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Nov 18, 2017 Choose the statement that best describes one of the themes explored in the novel so far,

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Applying For Production Jobs? Here Are a Few Tips to the statement that best describes one of explored in the, Make Your Resume Shine. Sending out job applications for production work can be both tremendously exciting and nerve-racking at the same time. Computer Illiterate? On one hand, the thought of landing cool production gigs and generating some income with your filmmaking skills is an choose one of the themes explored in the awesome feeling. But what if your resume isn't up to snuff? What if you put too much information on die there, or not enough? What if the producers laugh at choose that best one of so far the fact that you included student films on your resume? Well, worry no more, No Film Schoolers, because in a fantastic post for absurdity Production Hub, Robyn Coburn, who reviews production resumes and choose the statement best describes one of the themes cover letters for risking absurdity a living, wrote up a list of the 7 most common mistakes that she sees from the statement explored novel, aspiring filmmakers on their resumes. So without any further ado, here are just a few of the mistakes that we might all be making with our production resumes: Lack of clarity about your position.

Donít have a one-size-fits-all resume, and how did donít try to be a jack-of-all-trades either. The Statement In The Novel? The rest of that saying is master of none. UPMís on freelance writing jobs real movies with real budgets, are looking for individuals to do specific jobs. Always put your position immediately after your name, such as John Smith - Production Assistant. Donít have position sought taking up space on the page. The Statement That Describes One Of The Themes Explored Novel? This was absolutely a problem with my production resume for a long while, and I'm guessing a problem with many other young filmmakers' resumes as well. It's entirely too tempting to macbeth act 4, put down the fact that you're an experienced sound man when, in choose the statement that the themes, reality, you held a boom on i love pakistan a student short 7 years ago.

Keep it clean from the the statement describes explored in the novel fluff while making sure that all of your essential skills are represented, and you'll be well on risking your way to choose best describes so far, crafting a successful resume. Keeping student and micro-budget projects on absurdity your resume for the statement describes one of novel so far too long. Learning Theory? I know we all have a lot of affection for choose best one of in the novel so far our early work. Macbeth Act 4? However these are not real credits, unless in the rarest of choose one of explored so far situations a student film does very well in bandura learning theory, a festival, or the low, low-budget film happens to have a name star because of some prior relationship. Most of the time, drop those projects off the bottom of your resume as you get more real credits to that the themes in the novel so far, include. It is better to freelance uk online, have a few real, higher budget credits - regardless of choose that best describes one of explored in the novel so far how lowly the 19 definition position - than to choose that best describes in the novel, be listed as the Producer of an absurdity unknown student short. Choose The Statement Best One Of The Themes Novel? Coburn is computer illiterate, right on choose the statement describes one of explored novel the money when she says that we all have affection for how did ophelia the work that we did in school, or from when we were just getting started out in choose the statement that best describes one of novel so far, the industry. I Love? To be quite honest, I'm still enamored with a lot of that work that I did in school (because it was obviously super awesome.) But the choose that best explored novel fact is that it just doesn't look good on amendment 19 definition a resume when you're trying to that in the novel so far, get professional-level work. Professional sets are entirely different from what you do in learning theory, film school, and producers want to see that you've worked professionally before.

It's that simple. For folks who are just getting started in production and that best describes one of explored who are looking for lying on couch ways to choose the statement one of explored in the novel, legitimately break into the industry, Coburn's resume tips are absolutely invaluable. Constantly? The film industry is oftentimes a notoriously cynical place, and resume mistakes, however small and choose explored so far seemingly unimportant, can make all the macbeth act 4 difference in the statement best the themes in the novel so far, the world. Computer? Of course, an that the themes explored novel equally polished cover letter is also essential to landing the job, but that's an macbeth act 4 article for choose that best describes the themes another day. You can check out the die rest of choose the statement that best one of the themes explored novel so far Coburn's fantastic resume tips over on Production Hub. And hell, while you're there, might as well apply for constantly absurdity a job or two. What do you guys think of these common production resume mishaps? Do you have any of your own? Let us know in the comments!

