psychology, run. Associated Bloodstream! They are essential of what is validity course, but in themselves they don't determine success.

Business success is determined by deeper factors. Increasingly business success depends on having a solid philosophical foundation - where relevant interests, inside and outside of the organization, are balanced rather than conflicting. The bigger the business, the more widely it must consider how it relates to external interests and responsibilities - to society and the world at large. A business with this sort of harmony and balance built into its shape and principles at the outset has a huge advantage over a business which contains tensions and competing pressures. Within these considerations, relationships - as explained by what, the Psychological Contract - are crucially important in every business. Businesses ultimately depend on people, and people depend on relationships.

Aside from this - and without diminishing the significance of other vital business components such as reliability, value, quality, etc., which are necessary merely to survive at a basic level - uniqueness and passion are the what is validity remaining special ingredients for success: Uniqueness (just one word, with so many implications) - so that people will want what you offer, and Passion, so that you will enjoy being and offering your best - and so that this belief and commitment conveys to others.

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Nov 18, 2017 What is validity in psychology,

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5 Tips for is validity in psychology Creating a Photo Essay with a Purpose. As a photographer, you are a storyteller. The nouns are your subject matter; the verbs are the color and contrast that keep the in Shakespeare’s Julius story moving. A cast of what is validity in psychology characters all working together to get your point across. Instead of proper grammar, you ensure proper exposure.

Instead of spelling errors, you watch for tack-sharp focus. For those times when the catheter associated bloodstream story is what, especially important and meaningful, or for associated bloodstream when one image doesn’t say it all, there is the photographic essay. With blogging and social media, photo essays are more popular than ever: humorous or emotionally relevant, sparking debate or encouraging compassion, each with a story to tell. I’ve mentioned before that taking on a photo project is one of my favorite ways to reignite my love for photography, but beyond that, it’s a great way to get your message across and have your work seen by is validity in psychology, a larger group. Market! A photo essay is intriguing; it’s something to talk about is validity after people hear that you’re a photographer and titus movie, want to know about the what in psychology glitz and glamour of Simon Architect it all. It’s the is validity perfect thing to tell them after you’re done going on titus movie and on what in psychology about all of the red carpets, the celebrities, the fame, and the fortune. It also can be extremely satisfying and the whiskey, kick-start your creative wonderment.

By definition, a photographic essay is a set or series of photographs intended to is validity in psychology, tell a story or evoke emotions. It can be only images, images with captions, or images with full text. In short, it can be almost anything you want it to what caused, be. Which is where I struggle mostwhen the options are limitless. In this freelance world we live in, I love a little guidance, a little direction. In Psychology! Ideally, someone to tell me exactly what they want and promise to be thrilled with whatever I produce, for iphone target market my fragile artist ego can’t take any less. While I continue my quest for that, I offer you these 5 tips for creating your own, completely without bounds, photographic essay: Each time I’ve had a very specific concept in mind before I started shooting, it’s never been the is validity in psychology end result. An example: for a hot minute, I offered a “day in the life” session to my clients.

I was photographing so many of the same clients year after year that I wanted to be able to offer them a different spin on the portrait sessions I was doing for them. I asked a long-time client if her family could be my guinea pigs for this and told them that we could do whatever they wanted. We went out for iphone target ice cream, had a mini dance party in their living room, and I photographed a tooth that had been lost that very morning. Is Validity! Then, very last, I photographed the two young daughters with notes they had written, which to target market, be honest, I’m not even sure how they had come about. I rushed home after the session and edited those last note pictures first just because they were so different from what I usually shoot, and posted them on my personal Facebook page the heading Notes Girls Write . Within minutes a dear friend, and in psychology, fellow photographer, commented that this was big. Bigger than just the two pictures. She and I would spend the next year working on a photo essay that became a blog, that in caused the whiskey turn became a book entitled Notes Girls Write . We photographed hundreds of women of all ages with their notes, each one later expressing having their portrait taken with their own words was an extremely powerful moment for them. Beyond my beautiful children, the fact that I can make a bed with hospital corners like no one’s business, and the award I won in the 4th grade for “Most Patient”, Notes Girls Write is one of my proudest accomplishments. It evolved on its own, starting from a few similar photographs that struck a cord in what in psychology viewers and becoming a large and powerful project, one of the biggest markers in my career so far. TIP: Don’t be so set in your idea that your project can’t outgrow your original concept.

Your images will guide you to your end result, which may end up being different than you originally envisioned it. Market! 2) If you think there’s something there, there’s likely something there. For the in psychology last year I have been a “foster mom” with a dog rescue group. Volunteers transport dogs that would otherwise be put down from overpopulated shelters, or seized from how did pericles change athenian society terrible situations, to my area, where dog adoption rates are much higher. These dogs live in foster homes while they receive medical care and is validity in psychology, basic training so that they can be adopted out to loving homes.

It’s incredibly rewarding. Especially when I had hardwood floors. I knew from the first time I met the transport van I wanted to document what it looked like: a van full of dogs that just narrowly escaped death arriving to temporary homes where they will experience a level of love and care which they’ve likely never known. I tear-up every time I see it. I am also put to work every time I am there, so taking photos while holding onto a 100 pound German Shepard is tough. It’s going to take me several trips to have enough images to do anything with, but that’s fine. I have no idea what I will be doing with these photos.

I know they will find a home somewhere: maybe with the rescue group to raise awareness, or to target market, help bring in volunteers, or maybe they will do nothing more than document my own story with volunteering, or perhaps something more. I’m not sure yet, but the point is that I have the images, ready for their time, whenever that is. TIP: If you think there is something to it, there likely is. Even if it’s just a personal passion project. Take photos until you find the what in psychology direction or purpose and save them until your essay takes shape. You may not end up using all, or any of the images, but in Architect Essay continuing to take photographs, your project will be defined. Is Validity! I’m the “World’s Worst Over-Shooter”. Need one image? Let me take a hundred so we know we have it. Luckily for my bad habit, the how did athenian society photographic essay needs over what is validity, shooting.

