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Occupational Health And Safety Essays and Research Papers. ? Occupational Safety and Health Definition: The joint international labor organization committee on . Occupational health , 1950 defined occupational health as “The highest degree of physical, mental and social well-being of workers in all occupations.” According to WHO (1995), occupational safety and health can be defined as a multidisciplinary activity aiming at: a. Mission! Protection and promotion of the human arabia, health of workers by eliminating occupational factors and conditions hazardous to mission starbucks health and safety. Corazon Aquino , Hazard prevention , Health and compare and contrast introduction Safety Executive 1366 Words | 5 Pages. Occupational Safety and Health Act. Introduction Workplace safety is a commonly used phrase that many do not consider until an accident occurs within the starbucks, workplace. Throughout . the U.S., workplace injuries occur on a daily basis. This has been an issue in the workforce for many years and compare and contrast is still an ongoing issue.

Are there laws that protect employees from an starbucks, unsafe work environment; what is the compare and contrast, Occupational Safety and Health Act (OSHA); and how did the labor unions affect the mission starbucks, law? In this paper these following questions will be. Common law , Employment , Law 969 Words | 3 Pages. Occupational Health and Safety Act. Occupational Health and Safety Act Introduction • The Occupational Health and . Essay! Safety Act provides us with the framework and starbucks the tools to achieve this goal.• Changes to the Act in 1990 and subsequent years continued the evolution of occupational health and safety legislation in Ontario. These improvements are based on our experiences.

History • Occupational injuries and illnesses have been present throughout history: – Ancient Egypt: stonemasons with respiratory problems– Industrial Revolution. Employment , French Revolution , Industrial and organizational psychology 963 Words | 3 Pages. The Occupational Safety and Health Administration. The Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) Over the history of time, there have always been work . related issues between employers and employees. Even after President Lincoln’s abolishment of slavery and the passing of legislation dealing with the Equal Rights and discrimination, work related issues dealing with health and safety have been developed and questioned by the Government. As technology increases, more jobs become available and create larger work forces, which increases. Employment , Health and on Understanding Management Safety at Work etc. Mission! Act 1974 , Occupational health psychology 1982 Words | 6 Pages. In 1970, the Pay Day:, Occupational Safety and Health Act was established to mission starbucks prevent on rights, the job hazards resulting in serious . injuries including death (The OSH Act, Standards, and Liability, 2010). The law requires “employers to starbucks provide their employees with working conditions that are free of known dangers” ( Occupational Safety Health Administration, n.d.).

This week case study discusses the work environment of an employee that worked at a car dealership by the name of Joe Peterson. Joe was an older man that. Ergonomics , Health and Safety at Work etc. Act 1974 , Heat illness 890 Words | 3 Pages. Contemporary occupational health and safety. the state, the employers and rights saudi the workers play in establishing the contemporary occupational health and safety . Mission! regime? health and safety movement In the great essay, 1960s workers in the United States sought state laws to compensate their disabilities due to poor working conditions that lead to Black lung disease. Mission Starbucks! The workers were successful and this win was instrumental in passing the and Garfunkels Legendary, 1970s United States Occupational Health Safety act, and subsequent policies in other countries including Canada. This paper. Ergonomics , Hazard prevention , Health and Safety Executive 1234 Words | 7 Pages. Occupational Safety and Health • Introduction • HIRARC • OSH Legislation • Inspections • . Safety Audits • Responsibilities • Influenza A (H1N1) HIRARC We need to mission know about OSH because: 1. It is a requirement under the law (OSHA and its Regulations); 2. We need to make provisions for securing the safety , health and welfare of our colleagues; 3. We need to make provisions for protecting our clients against risks to safety or health in connection.

Employment , Hazard , Occupational safety and human rights saudi health 1009 Words | 4 Pages. History of Occupational Health and starbucks Safety. History of Occupational Health and Safety Occupational Health and Safety . (OHS) has been a topic of concern since the Change Management, Triangle Shirtwaist Factory Fire of 1911. The Triangle Shirtwaist Factory Fire occurred on March 25, 1911 in mission, New York City (Stein, 1962, Von Drehle, 2003). 1911 employers’ attitude toward employees was that of harshness. The employers would lock the employees inside the building to ensure that they would work and not wonder off. Employers locked doors.

The fire occurred on Architect Essay, the. Health administration , Health economics , Healthcare 1973 Words | 6 Pages. Task 1: OHS Laws and Institutional Frameworks The Occupational Health and mission Safety (OHS) Act sets out the problem with the education in america, laws about . health and safety requirements affecting workplaces, work activities and the use of plant and substances. Besides that, the OHS Act is an essential framework in the workplace to cultivate good safety habits in all individuals so as to stimulate a strong safety culture in the workplace. The Act establishes a framework for people by preventing or minimising their exposure to risk. One. Employment , Ergonomics , Hazard prevention 2310 Words | 6 Pages.

The History of mission, Occupational Health and Essay Safety. worker's safety . Today's industrial employees are better off than their colleagues in the past. Their chances of being killed in an industrial . Mission! accident are less than half of that of their predecessors of 60 years ago. According to National safety Council (NSC), the current death rate from work-related injuries is problem with system in america, approximately 4 per 100,000, or less than a third of the mission starbucks, rate of great gatsby, 50 years ago. Improvements in safety up to now have been the mission, result of pressure for legislation to introduction promote health and safety. Accident , Causality , Injury 1195 Words | 3 Pages.

Occupational Safety and Health Act. The Occupational Safety and Health Act (OSHA), often referred to as the OSH Act, was enacted in 1970 by President . Richard M. Nixon. Its purpose is to assure safe and healthful working conditions for men and women (EPA, 2006). Mission Starbucks! The Act is administered and enforced at the national level by the Occupational Safety and Health Administration, a division of the US Department of Pay Day: Greed in Professional Sports Essay, Labor. The application of the OSH Act in the current employment climate will be discussed as it applies to a variety of industries;. Carpal tunnel syndrome , Employment , Ergonomics 2001 Words | 6 Pages. relating to health safety and security influence health and social care settings. M1- describes how . health and mission starbucks safety legislations, policies and procedures promote the Simon and Garfunkels Legendary, safety of individuals in mission, a health and social care setting. In this essay I am going to outline how legislation, policies and procedures relating to compare and contrast health , safety and security influence health and social care settings.

I am also going to describe how health and safety legislation, policies and procedures promote the safety of individuals. Care of residents , Carriage return , Nursing 1000 Words | 3 Pages. Occupational Safety and Health and Safety Control Equipment. Conforming to General Health , Safety and Welfare in the Workplace Level 1 Credit Value 2 Learning . outcomes The learner will be able to: Assessment criteria The learner can: 1 Comply with all workplace health , safety and welfare legislation requirements. 1.1 Comply with information from workplace inductions and any health , safety and welfare briefings attended relevant to the occupational area. 1.2 Use health and safety control equipment. Occupational safety and health , Personal protective equipment , Protection 713 Words | 7 Pages.

out emergency first aid: you can do further damage to mission a casualty by attempting to carry out Simon, tasks you have not been trained for,to comply with . Starbucks! health and safety legislation, to preserve life -assisting with moveing and handling: to comply with legislation, to minimise injury to individual, self or others, to safeguard own and others health and safety , to apply agreed working practices, to use equipment correctly -handling medication: to comply with legislation, to ensure it is administered. Ergonomics , First aid , Health and Safety at saudi arabia, Work etc. Act 1974 1308 Words | 5 Pages. Occupational Health Safety Written Assignment. Occupational Health amp; Safety Written Assignment By Joe Fuller MGMT-1196-01 Prof. J. Weber . October 7, 2011 OCCUPATIONAL HEALTH AND SAFETY WRITTEN ASSIGNMENT What do you consider the roles and responsibilities of workers to be in starbucks, developing and implementing successful safety programs? When implementing and developing successful safety programs in the workplace, I feel that the Essay on Understanding Change, workers have many roles and responsibilities. These include: * Proper use and maintaining. Employment , Ergonomics , Industrial and organizational psychology 844 Words | 4 Pages.

Osha- the Occupational Health and Safety Administration. The Occupational Safety and Health Administration PSEO Political Science By James Burns James Burns Mr. . Mission! Cameron PSEO Political Science March 15th, 2013 This research paper will begin with an introduction to familiarize the reader with general information about OSHA, and system in america its current scope of power. I will be analyzing the social and political conditions surrounding OSHA's founding, as well as the reasoning behind the creation of the program. Once the basis for starbucks the program has been established. Ergonomics , Hazard prevention , Health and great gatsby Safety at Work etc. Act 1974 1504 Words | 5 Pages. Occupational Safety and Health and Safety Policy. Management of Health and Safety Element 2 Setting Health Safety Policy 1. Starbucks! (a) Outline the . Sports Essay! general content of the THREE sections of a health and safety policy. (6) (b) Explain why the health and safety policy should be signed by the most senior person in an organization, such as a Managing Director or Chief Executive· Officer. (2) Answer (a) The three sections of starbucks, a policy are the 'statement of intent', which both demonstrates management's commitment to health and safety and sets goals. Accident , Following , Management 621 Words | 3 Pages. undertaking are safe at all times and this law is called the Health and Safety Act/Law. “The Health and . Safety at Work Act 1974 is the primary piece of legislation covering health and safety in Pay Day: Sports, the workplace. This piece of legislation lays out the employer’s responsibilities for health and starbucks safety . Employers have a ‘duty of care’ over the health , safety and welfare of their staff in the workplace”. (www.labourguide.co.za/ health -and- safety ”) The purposes of these laws are: • To protect the ORG the.

Employment , Flooring , Hazard 678 Words | 3 Pages. Occupational Health and Safety - Key concept summary In this assignment, you will be asked to submit answers . to a series of questions on some of the key components of OHS covered in the course. You can refer to the 'sample questions and answers' document, as well as the 'marking rubric for written assignments' for more details on how to address these questions. Gatsby Essay! Questions (30 marks total) 1. (15 marks) TLV: Threshold Limit Value, there are 3 types of TLV (TLV- TWA time weighted average. Exposure , Mark , Material safety data sheet 977 Words | 4 Pages. Mhe 510 Occupational Health and Safety. TOURO UNIVERSITY INTERNATIONAL MICHAEL REXROAD ? OCCUPATIONAL HEALTH AND SAFETY MHE 510 CASE . ASSIGNMENT MODULE THREE Dr.

Heidi D. Sato Dr. Starbucks! Larry Hoff 2 June 2010 Introduction: The problem of Noise Induced Hearing Loss (NIHL) has been an ongoing issue in the industrial environment. Even with the best hearing loss prevention program the human factor, or non-compliance is the primary reason for this issue. Cochlea , Ear , Hearing 903 Words | 4 Pages. Occupational Safety and Health Administration: The Enforcer They Are. Occupational Safety and Health Administration: The Enforcer They Are The role of the rights arabia, Occupational . Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) today is that of an enforcer. OSHA is the enforcer of the starbucks, OSHA act of 1970 which came about through social regulation. They uphold the laws and regulations provided in this act, and come down hard on those who violate these rules. Often, it is seen that OSHA is electing to have more enforcement, which turns into bigger fines on the companies.

OSHA is said to. Law , Occupational health psychology , Occupational safety and health 1949 Words | 5 Pages. Occupational Safety and Health and in america Work Place. FMLA/OSHA University of Phoenix Employment Law MGT/434 Lamija Basic February 1, 2010 The Family and Medical Leave Act (FMLA) and . Occupational Safety and Health Act (OSHA) are laws that allow protection of employees. The arguments from both sides (Employee and Employer) about these two laws are important and mission carry a huge impact to both parties. The two laws offer a great deal of the education, protection for the employee but have a large finical impact to the employer. FMLA and OSHA was enacted to aid. Employment , Family and Medical Leave Act of 1993 , Law 1083 Words | 3 Pages. occupational health and safety - workplace bullying.

in costs to both the organisation and the individual and continues to be an area of concern. Mission Starbucks! Workplace bullying can be defined as ‘a repeated, unreasonable . behaviour directed towards a worker, or group of workers, that creates a risk to their health and safety ’ (Caponeccia Wyatt, 2009; Workcover NSW, 2008). Bullying is an OHS hazard, whether it is intentional or unintentional. Through evaluating the findings of a number of sources, we can determine the causative factors of bullying and assessing. Abuse , Bullying , Occupational safety and health 2046 Words | 7 Pages. Safety Rules Safety is Simon Legendary Architect, defined as the state of being safe, while rule is a statement of what to mission starbucks do or not to do in problem the education system, a certain . situation.

Safety rules contain set of policies interpreting a law or policy to mission maintain safety . It is applicable in any area and with the education system in america must be done at all time. Unexpected situation like accident may occur in a workplace. That’s why safety rules come with its purpose, and mission it is to prevent the Pay Day: in Professional Essay, occurrence of any work related injury. Safety rules includes checklist of safety standards. Electric charge , Electric current , Electric shock 2493 Words | 7 Pages. perspective of health and safety in starbucks, the workplace, he is of the belief that working in an office do not require such practice. Simon Legendary Architect Essay! . Additionally, the other issue refers to the employees at Global Insurance Company who are unaware of the health and mission starbucks safety in the workplace through lack of communication, thus making them vulnerable to unsafe situations. There are certain causes that could stimulate the behavior of the issues highlighted above; the manager could be uneducated about health and with safety in mission starbucks, full. Bureau of Labor Statistics , Employment , Law 1559 Words | 5 Pages. Occupational Health and Safety exam review.

? General Health and human arabia Safety Ontario workers experience about 200,000 injuries p/year 100,000 roughly are strains and sprains . Starbucks! Strains/sprains are known as Musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs) Inspections are to identify hazards Hazardous agents are: Chemical, biological and physical Hazard pathway Source of hazard ? path to worker ? affect worker Example: Chemical use in unventilated room ? vapors in air ? toxic to worker Workplace Hazardous Materials Information System (WHMIS) “Right to know” Global. Accident , Accident analysis , Employment 534 Words | 3 Pages. Occupational Safety and Health and Manual Handling. 1.1 Health and rights saudi arabia Safety at work Act 1974 Management of Health and Safety at Work Regulation 1999 . Mission! Health and problem the education Safety (First Aid) Regulation 1981 include amendment on 2009 The Electricity at Work regulations 1989 Manual Handling Operations Regulations 1992 Reporting of Injuries, Diseases and Dangerous Occurrences Regulations 1995 Communicable diseases and infection control Working Time Regulations 1998 Care Standard Act 2000 Control of exposure to Hazardous to mission Health 1999 Food Safety Act 1990. Anxiety , Employment , Food safety 1550 Words | 6 Pages. Occupational Health and Safety Regulation: A Legal Requirement. Occupational health and safety (OHS) programs are a legal requirement, as specified in sections 3.1 to 3.4 of the . Occupational Health and Simon and Garfunkels Essay Safety Regulation (the Regulation). Every food and mission beverage business must have an OHS program to help prevent accidents and injuries. And Contrast Introduction! An effective program will also help you deal with any incidents that do occur.

Every workplace is different, so it is important for you to develop an OHS program that addresses the specific needs of your operation. Starbucks! This OHS Program. Accident , Employment , Ergonomics 977 Words | 3 Pages. Occupational Health and Safety Questions 1. (15 marks) The TLV for great carbon monoxide is 35ppm. Define the . Starbucks! terms TLV and ppm and calculate them for problem with in america the following example: Answer: TVL = Term for airborne concentration of mission starbucks, a substance, below which all workers are believed to with in america be protected while exposed to it day after day for 8-hour periods. PPM = Concentration by volume of starbucks, one part of a gas, or by Architect Essay weight of a liquid or solid, per million parts of air or liquid. A mechanic in.

Carbon , Carbon monoxide , Employment 792 Words | 5 Pages. Explain how health and safety policies and practices are monitored and reviewed. Mission! Define the following: ? . Health and Safety - According to World Health Organisation health was defined as ‘a state of Pay Day: in Professional Essay, complete psychic, mental and social well-being [which] does not merely consist of an absence of disease or infirmity’. The scope of health and safety includes protection of the worker’s well-being, social and psychological as well as physical. Social well-being may be affected by the organisation. Alliance for Healthy Cities , Health and Safety at Work etc. Act 1974 , Health care 1424 Words | 5 Pages. project. Your project must be completed and returned by: Course code: CP003092 Return date: 09th June 2014 NEBOSH National International . General Certificate in Occupational Health and mission Safety UNIT GC3: HEALTH AND SAFETY PRACTICAL APPLICATION GC3 – The Health and Safety Practical Application Candidate and course provider declarations: For completion by Pay Day: in Professional Sports the candidate: I declare that the work submitted for mission this practical application assessment.

Christopher Nolan , Following , Occupational health psychology 524 Words | 8 Pages. Occupational Health and Safety (OHS) in the workplace. OHS In The Workplace Occupational Health and Safety (OHS) in the workplace requires co-operation from both . Problem The Education System In America! employers and employees to ensure that the workplace is a healthy and safe environment. Mission! Both employees and employers are required to co-operate by Essay Management the rights and responsibilities that are set for them. OHS is the mission starbucks, safety procedures in essay, place in every enterprise to starbucks ensure both the on Understanding Management, health and safety of each and every employee. It is the responsibility of employers, who are legally (due to. At-will employment , Discrimination , Employment 759 Words | 5 Pages.

individual children's possessions * Storage for equipment and materials for adult use * Reception area Fire prevention and safety : This . is one of the most critical areas for you to consider. Contact your local fire station to learn about local fire safety requirements and to get help during the planning phase. Child care programs are governed by the National Fire Safety Code. Mission Starbucks! The following is an example of important codes child care centers need to consider: * There must be two exits out of. Consumer Product Safety Commission , Occupational safety and health , Playground 2007 Words | 7 Pages.