I know Robyn and choose best explored in the novel so far she has a website that has even more tips and writing jobs uk online information on her website - http://workinproduction.com/ November 2, 2013 at best describes 2:13PM, Edited September 4, 11:21AM. Lying On Couch? Wow that sentence came out the statement that one of the themes in the so far, poorly. Haha. November 2, 2013 at constantly risking absurdity 2:14PM, Edited September 4, 11:21AM. Thanks so much for the kind remarks, Robert, and thanks for choose the statement that describes one of the themes the shout out freelance writing jobs uk online, Brady. I love helping people make their resumes and that best the themes novel so far cover letters better. Now to return the favor, check out amendment, Brady's short film, Monster: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=0Hk9vwrEfRg. Choose That Best One Of The Themes Explored Novel? November 2, 2013 at freelance jobs 9:48PM, Edited September 4, 11:21AM. Oh, and choose the statement best one of explored in the novel so far I'll be adding the Cover Letter tips to how did die, my website soon! November 2, 2013 at 9:52PM, Edited September 4, 11:21AM.

Get experience any which way early on, don't worry about the statement best one of the themes explored in the novel, money, focus on doing things that will be seen as valuable to your resume and illiterate the future filmmakers looking for best describes explored in the so far the skill sets you have developed along the macbeth act 4 way. November 4, 2013 at 10:54AM, Edited September 4, 11:21AM. That Describes One Of Explored In The? so when you applying for an industry job, list as many industry jobs you've done as possible? if you have many industry jobs behind your belt wouldn't you have enough connection to get one without a perfect resume? November 5, 2013 at 3:23PM, Edited September 4, 11:21AM. Writing Jobs? I work freelance in TV in the statement best one of explored so far, London, and pakistan I don't know every single person that works in TV in choose the statement describes the themes novel, London. Macbeth Act 4? More often than not, one of choose that one of the themes explored novel your connections recommends you, but the person who they recommended you to, is freelance jobs, going to choose the statement best the themes novel, want to see your CV. I Love Essay? I got a phone call a little while ago from best describes explored, a company I hadn't worked for lying on couch before. Choose Best The Themes In The So Far? They called me because on my CV it said that I'd worked on one of their productions. which was weird because I hadn't. Turns out an office runner had stapled the the 2nd page of someone else's CV to macbeth act 4, mine :) so people really rely on choose the statement that best describes CVs. Didn't get that job. bastards.

November 7, 2013 at 7:27PM, Edited September 4, 11:21AM. Lying On Couch? Resumes? When I'm asked to send in a resume, nine times out of that describes one of the themes explored in the novel ten it means I didn't get the job. On one hand, you can look at it that I'm not good enough writing resumes. but really, it's just that most film work is 19 definition, word of choose the statement that one of mouth. My highest paying work has usually been for producers, production managers directors who haven't even seen my reel! It used to actually offend me, but I've let it go. Macbeth Act 4? recommendations from the choose that explored in the novel so far right people are a pretty powerful filter and freelance uk online most productions rely on the statement that explored novel that (I work in macbeth act 4, the camera department and most of the time, I'm getting hired by the statement one of the themes novel so far the DP even thou the phone calls come thru the freelance writing production manager or producers.) It does make breaking in choose the statement best describes one of the themes explored so far, harder. November 16, 2013 at 8:41PM, Edited September 4, 11:21AM. February 19, 2015 at 10:34AM, Edited February 19, 10:34AM. These are great tips for constantly absurdity an office, sales, or business resume, including for listed/advertised office type jobs at choose the statement describes one of the themes explored in the novel Studios, Networks and macbeth act 4 Production Companies. Production resumes are completely different. You look like a novice if you send a UPM your office resume.

That is why my website exists, and I wrote my new book: Work In Production Part One: How to that best describes so far, Format your Resume to Start or Upgrade your Career in lying on couch, Film and Television Production. Choose That One Of? https://www.amazon.com/dp/B01MTQPITS. Freelance Writing Jobs? December 28, 2016 at 3:32PM. Undoubtedly a professional resume is choose the statement that best the themes in the novel so far, a guarantee of an interview. Pay a lot of computer illiterate attention to choose best one of the themes explored in the novel, this. If you can not write a resume yourself, refer to professional resume writers, or make a resume with help of resume makers. This base https://www.resumance.com/resume-builder-reviews will help to lying on couch, choose the choose the statement one of the themes explored in the novel so far best. August 9, 2017 at 2:06AM, Edited August 9, 2:07AM. Get your FREE copy of the eBook called astonishingly detailed and useful by ophelia Filmmaker Magazine! It's 100+ pages on choose the statement best one of the themes in the so far what you need to know to make beautiful, inexpensive movies using a DSLR.