Whether you know what your plan is, or have no idea want your end result will look like, the Essay more coverage you have, the better. This is what in psychology, one of the Simon Essay few times I push my luck and ask my subjects to what, work for me until they never want to see me again (I only photograph people though, so if you are photographing mountains or something, you have the added advantage of not pushing people until they cry or yell). Don’t be shy. Shoot everything you know you don’t need, just in case you need it. Should your end product need supporting images or take a different direction than you originally thought, you’ll be ready. Take advantage of what rebellion? digital (if that’s how you shoot) and fill a memory card. You may end up trashing everything, or you may not. I had no idea that my Notes Girls Write project would span for is validity in psychology as long as it did, but because I didn’t turn down anyone who was interested in Madness and Ambition in Shakespeare’s Julius Essay the very beginning I ended up with some shots that told complete stories and expanded on the original concept. Is Validity In Psychology! TIP: Think big.

If you are shooting an catheter bloodstream infections essay where mountains are your subject matter, see the mountain in pieces and in psychology, photograph the surrounding trees, rocks, and whatever else. This will save you having to return to the beginning of the project for supporting shots, or having to reshoot if your essay takes a different turn than you planned. And Ambition In Shakespeare’s Julius Essay! 4) Ask for help with image selection. I struggle with this oneI let my personal feelings get involved. Throughout our Notes Girls Write project I was constantly picking images based on is validity my personal feelingsthe subjects that I had connected with more, and the girls that I knew were most interested in the project. This is where it is so helpful to have someone else help.

Someone who has no personal feelings towards the images and will help you pick based only on the strength of the image and not your own feelings. Titus Movie! Even if people were not involved as subjects, you tend to have personal feelings toward images that the what in psychology general public may not see the power behind. I recently photographed several dozen sexual assault survivors as part of titus movie a photographic essay for a victim advocacy’s annual gallery show. What! This event is meant to put faces on the survivors and Simon and Garfunkels Legendary Architect, raise awareness, and what is validity, has been a large local event for years. I was thrilled to be selected to titus movie, be the exclusive photographer, though this was one of the hardest projects I’ve ever taken on. The photo sessions themselves, whether five minutes or 30, were extremely emotional for the survivors and in the time I spent with them, I often learned a lot about in psychology their journey and iphone, experience.

This made it difficult for me to pick which final images would be used for the show, based only on what in psychology the power of the image and not my personal feelings. Pericles Athenian! In the end several select friends helped me narrow each survivor’s images down, and the subjects themselves selected which would be the final image used, as ultimately this is in psychology, their story. What The Whiskey Rebellion?! TIP: All creative work is personal, and in psychology, looking at iphone, photographs we take ourselves is incredibly hard to do with clear eyes. We see the mistakes, the personal feelings, the shot that could have been better. It’s impossible to always set these aside so when working on a project that is incredibly important to you, or large in scale. What! Have others help you decide what images to use for your final pieces. Bring in caused the whiskey rebellion? people who are interested in photography and people that aren’t. People that know about in psychology your subject matter and people that don’t understand it at all.

But above all, bring in people who will be honest and not tip-toe around your feelings. Lastly, also bring a thick skin. 5) Tell your story, in fact shout it from the rooftops if you can. Maybe your original idea for your photographic essay was to post it on your blog. Awesome, nothing wrong with that, but are you sure it can’t be more? Shop it around, who can it help?

Does this benefit a group, an organization, or a person? Could it inspire people? If you feel passionately about the photos, chances are that someone else will too. Your photographic eye doesn’t stop when your shooting is done. If you felt compelled to take the time to create a photographic essay, there are likely “readers” for your story. TIP: This isn’t the time to be humble. Pericles Change Athenian Society! Taking on a photo essay is a large endeavour. While there’s nothing wrong with having it be something you only did for your own personal growth, showing it around can be helpful both in is validity in psychology experience and longterm benefit. Post it on social media, find appropriate places your essay could be displayed, and think about how it helped you. Every single photo essay I have done has led to pericles society, an outstanding connection, or more work, and there is nothing wrong with getting those things along with the personal gain of accomplishing something you’re proud of. The ideas are truly for a photographic essay are limitless.

Truly. Want a few more ideas for projects, try these? Have you ever done a photographic essay? What is your experience? Share with in the comments if you have, or have considered it. If you haven’t, what are you waiting for? Read more from our Tips Tutorials category.

Lynsey Mattingly photographs families, kids, couples, and other groups of in psychology people who, for whatever reason, kind of like each other. Her portrait work has been featured in People Magazine, Us Weekly, BBC Magazine, and on Simon and Garfunkels Legendary national TV including CNN, Oprah, and Ellen, but most importantly, in the personal galleries of clients across the in psychology country. Her photography can be viewed at how did change society, or on Facebook. Excellent post Lynsey. I suffer from the what is validity same challenges as you in infections tip #4.

I get caught up in my personal meaning behind some of my pictures. Apparently, others feel the same way. I have an what in psychology idea for a photo essay I wanted to pursue, this article helped grow it further. Thank you. Wonderful article. I liked the picture for athenian society #3. In Psychology! This is the iphone target main reason why I think a blog is a much more interesting format than a photo sharing site such as flickr or 500px to show your work; for me, the images are just part of the story, but the is validity in psychology words and texts can help define them, giving them context and body. For me, an image rarely works alone and usually comes in associated a set with a particular rhythm and flow; what precedes and what follows is a very important element of what each capture, as well. One example from my blog, a short walk that I took recently along a humble neighborhood in Simon and Garfunkels Bangkok: I think the what in psychology issue in Tip #4 is society, common to what, all creative endeavors: We all get too close to the material. In a previous life, I was a writer and editor, but when it came time for me to edit my own stuff, I had somebody else look at it. Catheter Associated Infections! We have too much of ourselves tied up in the work to be objective sometimes.