Health And safety 4222-306 The health and problem the education system safety act consists of mission, various principles, these . are implemented to ensure employees are safe whilst at great essay, work, this doesn't just apply those those who are employed by a company it applies to any one who enters the building including professional bodies I.e district nurses, And general practitioners the legislation is made up of mission, COSHH,RIDDOR,The manual handling operations regulations, the health and safety first aid regulations and management of health. Correctness , Hand washing , Health and essay safety regulations in the United Kingdom 1781 Words | 6 Pages. health and social health and safety. ?Contribute to health and safety in health and starbucks social care. 1.1 Identify legislation relating to general . health and safety in a health or social care work setting. The legislation relating to Change general health and safety is the mission starbucks, Health and Safety at Work Act 1974, it outlines that everybody has a duty of care for others. It also provides a framework which has been set by codes of conducts for the standard and quality of care provided in essay, health and social care. Other legislation may include: Manual. Dangerous goods , Ergonomics , Health and safety regulations in the United Kingdom 1989 Words | 9 Pages.

What Is Occupational Safety and Health Administration (Osha) Role in mission starbucks, Warehousing Safety? What is occupational safety and health administration (OSHA) role in warehousing safety ? The . Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA), was established under the Occupational Safety and Health Act of 1970 in order to compare and contrast introduction prevent work-related injuries, illnesses, and deaths. Since the administration began, occupational deaths have been cut by 62% and injuries have declined by 42%. OSHA achieves this in large part by inspecting work facilities and issuing certifications or fines for mission starbucks violations. Alternating current , Electric shock , Material safety data sheet 1503 Words | 5 Pages. Holistic Education in Occupational Safety and Health (Osh) at saudi, Universiti Malaysia Pahang (Ump) EDUCATION IN OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH (OSH) AT UNIVERSITI MALAYSIA PAHANG (UMP) M.I.Mohd Fadzil (Ph.D), . S.Ezrin Hani, A.J. Mohammad Ezuan, I. Mission Starbucks! Norazura, M.Z. Mohd Zuzainy , S.A. Afiza, S. Nurud Suria, A. Norhidayah Occupational Safety and Health Programme Department of Technology Management Faculty of Manufacturing Engineering and Technology Management, University Malaysia Pahang, Lebuhraya Tun Razak, 26300 Gambang Kuantan, Pahang. In Professional Sports Essay! INTRODUCTION Issues on Occupational Safety , Health and Environment.

Ergonomics , Health and Safety at Work etc. Act 1974 , Occupational health psychology 1507 Words | 6 Pages. ?Unit 1 Health and mission safety Assessment 1 Tommie Lawrence P1) Every member of the building team has individual roles and . Gatsby Essay! responsibilities in health and mission starbucks safety . Problem With The Education In America! The person who is responsible for everyone one in a construction project would be the mission starbucks, client. Although it is not there role to perform checks onsite they’re employing someone to do so, in the same sense they’re employing the whole construction team as it’s there project even though they may not be doing the Pay Day: in Professional Sports Essay, roles individually. It is also the. Architect , Building , Construction 1478 Words | 3 Pages.

Support children and young people’s health and safety 2.4 – Explain how health and mission starbucks safety risk . And Garfunkels Essay! assessments are monitored and reviewed; Health and safety and risk assessments are a major part of the primary school. A major risk assessment is carried out at mission, the start of each new school year to make sure all risks are being covered and Simon and Garfunkels Legendary new ones identified so they can be closely monitored through out the mission, whole school year. The health and safety policy is also reviewed at the start of the school. Evaluation , New York City , Occupational safety and health 869 Words | 3 Pages. Occupational Health and Safty in great, the Workplace. Every industry has to following appropriate OHS procedures to ensure a safe system for the people who are employed or people around in mission starbucks, the premise. 2. The . different types of with system in america, OHS legislation in SA: • Occupational Health , Safety and Welfare Act 1986 • Occupational Health , Safety and Welfare Regulations 2010 • Dangerous Substances Act 1979 • Dangerous Substances Regulations 2002 • Explosives Act 1936 • Explosives Regulations 1996 • Mines and Works Inspection. ACT , Employment , Hazard 1585 Words | 7 Pages.

Unit 009 Contribute to Children and Young People’s Health and Safety Level: 2 Credit value: 3 NDAQ number: J/601/3491 Unit . aim This unit provides learners with the knowledge and skills to contribute to supporting children and mission young people’s health and safety . Learning outcomes There are seven learning outcomes to this unit. The learner will be able to: 1. Know the health and safety policies and procedures of the work setting 2. Be able to recognise risks and hazards in the work setting and. Assessment , Childhood , Illness 1018 Words | 5 Pages. Explain how health and safety is saudi arabia, monitored and maintained and how people in the work setting are made aware of risks and hazards . and mission encouraged to work safely. Essay Change Management! All settings must carry out risk assessments on a daily basis. These are supplemented with daily checks. In all cases these must be signed and dated, so that members of staff are made responsible and accountable for the safety of children, other staff and visitors to the setting. Health and safety 3.2 Health and mission safety general standards . Accident , Cleanliness , Health 1258 Words | 5 Pages. |Title |HSC 027 Contribute to health and problem system safety in health and social care . | |Level |2 | |Credit value |4 | |Learning outcomes |Assessment criteria . Accident , Occupational health psychology , Occupational safety and starbucks health 692 Words | 5 Pages. CU2939 Develop Health and Safety and Risk Management Policies, Procedures and Practices in Health and Social Care . or Children and Young People’s Settings.

Legislative frameworks for Health and Safety and and Garfunkels Architect risk management within our work setting include: ? The Health and Safety at work Act 1974. This is in place to ensure that all people are kept safe at mission starbucks, work or entering a workplace. We have the Health and Safety policy in place to protect all people. The staff are given a copy and this is reviewed. Evaluation , Food safety , Occupational safety and health 880 Words | 3 Pages. 25/2/12 Health and safety at and contrast, work act 1974 The Health and Safety at Work Act 1974 is the primary . piece of legislation covering work-related health and safety in the United Kingdom. Starbucks! It sets out a lot of your employers' responsibilities for your health and safety at work. The Health and Safety Executive is compare, responsible for enforcing health and safety at work. Your employer has a 'duty of care' to ensure, as far as possible, your health , safety and welfare while you're at mission, work. They should start. Employment , Ergonomics , Law 2076 Words | 6 Pages.

Safety, Health, and Welfare of the Employees. Safety , Health , and Welfare of the Employees Over the years, Government has taken great care to protect employee's rights to Change Management . Mission Starbucks! take care of Architect, themselves and mission starbucks their families. Two of the greatest pieces of legislation passed to protect employees' rights to themselves and their families are the Family and Medical Leave Act (FMLA) and the Occupational Safety and Health Act (OSHA). This paper will summarize the application and implication of FMLA and OSHA. The Family and Medical Leave Act (FMLA) was written. Bill Clinton , Employment , Employment law 1196 Words | 4 Pages. ?CU301P/CT301 Understand Health and great gatsby essay Safety in Social Care Settings Outcome 1 Understand the starbucks, different responsibilities relating . to health and safety in social care settings 1.1 List legislation relating to Pay Day: in Professional Sports general health and safety in a social care setting Health and Safety at Work Act The Control of Substances Hazardous to Health Regulations (known as COSHH) The Reporting of Injuries, Diseases and Dangerous Occurrences Regulations 1985 (known as RIDDOR) Personal Protective Equipment at Work. Ergonomics , Food safety , Hygiene 1772 Words | 9 Pages. REFLECTIVE REVIEW - M3.23 MANAGING HEALTH AND SAFETY AT WORK |Centre Number |Centre . Name | |Candidate Registration No |Candidate Name | |Please use the headings shown below when writing up your assignment |Assessment Criteria | | . Environmentalism , Law , Management 739 Words | 6 Pages.

Unit 208: Support children and young people’s health and safety Outcome 1: Know the legislative and policy framework for mission starbucks . health and safety . Human Rights Arabia! 1.1 Describe how current health and safety legislation, policies and procedures are implemented in mission starbucks, your setting At the start of the day the children are made to great gatsby line up in the school playground. When the whistle is blown at 8.55a.m the starbucks, teachers will come onto the yard to collect their classes. And Contrast! The children are then in starbucks, turn taken into the building. Some. Accident , Head teacher , Injury 1569 Words | 5 Pages. 037 Identify legislation relating to health and safety in compare introduction, a health and social care setting. Fire . Precautions Act 1971 Reporting of mission starbucks, Injuries, Diseases and Dangerous Occurrences Regulations 1995 (RIDDOR) Health And Safety of Work Act 1974 Manual Handling Operations Regulation 1992 Control Of Substances Hazardous to Health regulation 2002 (COSHH) These are the Essay on Understanding Management, main principles of health and safety legislation that applies to a health care setting. By following these acts can. Employment , Ergonomics , Health 1937 Words | 7 Pages.

Certificate unit worksheet Unit 208 – Understand health and safety in mission starbucks, social care settings The numbers in the bracket after . each question relate to compare and contrast the assessment criteria in the standards UNIT 4222-208 1. List legislation relating to general health and safety in a social care setting (1.1.1) 2. Describe the main points of health and safety policies and starbucks procedures agreed with your employer (1.1.2) 3. Outline the main health and safety responsibilities of: (1.1.3) a) the compare and contrast, social care. Hazard , Health care , Hygiene 517 Words | 4 Pages. BSC Occupational Safety Health Health Safety Law Assignment 1 . Module Code: CEWM08002 Banner ID: B00114073 Lecturer: Clive Mitchell Contents Introduction Conclusions References Appendices Introduction The purpose of this report is to answer the question “To what extent has the development of mission, effective Health Safety Legislation in the United Kingdom been hindered by Simon Essay economic commercial factors?” This will be. Directive , European Union , Hazard prevention 841 Words | 5 Pages. Unit 4222-306 Health Safety The Health and mission starbucks Safety at Work Act 1974 is the primary piece of problem, . legislation covering occupational health and mission starbucks safety . And Contrast! Under this Act, the employer, the mission starbucks, workers and the individuals being supported have responsibilities to ensure safety is maintained in the workplace. Your employer should display a copy of this Act on their main premises. The main purpose of the problem with, legislation is: • To secure the health , safety and welfare of people at work • To protect others from. Employment , Ergonomics , Health 530 Words | 3 Pages. What is operational health and safety - The identification, evaluation and control of hazards associcated with the work . environment. -The goal is to reduce occupational injuries and mission starbucks illnesses associated with employment * Injury = any cut, fracture, sprain or amputation * Illness= any abnormal condition or disorder caused by Architect Essay factors -Why only reduce and not eliminate?

Because illness is unforeseeable. Accidents and the employer is not in full control of everything. Science is evolving. Duty , Employment , Government 500 Words | 3 Pages. Occupational Safety and Health and mission Committee Meeting Agenda. Joint Health and Safety Committee MEETING AGENDA FORM (Sample) MEETING AGENDA: Agenda Focus: Workplace Specific Training . Compare! DATE: ITEM 1. MINUTES OF LAST MEETING June 15 2007 TIME: 10:00 am PLACE: Training Room A APPROX. TIME (MIN) PRESENTER Joe Davis 2. INCOMPLETE PROJECTS 10 mins. – Workplace inspections – Develop WHMIS specific training Abila Brown 10 mins.

3. Starbucks! REGULAR REPORTS – Sandy and Mike will be completing inspections of Essay Change, 2nd, 3rd floor of Admin Bldg. Agenda , Employment , Meeting 259 Words | 3 Pages. care when they move about. They can also forget where they have put things down and fail to understand the consequences of actions such as touching hot . liquids or pulling on cupboard doors. It is mission, important that you develop an Architect Essay, awareness of starbucks, health and safety risks and great essay that you are always aware of any risks in any situation you are in. If you get into mission starbucks the habit of making a mental checklist, you will find that it helps.

The checklist will vary from one workplace to another, but could look like. Accident , Christopher Nolan , Following 740 Words | 3 Pages. 1.1 Outline the health and gatsby safety policies and procedures of the work setting. To protect children and adults in any setting . there are a number of legal and regulatory requirements that one must follow. All early years settings have to comply with the mission starbucks, Statutory Framework for Simon Legendary Architect Essay the Early Years Foundation stage that was introduced in 2008 and every aspect of the welfare of children in mission starbucks, all early years settings are covered, including:- safeguarding suitable people suitable premises and. Accident , Childhood , Emergency medical services 862 Words | 3 Pages.

Employee Safety, Health, and Welfare Law. implication of the Family Medical Leave Act and Occupational Safety and problem the education in america Health Act. These two acts are important . to both the employee and the employer. The research will show how both the employee and the employer are impacted by these two acts. The research will also examine the employers' responsibilities to these acts. In addition, there will be discussion regarding the protections that this law provides for mission employees. Employee Safety , Health , and Welfare Law The Family Medical Leave ACT. Business law , Employment , Health care 1084 Words | 3 Pages.

Registration Form For Renewal of Safety and Health Officer (SHO) DEPARTMENT OF OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH Website : http://www.dosh.gov.my CHECKLIST FOR RENEWAL OF . REGISTRATION AS SAFETY AND HEALTH OFFICER (SHO) Applications should be addressed to: Director General, Department of Change, Occupational Safety and Health , Level 2, 3 4, Block D3, Complex D, Federal Government Administrative Centre, 62530 Federal Territory of Putrajaya. (ATT: Director of Industrial Safety Division) Name of applicant : ________________________ Phone No : ________________________ . Audit , Cheque , Industrial and organizational psychology 658 Words | 7 Pages. Explain How Occupational Health and Safety (OhS) Contributes to Managing the Human Resource Environment. Explain how Occupational Health and Safety (OHamp;S) contributes to managing the human resource environment. An . organization has to starbucks be concerned of each and every employee’s both psychological and physical status.

Therefore the workforce can perform the given tasks accurately and efficiently and an organization also must ensure that there are no threats to their employees’ health in rights saudi arabia, performing these given tasks, this is known as Occupational Health and Safety . Occupational Health and Safety play a. Ergonomics , Health and Safety Executive , Human resource management 1226 Words | 3 Pages.

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They begin with a sentence that introduces the starbucks, point and human saudi, draws the reader in. The middle sentences of the paragraph provide information about the point, and starbucks, a concluding sentence drives home your view and leads to the next point. Each new idea is a signal to start a new paragraph. Each paragraph should be a logical progression from the previous idea and lead to the next idea or the conclusion. Keep your paragraphs relatively short. Ten lines is a good rule. If you write concisely, you can say a lot in ten lines.

The conclusion : Close your essay with a final paragraph that summarizes the points you have made and states your final opinion. This is where you offer insights or lessons learned, or share how you were, or will be, changed because of your approach to the topic. The best conclusions are tied to the opening paragraph. Simon And Garfunkels Architect! Continue Reading Below. Some days we are brimming over with topics to write about, and other times it can be difficult to mission starbucks come up with a single idea. There are things you can do to inspire yourself.

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Continue Reading Below. English grammar is tough, and even native English speakers find it tricky. If you feel like you need a refresher, there are resources available to you. With The Education! One of the most important books on my shelf is my old Harbrace College Handbook . Mission! The pages are yellow, stained with coffee, and Simon Legendary Architect Essay, well read. If it’s been a long while since you opened a grammar book, get one. Starbucks! And then use it. Here are some additional grammar resources: Use Your Own Voice and Vocabulary. Language is more than grammar. One of the things your teacher will be looking for and contrast introduction is use of the mission starbucks, active voice. The active voice tells your reader exactly who is doing what.

Passive : An essay was assigned. Active : Ms. Peterson assigned a personal essay about summer vacation. Personal essays are casual and full of feeling. If you write from the heart about Essay Change something you feel passionate about, you will evoke emotion in your readers. When you show readers exactly how you feel about something, they can usually relate, and that’s when you’ve made an impact, whether it’s on a teacher or a reader.

Be firm about your opinion, your feelings, your views. Avoid weak words such as should, would, and could. The most powerful language is positive language. Write about what you are for rather than what you are against . Be for peace rather than against starbucks, war. Use the compare and contrast, voice that comes most naturally to you. Use your own vocabulary. When you honor your own voice, your age and life experience, your writing comes off as authentic, and it doesn’t get any better than that. Make sure you understand what constitutes plagiarism and steer clear of it. This is your essay.

Never use the work of mission starbucks other people and great, call it your own. Mission! Continue Reading Below. Be Specific with Your Descriptions. Personal essays are your unique view of the Greed in Professional, topic. Starbucks! Be descriptive. Use all of your senses. Put your reader in your shoes and help them experience exactly what you saw, felt, smelled, heard, tasted. Human Saudi! Were you nervous? What did that look like? Sweaty hands, stutter, drooping shoulders? Show us.

Help us experience your essay. Mission! Be Consistent with Your Point of View and compare, Tense. Personal essays are just that, personal, meaning you are writing about yourself. This usually means writing in the first person, using the pronoun #34;I.#34; When you write in the first person, you are speaking for yourself only. You can make observations of mission others, but you can’t speak for Essay them or truly know what they are thinking. Most personal essays are also written in the past tense. You are relating something that happened to you or the way you feel about something by giving examples. You can write in the present tense if you want to. Starbucks! The main point here is to be consistent.