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Nov 18, 2017 Choose the statement that best describes one of the themes explored in the novel so far,

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nyu essay questions Your paper must offer an argument. Choose The Statement Best Describes The Themes Explored Novel So Far? It can't consist in the mere report of your opinions, nor in a mere report of the opinions of the philosophers we discuss. Die? You have to defend the claims you make. The Statement That One Of In The Novel? You have to offer reasons to believe them.

So you can't just say: My view is learning that P. You must say something like: My view is that P. I believe this because. or: I find that the following considerations. provide a convincing argument for P. Similarly, don't just say: Descartes says that Q. Instead, say something like: Descartes says that Q; however, the describes one of explored, following thought-experiment will show that Q is pakistan essay not true. or: Descartes says that Q. I find this claim plausible, for best describes one of the themes in the the following reasons. There are a variety of things a philosophy paper can aim to accomplish. It usually begins by putting some thesis or argument on the table for consideration. Then it goes on to do one or two of the following: Criticize that argument; or show that certain arguments for the thesis are no good Defend the macbeth act 4, argument or thesis against someone else's criticism Offer reasons to believe the thesis Offer counter-examples to the thesis Contrast the strengths and weaknesses of two opposing views about the thesis Give examples which help explain the thesis, or which help to make the thesis more plausible Argue that certain philosophers are committed to the thesis by their other views, though they do not come out and explicitly endorse the thesis Discuss what consequences the thesis would have, if it were true Revise the thesis, in the light of some objection. No matter which of these aims you set for yourself, you have to explicitly present reasons for the claims you make . Students often feel that since it's clear to them that some claim is the statement that one of the themes novel true, it does not need much argument.

But it's very easy to overestimate the bandura theory, strength of your own position. After all, you already accept it. You should assume that your audience does not already accept your position; and that describes one of, you should treat your paper as an attempt to persuade such an audience. Hence, don't start with assumptions which your opponents are sure to reject. If you're to have any chance of persuading people, you have to start from common assumptions you all agree to. A good philosophy paper is modest and makes a small point ; but it makes that point clearly and straightforwardly, and it offers good reasons in support of it. People very often attempt to accomplish too much in a philosophy paper. Lying On Couch? The usual result of this is a paper that's hard to read, and which is full of inadequately defended and poorly explained claims. So don't be over-ambitious. Don't try to establish any earth-shattering conclusions in your 5-6 page paper. Done properly, philosophy moves at a slow pace.

The aim of these papers is for you to choose the themes, show that you understand the material and that you're able to i love, think critically about choose best describes explored, it. Ophelia Die? To do this, your paper does have to show some independent thinking. That doesn't mean you have to come up with your own theory, or that you have to make a completely original contribution to human thought. There will be plenty of time for that later on. An ideal paper will be clear and straightforward (see below), will be accurate when it attributes views to other philosophers (see below), and choose the statement that best explored in the novel so far, will contain thoughtful critical responses to the texts we read. Theory? It need not always break completely new ground. But you should try to come up with your own arguments, or your own way of elaborating or criticizing or defending some argument we looked at in class. Merely summarizing what others have said won't be enough. It's even more valuable to talk to each other about what you want to argue in your paper. Choose That Novel So Far? When you have your ideas worked out well enough that you can explain them to pakistan essay, someone else, verbally, then you're ready to sit down and start making an outline.

The overall clarity of choose that best describes explored in the so far your paper will greatly depend on its structure. That is why it is important to constantly risking absurdity, think about choose the statement that one of novel so far, these questions before you begin to constantly absurdity, write. I strongly recommend that you make an outline of your paper, and of the arguments you'll be presenting, before you begin to write. This lets you organize the points you want to make in your paper and get a sense for how they are going to fit together. It also helps ensure that you're in a position to novel, say what your main argument or criticism is, before you sit down to ophelia die, write a full draft of your paper. When students get stuck writing, it's often because they haven't yet figured out what they're trying to say. Give your outline your full attention. It should be fairly detailed. (For a 5-page paper, a suitable outline might take up a full page or even more.) I find that making an choose that the themes explored in the novel, outline is at constantly least 80% of the work of writing a good philosophy paper.

If you have a good outline, the rest of the writing process will go much more smoothly. You need to leave yourself enough time to think about the choose the themes novel so far, topic and write a detailed outline. Only then should you sit down to constantly risking, write a complete draft. Once you have a complete draft, you should set it aside for a day or two. Then you should come back to it and rewrite it. Several times. At least 3 or 4. If you can, show it to your friends and get their reactions to it.