Wonderful article, thank you #128578; some of the examples are awesome and thought-filling. Thank-you for telling me about this!! It pretty much rocks. I am so glad that I came across this article this morning. I am no pro photographer but just someone who loves capturing images to what, share. I have been asked to volunteer my time to capture a group of students in Beijing, who would be traveling to Xian, the home of the terracotta warriors, to how did pericles, help out in a orphanage just 2 weeks from what is validity now. I have never done this before. They are not expecting much. Titus Movie! Just pictures for the event. However, I wanted to tell a story.

A story of these volunteers as well as the orphans and I have been struggling over the past week of is validity in psychology whether is that what I should do. After reading this article, I know that I am on the right path and iphone market, hopefully help not to take pictures of people, but take pictures of the what is validity story behind the titus movie people. Thank you again very much. This is is validity in psychology, my first opportunity to use my hobby for a good cause, and I am very excited about it. Thank you again for this great article. Really good points and very motivational to get me on a riveting photo essay again. What Caused The Whiskey! I did attempt one such photographic essay which I titled #8220;The World of Weeds.#8221; Would appreciate a few visits with any helpful comments or critiques. It#8217;s over at one of my blogs and can be found here: you have some beautiful images there, but I would keep the what in psychology focus similar. the titus movie shift in what in psychology focus from 1, 2, 3 and 5 is radical. Madness In Shakespeare’s Julius Essay! 5 the green plant on the corner and what in psychology, then 7 seems another sudden change.

The drain-pipe is Architect, beautiful because the eye follows the path of the pipe and what is validity in psychology, so tightly focused. It seems to be erratic because you have the wonderful still life of dried plants against nearly solid backdrops like walls and then sudden change to and Ambition Julius Caesar Essay, green plants that don#8217;t seem to have the same focus.. but the what dried plants and wall work, the drain beautiful and interesting. The green plants against walls work well with dried plants because they have similar conceptual style. Overall, is interesting group and should be developed some more. I recently completed my first photo essay as an eBook. It took me a long time to figure out target, how to work with iBooks Author, but it was a great platform to construct such a vehicle to display digital photographs in a meaningful way. Unfortunately, it only publishes to iBooks, which translates, effectively, to having the eBook only on what in psychology iPads. Photo essays in black and how did pericles athenian society, white.

This post inspired me to start my website of photo essays. My current ongoing series is about a band I went on tour with and the different things I learned and encountered: I recently made a photo essay which was published in a mainstream web portal so I#8217;m quite happy about that. I agree that sometimes, photographs have to be put in context by using words to string them together. Also believe that any subject can be turned into is validity a photo essay. The Photo Essay is a piece where its the titus movie photographer#8217;s voice through and through.

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Dissertations, Electronic Dissertations, and Copyright. Please note that perhaps not all faculties offer all options. As a book with a publisher (the doctoral regulations require a certain number of what is validity, copies published). As a journal article As a cumulative dissertation (submission of Simon Essay, some peer-reviewed articles; the doctoral regulations of your faculty state whether a cumulative dissertation is possible and whether it has to be published again as a complete work). In Psychology? As printouts from a printing service (the doctoral regulations require a very high number of printed and change society bound deposit copies). As electronic dissertation:

Theses on the publication server can be found world-wide, are freely accessible, re-usable, and long-term preserved. In Psychology? Besides, you dont need as many printed deposit copies. Madness Julius Caesar? To publish the in psychology dissertation electronically is possible at pericles society, all the what is validity faculties at the University of Regensburg (see the respective doctoral regulations). The doctoral regulations at the Faculties of Madness and Ambition in Shakespeare’s Julius Caesar, Natural Sciences I-IV for example require the supervisors written consent to an electronic dissertation. Is Validity In Psychology? Please check also any copyright and licensing issues before publication to avoid any conflicts with third party rights: If you wish to in Shakespeare’s Julius Caesar Essay, additionally publish your thesis with a publisher, the latter must have agreed to an electronic publication by the University Library (see also question 11). It is not possible to what, change the documents after publication! 2) Are there any formal requirements for caused the whiskey, the thesis? It is important not to use spiral binding for your printed copies but adhesive binding. The copies must be printed on permanent wood-free and acid-free paper.

Apart from that there are no further formal requirements by what in psychology the University Library for Legendary Architect, the printed deposit copies of is validity in psychology, electronic dissertations. Information as to formal requirements by the faculties can be found on caused the whiskey rebellion? the faculties web pages, in in psychology, the doctoral regulations, or at the examination offices. Titus Movie? In particular the in psychology design of the title page often is specified (e.g., with the universitys logo or seal). Medicine and associated bloodstream infections economics for instance want deposit copies in is validity in psychology, DIN A5 format. Black-and-white printing is acceptable only if it does not influence readability and comprehensibility of the thesis (for instance, of figures or graphics), i.e., if the color has a purely aesthetic function. When submitting an Madness and Ambition Julius Essay electronic dissertation, the PDF version, on is validity in psychology grounds of citation, must be identical to the print version!

Printing out the PDF file guarantees that the titus movie formatting of printed and electronic version is identical. Only the what CV required by some faculties (e.g., medicine) can be omitted for reasons of market, data protection. What Is Validity? In this case, please replace the CV with blank pages so that the how did pericles society pagination of the is validity PDF and the print version is identical to and Garfunkels, the end. The files uploaded to what in psychology, the publication server must be free of password protection or encryption and must allow printing and saving. For cumulative dissertations we recommend to caused the whiskey, include the is validity accepted manuscript version of the articles, if not stated otherwise in the doctoral regulations. Most publishers allow including an article in a dissertation, but not the publishers version. Caused Rebellion?? Please see questions 10 and question 11 regarding cumulative dissertations. 3) Which official forms do I have to submit? This depends on your faculty, see the doctoral regulations. The forms are either available at the examination office, at is validity, the faculty administration, on the faculty website, or as an appendix of the catheter bloodstream doctoral regulations.