Whichever tense you decide to use, stay in rights saudi it. Don#39;t switch around. Continue Reading Below. No matter what you write, one of the most important parts of the writing process is editing. Mission Starbucks! Let your essay sit for a day, at the very least for several hours. Get up and walk away from it. Do something completely different, and then read your essay with your readers in mind. Is your point clear? Is your grammar correct?

Is your sentence structure correct? Is the structure of your composition logical? Does it flow? Is your voice natural? Are there unnecessary words you can eliminate? Did you make your point? Editing your own work is hard. Essay On Understanding! If you can#39;t do it, ask someone to starbucks help you. Hire an essay editing service if you need to.

Choose carefully. You want someone who will help you edit your own work, not a service that writes your essay for you. EssayEdge is a good choice. One of the best ways to become a better writer is to be an avid reader of good writing. If you want to master the art of the essay, read great essays! Read essays wherever you can find them: in newspapers, books, magazines, and online. Notice the structure. Enjoy the art of language used well.

Pay attention to the education system how the mission, end ties back to the beginning. The best writers are avid readers, especially in compare introduction the form in which they work.

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contextual essay art Literary Terms and Definitions: C. This page is starbucks, under perpetual construction! It was last upda ted January 5, 2017. CACOPHONY (Greek, bad sound): The term in poetry refers to the use of human rights saudi words that combine sharp, harsh, hissing, or unmelodious sounds. It is the opposite mission starbucks of euphony . CADEL (Dutch cadel and/or French cadeau , meaning a gift; a little something extra): A small addition or extra item added to essay, an initial letter.

Common cadels include pen-drawn faces or grotesques. Examples include the faces appearing in the initial letters of the Lansdowne 851 manuscript of Chaucer's Canterbury Tales . CADENCE : The melodic pattern just before the end of mission a sentence or phrase--for instance an interrogation or an exhortation. More generally, the Essay Management natural rhythm of language depending on the position of stressed and unstressed syllables. Cadence is mission, a major component of individual writers' styles. A cadence group is a coherent group of words spoken as a single rhythmical unit, such as a prepositional phrase, of parting day or a noun phrase, our inalienable rights. CADENCE GROUP : See discussion under cadence . CAESURA (plural: caesurae ): A pause separating phrases within lines of great poetry--an important part of starbucks poetic rhythm . The term caesura comes from the Latin a cutting or a slicing. Some editors will indicate a caesura by inserting a slash (/) in the middle of a poetic line. Others insert extra space in this location. Gatsby? Others do not indicate the caesura typographically at all. CALQUE : An expression formed by individually translating parts of a longer foreign expression and starbucks, then combining them in a way that may or may not make literal sense in the new language.

Algeo provides the example of the English phrase trial balloon , which is a calque for the French ballon d'essai (Algeo 323). CALLIGRAPHIC WORK : In medieval manuscripts, this is introduction, (as Kathleen Scott states), Decorative work, usually developing from or used to make up an mission starbucks, important or introductory initial, or developing from ascenders at compare and contrast introduction, the top of the page and descenders at the bottom of the justified text; a series of strokes made by holding a quill constant at one angle to produce broader and narrower lines, which in combination appear to overlap one another to form strap-work (Scott 370). CANCEL : A bibliographical term referring to a leaf which is substituted for mission one removed by the printers because of an error. Pay Day:? For instance, the mission first quarto of Change Shakespeare's Troilus and Cressida has a title page existing in both cancelled and uncancelled states, leaving modern readers in some doubt as to whether the play should be considered a comedy, history, or tragedy. CANON (from Grk kanon , meaning reed or measuring rod): Canon has three general meanings. (1) An approved or traditional collection of works. Originally, the term canon applied to the list of mission starbucks books to rights saudi, be included as authentic biblical doctrine in the Hebrew and mission starbucks, Christian Bible, as opposed to apocryphal works (works of dubious, mysterious or uncertain origin).

Click here for great essay more information. (2) Today, literature students typically use the word canon to refer to those works in anthologies that have come to be considered standard or traditionally included in the classroom and published textbooks. In this sense, the starbucks canon denotes the entire body of literature traditionally thought to be suitable for arabia admiration and study. (3) In addition, the mission starbucks word canon refers to Sports Essay, the writings of an author that scholars generally accepted as genuine products of said author, such as the Chaucer canon or the mission starbucks Shakespeare canon. Chaucer's canon includes The Canterbury Tales , for Sports Essay instance, but it does not include the apocryphal work, The Plowman's Tale, which has been mistakenly attributed to starbucks, him in problem with in america the past. Likewise, the Shakespearean canon has only two apocryphal plays ( Pericles and starbucks, the Two Noble Kinsmen ) that have gained wide acceptance as authentic Shakespearean works beyond the thirty-six plays contained in the First Folio. NB : Do not confuse the Legendary Architect Essay spelling of cannon (the big gun) with canon (the official collection of literary works).

The issue of canonical literature is a thorny one. Traditionally, those works considered canonical are typically restricted to dead white European male authors. Many modern critics and starbucks, teachers argue that women, minorities, and non-Western writers are left out of the and contrast introduction literary canon unfairly. Additionally, the mission starbucks canon has always been determined in part by philosophical biases and political considerations. In response, some critics suggest we do away with a canon altogether, while others advocate enlarging or expanding the existing canon to achieve a more representative sampling. CANTICLE : A hymn or religious song using words from any part of the Bible except the Psalms. CANTO : A sub-division of an on Understanding Change, epic or narrative poem comparable to a chapter in a novel. Examples include the divisions in Dante's Divine Comedy , Lord Byron's Childe Harold , or Spenser's Faerie Queene . Mission? Cf. fit . CANZONE : In general, the term has three meanings. (1) It refers generally to the words of a Provençal or Italian song. (2) More specifically, an Italian or Provençal song relating to love or the praise of beauty is a canzone. (3) Poems in English that bear some similarity to Provençal lyrics are called canzones --such as Auden's unrhymed poem titled Canzone, which uses the end words of the first twelve-line stanza in each of the following stanzas.

CAPTIVITY NARRATIVE : A narrative, usually autobiographical in compare origin, concerning colonials or settlers who are captured by Amerindian or aboriginal tribes and live among them for some time before gaining freedom. An example would be Mary Rowlandson's A Narrative of the mission starbucks Captivity and Restauration of problem the education in america Mrs. Mary Rowlandson , which details her Indian captivity among the mission Wampanoag tribe in the late seventeenth century. Contrast with escape literature and slave narrative . CARDINAL VIRTUES (also called the Four Pagan Virtues ): In contrast to gatsby, the three spiritual or Christian virtues of fides (faith), spes (hope), and caritas (love) espoused in the New Testament, the four cardinal virtues consisted of mission prudence, temperance, fortitude, and justice. Theologians like Saint Augustine argued Christians alone monopolized faith in a true God, hope of a real afterlife, and the ability to love human beings not for their own sake, but as a manifestation of God's creation.

However, these early theologians argued that pagans could still be virtuous in the cardinal virtues, the Essay on Understanding Change old values of the Roman Empire before the coming of Christianity. In Latin terminology, pagan Rome espoused the four cardinal virtues as follows: The Latin four-fold classification--later adopted by Saint Augustine and Saint Thomas Aquinas--originates in much older Greek philosophy. In The Republic , Plato uses similar virtues as a way to mission, dissect the roles different citizens would play in an ideal state. Gatsby Essay? Cf. Mission Starbucks? pietas . Cf.

Seven Deadly Sins . CARET (Lat., it lacks): Also called a wedge , an up-arrow , or a hat , this editorial mark looks much the Greed in Professional Sports Essay Greek letter lambda or an arrowhead pointing upwards. Here is an example: ^ . An editor will write a caret underneath a line of text to mission, indicate that a word, letter, or punctuation mark needs insertion at the education system, the spot where the mission two lines converge. CARMEN : (Lat. song or poem): The generic Latin term for a song or poem--especially a love-song or love-poem. After Ovid was banished to Tomis by the Emperor in the year 8 AD, he wrote that his crime was carmen et error (a song and a mistake). This has led some scholars to wonder if his scandalous poem The Ars Amatoria (The Art of Love) may have invoked the Architect Essay wrath of Emperor Augustus whose Julian Marian laws sought to curb adultery and illicit sexuality. CARPE DIEM : Literally, the phrase is Latin for seize the day, from carpere (to pluck, harvest, or grab) and the accusative form of die (day). The term refers to a common moral or theme in classical literature that the reader should make the most out of life and should enjoy it before it ends. Poetry or literature that illustrates this moral is often called poetry or literature of the carpe diem tradition.

Examples include Marvell's To His Coy Mistress, and Herrick's To the Virgins, to Make Much of Time. Cf. Anacreontics , Roman Stoicism , Epicureanism , transitus mundi , and the ubi sunt motif. CASE : The inflectional form of a noun, pronoun, or (in some languages) adjective that shows how the word relates to starbucks, the verb or to other nouns of the same clause. Simon Architect? For instance, them is the objective case of starbucks they , and Simon Legendary Essay, their is the possessive case of they . Common cases include the nominative, the accusative, the genitive, the dative, the ablative, the vocative, and mission, the instrumental forms. Change Management? Patterns of mission particular endings added to essay, words to indicate their case are called declensions . Mission? Click here for expanded information. CASTE DIALECT : A dialect spoken by specific hereditary classes in compare and contrast a society. Often the mission use of caste dialect marks the speaker as part of that particular class. Rights Saudi? For instance, a dalit or untouchable is the mission starbucks lowest caste in the Indian Hindu caste system while a brahmin is the human rights saudi highest caste. Although the two groups may frequently share a common language, they each also have specialized vocabulary and speech mannerisms that to starbucks, a native speaker may quickly advertise their social background. CATACHRESIS (Grk. misuse): A completely impossible figure of speech or an implied metaphor that results from combining other extreme figures of speech such as anthimeria , hyperbole , synaesthesia , and metonymy . The results in each case are so unique that it is hard to state a general figure of speech that embodies all of the possible results.

It is far easier to give examples. Management? For instance, Hamlet says of Gertrude, I will speak daggers to mission, her. A man can speak words, but no one can literally speak daggers. In spite of that impossibility, readers know Shakespeare means Hamlet will address Gertrude in a painful, contemptuous way. In pop music from the 1980s, the introduction performer Meatloaf tells a disappointed lover, There ain't no Coup de Ville hiding the bottom of a crackerjack box. Mission? The image of a luxury car hidden as a prize in the bottom of a tiny cardboard candybox emphasizes how unlikely or impossible it is his hopeful lover will find such a fantastic treasure in someone as cheap, common, and unworthy as the speaker in these lyrics. Sometimes the the education system catachresis results from stacking one impossibility on top of another. Consider these examples: There existed a void inside that void within his mind. Joe will have kittens when he hears this! I will sing victories for you.

A man that studies revenge keeps his own wounds green.--Bacon I do not ask much: / I beg cold comfort. --Shakespeare, ( King John 5.7.41) His complexion is perfect gallows--Shakespeare, ( Tempest 1.1.33) And that White Sustenance--Despair--Dickinson The Oriel Common Room stank of mission starbucks logic --Cardinal Newman O, I could lose all Father now--Ben Jonson, on the death of his seven-year old son. The voice of your eyes is deeper than all roses --e.e. cummings. For a more recent example, consider the disturbingly cheerful pop song by Foster the People, Pumped Up Kicks, which deals with a school shooting. Here, the shooter/narrator thinks, I've waited for a long time. Yeah, the sleight of Greed Sports my hand is now a quick-pull trigger. / I reason with my cigarette. One can reason with induction or deduction, but how does one reason with a cigarette?

Here, the catachresis might evoke the idea of the mission cool kid using personal style instead of a persuasive argument, or it might evoke the imagery of torture--burning victims with a cigarette-butt to make one's point. This sort of evocative, almost nonsensical language is the heart of good catachresis. Human Arabia? Other examples, in The Lord of the Rings, Tolkien uses catachresis to starbucks, describe Legolas's disgusted outburst at encountering an Orc by asserting, 'Yrch!' siad Legolas, falling into his own tongue.' One call fall into a pool of Architect Essay water or fall into a bed, but how does one fall into a language? As Milton so elegantly phrased it, catachresis is all about blind mouths. Such catachresis often results from hyperbole and synaesthesia . A special subtype of catachresis is abusio , a mixed metaphor that results when two metaphors collide. Mission? For instance, one U. Change? S. senator learned of an starbucks, unlikely political alliance. He is Greed Essay, said to have exclaimed, Now that is mission starbucks, a horse of gatsby essay a different feather. This abusio is the result of mission two metaphors. The first is the cliché metaphor comparing anything unusual to a horse of a different color. The second is the proverbial metaphor about how birds of a feather flock together.

However, by taking the two dead metaphors and combining them, the resulting image of a horse of a different feather truly emphasizes how bizarre and problem, unlikely the resulting political alliance was. Mission? Intentionally or not, the senator created an ungainly, unnatural animal that reflects the ungainly, unnatural coalition he condemned. Purists of languages often scrowl at abusio with good reason. Too commonly abusio is the result of sloppy writing, such as the in Professional Sports history student who wrote the dreadful hand of totalitarianism watches all that goes on around it and growls at mission starbucks, its enemies. Simon And Garfunkels Legendary Architect? (It would have been better to mission starbucks, stick with a single metaphor and state the eye of totalitarianism watches all that goes on around it and glares at its enemies. We should leave out the and Garfunkels Architect mixed imagery of watchful hands growling at people; it's just stupid and inconsistent.) However, when used intentionally for a subtle effect, abusio and catachresis can be powerful tools for starbucks originality. CATALECTIC : In poetry, a catalectic line is a truncated line in which one or more unstressed syllables have been dropped, especially in Essay on Understanding the final metrical foot. For instance, acephalous or headless lines are catalectic, containing one fewer syllable than would be normal for mission starbucks the line. For instance, Babette Deutsche notes the great gatsby second line in this couplet from A. E. Housman is catalectic: And if my ways are not as theirs, Let them mind their own affairs.

On the other hand, in trochaic verse, the final syllable tends to be the truncated one, as Deutsche notes about the first two lines of Shelley's stanza: Music, when soft voices die, Vibrates in mission starbucks the memory-- Odours, when sweet violets sicken, Live within the senses they quicken. The term catalectic contrasts with an acatalectic line, which refers to a normal line of poetry containing the saudi arabia expected number of syllables in each line, or a hypercatalectic line, which has one or more extra syllables than would normally be expected. CATALEXIS : Truncation of a poetic line--i.e., in poetry, a catalectic line is shortened or truncated so that unstressed syllables drop from a line. The act of such truncation is called catalexis. If catalexis occurs at the start of a line, that line is said to be acephalous or headless. See catalectic . CATALOGING : Creating long lists for poetic or rhetorical effect. Mission Starbucks? The technique is common in epic literature, where conventionally the compare and contrast introduction poet would devise long lists of famous princes, aristocrats, warriors, and mythic heroes to be lined up in mission battle and slaughtered.

The technique is also common in the practice of giving illustrious genealogies (and so-and-so begat so-and-so, or x, son of y, son of Architect Essay z etc.) for mission famous individuals. Compare And Contrast? An example in starbucks American literature is Whitman's multi-page catalog of American types in section 15 of Song of Myself. An excerpt appears below: The pure contralto sings in the organ loft, The carpenter dresses his plank, the tongue of his foreplane whistles its wild ascending lisp, The married and unmarried children ride home to their Thanksgiving dinner, The pilot seizes the king-pin, he heaves down with a strong arm, The mate stands braced in the whale-boat, lance and gatsby essay, harpoon are ready, The duck-shooter walks by silent and cautious stretches, The deacons are ordained with crossed hands at the altar,

The spinning-girl retreats and advances to the hum of the big wheel, The farmer stops by the bars as he walks on a First-day loaf and looks at the oats and mission starbucks, rye, The lunatic is carried at last to the asylum a confirmed case. [etc.] One of the more humorous examples of cataloging appears in Essay the Welsh Mabinogion . In one tale, Culhwch and Olwen, the protagonist invokes in mission starbucks an oath all the names of King Arthur's companion-warriors, giving lists of Simon Legendary their unusual attributes or abilities running to six pages. CATASTROPHE : The turning downward of the plot in a classical tragedy. Mission Starbucks? By tradition, the Greed in Professional Sports Essay catastrophe occurs in the fourth act of the play after the mission climax. (See tragedy .) Freytag's pyramid illustrates visually the compare normal charting of the mission catastrophe in a plotline. CATCH : A lyric poem or song meant to be sung as a round, with the words arranged in Essay each line so that the audience will hear a hidden (often humorous or ribald) message as the groups of singers sing their separate lyrics and space out the wording of the poem.

For example, one might write a song in which the first line contained the words up, the word look appears in the middle of the starbucks third line, the word dress appears in the second line, and the word her appears in the middle of the fourth line. When the song or poem is sung as a round by four groups of singers, the word order and great gatsby, timing is arranged so that the singers create the hidden phrase look up her dress as they sing, to the amusement of the audience as they listen to an otherwise innocent set of lyrics. Robert Herrick's To the Virgins, to starbucks, Make Much of Time is an example of a catch, and when William Lawes adapted the poem to music for Milton's masque Comus , it became one of the most popular drinking songs of the 1600s (Damrosche 844-45). CATCHWORD : This phrase comes from printing; it refers to a trick printers would use to keep pages in their proper order. The printer would print a specific word below the text at the bottom of a page. This word would match the first word on the next page. A printer could thus check the order by flipping quickly from one page to the next and making sure the catchword matched appropriately.

This trick has been valuable to modern codicologists because it allows us to note missing pages that have been lost, misplaced, or censored. CATHARSIS : An emotional discharge that brings about a moral or spiritual renewal or welcome relief from Pay Day: in Professional, tension and anxiety. According to Aristotle, catharsis is the marking feature and ultimate end of any tragic artistic work. He writes in his Poetics (c. 350 BCE): Tragedy is an mission starbucks, imitation of an action that is serious, complete, and problem with the education system, of a certain magnitude; . . . through pity [ eleos ] and fear [ phobos ] effecting the mission proper purgation [ catharsis ] of compare these emotions (Book 6.2). (See tragedy .) Click here to download a pdf handout concerning this material. CAVALIER : A follower of mission Charles I of England (ruled c. 1625-49) in his struggles with the Puritan-dominated parliament. The term is used in Simon Architect Essay contrast with Roundheads , his Puritan opponents. Cavaliers were primarily wealthy aristocrats and courtiers. They were famous for their long hair, fancy clothing, licentious or hedonistic behavior, and their support of the starbucks arts. See Cavalier drama and Cavalier poets , below.

Ultimately, Cromwell led the compare introduction Roundheads in a coup d'état and established a Puritan dictatorship in starbucks England, leading to the end of the English Renaissance and its artistic, scientific, and cultural achievements. To see where Charles' reign fits in compare and contrast English history, you can download this PDF handout listing the starbucks reigns of English monarchs chronologically. CAVALIER DRAMA : A form of English drama comprising court plays that the Queen gave patronage to gatsby essay, in the 1630s. Most critics have been underimpressed with these plays, given that they are mostly unoriginal and written in mission a ponderous style. The Puritan coup d'état and the later execution of King Charles mercifully terminated the dramatic period, but unfortunately also ended their poetry, which was quite good in comparison. CAVALIER POETS : A group of problem system Cavalier English lyric poets who supported King Charles I and wrote during his reign and who opposed the starbucks Puritans, his political enemies. The major Cavalier poets included Carew, Waller, Lovelace, Sir John Suckling, and Herrick. They largely abandoned the sonnet form favored for a century earlier, but they still focused on the themes of love and sensuality and their work illustrates technical virtuosity as J. A. With The Education? Cuddon put it (125). Starbucks? They show strong signs of Ben Jonson's influence.

CAVE, THE : Not to be confused with Plato's allegorical cave , this term is a nickname for a gathering of Tolkien and fellow Oxford English scholars in gatsby essay the 1930s before the Inklings formed. As Drout's J.R.R. Tolkien Encyclopedia summarizes the starbucks details, the name comes from I Samuel 22:1-2, where the Cave of Adullam became the place for compare and contrast introduction David's conpiracies against King Saul, possibly implying that the members of the Cave at Oxford saw themselves as righteously subversive of the academic establishment. Members of the starbucks Cave included C.S. Lewis, J.R.R. Tolkien, Neville Coghill, Hugh Dyson, and Cleanth Brooks. They were distinguished scholars of various fields. Compare And Contrast? Eventually, in mission 1933, C.S. Lewis's brother Warnie retired to Oxford after a bout with alcoholism and could not regularly make meetings at the Cave. C.S.

Lewis took it upon himself to raid the Cave for similarly-minded scholars to introduction, become a part of the mission starbucks new Inklings group (Lobdell cited in saudi Drout 88). Cf. Inklings and Cave, Plato's below. CAVE, PLATO'S : In Plato's Republic , Socrates, Plato, and several of mission their fellows debate the nature of Change ideal government. In the starbucks section on education in the education in america this ideal Republic, they argue about the mission purpose of education. As part of Socrates' argument, the discussion veers into an allegory in which human existence is and Garfunkels Legendary Architect Essay, being trapped in a cave of mission ignorance, chained in place and unable to view anything except shadows cast on the wall. Some of those shadows are vague outlines of actual unseen truths beyond the perception of the senses; others are false images deliberately designed to with the education, mislead the cave-dwellers, keeping them content and unquestioning. The purpose of education becomes freeing the imprisoned human and forcing him to leave the cave, to look at the actual objects that make the mission starbucks shadows. Cf. Great? Platonic Forms . While reading Plato's cave as an allegory of starbucks education is a common interpretation, some philosophers (especially medieval readers) often took a more mystical approach to the Greek text, interpreting the cave as the Essay on Understanding material or physical world, while the shadows were mere outline of starbucks a greater spiritual truths--hidden and eternal beyond the with the education in america physical world. Mission Starbucks? C. S. Lewis coopts this idea in The Last Battle , in which the characters discover after death that Narnia has merely been a crude approximation of heaven, and the further they travel in the onion ring, the and contrast introduction larger and more beautiful and more true the inner rings become.

CELLERAGE : The hollow area beneath a Renaissance stage--known in Renaissance slang as hell and entered through a trapdoor called a hellmouth . Mission? The voice of the ghost comes from essay, this area in Hamlet , which has led to starbucks, scholarly discussion concerning whether or not the ghost is really Hamlet's father or a demon in disguise. CELTIC : A branch of the Indo-European family of languages. Simon Legendary Architect? Celtic includes Welsh and Breton. Celtic languages are geographically linked to mission starbucks, western Europe, and they come in great gatsby two general flavors, goidelic (or Q-celtic) and starbucks, brythonic (or P-celtic). CELTIC REVIVAL : A literary movement involving increased interest in Welsh, Scottish, and Irish culture, myths, legends, and gatsby essay, literature.

It began in the late 1700s and starbucks, continues to introduction, this day. Thomas Gray's Pindaric ode The Bard (1757) and Ieuan Brydydd's publication of Some Specimens of the mission starbucks Poetry of the Ancient Welsh Bards (1764) mark its emergence, and Charlotte Guest's translation of The Mabinogion in 1839 marks its continued rise. Matthew Arnold's lectures on the education system in america Celtic literature at Oxford helped promote the foundation of a Chair of mission Celtic at that school in 1877. The Celtic Revival influenced Thomas Love Peacock, Alfred Lord Tennyson, Gerard Manley Hopkins, and W. B. Yeats, and great, probably led to the creation of the Abbey Theatre . A continuing part of the Celtic Revival is the mission starbucks Irish Literary Renaissance , a surge of extraordinary Irish talent in the late nineteenth and Greed in Professional Sports, twentieth century including Bram Stoker, James Joyce, William Butler Yeats, Samuel Beckett, George Bernard Shaw, and Seamus Heaney. CENOTAPH : A carving on a tombstone or monument, often in the form of a verse poem, biblical passage, or literary allusion appearing after the mission deceased individual's name and date of birth/death. Often used synonymously with epitaph . CENSORSHIP : The act of and Garfunkels Legendary Essay hiding, removing, altering or destroying copies of art or writing so that general public access to it is partially or completely limited. Contrast with bowdlerization. Click here to download a PDF handout discussing censorship in mission great detail. The Education System In America? The term originates in an occupational position in the Roman government.

After the fifth century BCE, Rome commissioned censors. These censors at first were limited to starbucks, conducting the census for tax estimations, but in latter times, their job was to impose moral standards for citizenship, including the removal of unsavory literature. Problem The Education System? See also the mission starbucks Censorship Ordinance of Pay Day: 1559 and the Profanity Act of 1606 . CENSORSHIP ORDINANCE OF 1559 : This law under Queen Elizabeth required the political censorship of public plays and all printed materials in matters of mission starbucks religion and the government. The Master of Revels was appointed to monitor and control such material. All of Shakespeare's early works were written under this act. We can see signs of alteration in his early works to conform to the requirements of the censors. Contrast with the problem the education system Profanity Act of mission 1606 . CENTAUR MYTH : In mythology and literary use, a common motif is the Pay Day: in Professional Sports centaur (a hybrid of mission starbucks horse-body with a human torso where the horse's head would be). This mythic creature has gone through a number of allegorical transformations in different literary periods. In classical Greek artwork and literature, centaurs were associated with sex and violence. Their lineage traces them to Centaurus, the twin brother of King Lapithes.

Both Centaurus and Lapithes were the offspring of Apollo and a river nymph named Stilbe. Stilbe gave birth to twins, with the elder Lapithes being strong, brave and handsome, but the younger twin Centaurus was ugly, brutish, and deformed. Unable to find a woman willing to great gatsby, marry him, Centaurus engaged in bestiality with mares, who in turn gave birth to half-human, half-horse hybrids that terrorized the land, becoming the first centaurs. Many Greek temples such as the Parthenon included a prominent carved scene called a centauromachia , which depicted the battle between Pirithous, a later king of the Lapith tribe, as he battled with centaurs who party-crashed his wedding and attempted to abduct the bride and bridesmaids. The scene was also popular in Greek pottery and mission, wall-painting, and it helped cement the Greek idea that centaurs were generally loutish creatures symbolizing bestial natures--especially the rights saudi lower passions of gluttony, rapine, and sexuality. Only a few exceptions (such as Chiron) were exceptions to this rule, and Greek heroes like Hercules spent a great deal of time beating up centaurs who sought to kidnap their wives and lovers. Later, medieval bestiaries revisited and Christianized the centaur myth. One medieval bestiary/commentary used centaurs as symbols of hypocrisy.

After pews gradually become common in starbucks late medieval churches near the turn of the Renaissance, such bestiaries depicted the centaur as standing in a pew so that only the human-looking upper half of the body was visible while the lower animal half was unseen. The commentators stated that even thus wicked people in churches would look virtuous in their public appearance, but their truly monstrous nature would remain concealed. By the human saudi Enlightenment, pastoral artwork and paintings tended to depict centaurs more as frolicking, playful creatures--erasing earlier overtones of rape and evil, and by the late 19th-century, fantasy writers at the time of George MacDonald rehabilitated them, making them deuteragonists and tritagonists that heroes would encounter on starbucks their quests. Among the Inklings of the 1940s, C.S. Lewis in introduction particular become fascinated with idealizing centaurs as noble creatures and starbucks, developed them into a private symbol for spiritual and bodily perfection. Lewis saw the upward human half of a centaur as being an emblem of reason and nobility, and the lower half being an emblem of natural biological or animal passions. Thus, the centaur became his emblem for the healthy union of the material body and the intellectual/spiritual domains--an organism as God intended humans to Simon and Garfunkels Legendary, be before the fall, or the perfect amalgamation of the chariot-driver, chariot, and mission starbucks, horses in the allegory of the charioteer that Plato retells in Phaedrus . CENTUM LANGUAGE : One of the two main branches of Indo-European languages. These centum languages are generally associated with western Indo-European languages and with the education in america, they often have a hard palatal /k/ sound rather than the sibilant sound found in equivalent satem words. See discussion under Indo-European . CHAIN OF BEING : An elaborate cosmological model of the universe common in the Middle Ages and mission, the Renaissance. The Great Chain of Being was a permanently fixed hierarchy with the Judeo-Christian God at Simon and Garfunkels Architect, the top of the chain and inanimate objects like stones and mud at the bottom.

Intermediate beings and objects, such as angels, humans, animals, and plants, were arrayed in descending order of intelligence, authority, and capability between these two extremes. The Chain of mission Being was seen as designed by God. Problem In America? The idea of the Chain of Being resonates in art, politics, literature, cosmology, theology, and philosophy throughout the Middle Ages and Renaissance. Mission? It takes on particular complexity because different parts of the Chain were thought to correspond to Pay Day: in Professional Sports Essay, each other. (See correspondences .) Click here for more information. CHANSON (French song): A love-song or French love-poem, especially one the Provençal troubadour poets created or performed. Conventionally, the chanson has five or six stanzas, all of identical structure, and starbucks, an envoi or a tornada at the end.

They were usually dedicated or devoted to a lady or a mistress in the courtly love tradition. CHANSON DE GESTE (French, song of deeds): These chansons are lengthy Old French poems written between the eleventh and fourteenth centuries glorifying Carolingian noblemen and problem with system, their feudal lords. The chansons de geste combine history and legend . They focus on religious aspects of chivalry rather than courtly love or the knightly quests so common in the chivalric romance . Typical subject-matter involves (1) internal wars and intrigue among noble factions (2) external conflict with Saracens, and (3) rebellious vassals who rise up against their lords in acts of betrayal. Typical poetic structure involves ten-syllable lines marked by assonance and stanzas of varying length. The chansons de geste are in many ways comparable to epics . Over eighty texts survive, but The Song of Roland is by far the mission most popular today. CHANSON À PERSONNAGES (French, song to people): Old French songs or poems in dialogue form. Common subjects include quarrels between husbands and Pay Day:, wives, meetings between a lone knight and a comely shepherdess, or romantic exchanges between lovers leaving each other in the morning. See aubade . CHARACTER : Any representation of an individual being presented in a dramatic or narrative work through extended dramatic or verbal representation. The reader can interpret characters as endowed with moral and dispositional qualities expressed in what they say ( dialogue ) and starbucks, what they do ( action ). E. M. Forster describes characters as flat (i.e., built around a single idea or quality and unchanging over the course of the narrative) or round (complex in temperament and Simon and Garfunkels Legendary Architect Essay, motivation; drawn with subtlety; capable of growth and change during the course of the narrative).

The main character of a work of a fiction is mission, typically called the protagonist ; the character against whom the protagonist struggles or contends (if there is problem with, one), is the starbucks antagonist . If a single secondary character aids the protagonist throughout the narrative, that character is the deuteragonist (the hero's side-kick). A character of tertiary importance is a tritagonist . These terms originate in classical Greek drama, in which a tenor would be assigned the role of protagonist, a baritone the Greed in Professional Sports Essay role of deuteragonist, and a bass would play the tritagonist. Compare flat characters with stock characters . CHARACTERIZATION : An author or poet's use of description, dialogue, dialect, and action to create in the reader an emotional or intellectual reaction to starbucks, a character or to make the character more vivid and realistic. Problem With System? Careful readers note each character's attitude and thoughts, actions and reaction, as well as any language that reveals geographic, social, or cultural background. CHARACTONYM : An evocative or symbolic name given to a character that conveys his or her inner psychology or allegorical nature. For instance, Shakespeare has a prostitute named Doll Tearsheet and a moody young man named Mercutio . Steinbeck has the sweet-natured Candy in mission Of Mice and Men . Spenser has a lawless knight named Sansloy (French, without law) and an arrogant giant named Orgoglio (Italian, pride).

On a more physical level, Rabelais might name a giant Gargantua or C.S. Lewis might call his talking lion Aslan (Turkish for in Professional Essay lion). These names are all simple charactonyms. Cf. eponym . CHASTUSHKA (plur. chastushki ): In 19th-century Russian literature, a short song, usually of four lines--usually epigrammatic and humorous and nature, commonly focusing on starbucks topics such as love and commonly associated with young artists. Chastushki on compare and contrast political topics became more common in the 20th century. Most modern examples rhyme and use regular trochaic meter, though in the oldest examples, these features are less regular, with cadences that are feminine or dactylic (Harkins 121). CHAUCERISM : In the starbucks Renaissance, experimental revivals and new word formations that were consciously designed to Change, imitate the sounds, the feel, and verbal patterns from an older century--a verbal or grammatical anachronism . Spenser uses many Chaucerisms in The Fairie Queene . CHEKE SYSTEM : As summarized by Baugh, a proposed method for indicating long vowels and standardizing spelling first suggested by Sir John Cheke in starbucks Renaissance orthography. Cheke would double vowels to Simon Architect Essay, indicate a long sound. For instance, mate would be spelled maat , lake would be spelled laak , and so on. Silent e 's would be removed, and the letter y would be abolished and an i used in its place (Baugh 209).

It did not catch on. CHIASMUS (from Greek, cross or x): A literary scheme in which the author introduces words or concepts in a particular order, then later repeats those terms or similar ones in reversed or backwards order. It involves taking parallelism and deliberately turning it inside out, creating a crisscross pattern. For example, consider the chiasmus that follows: By day the frolic, and the dance by night . If we draw the words as a chart, the words form an x (hence the word's Greek etymology, from mission, chi meaning x): The sequence is typically a b b a or a b c c b a . I lead the great essay life I love ; I love the life I lead . Naked I rose from the earth ; to the grave I fall clothed . Biblical examples in the Greek can be found in Philippians 1:15-17 and Colossians 3:11, though the mission starbucks artistry is often lost in English translation. Chiasmus often overlaps with antimetabole . CHICANO / CHICANA LITERATURE : Twentieth- and twenty-first-century writings and poetry by Mexican-American immigrants or their children--usually in English with short sections or phrases in Spanish. Problem System In America? An example would be Sandra Cisneros' writings, such as The House on Mango Street or My Wicked Wicked Ways . Following the grammatical conventions for gender in Spanish, the adjective Chicano takes an -o suffix in reference to male authors and an -a suffix in reference to starbucks, female authors. Cf. Latino Writing . CHIVALRY : An idealized code of military and with the education system, social behavior for the aristocracy in the late medieval period. The word chivalry comes from Old French cheval (horse), and chivalry literally means horsemanship. Normally, only rich nobility could afford the expensive armor, weaponry, and warhorses necessary for mounted combat, so the act of becoming a knight was symbolically indicated by giving the knight silver spurs.

The right to knighthood in the late medieval period was inherited through the father, but it could also be granted by the king or a lord as a reward for services. The tenets of chivalry attempted to starbucks, civilize the brutal activity of warfare. The chivalric ideals involve sparing non-combatants such as women, children, and helpless prisoners; the protection of the church; honesty in word and bravery in deeds; loyalty to problem with the education in america, one's liege; dignified behavior; and single-combat between noble opponents who had a quarrel. Other matters associated with chivalry include gentlemanly contests in arms supervised by witnesses and starbucks, heralds, behaving according to the manners of polite society, courtly love , brotherhood in arm s , and feudalism . See knight for Change additional information. This code became of great popular interest to British readers in the 1800s, leading to a surge of mission historical novels, poems, and paintings dealing with medieval matters.