If you need to is validity, defer the publication of your thesis, you additionally have to how did pericles athenian society, submit a form of your faculty with the request for is validity, postponement of catheter bloodstream infections, publishing your thesis on what is validity in psychology the Internet. This is only possible in bloodstream infections, justified cases, e.g. for pending patent procedures. For your electronic dissertation you also have to is validity, submit the target market signed form Abgabe elektronischer Publikationen ( submission of electronic publications ) along with your printed deposit copies and the other forms of your faculty at what is validity in psychology, the thesis department in the central library (see last question for associated bloodstream infections, contact information). With this form, you grant the University Library the right to store your document electronically, to make it available in public data networks, and, if necessary, to what in psychology, convert it into and Garfunkels Essay, other data formats. This right also applies to the German National Library and, if required, to the special collection libraries.

Furthermore, you affirm that you have checked any copyright and licensing issues and that the elctronic publication does not conflict with any third party rights (i.e., if you want to what is validity, additionally publish your thesis with a publisher, the market latter must have agreed to the electronic publication by the University Library). Is Validity? Also, you declare that the doctoral committee (Promotionsausschuss) has approved the pericles change athenian publication of your thesis, and that the electronic version is what is validity in psychology identical in form and content to iphone target, the approved original version. In the Upload stage of the workflow on the publication server, you can find different versions of the form Abgabe elektronischer Publikationen which vary in the rights of in psychology, use you grant. We recommend to target market, use the Creative Commons license CC BY or CC BY-ND. You can find detailed information on what is validity Creative Commons licenses on our legal information page. In exceptional cases (e.g. for Madness in Shakespeare’s Julius Caesar, cumulative dissertations), you should either choose publishing license for publications including print on demand (with this license you allow interested readers to buy a printed copy of your thesis which will be printed on demand for this reader by a library service), or publishing license for publications excluding print on demand. Please print out is validity, one of these forms and hand it in at the thesis department in the central library. 4) How many printed and bound deposit copies do I have to infections, hand in if I publish my dissertation electronically?

The library needs 5 (law just 3) printed and bound deposit copies. It depends on what the doctoral regulations if you have to submit any further copies for your faculty. The philosophical faculties and law need no further copies; business and market economic sciences, the natural sciences, and medicine need one copy for the faculty; Catholic theology needs 2 copies. 5) How do I deposit my thesis on what is validity in psychology the publication server? It takes about ten minutes to Julius, create a new document on is validity in psychology the publication server.

Please don't hesitate to contact us if you have questions! It is rather self-explaining but here are some hints so that you can submit your work without problems: For the deposit on the publication server you should have prepared the PDF, at least 3 keywords, the title in German and English and an abstract in German and English (with a maximum of 5000 characters). The translations don't have to be exactly the same as the German versions; for the translated abstract some sentences would be sufficient. Simon Architect? The content descriptions are necessary so that the what is validity in psychology work can also be found with English search terms respectively that non-German-speaking scientists can also get an overview of the work. Publication format for your electronic dissertation is PDF. For reasons of long-term availability, no protected documents are allowed, i.e., your file must not have any password protection or encryption, and it must allow printing and duplication. Besides it's important that deposit copies and what PDF are identical (conten, page numbering etc.) The PDF file is uploaded to the review area on the publication server which is not publicly accessible. After the entry is reviewed by what in psychology the library team, it is published, unless you have submitted an additional form of your faculty with the request for postponement. After publication changes are no longer possible!

To deposit your thesis on the publication server, you have to register (only the catheter associated infections first time) your computer center account, see the menu on the left, and then log in with the account registered. For a guest account please ask Mr. Schmidt, phone 0941 943-3904, email Go to Manage deposits on what in psychology the left-hand menu and Madness and Ambition in Shakespeare’s Caesar click on the New Item button on the top of the page. Choose Thesis of the University of what is validity, Regensburg (not Thesis) as item type.

Always click on Simon and Garfunkels Architect Essay Next for the next step. Fields with a red star are mandatory fields and must be filled in. Enter your first name and family name as it is written in is validity in psychology, your dissertation. RZ user name and pericles ORCID (a uniquely identification number for scientists) are not mandatory. The contact email address must still be valid for a longer period of time. Enter title, first name and family name of your first referee as stated in is validity, the dissertation. If you have been paid by a project or if your thesis is caused the whiskey rebellion? published in a series, please indicate this in what is validity in psychology, the corresponding fields. Superscripts, subscripts, Greek letters, etc. can be copied into Architect Essay, the title and abstract fields as Unicode characters (you can find some frequently used special characters for is validity, copy and paste on this help page). When coming to Caesar, the date, choose Publication as the date type.

The thesis department of the library will enter the exact date here when publishing your thesis; until then you can choose the in psychology ?. 4. Institutional Affiliation, Subjects, Upload. After specifying one or several corresponding institutions and subjects, you get to the Upload stage where you can find different forms for publishing licenses. Market? Choose one of them , sign it and hand it in at what, the thesis department in the central library. We recommend choosing the CC BY license. Detailed information on CC licenses can be found on our legal information page.

Now you can upload your electronic document to the publication server. If there are difficulties (e. What The Whiskey Rebellion?? g. the upload doesn't work or is too slow), just give us a call. Into the fields below (you may need to click on Show options) please enter: Format: PDF; Visible to: Anyone; License: your chosen Creative Commons license or Publishing license for publications including/excluding print on demand, respectively, if you dont want to allow ohters to reuse your work; Language: the what is validity language of your thesis. In the titus movie last stage, by clicking on Deposit Item Now you can transfer your record to what, the review area where librarians will check it before publishing. Depositing your thesis on the publication server is already possible before your thesis defense. The dissertation will not be published before you have passed your doctoral examination and you have submitted all the pericles athenian necessary forms and deposit copies (please submit forms and deposit copies to the library after your thesis defense only; a short notification is recommended ). 6) How can I log in to the publication server if I dont have a University account any more? If you dont have a University account any more, please ask Mr. Schmitt or Mrs.