Examples of this nineteenth-century fascination include the Pre-Raphaelite Movement , William Morris's revival of saudi arabia medieval handcrafts, Scott's novels such as Ivanhoe , and the earnestly sympathetic (though unrealistic) depiction of knighthood in starbucks Tennyson's Idylls of the Essay Change King . In Tennyson's poem Guinevere , King Arthur describes the ideals of knighthood thus: I made them lay their hands in mine and swear. To reverence the King, as if he were. Their conscience, and their conscience as their King. To break the heathen and uphold the Christ, To ride abroad redressing human wrongs, To speak no slander, no, nor listen to it, To honor his own word as if his God's, To lead sweet lives in purest chastity, To love one maiden only, cleave to her, And worship her by mission years of noble deeds,

Until they won her. For the best modern scholarly discussion of chivalry as a historic reality in the Middle Ages, read Maurice H. Keen's Chivalry (Yale University Press, 1984). CHORAGOS (often Latinized as choragus ): A sponsor or patron of a play in classical Greece. Simon And Garfunkels? Often this sponsor was honored by mission serving as the leader of the chorus (see below). CHORIC FIGURE : Any character in compare introduction any type of narrative literature that serves the same purpose as a chorus in drama by remaining detached from the main action and commenting upon or explaining this action to the audience. See chorus , below. CHORUS : (1) A group of singers who stand alongside or off stage from the principal performers in a dramatic or musical performance. (2) The song or refrain that this group of singers sings. In ancient Greece, the chorus was originally a group of male singers and dancers ( choreuti ) who participated in religious festivals and dramatic performances by singing commenting on the deeds of the characters and interpreting the significance of the events within the play.

This group contrasts with the mission starbucks actors (Greek hypocrites ). Shakespeare alters the traditional chorus by replacing the singers with a single figure--often allegorical in nature. Essay Management? For instance, Time comes on stage in The Winter's Tale to explain the passing years. Likewise, Rumor appears in mission starbucks Henry IV, Part Two to summarize the gossip about Prince Hal. See also choragos and choric figure , above. CHRISTIAN NOVEL : A novel that focuses on and contrast Christianity, evangelism, or conversion stories. Mission? Sometimes the plots are overtly focused on Legendary Essay this theme, but others are primarily allegorical or symbolic. Traditionally, most literary critics have rated these works as being of lower literary quality than the canon of great novels in Western civilization. Examples include Bodie Thoen's In My Father's House , Catherine Marshall's Christy , Par Lagerkvist's Barabbas , Henryk Sienkiewicz's Quo Vadis , and Lloyd C. Douglas's The Robe . CHRISTOLOGICAL FIGURE : In theology, Christology is the study of Jesus' nature, i.e., whether Christ had both a human and divine nature, whether he had one sentient will alone or one human will and one divine will, whether he was theoretically capable of sin like humanity or perfectly righteous like the other persons in the trinity, whether he shared in the Father's omniscience or suffered from mission, human afflictions like doubt or ignorance, whether he existed or not before his biological birth, whether he was equal in authority and power to the other persons in gatsby essay the trinity, and whether he actually had a physical body (the orthodox view) or was composed entirely of mission spirit (the Arian view). In literary studies, the term christological has been commandeered to refer to (1) an object, person, or figure that represents Christ allegorically or symbolically, or (2) any similar object, person, or figure with qualities generally reminiscent of problem with system Christ.

Examples of christological figures include the Old Man in mission starbucks Hemingway's The Old Man and the Sea , who after his struggle with the fish ends up bleeding from his palms and lying on the floor in great a cruciform pattern; the lion Aslan in C. S. Lewis's The Chronicles of Narnia , who allows himself like the lion of the tribe of Judah to mission, be slain in Essay on Understanding Change order to starbucks, redeem a traitorous child; and compare and contrast introduction, the unicorn in mission starbucks medieval bestiaries, which would lie down and place its phallic , ivory-horned meekly in a maiden's lap so that hunters might kill it--which medieval monks interpreted as an allegory of with the education system in america Christ allowing himself to enter the womb of the virgin Mary so that he might later be sacrificed. Zora Neale Hurston creates a christ-figure in Delia Jones, who in the short story Sweat suffers to mission starbucks, support her ungrateful husband and crawled over the earth in Gethsemane and up the rocks of Calvary many, many times . . Compare And Contrast? . and so on. CHRONICLE : A history or a record of mission starbucks events. The Education System In America? It refers to any systematic account or narration of events that makes minimal attempt to interpret, question, or analyze that history. Mission Starbucks? Because of this, chronicles often contain large amounts of on Understanding Change Management folklore or other word-of-mouth legends the writer has heard. In biblical literature, the book of Chronicles is one example of a chronicle. Medieval chronicles include Joinville's account of the Crusades and Geoffrey of Monmouth's History of the starbucks Kings of Britain , a source for much Arthurian legend. In the Renaissance , Raphael Holinshed, Edward Hall, and other chroniclers influenced Shakespeare.

Chronicles were popular in on Understanding Change Management England after the British defeated the Spanish Armada in 1588. The accompanying patriotic fervor increased the public's demand for plays about mission starbucks, English history. If Chronicles are written in the form of human saudi arabia annual entries, they are also called annals . See also lepotis . CHRONOLOGICAL SNOBBERY : C. S. Lewis's term for what he describes as the uncritical acceptance of . . . the assumption that whatever has gone out of starbucks date is on that account discredited, i.e., the unthinking belief that past ideas or literature are obsolete and that current or present ideas are superior to them, the myth that all change is essay, beneficial progress. Lewis initially felt torn between his love of medieval literature and the sense that it made him a dinosaur out of touch with the 20th century, and he felt depressed to think the fictions of the mission past as beautiful lies. In a fierce philosophical debate ( The Great War ) with Owen Barfield, Barfield convinced him that such a view was wrong, and problem with, Lewis states Barfield made short work of my chronological snobbery (qtd. in Duriez 45). CHRONOLOGY (Greek: logic of time): The order in which events happen, especially when emphasizing a cause-effect relationship in history or in a narrative.

CHTHONIC : Related to the dead, the grave, the underworld, or the fertility of the earth. In Greek mythology, the Greeks venerated three categories of spirits: (1) the Olympian gods, who were worshipped in public ceremonies--often outdoors on the east side of large columned temples in starbucks the agora , (2) ancestral heroes like Theseus and Hercules, who were often worshipped only in saudi arabia local shrines or at specific burial mounds, (3) chthonic spirits, which included (a) earth-gods and mission, death-gods like Hades, Hecate, and Persephone; (b) lesser-known (and often nameless) spirits of the human rights departed; (c) dark and mission, bloody spirits of vengeance like the Furies and Nemesis, and (d) (especially in Minoan tradition) serpents, which were revered as intermediaries between the surface world of the living and the subterranean realm of the dead. This is why snakes were so prominent in the healing cults of Aesclepius. It became common in Change Management Greek to speak of the Olympian in contrast to starbucks, the cthonioi (those belonging to the earth). Compare Introduction? See Burkert 199-203 for starbucks detailed discussion. CHURCH SUMMONER : Medieval law courts were divided into civil courts that tried public offenses and ecclesiastical courts that tried offenses against the church. Summoners were minor church officials whose duties included summoning offenders to appear before the church and and contrast, receive sentence. By the fourteenth century, the job became synonymous with extortion and corruption because many summoners would take bribes from the individuals summoned to court.

Chaucer satirized a summoner in The Canterbury Tales . CINQUAIN : A five-line stanza with varied meter and rhyme scheme, possibly of medieval origin but definitely influenced after 1909 by Japanese poetic forms such as the tanka . Most modern cinquains are now based on the form standardized by starbucks an American poet, Adelaide Crapsey (1878-1918), in which each unrhymed line has a fixed number of syllables--respectively two, four, six, eight, and two syllables in each line--for a rigid total of 22 syllables. Here is Legendary Architect Essay, probably the mission starbucks most famous example of a cinquain from Crapsey's The Complete Poems ; Three silent things: The falling snow. the hour. Before the dawn. the mouth of on Understanding Change one. Perhaps under the influence of diamante poems, many modern elementary school teachers have begun adding an additional set of conventions to the cinquain in which each line has a specific structural requirement: Line 1 - Consists of the two-syllable title or subject for the poem.

Line 2 - Consists of two adjectives totaling four syllables describing the subject or title. Line 3 - Consists of three verbs totaling six syllables describing the mission subject's actions. Line 4 - Consists of great four words totaling eight syllables giving the mission writer's opinion of the subject. Line 5 - Consists of one two-syllable word, often a synonym for the subject. These secondary conventions, however, are usually limited to children's poetic exercises, and professional poets do not generally follow these conventions. CIRCULAR STRUCTURE : A type of artistic structure in which a sense of completeness or closure does not originate in coming to a conclusion that breaks with the earlier story; instead, the sense of closure originates in the way the end of a piece returns to Management, subject-matter, wording, or phrasing found at the beginning of the narrative, play, or poem. An example of circular structure might be The Secret Life of Walter Mitty, which ends with an ellipsis identical to mission, the opening sequence, indicating that the middle-aged protagonist is engaging in yet another escapist fantasy. Leigh Hunt's poem Jenny Kissed Me is an example of compare and contrast a circularly-structured poem, since it ends with the same words that open the speaker's ecstatic, gossipy report.

Langdon Smith's poem Evolution is circular in mission starbucks its concluding repetition of the opening phrase, When you were a tadpole, and and Garfunkels Essay, I was a fish, but it is mission, also thematically circular, in that it implies the cycle of reincarnated love will continue again and again in human saudi spite of death. In many ways, the smaller tales within a larger frame narrative act as part of a circular structure, because each small tale begins by breaking the mission reader away from the larger, encompassing narrative and concludes by returning the rights saudi arabia reader to mission starbucks, that larger frame-narrative. CITY DIONYSIA : See discussion under dionysia . CIVIC CRITICS : A school of 19th-century Russian literary scholars who judged the value of Pay Day: in Professional writing primarily by its political context and starbucks, progressive ideas. They commonly wrote in oposition to the aesthetic theories of the Parnassian Poets (Harkins 55). Example critics include Belinski (active in introduction the 1840s), Dobrolyubov, and Chernyshevski. CLANG ASSOCIATION : A semantic change caused because one word sounds similar to another. For instance, the word fruition in Middle English meant enjoyment. In Modern English, its meaning has changed to completion because it sounds like the word fruit --hence the starbucks idea of ripeness, of gatsby essay growing to full size, as Algeo notes (314). CLASSICAL : The term in Western culture is usually used in reference to the art, architecture, drama, philosophy, literature, and history surrounding the Greeks and Romans between 1000 BCE and 410 BCE.

Works created during the Greco-Roman period are often called classics . The Golden Age of starbucks Classical Greek culture is commonly held to be the problem with the education fifth century BCE (especially 450-410 BCE). Starbucks? The term can be applied more generally to any ancient and revered writing or artwork from a specific culture; thus we refer to Classical Chinese, Classical Hebrew, and Pay Day: in Professional Sports, Classical Arabic works. For extended discussion, click here. To download a PDF handout placing the periods of literary history in order, click here. CLASSICAL HAIKU : Another term for the hokku , the predecessor of the modern haiku . See hokku and haiku . CLAUSE : In grammatical terminology, a clause is any word-construction containing a nominative and mission, a predicate, i.e., a subject doing a verb. The term clause contrasts with the term phrase . Compare? A phrase might contain nouns as appositives or objects, and it might contain verb-like words in the form of participles or gerunds, but it crucially lacks a subject doing a verb. For example, consider this sentence: Joe left the building after seeing his romantic rival. Clause : Joe left the building.

Phrase : after seeing his romantic rival. If the clause could stand by itself as a complete sentence, it is mission starbucks, known as an independent clause . If the clause cannot stand by itself as a complete sentence (typically because it begins with a subordinating conjunction), it is said to be a dependent clause . For expanded discussion and examples, click here. Essay? For a discusion of starbucks clauses according to functional type, click here ( TBA). CLERIHEW : In light verse, a funny poem of closed-form with four lines rhyming ABAB in irregular meter, usually about human rights, a famous person from starbucks, history or literature. Typically the historical person's name forms one of the rhymes. The name comes from Edmund Clerihew Bentley (1875-1956), the purported inventor. He supposedly had a habit of scribbling down such rhymes during dull lectures at school, including this one from his chemistry class: Sir Humphrey Davy. He lived in the odium.

Of having discovered sodium. CLICHÉ : A hackneyed or trite phrase that has become overused. Clichés are considered bad writing and bad literature. Click here to download a PDF handout for more information. Cliché rhymes are rhymes that are considered trite or predictable. Cliché rhymes in poetry include love and dove , moon and June , trees and breeze . Sometimes, to avoid cliché rhymes, poets will go to hyperbolic lengths, such as the trisyllabic rhymes in Lord Byron's Don Juan . CLICHÉ RHYME : Cliché rhymes are rhymes that are considered trite or predictable. They include love and dove , moon and June , trees and breeze . Sometimes, to avoid cliché rhymes, poets will go to hyperbolic lengths, such as the trisyllabic rhymes in Pay Day: Greed in Professional Essay Lord Byron's Don Juan . CLICK : A sound common in starbucks some non-Indo-European languages in Polynesia made by clucking the tongue or drawing in air with the tongue rather than expelling it from the lungs--such as the sound represented by the letter combination tsk-tsk . Some linguists indicate this sound in transcribing Polynesian languages by inserting an exclamation mark to gatsby essay, indicate the palatal click. Mission? For instance, the !chung tribe has a palatal click as part of its name. CLIFFHANGER : A melodramatic narrative (especially in films, magazines, or serially published novels) in which each section ends at a suspenseful or dramatic moment, ensuring that the audience will watch the Pay Day: in Professional Sports next film or read the next installment to find out what happens.

The term comes from the mission common 1930's film-endings in introduction which the starbucks main characters are literally left hanging on the edge of a cliff until the story resumes. The term cliffhanger has more loosely been applied to any situation, event, or contest in which the outcome remains uncertain until the Essay on Understanding Change Management last moment possible. CLIMAX, LITERARY (From Greek word for ladder): The moment in a play, novel, short story, or narrative poem at mission, which the crisis reaches its point of greatest intensity and is thereafter resolved. It is also the peak of emotional response from a reader or spectator and usually the turning point in the action. The climax usually follows or overlaps with the crisis of a story, though some critics use the two terms synonymously. (Contrast with anticlimax , crisis , and denouement ; do not confuse with rhetorical climax , below.) CLIMAX, RHETORICAL : Also known as auxesis and crescendo , this refers to an artistic arrangement of Essay on Understanding Change Management a list of items so that they appear in a sequence of increasing importance. See rhetorical schemes for more information. The opposite of climax is bathos . CLIP : To form a word by abbreviating a longer expression, or a word formed by the same process. For instance, the starbucks word auto (as in auto shop) is a clipped form of automobile . CLOSE READING : Reading a piece of literature carefully, bit by bit, in order to analyze the significance of every individual word, image, and artistic ornament.

Click here for more information. The term is sometimes used synonymously with critical reading , though I arbitrarily prefer to reserve close reading as a reference for analyzing literature and critical reading as a reference for Sports Essay breaking down an essay's argument logically. Cf. critical reading . CLOSED POETIC FORM : Poetry written in mission a a specific or traditional pattern according to the required rhyme, meter, line length, line groupings, and number of lines within a genre of great essay poetry. Examples of a closed-form poetry include haiku , limericks , and sonnets , which have set numbers of syllables, lines, and traditional subject-matter. Mission Starbucks? Contrast with open poetic form . CLOSURE (Latin clausura , a closing): Closure has two common meanings. First, it means a sense of completion or finality at the conclusion of play or narrative work--especially a feeling in the audience that all the problems have been resolved satisfactorily. Frequently, this sort of closure may involve stock phrases (and they lived happily ever after or finis ) or certain conventional ceremonial actions (dropping a curtain or having the actors in Greed Sports a play take a bow).

The narrative may reveal the solution of the primary problem(s) driving the mission plot, the death of a major character (especially the Legendary Essay antagonist, the protagonist's romantic interest or even the protagonist herself), or careful denouement . An example of starbucks extended denouement as closure occurs in George Eliot's Middlemarch , in great gatsby essay which the author carefully explains what happened in mission starbucks later years to each character in the novel. Closure can also come about by a radical alteration or change in the imaginary world created by an author. For instance, in J. R. R. Tolkien's The Lord of the Rings , much of the and Garfunkels Architect closure to the saga comes from the departure of the mission starbucks elves and wizards, who sail across the sea, leaving the and contrast introduction world of human men and women forever, an mission, act which apparently causes magic to the education system in america, fade. Shakespearean comedies often achieve closure by having major characters find love-interests and declare their marital intentions. Other more experimental forms of literature and poetry may achieve closure by circular structure , in mission starbucks which the poem or story ends by coming back to the narrative's original starting spot, or by returning a similar situation to what was found at the beginning of the tale. See discussion under denouement . Do note that some narratives intentionally seek to frustrate the audience's sense of closure. Examples of literature that reject conventions of closure include cliffhanger serials (see above), which reject normal closure in an attempt to human rights saudi, gain returning audiences. Mission Starbucks? Many postmodern narratives influenced by existential philosophy, on the other hand, reject closure as too simplistic and artificial in comparison with the complexities of human living. Secondly, some critics use the term closure as a derogatory term to imply the reduction of a work's meanings to Simon and Garfunkels Essay, a single and complete sense that excludes the claims of other interpretations. Mission Starbucks? For extended discussion of the education system in america closure, see Frank Kermode's The Sense of An Ending: Studies in mission the Theory of Fiction , as reprinted in 2001. CLOWN : (1) A fool or rural bumpkin in Shakespearean vocabulary.

Examples of this type of clown include Lance, Bottom, Dogberry, and other Shakespearean characters. (2) A professional jester who performs pranks, sleight-of-hand and juggling routines, and on Understanding Management, who sings songs or tells riddles and jokes at court. By convention, such jesters were given considerable leeway to speak on nearly any topic (even criticizing court policy) as long as the criticism was veiled in riddles and wordplay. Examples of this type in Shakespeare's work include Touchstone, Feste, and mission, Lear's Fool. Cf. Legendary Essay? fool . COCKNEY : Originally, in mission Middle English times, the term cockney was a derogatory term for a dumb city-dweller. It comes from cock's egg, the idea that an uneducated urbanite would be so ignorant he or she would not realize that a male rooster (a cock) would be the wrong gender to lay an egg.

By Renaissance times, the word was applied to those living in the Bow Bells area of London in Cheapside, a working class district. Today, the term implies most strongly the Essay Change spoken dialect of that area. Cockney dialect tends to be non-rhotic, with final -er pronounced as a schwa, and it often shows signs of t -glottalization. Starbucks? It frequently substitutes /r/ with /w/, and merges lexical sets like north/force and thought/start . And Contrast Introduction? The imprecise term Estuary English refers to spoken English in the southeast of Britain that merges linguistic traits of RP and Cockney, and mission, recent dialect shift that appears to be spreading across the island. See also Cockney Rhyming Slang , below. COCKNEY RHYMING SLANG : A form of Pay Day: Greed Sports Essay slang in which the speaker substitutes one word in a sentence with another word or phrase that rhymes with the starbucks implied word--but which leaves out the actual, final rhyming part. This wordplay is associated with the dialect appearing in the Cheapside district of London's East End.

The resulting sentence is Management, baffling for outsiders unfamiliar with the tradition but provides a pleasing word puzzle to Cockney speakers. For examples, instead of stating that The woman had exquisite legs, a Cockney speaker might say, The woman had exquisite bacons. Here, the mission starbucks phrase bacon- and-eggs rhymes with legs , so the speaker substitutes it for legs in the sentence, but deletes the final rhyming part of the phrase. CODE-SWITCHING : In bilingual or multilingual speech, rapidly changing from the vocabulary, grammar, and patterns of one language to another--often in mid-sentence. An example sentence to illustrate this process using Latin, Spanish, German, and French might read as follows: Imprimus, el commander qui runs his troops y sus attendants to death in Legendary Essay a blitzkrieg isn't tres sapiens, n'est-pas? [In the first place, the commander who runs his troops and mission, his attendants to death in a sudden attack isn't very wise, right?]

Although the term code-switching is one used in linguistics, code-switching as a phenomenon does appear in literature. The character of Salvatori the great monk in mission Umberto Eco's The Name of the Rose engages continuously in code-switching among Latin, Spanish, French, Italian, and German tongues, for instance. Architect? Code-switching is a common feature in Hispanic American English and in the fiction writings of Chicano authors. Mission Starbucks? Cf. dog-latin and macaronic texts . CODICOLOGY (from Latin codex , book): The study of books as physical artifacts. COGNATE : Cognates are words that (1) match each other to some degree in sound and meaning, (2) come from a common root in an older language, but (3) did not actually serve as a root for each other. For instance, in problem with the education system European Romance languages, many words trace their roots back to Latin. The Latin word unus (one) later became the root for a number of words meaning one such as une (French) and uno (Spanish). Une and uno are cognates --cousins or siblings on the family tree of languages--but unus is the root or ancestor for these relatives. The Hebrew shalom , Arabic salaam , and the Aramaic shelam are similar cognates all meaning peace. Cognates play an starbucks, important part in reconstructing dead languages such as proto-Indo-European , and they can be enormously helpful in learning new languages.

The amateur philologist should be cautious of false cognates, folk etymology , and great, faux amis , however. False cognates are words that happen to have a similar sound and meaning, but which are actually unrelated semantically and historically. Folk etymologies are erroneous accounts of how a word came into existence. Typically, the originator of the error hears or reads an unfamiliar word. The orginator then fabricates a spurious source by linking the strange word to a more familiar expression or then fashions a pun based upon sound similarities. Faux amis are technically cognates in terms of their morphology, but in terms of their meaning, the words have drifted apart from each other across time, such as the English verb embarass (to humiliate) and the Spanish embarazar (to impregnate). COLLECTIVE NOUN, COLLECTIVE PRONOUN : A noun such as team or pair that technically refers to a collective group of individuals or individual items. What makes them tricky in grammar? They can be singular or plural (e.g., one team , two teams , or one pair, two pairs .) Many students forget that and mistakenly treat the grammatically singular word as if it were always plural. Likewise, collective pronouns like some use the modifier rather than the headword for singular versus plural structure. For instance, Some of the the workers are gone uses a plural verb, but Some of the work is mission, done uses a singular verb.

COLLECTIVE UNCONSCIOUS : In twentieth-century Jungian Psychology , this term refers to a shared group of archetypes (atavistic and Greed Essay, universal images, cultural symbols, and recurring situations dealing with the fundamental facts of human life) passed along to mission, each generation to in Professional, the next in folklore and stories or generated anew by the way must face similar problems to those our ancestors faced. Within a culture, the collective unconscious forms a treasury of powerful shared images and symbols found in our dreams, art stories, myths, and religious icons. See more detailed discussion under archetypal criticism . COLLOCATION : The frequency or tendency some words have to combine with each other. Mission? For instance, Algeo notes that the phrases tall person and high mountain seem to great gatsby, fit together readily without sounding strange. A non-native speaker might talk about a high person or tall mountain, and this construction might sound slightly odd to a native English speaker.

The difference is in collocation. COLLOQUIALISM : A word or phrase used everyday in starbucks plain and relaxed speech, but rarely found in formal writing. Human Rights Saudi? (Compare with cliché , jargon and slang .) COLONIAL PERIOD : American and British historians use this term somewhat differently. American scholars usually use the term colonial period to refer to the years in the American colonies before the American Revolution against the British Monarchy--usually dating it from 1607 (when Jamestown was founded) to mission, 1787 (when Congress ratified the Federal Constitution). This period coincides roughly with the Reformation in England and continues up through the end of the Enlightenment or Neoclassical Period. American writers from the colonial period include Ben Franklin, Thomas Paine, and Anne Bradstreet. See also Neoclassic . Click here to download a PDF handout placing this period in on Understanding Change historical context with other literary movments. When British historians use the term, they sometimes tend to apply the word colonial in more general reference to the British expansions into the Americas, the Indies, India, Africa, and the Middle-East over mission the course of several centuries, even up to the nineteenth century and early twentieth century. See colonialism , below. COLONIALISM : The term refers broadly and generally to the habit of powerful civilizations to colonize less powerful ones. On the obvious level, this process can take the form of a literal geographic occupation, outright enslavement, religious conversion at gun-point, or forced assimilation of native peoples.

On a more subtle level, this process can take the form of and Garfunkels Legendary Architect bureucratic policy that incidentally or indirectly leads to the extinction of a minority's language or culture, economic exploitation of cheap labor, and globalistic erasure of cultural differences. The term is often applied in academic discussion of literature from the colonial period. We can see the concerns of colonialism and imperial ambition in mission the works of George Orwell's Shooting an Elephant, in Rudyard Kipling's fictional tales about India, and in Change Management Josef Conrad's novella, Heart of Darkness . See Colonial Period , above. COMEDY (from Greek: komos , songs of merrimakers): In the original meaning of the word, comedy referred to mission, a genre of on Understanding Management drama during the Dionysia festivals of ancient Athens. The first comedies were loud and boisterous drunken affairs, as the word's etymology suggests.

Later, in medieval and mission starbucks, Renaissance use, the word comedy came to mean any play or narrative poem in which the main characters manage to compare, avert an impending disaster and have a happy ending. The comedy did not necessarily have to starbucks, be funny, and introduction, indeed, many comedies are serious in tone. It is only in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries that comedy's exclusive connotations of humor arose. See also Low Comedy, High Comedy, Comedy of the Absurd , Comedy of Humors , and Comedy of Manners . COMEDY OF THE ABSURD : A modern form of mission comedy dramatizing the meaninglessness, uncertainty, and pointless absurdity of and contrast introduction human existence. A famous example is Samuel Beckett's Waiting for Godot . Cf. existentialism . COMEDY OF HUMORS : A Renaissance drama in which numerous characters appear as the starbucks embodiment of great gatsby stereotypical types of mission starbucks people, each character having the physiological and behavioral traits associated with a specific humor in the human body. The majority of the cast consists of such stock characters. (See humors, bodily for more information.) Some of Shakespeare's characters, including Pistol, Bardulph, and others, show signs of having been adapted from the stereotypical humor characters. In literature, a humor character was a type of flat character in whom a single passion predominated; this interpretation was especially popular in Elizabethan and other Renaissance literature. See also stock character . COMEDY OF INNOCENCE : We have two definitions here. (1) In anthropological terms, a comedy of innocence is a ritualized symbolic behavior (or set of such behaviors) designed to alleviate individual or communal guilt about an execution or sacrifice or to great gatsby, hide the blame for such an action. In ancient Greece, the ax or dagger used in a sacrifice might be put on trial (instead of the priest wielding it). The sacrificial animal might be required to mission starbucks, volunteer by shaking its head or by walking up to the altar to eat the grain sitting on it. In America? The sacrificial victim might be condemned to execution after being released where it could set foot in a forbidden holy grove or taboo sacred mountain (cf.

Exodus 19:12-13 and mission, Judges 11:30-40). And Garfunkels? In America, we see remnants of the comedy of innocence in customs such as the 19th-century's hangman's black mask (to erase the executioner's identity) or the mission starbucks custom of granting the condemned prisoner's last request or final meal (to alleviate any sense of Architect Essay cruelty on the jailer's part). (2) A specific myth told by later generations to erase or hide ancient evidence of what looks like the starbucks practice of human sacrifice in earlier times. For instance, a number of local Greek myths describe characters like Leucothea, Palaemon, and Glaucus; they fall or are thrown into the sea where they are magically transformed into sea-gods. Given the relative insignificance of these gods in the Greek pantheon , it is Management, likely this sort of tale either (a) developed out of local hero cults or (b) the tale alludes to an ancient or prehistoric belief that drowned sacrificial victims would live on as animistic spirits. Mission? Another common version of the Pay Day: Greed comedy of innocence is the mission motif of a human sacrificial victim (usually a child) who is miraculously saved ( deus ex machina ) and an animal substituted in his or her place. For example, in some Greek myths, Iphigenia is replaced by compare introduction a white hind before her father can sacrifice her to gain good winds for the Trojan voyage. Mission? Phrixus gets whisked to safety by a Golden Ram, which is then sacrificed in the young boy's place.

In the Hebrew Bible, Yahweh stops Abraham from killing Isaac, and great, he directs Abraham's attention to a ram with its horns caught in mission starbucks a thicket (Genesis 22:9-13). Introduction? Scholars of mythology often see the dozens of such tales appearing cross-culturally and interpret them as having their origins in the comedy of innocence. COMEDY OF MANNERS : A comic drama consisting of mission five or three acts in which the attitudes and customs of a society are critiqued and satirized according to Change, high standards of intellect and morality. The dialogue is usually clever and sophisticated, but often risqué . Characters are valued according to their linguistic and intellectual prowess. It is the opposite of the starbucks slapstick humor found in a farce or in a fabliau . COMIC OPERA : An outgrowth of the gatsby essay eighteenth-century ballad operas, in which new or original music is composed specially for the lyrics. (This contrasts with the ballad opera , in which the lyrics were set to pre-existing popular music.)

COMIC RELIEF : A humorous scene , incident, character , or bit of dialogue occurring after some serious, tragic, or frightening moment. Comic relief is deliberately designed to relieve emotional intensity and simultaneously heighten and highlight the seriousness or tragedy of the action. Macbeth contains Shakespeare's most famous example of comic relief in the form of a drunken porter. Mission? Another is just after the climactic scene in Dante's Inferno , in and contrast which Dante encounters Satan himself frozen in ice. The demon initially terrified Dante, but the starbucks narrator's fear falls way to the reader's laughter in a comic reversal in which Dante and Virgil climb down Satan's body and move through the center of the earth's gravity, at which point Dante is confused by on Understanding the way gravity reverses, looks upward, and finds himself directly staring at Satan's nether regions, writing, . . . I beheld him upward hold his legs. // And if I then become disguieted, / Let stolid people think who do not see / What the point is beyond which I had passed (34.90-93). COMING-OF-AGE STORY : A novel in which an adolescent protagonist comes to adulthood by mission starbucks a process of experience and disillusionment. This character loses his or her innocence, discovers that previous preconceptions are false, or has the security of childhood torn away, but usually matures and strengthens by Pay Day: in Professional this process.

Examples include Wieland's Agathon , Herman Raucher's Summer of '42 , Ray Bradbury's Dandelion Wine , Joyce's A Portrait of the Artist as a Young Man , and Jane Austen's Northanger Abbey . The most famous examples are in German. In German, a tale in the genre is called a Bildungsroman or a Erziehungsroman . Mission? Examples include Goethe's Die Leiden des jungen Werthers and Pay Day:, Thomas Mann's Königliche Hoheit . COMITATUS : (Latin: companionship or band): The term describes the tribal structure of the mission starbucks Anglo-Saxons and other Germanic tribes in which groups of men would swear fealty to a hlaford (lord) in exchange for food, mead, and heriot , the loan of fine armor and weaponry. The men who swore such an oath were called thegns (roughly akin to modern Scottish thane), and they vowed to fight for their lord in battle. It was considered a shameful disaster to outlive one's own lord. The comitatus was the functional military and government unit of Simon Legendary Essay early Anglo-Saxon society. The term was first coined by the classical historian Tacitus when he described the Germanic tribes north of Rome. COMMEDIA DELL'ARTE : A genre of Italian farce from the sixteenth-century characterized by stock characters , stock situations, and spontaneous dialogue. Starbucks? Typically, the plot is an intrigue plot and it involves a soubrette who aids two young lovers in foiling the rigid constraints of their parents. In many such plays, a character named Sganarelle is a primary figure in the work.

Often there is a zani , or foolish-servant, who provides physical comedy in contrast to the anguish of the and Garfunkels Legendary Architect Essay young lovers. In the end, the couple achieves a happy marriage. Commedia dell'arte may have influenced Shakespeare's comedies, such as The Merry Wives of Windsor , and Moliere's plays, such as L'amour Medecin , commonly translated into English as Love is the Doctor . COMMON MEASURE : Also called common meter , common measure consists of closed poetic quatrains rhyming ABAB or ABCB , in which the lines of iambic tetrameter (eight syllables) alternate with lines of iambic trimeter (six syllables). This pattern is most often associated with ballads (see above), and it is occasionally referred to as ballad measure. Many of Emily Dickinson's poems are in loose common measure using slant rhyme , for instance:

Much Madness is divinest Sense-- To a discerning Eye-- Much Sense--the starkest Madness-- 'Tis the mission Majority. A fun and simple test to recognize common measure in poetry is to take a stanza and try singing it aloud to a well-known tune written in and contrast common meter, such as Gilligan's Isle, Amazing Grace, or House of the Rising Sun. If the syllabification fits these familiar ditties, you are looking at a case of common measure. COMMONIZATION : The linguistic term for an eponym--a common word that is mission, derived from the proper name of a person or place. Great Essay? For instance, the mission starbucks sandwich gained its name from human rights arabia, its inventor, the fourth Earl of Sandwich. Starbucks? The word lynch comes from Pay Day: in Professional Sports Essay, Captain William Lynch, who led bands of vigilantes to hang hoboes and starbucks, bums residing near Pittsylvania County. The verb shanghai , meaning to Pay Day: Greed in Professional, kidnap or press into forced labor, comes from the practices of conscription common in the oriental city of Shanghai.

The word stentorian comes from the mission starbucks loud-mouthed Stentor in Greek legend, and herculean comes from the muscle-bound Hercules, and so on. COMPERT (plural: comperta ): Specifically, birth-tales in Old Irish literature that detail the conception and birth of a hero. Examples include the Compert Con Culainn ( Birth of compare and contrast introduction Cú Chulainn ). Usually supernatural or extraordinary events involve themselves in the conception, such as the Druid Cathbad's seduction of Nessa after prophesying what the hour would be lucky for mission (begetting a king upon a queen!) or the visitation of a god like Lug to a woman who then becomes pregnant after the divine visitation. The birth-tale in general is not limited to Old Irish Literature, but is found worldwide (Duffy 102-03). Examples outside of Irish literature include the birth of Jesus, or the Buddha, or Leda and Hercules in Greek myth, Pryderi's conception in the First Branch of Pay Day: Greed Essay The Mabinogion , or King Arthur's conception in Arthurian legends. COMPLETENESS : The second aspect of Aristotle's requirements for mission starbucks a tragedy. By completeness, Aristotle emphasizes the logic, wholeness, and closure necessary to satisfy the gatsby audience. COMPOSITE MONSTER (in architecture, often called a chimera after the Greek monster): The term is one mythologists use to describe the fantastical creatures in Assyrian, Babylonian, Greek, and medieval European legends in which the starbucks beast is composed of the body-parts of various animals.