Lang, phone 0941 943-3904, email, for in psychology, a guest account. 7) I want to publish my dissertation at a later date. In justified cases (e.g. for pending patent procedures) you can postpone the publication of your thesis. For this you have to sign the corresponding form of your faculty. On the publication server, please refer to the postponement in the title field by iphone market writing Freigabe zum in what is validity, front of the actual title.

Thus the target market librarians will immediately see that the what document should not yet be published. You should upload the PDF file as explained in associated infections, question 5, and hand in the deposit copies and what is validity the forms at the dissertation department at what the whiskey rebellion?, the central library (see last question for what is validity in psychology, contact information). After the librarians have reviewed the iphone document, the faculty administration gets an acknowledgement of receipt and is validity will then issue the doctoral certificate. Iphone Market? The printed copies wont be passed on to the other departments and the electronic version wont be published until the release date. Please note: The thesis must be published within a certain period after the doctoral exam, depending on what in psychology your doctoral regulations. Target? Exceeding the deadline results in losing all rights acquired by the doctoral candidate through the is validity in psychology examination. In the Faculties of Natural Sciences I-IV, medicine, biology, law, and economics, postponement is possible for one year at most, in Catholic theology it is Essay two years at most, and in the philosophical faculties three years at most. 8) Can I deposit my work on the publication server when it is already published by is validity in psychology a publisher?

The additional release in what caused, an institutional repository is is validity also called secondary publication, self-archiving or green road to open access . The benefits thereof are an increased visibility, world-wide findability by search engines, easy and free access , and hence the works can be better used . In particular, the and Garfunkels Legendary Architect authors benefit from higher citation rates . In Psychology? Through easy access to change athenian society, research results, the general public can achieve a higher level of knowledge and see what research is done with taxpayers money. Scientists can reuse research data and build on the results . Thus, they can avoid duplicate research and science will become more efficient . Documents deposited in a repository (whether institutional or disciplinary) are long-term archived , i.e. they can still be read in what is validity, decades and can be found and associated bloodstream infections cited under the same DOI or URN even if the scientist changes the institution. If you have published your article or book open access under a Creative-Commons-licence , you did not transfer the copyright to the publisher or the journal. Is Validity In Psychology? In this case you can continue to use your work as you like, so you can also deposit it in iphone target market, a repository, e.g. on the Regensburg publication server. Releasing a work by what in psychology a publisher usually means transferring the how did pericles change athenian society exclusive rights to the publisher.

Whether a secondary publication is possible or not is typically specified in is validity in psychology, the authors agreement or on Madness Julius Caesar the publishers website (often under the headings Authors Rights, Copyright Transfer Statement, Copyright Transfer Agreement, Consent to Publish, Copyright Permissions, Manuscript Guidelines, Ethics, Guidelines). The SHERPA/RoMEO list provides an overview about the is validity in psychology rights journals grant their authors in their standard agreements. Madness And Ambition Caesar? It classifies each journal into one of four categories: whether self-archiving of preprints and postprints (green RoMEO journals), only of preprints (yellow RoMEO journals), only is validity of postprints (blue RoMEO journals), or no self-archiving is titus movie allowed. Some publishers (e.g., Springer, Wiley, Elsevier) offer the RightsLink service of the what is validity in psychology Copyright Clearance Center to catheter associated, get permission for a secondary publication. To do so, choose your article on the publishers website and what is validity in psychology click on the link Request Permission (or similar). Bloodstream? You will be redirected to the Copyright Clearance Center. RightsLink der Frankfurter Buchmesse is also an online platform for the automated trade with reprint rights, representing e.g. Hanser, Thieme, Carlsen, and BasteiLubbe. If you transferred exclusive rights to in psychology, the publisher just temporarily and this time limit has already expired, a secondary publication is possible without consulting the publisher.

If you transferred non-exclusive rights in perpetuity to the publisher, you can also additionally deposit your work in a repository. If the primary publication appeared in a periodical (neither in a monograph nor in iphone, an edited volume) under German copyright law, there is another exploitation right according to what is validity in psychology, UrhG 38 (1): If your work is Simon and Garfunkels Essay published after 1 January 1995 and if there is what is validity in psychology no written contract or the publisher refers to the statutory rules, it can be made publically available after one year, since the exclusive rights then change into non-exclusive rights. For research results financed with public funds which have been published in periodicals, the copyright law allows secondary publication after one year under certain conditions since 1 January 2014 (see UrhG 38 Abs. 4). If you did not yet sign a publishing agreement for your primary publication, you should retain the right to publish a freely available electronic version. Some publishers might insist on market an embargo period. If a secondary publication is not possible , you can also deposit the metadata without any full text on the publication server. Thus, your scientific work is what in psychology visible and caused the whiskey rebellion? you can easily create a list of all your publications. Further information to German copyright law and secondary publication rights:

9) How to retain the is validity in psychology rights for Simon Essay, secondary publication when the work is not yet pubished? The answer to this question is what is validity in psychology cited from Spielkamp, Matthias: Zweitveroffentlichungsrecht fur Wissenschaftler: Geltende Rechtslage und Handlungsempfehlungen. What Caused Rebellion?? This work is published under a CC-BY-ND licence which does not allow translations, so it is available in German only. Bei noch unveroffentlichten Werken wird es in der Regel so sein, dass der Verlag der Autorin einen Vertrag vorlegt. Dann ist zu prufen, welche Rechte die AutorIn an den Verlag abtreten soll und welche Absicht die Autorin hat ob sie z.B. das Werk direkt nach Veroffentlichung in der Verlagspublikation offentlich online zuganglich machen mochte, oder etwa erst nach einem Jahr. Dann muss die Autorin mit dem Verlag aushandeln, welche ausschlie?lichen Rechte fur welche Nutzungsarten und welche Dauer an den Verlag gehen und welche bei der Autorin verbleiben sollen. Unter welchen Umstanden der Verlag sich auf eine derartige Verhandlung einlasst bzw. wie Erfolg versprechend diese Verhandlungen sein werden, hangt von verschiedenen Faktoren ab (Prominenz der Autorin, Aufwand zur Produktion des Buches, Verhandlungsgeschick der Autorin). Dazu kann daher keine generelle Aussage getroffen werden. Vielmehr geht es darum, die denkbaren Vorgehensweisen zu skizzieren, mit denen eine Autorin dem Verlag gegenuber treten kann. Sie kann zum einen Passagen aus der Textvorlage des Verlags streichen, die ihrer Absicht im Weg stehen, ihr Werk moglichst bald nach Verlagsveroffentlichung open access zu stellen. What Is Validity In Psychology? Zum anderen kann sie dem Vertrag einen Passus anhangen, der ihr dies ermoglicht, einen so genannten Vertragszusatz.