For instance, in Greek mythology, the chimera has the body of and contrast a lion, tale of a serpent, wings of mission starbucks a bat, and a goat-head, a lion-head, and a serpent's head. Simon And Garfunkels? Likewise, the sphinx has a lion's body and a woman's head and breasts; the centaur has a horse's body and human torso and a human head where the horse-head should be; the minotaur has a bull's head and a man's body; and the harpy has an avian body and mission starbucks, a woman's head, breasts, and arms. Human Rights Saudi? Earlier examples in Mesopotamian mythology include the ekimmu (a bloodsucking albino ghost with a bull's head) and the lamassu (a winged horse with a human head). Starbucks? In the medieval period, composite monsters include the formecolion, with an ant's body and a lion's head; the system in america mermaid, with a human top and a fish bottom; and mission starbucks, the cockatrice, which mingles parts of a rooster and a serpent. Contrast with additive monster , above. Composite monsters were common in the legends of classical and ancient cultures, but diminished in favor after the Renaissance. Many theories propose to explain the compare and contrast common tendency to create composite monsters. Mission? Theories include mistranslation in traveler's tales, in which an Essay on Understanding Change, animal is describing as having a head like such-and-such a creature, but the simile is lost in translation; the encounter of mission fossil remnants of Change extinct animals, or bones found jumbled together and misassembled; and the heraldic practice of dimidiation , in which a nobleman's son might take two animals found on his father's and mother's coats of arms combine them into mission a composite creature to illustrate his genealogy. An example in 20th century films includes The Fly . In this 1950s horror classic, a fly and a human trade bodies and heads.

Cf. therianthropic and theriomorphic . COMPOSITOR : A typesetter in human a Renaissance print shop. Mission? To speed the printing process, most of with Shakespeare's plays appear to have been set by multiple compositors. As Greenblatt notes, Compositors frequently followed their own standards in spelling and punctuation. They inevitably introduced some errors into the text, often by selecting the wrong piece from the type case or by setting the correct letter upside-down (1141). COMPOUNDING : A term from linguistics used to describe the creation of a new word ( neologism ) that comes about by mission starbucks taking two existing words and essay, sticking them together to create a brand new concept (Horobin 192). All languages do this to some extent. Mission? For instance, the word hydrogen comes from two Greek words meaning water and saudi arabia, stuff.

However, Germanic languages and Germanic poetry (including derivatives like English) are particularly prone to mission, creating new words this way. And Garfunkels Legendary Architect Essay? Thousands of mission English words result from two older words being compounded together, such as bathtub (bath + tub), eyesore (eye + sore); window (from two Old Norse words meaning wind and eye), and so on. However, poets regular invent neologisms by compounding to create artificial words of their own. Even Chaucer engaged in this trick, coining the word newfangled from the English new and the Middle French fanglere , meaning to human saudi, make or to mission, fashion. See neologism , blending , and kenning . COMPURGATION : In addition to trial by ordeal , compurgation was the medieval law practice among Christianized Anglo-Saxon tribes to determine innocence. A man accused of a crime would publicly swear to his innocence. The judge then gave the defendant thirty days to to collect a number of Architect Essay oath-helpers who would also swear to his innocence (or at least his good character). If he was unable to find the required number, he was either found guilty or he could appeal to trial by ordeal. If the defendant had been caught in the act, or was considered untrustworthy, the procedure could be reversed, and the plaintiff would bring forth oath-helpers to prove his charge through similar compurgation.

CONCEIT (also called a metaphysical conceit) : An elaborate or unusual comparison--especially one using unlikely metaphors, simile, hyperbole, and mission starbucks, contradiction. Before the beginning of the seventeenth century, the term conceit was a synonym for thought and roughly equivalent to gatsby essay, idea or concept. It gradually came to denote a fanciful idea or a particularly clever remark. In literary terms, the word denotes a fairly elaborate figure of speech, especially an mission, extended comparison involving unlikely metaphors , similes , imagery , hyperbole , and oxymora . Legendary Architect Essay? One of the most famous conceits is mission, John Donne's A Valediction: Forbidding Mourning, a poem in which Donne compares two souls in love to the points on a geometer's compass. Shakespeare also uses conceits regularly in his poetry. In Richard II , Shakespeare compares two kings competing for power to compare, two buckets in a well, for instance. Mission Starbucks? A conceit is usually classified as a subtype of metaphor . Contrast with epic simile and Simon and Garfunkels Legendary Essay, dyfalu . CONCRETE DICTION / CONCRETE IMAGERY : Language that describes qualities that can be perceived with the five senses as opposed to using abstract or generalized language. For instance, calling a fruit pleasant or good is mission starbucks, abstract , while calling a fruit cool or sweet is concrete . And Contrast? The preference for abstract or concrete imagery varies from mission starbucks, century to century.

Philip Sidney praised concrete imagery in poetry in his 1595 treatise, Apologie for Poetrie . A century later, Neoclassical thought tended to value the generality of abstract thought. In the early 1800s, the Romantic poets like Wordsworth, Coleridge, and Shelley once again preferred concreteness. In the 20th century, the distinction between concrete and abstract has been a subject of some debate. Ezra Pound and T. Essay On Understanding Management? E. Hulme attempted to create a theory of concrete poetry. T. Mission? S. Eliot added to this school of thought with his theory of the objective correlative. Contrast with abstract diction / abstract imagery . CONCRETE POETRY : Poetry that draws much of its power from the way the text appears situated on essay the page. The actual shape of the starbucks lines of text may create a swan's neck, an altar, a geometric pattern, or a set of essay wings, which in some direct way connects to the meaning of the words. Also called shaped poetry and visual poetry, concrete poetry should not be confused with concrete diction or concrete imagery (see above).

The object here is to starbucks, present each poem as a different shape. It may appear on the page, on glass, stone, wood, or other materials. The technique seems simple, but can allow great subtlety. Famous concrete poets include Apollinaire, Max Bill, Eugen Gomringer and the Brazilian Noigandres Group, which exhibited a collection of concrete art at Sào Paulo in 1956. In Germany, this school of poetry is called konkretisten by critics. Simon And Garfunkels Essay? It includes Ernst Jandl, Achleitner, Heissenbüttel, Mon, and Rühm. Since World War II, further experimentation in concrete poetry has taken place by British poets, including Simon Cutts, Stuart Mills, and Ian Hamilton Finlay. See also diamante . CONFLATION : In its more restricted literary sense, a conflation is a version of a play or narrative that later editors create by starbucks combining the text from more than one substantive edition. For example, Greenblatt notes that most versions of human rights King Lear published since the 1700s are conflations of the Quarto and First Folio editions of the original Renaissance texts. CONFLICT : The opposition between two characters (such as a protagonist and an antagonist), between two large groups of people, or between the protagonist and a larger problem such as forces of nature, ideas, public mores, and so on. Conflict may also be completely internal, such as the protagonist struggling with his psychological tendencies (drug addiction, self-destructive behavior, and mission, so on); William Faulkner famously claimed that the most important literature deals with the subject of the human heart in conflict with itself.

Conflict is the engine that drives a plot. Examples of Simon and Garfunkels Architect Essay narratives driven mainly by conflicts between the protagonist and nature include Jack London's To Build a Fire (in which the Californian struggles to save himself from freezing to death in Alaska) and mission starbucks, Stephen Crane's The Open Boat (in which shipwrecked men in a lifeboat struggle to stay alive and human saudi, get to shore). Examples of mission narratives driven by conflicts between a protagonist and an antagonist include Mallory's Le Morte D'arthur , in which King Arthur faces off against problem the education his evil son Mordred, each representing civilization and barbarism respectively. Examples of narratives driven by internal struggles include Daniel Scott Keyes' Flowers for Algernon, in which the hero struggles with the loss of mission starbucks his own intelligence to gatsby essay, congenital mental retardation, and Edgar Allan Poe's The Tell-Tale Heart, in which the protagonist ends up struggling with his own guilt after committing a murder. In complex works of literature, multiple conflicts may occur at once.

For instance, in Shakespeare's Othello , one level of mission starbucks conflict is the unseen struggle between Othello and the machinations of compare Iago, who seeks to destroy him. Another level of conflict is Othello's struggle with his own jealous insecurities and starbucks, his suspicions that Desdemona is cheating on him. CONFUCIAN CLASSICS : Five ancient Chinese writings commonly attributed to Confucius, though it is likely they are actually compilations of traditional material predating him. The five classics include the essay I Ching ( The Book of Changes ), the Shu Ching ( The Book of History ), the Shih Ching , ( The Book of Odes ), the Record of Rites ( Li Chi ), and the Spring and Autumn Annals . To see where this material fits in an outline of Chinese history, click here. CONJUGATION : The inflection of a verb to starbucks, show its person, number, mood, or tense. Here is and contrast, a sample conjugation of the present tense indicative forms of to starbucks, sing in in Professional Essay English and cantar in Spanish: CONNOTATION : The extra tinge or taint of meaning each word carries beyond the minimal, strict definition found in a dictionary.

For instance, the terms civil war , revolution and rebellion have the same denotation; they all refer to an attempt at social or political change. Mission? However, civil war carries historical connotations for Americans beyond that of revolution or rebellion . Likewise, revolution is often applied more generally to scientific or theoretical changes, and with the education system in america, it does not necessarily connote violence. Rebellion , for many English speakers connotes an improper uprising against a legitimate authority (thus we speak about rebellious teenagers rather than revolutionary teenagers). In the same way, the words house and home both refer to a domicile, but home connotes certain singular emotional qualities and personal possession in a way that house doesn't. I might own four houses I rent to others, but I might call none of these my home , for example. Much of poetry involves the starbucks poet using connotative diction that suggests meanings beyond what the Essay words simply say. Contrast with denotation . CONSONANCE : A special type of alliteration in which the repeated pattern of consonants is marked by changes in the intervening vowels--i.e., the final consonants of the stressed syllables match each other but the vowels differ. As M. H. Abrams illustrates in The Norton Anthology of English Literature , examples include linger , longer , and languor or rider , reader , raider , and ruder . Do not confuse consonance with a consonant (see below). Mission Starbucks? See also assonance and Simon and Garfunkels Legendary, sound symbolism . CONSONANT : A speech sound that is not a vowel. To download a PDF file listing consonants and their symbols in the International Phonetic Alphabet, click here.

CONSUETUDINAL BE : Uninflected use of the verb be to indicate habitual or frequent action. This grammatical structure is starbucks, characteristic of Black Vernacular . An example would be as follows: What you be doing on Thursdays? I be working every afternoon. Users of standard edited English typically frown on this grammatical formation. CONTEMPORARY LITERATURE : Literature written at the present moment. Great? Although the writers in every century would consider themselves contemporary or modern, when speakers use this term, they almost always mean either modernist or postmodernist literature. COTERIE WRITING : Writing intended originally for the amusement or edification of starbucks a small circle of compare and contrast friends or family rather than for publication or public perusal. Often, however, such writings later become adopted or modified for publication. Sometimes, the author does this; in other cases, later editors do this posthumously. Famous examples include Mary Shelley originally created Frankenstein as part of a ghost-story contest amongst her friends and mission, literary comrades. Aphra Behn originally wrote many of her poems as part of with system coterie writing, though most of mission her plays, her philosophical treatises, and and Garfunkels Legendary, Oronooko appear to have penned with a deliberate eye toward publication or financial gain.

CONTEXTUAL SYMBOL : A unique or original symbol an mission, author creates within the context of an great gatsby, individual work or an starbucks, author's collected works. Essay On Understanding Change Management? Examples include the Snopes family in Faulkner's collected works, who together function as a symbol of the South's moral decay, or the mission starbucks town of Castle Rock, Maine, which in Stephen King's works functions as a microcosmic symbol of problem with the education in america human society. Contrast with cultural symbol , below. CONTRACTION : The squeezing together of sounds or words--especially when one word blurs into another--during fast or informal speech. Contractions such as I'm (I am), he's (he is), and they're (they are) are common in verbal communication, but they are often considered too loose for more formal writing. CONTRAPASSIO (counter-suffering): A thematic principle involving situational irony in which a punishment's nature corresponds exactly to the nature of a crime.

Much of Dante's Inferno revolves around elaborate contrapassio . CONTROL TEXT : A specific text upon which a modern edition is mission starbucks, based. For instance, there are at least three dominant manuscript traditions of Langland's Piers Plowman poem: the A-text, the B-text, and the C-text (and possibly a Z-text, as recent scholarship has tentatively suggested). These versions contain different dialogue, different wording, and different spelling; they do not all contain the same passages and do not include identical storylines. A modern editor must either choose one to use as the basis of Essay on Understanding a modern edition, or she must create a conflation . Several Shakespeare plays vary wildly between the quarto and folio versions--including Hamlet and King Lear . In other cases, such as Le Morte D'Arthur , a modern editor must choose between using a manuscript source for mission his control text (such as the Architect Essay Winchester Manuscript) or a printed source (such as Caxton's printed Renaissance edition). CONVENTION : A common feature that has become traditional or expected within a specific genre (category) of literature or film. In Harlequin romances, it is conventional to focus on a male and female character who struggle through misunderstandings and difficulties until they fall in love. In western films of the early twentieth-century, for instance, it has been conventional for mission starbucks protagonists to wear white hats and antagonists to wear black hats. The wandering knight-errant who travels from place to place, seeking adventure while suffering from the effects of hunger and the elements, is a convention in medieval romances.

It is introduction, a convention for an English sonnet to mission, have fourteen lines with a specific rhyme scheme, abab , cdcd , efef , gg , and so on. And Garfunkels Legendary Architect Essay? The use of starbucks a chorus and introduction, the unities are dramatic conventions of Greek tragedy, while, the aside , and the soliloquy are conventions in Elizabethan tragedy. Conventions are often referred to starbucks, as poetic, literary, or dramatic, depending upon whether the convention appears in a poem, short story or novel, or a play. CONVENTIONAL : A conventional linguistic trait is an great essay, arbitrary one learned from others, not one determined by mission starbucks some natural law or genetic inheritance. Today, most linguists think most vocabulary and grammar are conventional, but some linguists in previous centuries believed ethnicity affected language development and acquisition. CORPUS CHRISTI PLAY : A religious play performed outdoors in the medieval period that enacts an event from the Bible, such as the story of Adam and Eve, Noah's flood, the crucifixion, and great gatsby essay, so on. The word is derived from the religious festival of Corpus Christi (Latin: The Body of Christ).

See also cycle and mystery play . CORRESPONDENCES : An integral part of the medieval and Renaissance model of the universe known as the Chain of Being. The idea was that different links on the Chain of Being were interconnected and mission starbucks, had a sort of human arabia sympathetic correspondence to each other. Each type of being or object (men, beasts, celestial objects, fish, plants, and rocks) had a place within a hierarchy designed by God. Each type of mission object had a primate , which was by nature the most noble, rare, valuable, and superb example of Sports Essay its type. Mission? For instance, the king was primate among men, the lion among beasts, the sun among celestial objects, the whale among fish, the problem with in america oak among trees, and the diamond among rocks. Starbucks? Often, there was a symbolic link between primates of different orders--such as the lion being a symbol of royalty, or the king sleeping in a bed of oak.

This symbolic link was a correspondence. Simon And Garfunkels Legendary? However, correspondences were thought to exist in the material world as well as in the world of ideas. Disturbances in nature would correspond to disturbances in the political realm (the body politic ), in the human body (the microcosm ), and in the natural world as a whole (the macrocosm ). For instance, if the king were to become ill, Elizabethans might expect lions and beasts to fall sick, rebellions to starbucks, break out in the kingdom, individuals to develop headaches or fevers, and stars to fall from the sky. All of these events could correspond to each other on the chain of being, and each would coincide with the others. For more information about correspondences and the Chain of Being, click here. COSMIC IRONY : Another term for situational irony--especially situational irony connected to introduction, a fatalistic or pessimistic view of life. See discussion under irony , below. COTHURNI : The Greek word for the elevator-shoes worn by important actors on stage. See discussion under buskins . COTTON LIBRARY, THE : One of the most important collections of Old and Middle English texts. Click here for details.

COTTON NERO A.X : The Middle English manuscript that includes Pearl , Cleanness , Patience , Sir Gawain and the Green Knight , and the Legend of Saint Erkenwald . Mission Starbucks? Click here for details. COTTON VITELLIUS A.XV : The Old English manuscript that includes The Passion of Saint Christopher , The Wonders of the East , and The Letter of Alexander to Aristotle , Beowulf , and the Old English translation of Judith . Gatsby? Click here for details. COUNTING : A technique of determining stylistic qualities of starbucks a piece of writing by counting the numbers of words in paragraphs or sentences, and determining the average number of Pay Day: Greed in Professional modifiers, average word lengths, and so on. COUPLET : Two lines--the second line immediately following the first--of the same metrical length that end in mission starbucks a rhyme to form a complete unit. Problem With The Education In America? Geoffrey Chaucer and other writers helped popularize the form in English poetry in the fourteenth century. An especially popular form in mission later years was the heroic couplet , which was rhymed iambic pentameter. It was popular from the 1600s through the late 1700s. Much Romantic poetry in gatsby essay the early 1800s used the couplet as well. Starbucks? A couplet that occurs after the volta in an English sonnet is called a gemel (see sonnet, volta, gemel ). COURT OF LOV E : In medieval convention, a court of love is an assemblage of women presided over by a queen or noblewoman.

At this mock-court, various young knights or courtiers are summoned to court and put on trial by the ladies for their crimes against love. Gatsby Essay? These crimes might be neglecting their sweethearts, failing to starbucks, wear their ladies' tokens at jousts, and so on. Chaucer himself may have been summoned to a court of love for his libelous depiction of Criseyde in Troilus and Criseyde , and problem system in america, Queen Anne may have required him to write The Legend of Good Women as a penance for his literary crimes. Mission? In The Wife of Bath's Tale, we find an inversion of the normal play-acting in which King Arthur gives Gwenevere and compare and contrast, her ladies the right to starbucks, try a rapist-knight for his crimes. Here, the women literally have power of life or death over the subject. Andreas Capellanus discusses the courts of Essay on Understanding love in his medieval writings, and more recent scholars such as C. S. Mission? Lewis ( The Allegory of Love ) and Amy Kelly ( Eleanor of Aquitaine ) discuss the human rights saudi arabia convention at length. Mission? Cf. demand d'amour . COURTLY LOVE (Medieval French: fin amour or amour courtois ): Possibly a cultural trope in the late twelfth-century, or possibly a literary convention that captured popular imagination, courtly love refers to a code of behavior that gave rise to problem the education system, modern ideas of mission chivalrous romance. Compare And Contrast? The term itself was popularized by C. S. Lewis' and Gaston Paris' scholarly studies, but its historical existence remains contested in critical circles. The conventions of courtly love are that a knight of noble blood would adore and worship a young noble-woman from afar, seeking to protect her honor and win her favor by valorous deeds. He typically falls ill with love-sickness, while the woman chastely or scornfully rejects or refuses his advances in public but privately encourages him.

Courtly love was associated with (A) nobility, since no peasants can engage in fine love; (B) secrecy; (C) adultery, since often the one or both participants were married to another noble who was unloved; and (D) paradoxically with chastity, since the passion should never be consummated due to social circumstances, thus it was a higher love unsullied by selfish carnal desires or political concerns of arranged marriages. In spite of this ideal of mission starbucks chastity, the knightly characters in literature usually end up giving in to compare introduction, their passions with tragic results--such as Lancelot and Guenevere's fate, or that of Tristan and Iseult. We associate courtly love with French literature primarily, but the starbucks concept permeated German and Italian literature as well. The German equivalent of rights saudi fin amour is starbucks, Minne (hence Minnesänger ), and the Italian poets of the dolce stil nuovo cultivated similar subject matter. The convention of courtly love eventually becomes a source of gatsby parody.

Andreas Capellanus' Rules of Courtly Love provides a satirical guide to the endeavor, and starbucks, Chretien de Troyes satirizes the conventions in his courtly literature as well. Similar conventions influence Petrarch's poetry and Shakespeare's sonnets. Compare? These sonnets often emphasize in particular the idea of love from afar and unrequited love, and make use of imagery and mission, wording common to the earlier French tradition. In terms of whether or not practices of courtly love were a historical reality, scholars are loosely divided into schools of thought, as William Kibler notes. Great Gatsby? The first group, the so-called realists, argue that such institutions truly did exist in the Middle Ages and the literature of the time reproduces this realistically.

The opposing school, the so-called idealists, argue that (at best) courtly love was a court game taken ironically as a joke, or (at worst) post-Romantic/Victorian readers have superimposed their own ideals and wishes on medieval culture by exaggerating these components. CRADLE TRICK : A sub-category of the bed-trick , this is a folk motif in which the position of a cradle in a dark room leads one character to starbucks, climb into bed with the wrong sexual partner. It appears prominently in Chaucer's The Reeve's Tale. In the Aarne-Thompson folk-index, this motif is usually numbered as motif no. 1363. CREEPYPASTA : A short story posted online designed to shock, frighten, or disconcert the reader. Problem With In America? For more discussion, see ghost story . CREOLE : A native language combining the traits of starbucks multiple languages, i.e., an advanced and fully developed pidgin.

In the American South, black slaves were often brought in from a variety of African tribes sharing no common language. On the plantation, they developed first a pidgin (limited and simplified) version of English with heavy Portuguese and arabia, African influences. This pidgin allowed slaves some rudimentary communication with each other and with their slave masters. In time, they lost their original African languages and the mixed speech became the native tongue of their children--a creole. Contrast with pidgin . CRESCENDO : Another term for rhetorical climax . See climax, rhetorical , above. CRISIS (plural: crises ): The turning point of uncertainty and mission, tension resulting from earlier conflict in a plot. At the moment of crisis in a story, it is unclear if the protagonist will succeed or fail in his struggle. The crisis usually leads to or overlaps with the climax of a story, though some critics use the two terms synonymously.

See climax, literary , above. CRITICAL READING : Careful analysis of an essay's structure and logic in order to determine the validity of an argument. And Contrast Introduction? Often this term is used synonymously with close reading (see above), but I prefer to reserve close reading for mission starbucks the artistic analysis of literature. Click here for more information about critical reading. Cf. close reading . CRITICUS APPARATUS : The scholarly notations in a critical edition (especially a variorum edition) in on Understanding Change which the editor indicates all the starbucks known variations of a particular text. The apparatus often appears running along the bottom of Sports each page or sometimes in the back of the book, and often incorporates editorial footnotes and glosses. The apparatus can appear quite cryptic to students unfamiliar with the formulaic abbreviations in scholarly use.

For instance, below is an mission, illustrative notation from A. V. C. Schmidt's criticus apparatus for Passus I, line 1, of the Everyman edition of William Langland's Piers Plowman , page 14: Collation WHmCrGYOC2CLMHRF. RUBRIC Passus primus de visione Wr (pr] Secundus F; de v.] de petri le ploughman BR; om O); om GC2. This notation indicates subsequent lines are collated together in thirteen of the surviving manuscripts, each manuscript being indicated by with system a special abbreviation. Furthermore, the opening line in manuscripts W and r has a Latin title written in red ink (rubricated) as indicated, but another manuscript F has labeled it as secundus rather than primus, while the B and R manuscripts label it in a combination of starbucks French and Latin, and so on. A good criticus apparatus helps document all this diversity by gathering it together, line-by-line, for convenient comparison at a glance, but the editor presumes the reader knows the dense, standardized abbreviations involved in this notation. For a clearer, hypothetical example, let us imagine Edgar Allan Poe has a poem surviving in three slightly different forms.

The most widespread version Poe had published by on Understanding Change Smith Publishing early in mission starbucks his career. Ten years later, Poe revised the human rights saudi arabia poem for a new publisher, Baker Books, and they printed this revision a few years after Poe's death. Last of all, a third unpolished version survives in Poe's own handwritten notes. Scholars discover this last manuscript version squirreled away in the Morgan Library in 2012. Modern editors would compile these three sources and select what they consider the best text. However, they must not ignore the alternative versions by leaving them unnoted and unannotated; that would effectively erase them from history. Accordingly, the editors might add a criticus apparatus . Here, they would note the relevant line number and indicate alternatives. The first version by Smith Books (abbreviated S) has the phrase Conqueror Worme appear in line six. Mission Starbucks? The version by Baker Books (abbreviated B) has a slightly different archaic spelling Conqueror Wyrm in the same spot. Finally, Poe's own original handwritten rough draft of the poem survives among his papers in the Morgan Library (abbreviated Ml).

This manuscript uses the abbreviation Conqu. Wm. scrawled in that line. Now, a modern scholar wants to publish an authoritative version of Poe's poem a century later. This modern editor chooses to emend the Sports Essay line to a standardized spelling of Conqueror Worm. The criticus apparatus at the bottom of the mission page might consist of a footnote such as this: 6 Conqeror Worm ] S: Conqueror Worme ; B: Conqueror Wyrm , Ml: Conqu. Wm . The 6 indicates line six as the section with variant readings. The words before the bracket ] show readers that the and Garfunkels Legendary Essay editor considers the preceding version the best text for a modern reader--or at least the version the editor has chosen for his edition. The material after the bracket lists each variant source and indicates how the starbucks differing material appeared in that source as exactly as possible. A criticus apparatus documents the known variations that might plausibly be accurate and reminds modern readers of the compare and contrast multiple possible versions an earlier audience might have experienced. Mission? This process is especially pertinent in classical and compare introduction, medieval studies, since in the pre-print era, handwritten texts often exhibited striking and even contradictory variant readings.

For instance, in the case of The Aeneid , about 3,000 texts survive with each manuscript containing significant variations. Mission Starbucks? In the case of Chaucer, about and contrast introduction, 82 versions of the Canterbury Tales survive, all with variant readings. Mission? In the case of Shakespeare, striking differences appear in the F (folio) and Q1, Q2, Q3 (first, second, and third quarto) versions of Simon and Garfunkels Legendary his plays, and so on. CROSSED RHYME : In long couplets, especially hexameter lines, sufficient room in the line allows a poet to use rhymes in the middle of the line as well as at starbucks, the end of Essay Change each line. Swinburne's Hymn to Proserpine illustrates its use: Thou hast conquered, O pale Galilean ; the world has grown grey from Thy breath ; We have drunken of things Lethean , and fed on the fullness of death . Laurel is green for mission a season , and love is sweet for a day ; But love grows bitter with treason , and laurel outlives not May . In the Simon excerpt above, the words in mission red are part of crossed rhyme, and human, the words in green are regular rhyme. Crossed rhyme is also called interlaced rhyme . Contrast with internal rhyme and leonine rhyme . CROWN OF SONNETS : According to Shipley (142), an mission, interlinked poem or cycle of seven sonnets in on Understanding Management which the last line of each of the first six serves as the last line of the next, and the last line of the mission starbucks seventh sonnet serves as the first line of the first sonnet.

All other rhymes are used once only in the collection of the entire seven sonnets. An English example would be Donne's La Corona, though the structure is much more common in Italian poetry. A more complicated alternative structure is the so-called heroic crown of sonnets (alias the sonnet redoublé ), which is similar in structure but consists of 15 rather than 7 sonnets in and Garfunkels Architect total, but which follows the same rules for rhyme repetitions (Shipley 530). CTHULHU MYTHOS (also spelled Cthulu and Kutulu , pronounced various ways): Strongly influential in mission pulp science fiction and early twentieth-century horror stories , the Cthulhu mythos revolves around a pantheon of malign alien beings worshipped as gods by half-breed cultists. These aliens were invented and popularized by pulp fiction horror writer H. P. Lovecraft. The name Cthulhu comes from Lovecraft's 1928 short story, The Call of problem the education system in america Cthulhu, which introduces the creature Cthulhu as a gigantic, bat-winged, tentacled, green monstrosity who once ruled planet earth in prehistoric times. Currently in a death-like state of mission starbucks hibernation, it now awaits an opportunity to rise from the Pay Day: Greed in Professional Sports underwater city of mission R'lyeh and plunge the earth once more into darkness and introduction, terror. August Derleth later coined the term Cthulhu mythos to describe collectively the settings, themes, and alien beings first imagined by Lovecraft but later adapted by pulp fiction authors like Clark Ashton Smith, Robert E. Howard, Robert Bloch, Henry Kuttner, and Brian Lumley. Some common elements, motifs, and characters of the mythos include the following: CULTURAL SYMBOL: A symbol widely or generally accepted as meaning something specific within an entire culture or social group, as opposed to mission starbucks, a contextual symbol created by a single author that has meaning only and Garfunkels Legendary Essay, within a single work or group of works.

Examples of cultural symbols in Western culture include the mission cross as a symbol of Christianity, the gatsby essay American flag as a symbol of America's colonial history of thirteen colonies growing into starbucks fifty states, the gold ring as a symbol of marital commitment, the Caduceus as a symbol of medicine, and the color black as a symbol of mourning. Examples of cultural symbols in other cultures include white as a symbol of compare mourning in Japan, the Yin-Yang sphere as an oriental symbol of oppositional forces in starbucks balance, the white crane as a symbol of longevity in Mandarin China, and so forth. Any writer in a specific culture could use one of these symbols and be relatively confident that the reader would understand what each symbol represented. Thus, if a writer depicted a pedophilic priest as trampling a crucifix into the mud, it is likely the reader would understand this action represents the way the priest tramples Christian ideals, and and contrast, so forth. Contrast with contextual symbol and archetype . CYBERPUNK MOVEMENT : (1) A loose school of science fiction authors including William Gibson, Bruce Stirling, Rudy Rucker, and Neal Stephenson who rose in mission popularity in the 1980s and 1990s. (2) A science fiction subgenre that shares the concerns and features of those works produced by the cyberpunk school. Features of their novels and short stories in this period include the following motifs: Common themes include the dehumanization, commodification, and mechanization of the individual; the negative effects of commercialization upon society; and implicit philosophical questions regarding consciousness and sensory reality. These cyberpunk authors have been profoundly influential in late twentieth-century science fiction films (such as Strange Days , Robocop , etc.) and Japanese anime , where cyberpunk elements have become so common as to be almost cliché . The metaverse or the Net imagined by these early authors in the 1980s have been seen as prophetic of the arabia later real-world rise of the internet after 1993. Examples of novels, anthologies, short stories, and mission, other literary works from the cyberpunk movement include Neuromancer , Mona Lisa Overdrive , Islands in the Net , and great gatsby, Johnny Mnemonic. (The last of these has been adapted into an awful film that bears little similarity to the original short story.) More recently, Neal Stephenson's Snow Crash has put a more satirical spin on the genre . CYCLE : In general use, a literary cycle is any group of closely related works. Starbucks? We speak of the Scandinavian, Arthurian , and Charlemagne cycles, for Essay on Understanding Management instance.

These refer collectively to many poems and mission, stories written by in Professional Sports various artists over several centuries. These cycles all deal with Scandinavian heros, King Arthur and his knights, or the legends of mission starbucks King Charlemagne respectively. More specifically, a mystery cycle refers to the complete set of mystery plays performed during the Pay Day: Greed Sports Corpus Christi festival in medieval religious drama (typically 45 or so plays, each of which depicted a specific event in biblical history from the creation of the world to the last judgment). The major English cycles of mystery plays include the York, Coventry, Wakefield or Towneley, and Chester cycles. See Corpus Christi play , above. See also sonnet cycle . CYHYDEDD HIR : A syllabic verse form in ancient Welsh poetry. The octave stanza consists two quatrains of four lines with five, five, five, and four syllables respectively. The rhyme scheme is AAAx AAAx , with X's indicating unrhymed lines.

See octave and starbucks, rhyme . CYHYDEDD NAW BAN : A syllabic verse form in ancient Welsh poetry in which some lines are composed of nine syllables. The rhyming couplets, when they appear, must rhyme with another line of identical length. CYNGHANEDD (pronounced kun HAN neth , lit. Rights Arabia? Welsh for symphony or harmony): A Welsh term that loosely denotes sound similarities peculiar to Welsh poetry, especially alliteration and mission, internal rhyme . Typically, the consonants in one word or line repeat in the same pattern at the beginning and end of the next word or line--but the vowel sounds between the consonants change slightly. In the English tradition of poetry, Gerard Manley Hopkins charmingly refers to such devices as chimes , and he makes much use of them in his works such as Spring and Fall. And Contrast Introduction? See also awdl and englyn . For an starbucks, example of cynghanedd in English, click here. CYNING : A king, another term for an Anglo-Saxon hlaford . Not to be confused with kenning , an Anglo-Saxon poetic device. CYRCH A CHWTA : A Welsh verse form consisting of an octave stanza of six rhyming or alliterating seven-syllable lines plus a couplet. Gatsby? The second line of the couplet rhymes with the first six lines. Mission Starbucks? The first line of the compare couplet cross-rhymes in starbucks the third, fourth, or fifth syllable of the Simon and Garfunkels Legendary Architect eighth line. CYRILLIC : Also called, azbuka , the alphabet used to mission starbucks, write Russian, Serbian, and human rights arabia, Bulgarian.

The name comes from the 9th-century Greek missionary Saint Cyril, who traveled from Byzantium to convert Slavic races of Moravia to starbucks, Christianity. Essay? Folklore credits Cyril at the inventor of this script, though it is mission, more likely he invented the gatsby Glaglotic , what Harkins refers to as an abtruse alphabet of obscure origin, which soon lost favor (5). Cyrillic, modeled largely on the Greek alphabet, rose to mission starbucks, replace Glaglotic, though Cyril retained credit. The alphabet came to Russia later after its Christianization in 988 or 989. The Education System In America? Modern Russian, Ukrainian, Belorussian, Bulgarian, and mission starbucks, Serbian alphabets were later offshoots of in Professional Essay Cyrillic. Peter the mission starbucks Great simplified the Legendary Essay alphabet in 1708, so the mission lettering required less ornate design, and later modifiers removed four characters as redundant in 1918. The present alphabet consists of thirty letters, mostly phonetic, though it does not show the stress of syllables (5). CYWYDD (plural, cywyddau) : A fourteenth-century metrical form of Welsh lyric poetry consisting of rhyming couplets with each line having seven syllables.

Traditionally, in each couplet, the lines end with alternately stressed and unstressed meter. In terms of Pay Day: in Professional Essay content, cywyddau traditionally include examples of dyfalu --strings of unusual comparisons similar to mission, metaphysical conceits. The genre is associated with the poet Dafydd ap Gwilym. CYWDD DEUAIR HIRION : In Welsh prosody, the term refers to a form of light verse consisting of a single couplet with seventeen syllables. The first line has a masculine ending and Change, the last line a feminine ending. CYWYDD LLOSGYRNOG : A type of Welsh verse consisting of a sestet stanza in mission which the syllable count is eight, eight, seven, eight, eight, and seven respectively. The first two lines rhyme and cross-rhyme with the Essay Change middle syllable of the sixth line and the third and starbucks, sixth lines rhyme with each other.

Rime coueé or tail-rhyme has a similar scheme.