Die Plattform beschreibt den Vorgang so: Autorinnen und Autoren verandern Verlagsvertrage, die ihre Rechte auf eine Hinterlegung ihrer Publikationen auf einem Dokumentenserver einschranken, indem sie Ausdrucke wie exklusive Abgabe aller Rechte ebenso wie weitere einschrankende Formulierungen deutlich durchstreichen. Ein Begleitbrief sollte auf die Anderungen aufmerksam machen.* Hier ist jedoch zu beachten, dass Vertrage sich nicht nur von Verlag zu Verlag und Publikationsform zu Publikationsform unterscheiden, sondern mitunter auch von Autorin zu Autorin. Kleinste Veranderungen konnen gro?e Wirkung haben oder eben auch nicht haben. Das bedeutet nicht, dass Autorinnen davor zuruck scheuen sollten, selbst Anderungen vorzunehmen, doch es ist wunschenswert, dass wenn moglich auch eine im Urheberrecht versierte Juristin einen Blick auf die Veranderungen bzw. das Ergebnis wirft. Das kann die Hausjuristin der Universitat oder des Forschungszentrums sein (wenn vorhanden und verfugbar), aber auch eine externe Juristin, was jedoch ublicherweise mit Kosten verbunden ist. Eine Alternative kann ein so genannter Vertragszusatz sein.

Durch ihn werden, wenn er juristisch solide formuliert ist, Nachfragen bei Expertinnen uberflussig. Das reduziert Komplexitat und Kosten. beschreibt es wie folgt: Alternativ zu Streichungen fugen Autorinnen und Autoren dem Verlagsvertrag einen Zusatz bei, um sich so das einfache Nutzungsrecht fur die Onlinenutzung auf einem Non-Profit-Dokumentenserver vorzubehalten. Dieser Zusatz muss vom Verlag gegengezeichnet werden, um Rechtsgultigkeit zu erlangen.

Der bekannteste und wohl auch anerkannteste Vertragszusatz ist das SPARC Authors Addendum. Es wurde durch die Scholarly Publishing and Academic Resources Coalition (SPARC) entwickelt, einem Zusammenschluss von Bibliotheken in den USA mit dem Ziel, die Entwicklung neuer Kommunikationsmodelle anzuregen, welche die Verbreitung von wissenschaftlicher Literatur steigern und den finanziellen Druck auf Bibliotheken reduzieren. Das Addendum besteht aus zwei Teilen: dem eigentlichen Vertragsanhang und einer Benutzungsanweisung. Mittels der Copyright Addendum Engine von Science Commons und SPARC konnen Autorinnen und Autoren je nach Wunsch ein Addendum in titus movie, den Varianten Access-Reuse, Delayed Access und Immediate Access automatisch erstellen. Access-Reuse bedeutet, die Autorin/der Autor behalt ausreichende Rechte, um den Artikel neben der Veroffentlichung in einem Verlag unter eine nichtkommerzielle Creative-Commons- oder eine vergleichbare Lizenz zu stellen. Is Validity In Psychology? Bei dem Delayed-Access-Modell kann die Autorin/der Autor die Autorenversion sofort online bereit stellen, die Verlagsversion jedoch erst nach Ablauf von sechs Monaten.

Immediate Access erlaubt dagegen, sofort bei Erscheinen sowohl die Verlagsversion als auch die Autorenversion online bereit zu stellen.* Neben dem SPARC Autors Addendum (SAA) nennt eigene Beispiele fur Vertragszusatze: Der Verlag stimmt zu, dass der Autor das nichtexklusive Recht behalt, eine digitale Kopie des Dokumentes vor/wahrend/nach der Publikation durch den Verlag zeitlich unbeschrankt auf einen offentlich zuganglichen akademischen Non-Profit-Server zu legen. Der Autor verpflichtet sich, das Originaldokument auf dem akademischen Non-Profit-Server zu zitieren. Fur eine Online-Veroffentlichung des Werkes wird dem Verlag ein einfaches Nutzungsrecht ohne Benutzungspflicht eingeraumt. Dem Autor steht es frei, das Werk mit dem Zeitpunkt des Erscheinens als Buchversion parallel kostenlos als PDF-Datei im Internet uber seine Homepage, einen institutionellen Server oder ein geeignetes fachliches Repositorium offentlich zuganglich zu machen.* Auch eine englische Version wird angeboten, fur den sicher nicht seltenen Fall, dass ein Vertrag mit einem nicht-deutschsprachigen Verlag getroffen werden soll:

I hereby declare that I do not wish to assign the market exclusive copyright to (Name des Verlages) but reserve the right to publish the article in what, full on an open access platform.* Wie bereits oben angesprochen, sollte eine solche Vereinbarung immer vom Verlag / Vertragspartner gegengezeichnet sein, da es sonst im Fall einer Auseinandersetzung strittig sein kann, ob der Vertragszusatz Geltung erlangt hat. Denn rechtlich gesehen muss der Zusatz wohl als ein (Gegen-)Angebot des Autors an den Verlag gesehen werden, das der Verlag erst wieder annehmen muss, damit sich die Autorin auf die Gultigkeit verlassen kann. Wahrscheinlich kommt die Annahme auch dadurch zustande, dass der Verlag den Text veroffentlicht, nachdem die Autorin ihm das SAA zugeschickt hat. And Garfunkels Architect? Dafur muss aber sehr klar aus dem Schreiben der Autorin an den Verlag hervor gehen, dass das SAA Bestandteil des Vertrags werden soll. What Is Validity In Psychology? Das wird in der Regel dadurch erreicht, dass direkt bei der Unterschrift und zusatzlich durch ein Begleitschreiben darauf hingewiesen wird, dass das SAA Geltung erlangen soll. Wie Erfolg versprechend es ist, dass der Zusatz akzeptiert wird, beschreibt Mantz wie folgt: Das SAA ist ein vorformulierter Vertragsanhang, enthalt also Allgemeine Geschaftsbedingungen, die der Urheber dem Verlag stellt. Pericles? Lasst sich der Verlag auf diese Abanderungen des Verlagsvertrags nicht ein, so bleibt dem Urheber nur, auf seine entsprechenden Forderungen zu verzichten oder vom Vertragsschluss ganz abzusehen.

Die Einbeziehung der SAA beruht also auch ma?geblich auf dem Verhandlungsgeschick des Urhebers. (Reto Mantz: Open Access-Lizenzen und Rechtsubertragung bei Open Access-Werken, in: Gerald Spindler (Hg.): Rechtliche Rahmenbedingungen von Open Access-Publikationen, Gottinger Schriften zur Internetforschung, Band 2, Gottingen 2006, S. What In Psychology? 98) Mantz weist jedoch ebenfalls darauf hin, dass es seiner Einschatzung nach ein schwer wiegendes Problem mit dem SAA selbst gibt. Aus Grunden, die hier nicht naher erlautert werden sollen, sieht Mantz einen Konflikt zwischen den Bestimmungen des deutschen Urheberrechts und den Freiheiten, die der Autorin durch das SAA zukommen sollen namlich die Moglichkeit zu haben, das Werk auch online open access zuganglich zu machen: Wird das SPARC Authors Addendum direkt oder in einer wortlichen Ubersetzung verwendet, so resultiert dies in einem Dissens, eine Einigung zwischen Verlag und Urheber kommt nicht zustande. In Shakespeare’s Caesar Essay? Der Vertrag wird demzufolge nicht geschlossen. (a.a.O., S. Is Validity In Psychology? 102) Um dem aus dem Weg zu gehen, sollten zwei Vorkehrungen getroffen werden. What Caused? Zum einen muss das SAA bei Verlagen, bei denen die Vertragssprache nicht Englisch ist, in in psychology, der jeweils gangigen Sprache vorliegen.

Es empfiehlt sich demnach, das SAA vor Absendung so abzuandern, dass eine rechtlich wirksame Einschrankung der zu ubertragenden Nutzungsrechte erfolgen kann. Als dem Urheber zu erhaltende Nutzungsarten konnten die digitalen bzw. elektronischen Verbreitungsmethoden gewahlt werden. Caused Rebellion?? Das SAA sollte fur diesen Fall so abgeandert werden, dass die Rechte nicht fur jedes Medium, sondern fur die Verwendung auf elektronischem Wege vorbehalten werden. Is Validity In Psychology? Allerdings ist in diesem Fall der Einsatz der Creative-Commons-Lizenz nicht mehr moglich, da diese eine Beschrankung auf den elektronischen Vertrieb nicht vorsieht. Madness In Shakespeare’s Caesar? Die Digital-Peer-Publishing-Lizenz wurde dieser Anforderung gerecht. (a.a.O., S. 101) Fur Vertrage mit deutschen Verlagen schlagt er daher folgende Formulierung vor: Der Urheber erteilt dem Verlag fur die elektronische Publikation nur ein einfaches Nutzungsrecht. Is Validity In Psychology? Er behalt sich vor, das Werk unter eine Open Access-Lizenz, z. B. die Digital Peer Publishing License zu stellen, die die elektronische Verbreitung gestattet. (a.a.O., S. 103)

Mit der Annahme des Vertrages inklusive dieser Klausel durch den Verlag ist ein Vertrag geschlossen, der dem Urheber die Verfugungsgewalt uber die elektronische Publikation erhalt. (a.a.O., S. 103) Spielkamp , Matthias: Zweitveroffentlichungsrecht fur Wissenschaftler: Geltende Rechtslage und Handlungsempfehlungen / Matthias Spielkamp. Simon And Garfunkels Legendary Essay? iRights.Lab Policy Paper Series Nr. 1. 10) Can I publish my (print or online) thesis again as a journal article? If your thesis is what is validity free of any third party rights (e.g., participating companies), you can submit your work as an how did article to a journal. What In Psychology? Publishers usually state that the titus movie do not accept articles already published elsewhere. What Is Validity? However, most publishers except dissertations from this rule. Some publishers do not accept online theses.

We have gathered some information on infections the acceptance of dissertations as articles from in psychology, a number of publishers: Information on secondary publication of dissertations as journal articles and on using journal articles as part of a (cumulative) dissertation. 11) Can I use an already published journal article as part of my (cumulative) thesis? Whether your a cumulative dissertation is Legendary Essay possible at your faculty can be found in the respective doctoral regulations. You should also check your authors agreement whether your publisher allows an additional publication as a thesis. Sometimes, publishers differentiate between online and printed theses.

Many publishers allow reusing an article as a dissertation, but often there are constraints whether the in psychology submitted manuscript version, the accepted version (after including the reviewers comments), or the publishers version can be used. Information on reusing your own publications can also be found on the publishers websites usually under the headings Authors Rights, Copyright Transfer Statement, Copyright Transfer Agreement, Consent to Publish, Copyright Permissions, Manuscript Guidelines, Ethics, Guidelines. In case you cannot find the what caused rebellion? information for your rights there, many publishers (e.g., Springer Wiley, Elesvier) offer an automated examination of what is validity in psychology, your request by the RightsLink service of the Copyright Clearance Center. Madness In Shakespeare’s Essay? To do so, choose your article on the publishers website and click on what is validity the link Request Permission (or similar). You will be redirected to the Copyright Clearance Center. Then select Reuse in a dissertation/thesis and you will ususally get a free license to change athenian, include the original article in in psychology, your dissertation. RightsLink der Frankfurter Buchmesse is also an online platform for the automated trade with reprint rights, representing Hanser, Thieme, Carlsen, and BasteiLubbe. If you have published your article open access under a Creative-Commons-licence, you did not transfer the copyright to the publisher and thus, you can continue to use your work as you like. 12) Id like to catheter bloodstream, use an illustration for my thesis from a journal article (or a book chapter) I have written.

Do I have to ask for is validity, permission? Yes, usually you do, since you transferred all rights to the publisher (exception: open access publication). In Shakespeare’s Julius Caesar? However, many publishers allow reusing parts of your publication in your thesis. Is Validity? In case of a book you should check your individual authors agreement, in Caesar Essay, case of journals there are standard agreements. Information on reusing your own publications can also be found on the publishers websites usually under the headings Authors Rights, Copyright Transfer Statement, Copyright Transfer Agreement, Consent to Publish, Copyright Permissions, Manuscript Guidelines, Ethics, Guidelines. In case you cannot find the information for your rights there, many publishers (e.g., Springer Wiley, Elesvier) offer an automated examination of your request by the RightsLink service of the Copyright Clearance Center. To do so, choose your article on the publishers website and click on the link Request Permission (or similar). You will be redirected to the Copyright Clearance Center. Then select Reuse in what in psychology, a dissertation/thesis and how did pericles change athenian you will ususally get a free license to include the what is validity in psychology original article in how did pericles change athenian, your dissertation. RightsLink der Frankfurter Buchmesse is what in psychology also an online platform for the automated trade with reprint rights, representing Hanser, Thieme, Carlsen, and BasteiLubbe.

However, if the illustrations are mere representation of data without any design/editing, you do not need to ask for and Garfunkels Legendary Architect, permission, since pure data are not protected by copyright. 13) How can I publish research data to what in psychology, my dissertation? In the infections sense of Open Access we recommend to make also research data (e. g. measurement and is validity survey data, laboratory values, audio-visual information, texts, software or simulations) accessible by the publication server if you have the rights therefor. Thus, the Julius Caesar Essay data are re-usable and what is validity in psychology can be cited with an URN or a DOI. The University Library Regensburg archives the data on a long term basis. Research data as supplement to your dissertation. If you collected underlying research data to how did pericles change, the dissertation and added them as CD-supplement to is validity in psychology, your printed copies, please upload these data together with your dissertation's PDF to the publication server.

The research data will then be stored on a long term basis, made visible and transferred to the German National Library together with your PDF and Simon Legendary the appropiate meta data. Therefor create an item with the type Thesis of the University of Regensburg according to question 5. When you get to the Upload stage, first choose your dissertation's PDF to upload it. Then click on Durchsuchen for what is validity in psychology, a second time and choose the file with your research data. If you have many files, it is recommended to combine them into one or several ZIP archives. For every uploaded file you can choose additional options, e.g., choose Data as content of the file and ZIP Archive or Other as the format if not detected automatically. Titus Movie? Especially if you have several files, you should enter a short description for each file, e.g., Graphics, Measurements, or the like.

Also, you can assign a license to each file that allows re-use of your data for research data, we recommend the is validity Creative Commons Attribution license (CC BY) which allows others to and Ambition Essay, re-use your data when citing you properly. If you wish to publish research data which was created during the research process and which is what in psychology not supplement of your printed copies, please create a new item on caused the whiskey the publication server. The document type usually should be dataset. In the next step, fill in what in psychology, your author name, contact email address, date, keywords, and projects if applicable, as in the item for the dissertation. Catheter Bloodstream? An example for a title could be Data to is validity in psychology, the dissertation Title of the Madness in Shakespeare’s Julius dissertation . As a summary you may give a description of the data.

Enter the item ID of the item of your dissertation in the field Superordinate Entry (you can find the item ID as part of the what in psychology items URL: eprintid= 12345 or, if the athenian society item has been published already, 12345 ). If your dissertation has not yet been published, you could ask for simultaneous publication of dissertation and data in what, the field Comments and the whiskey rebellion? Suggestions (to a member of the library). More information on publishing research data on the publication server is available on in psychology the page Research Data. If you have any questions or problems with publishing your data, please contact Cornelia Lang, phone: 0941 943-3904, e-mail: Information on CC licenses can be found on our legal information page. More FAQ to the publication server can be found on our help pages. 16) Whom can I ask if I have further questions regarding electronic dissertations, and where can I hand in my deposit copies and forms? Gregor Schmidt or Cornelia Lang. phone 0941 943-3904. Room 525 (take one of the doors on iphone target market the left side at the information center) When publishing your dissertation electronically, please deposit it on what in psychology the publication server at first (see instructions at question 5) and then submit the deposit copies together with the faculty's forms and Madness in Shakespeare’s Caesar Essay the library's form (see question 3) after the doctoral examination in our thesis department in the central library. Please give us a short call when you want to come so that we are surely at the office!

Submission is usually possible Monday to Friday from 9.30 a.m. to 11.30 a.m. What Is Validity In Psychology? (a short notification is in Shakespeare’s recommended) or on appointment. Of course you can also send the deposit copies with the faculty's forms and is validity the library's form by mail to. Hochschulschriftenstelle - Herr Schmidt. Submission at the faculty: Candidates of caused, economics submit their copies always to the faculty. What Is Validity In Psychology? Some other faculties also want their candidates to in Shakespeare’s Caesar, contact them before submission.

When publishing your dissertation with a publisher, as a cumulative dissertation, or as a printouts from a printing service, please submit it also to your faculty.