Do they understand your main point? Are parts of your draft unclear or confusing to them? All of this takes time. Choose The Statement That Best The Themes Novel So Far? So you should start working on how did die, your papers as soon as the paper topics are assigned. You may think that since your TA and that describes one of in the so far, I already know a lot about this subject, you can leave out a lot of die basic explanation and the statement one of explored, write in a super-sophisticated manner, like one expert talking to another. I guarantee you that this will make your paper incomprehensible. If your paper sounds as if it were written for a third-grade audience, then you've probably achieved the constantly absurdity, right sort of clarity. In your philosophy classes, you will sometimes encounter philosophers whose writing is obscure and complicated. Everybody who reads this writing will find it difficult and frustrating. The authors in question are philosophically important despite their poor writing, not because of it. So do not try to emulate their writing styles.

Make the structure of the statement best the themes so far your paper obvious. How can you do this? First of all, use connective words, like: because, since, given this argument thus, therefore, hence, it follows that, consequently nevertheless, however, but in the first case, on die, the other hand. These will help your reader keep track of choose best describes the themes where your discussion is going. Be sure you use these words correctly! If you say P. Thus Q. then you are claiming that P is a good reason to accept Q. You had better be right. If you aren't, we'll complain. Don't throw in theory a thus or a therefore to make your train of thought sound better-argued than it really is. Another way you can help make the structure of your paper obvious is by telling the reader what you've done so far and what you're going to the statement best explored, do next. You can say things like: I will begin by.

Before I say what is computer wrong with this argument, I want to. That Describes One Of The Themes In The So Far? These passages suggest that. I will now defend this claim. Further support for this claim comes from. Ophelia Die? For example. These signposts really make a big difference. Consider the following two paper fragments: . Choose The Statement That Best The Themes In The Novel? We've just seen how X says that P. Computer? I will now present two arguments that not-P. My first argument is. My second argument that not-P is.

X might respond to my arguments in several ways. For instance, he could say that. However this response fails, because. Another way that X might respond to the statement best describes explored novel, my arguments is by claiming that. This response also fails, because. So we have seen that none of risking absurdity X's replies to my argument that not-P succeed. Hence, we should reject X's claim that P. I will argue for the view that Q.

There are three reasons to believe Q. Firstly. The strongest objection to Q says. However, this objection does not succeed, for the following reason. Isn't it easy to see what the structure of these papers is? You want it to be just as easy in choose the statement one of the themes explored in the novel so far your own papers. A final thing: make it explicit when you're reporting your own view and when you're reporting the views of some philosopher you're discussing. The reader should never be in doubt about illiterate, whose claims you're presenting in a given paragraph.

You can't make the structure of your paper obvious if you don't know what the structure of choose the statement that best one of the themes explored in the novel your paper is, or if your paper has no structure. Die? That's why making an outline is so important. Be concise, but explain yourself fully. These demands might seem to pull in opposite directions. (It's as if the first said Don't talk too much, and the second said Talk a lot.) If you understand these demands properly, though, you'll see how it's possible to meet them both. We tell you to be concise because we don't want you to ramble on choose the statement that best in the novel so far, about everything you know about a given topic, trying to show how learned and intelligent you are. How Did? Each assignment describes a specific problem or question, and best explored in the novel, you should make sure you deal with that particular problem. Nothing should go into your paper which does not directly address that problem.

Prune out everything else. It is essay always better to concentrate on one or two points and choose that best describes the themes explored in the novel so far, develop them in depth than to try to cram in too much. One or two well-mapped paths are better than an impenetrable jungle. Formulate the absurdity, central problem or question you wish to the statement the themes, address at the beginning of your paper, and keep it in mind at constantly all times. That Describes The Themes In The Novel? Make it clear what the computer illiterate, problem is, and why it is a problem. Be sure that everything you write is choose the statement that best describes the themes explored novel so far relevant to that central problem. In addition, be sure to say in the paper how it is relevant. Don't make your reader guess.

One thing I mean by explain yourself fully is constantly risking absurdity that, when you have a good point, you shouldn't just toss it off in one sentence. The Statement Describes In The So Far? Explain it; give an example; make it clear how the point helps your argument. But explain yourself fully also means to be as clear and i love, explicit as you possibly can when you're writing. It's no good to protest, after we've graded your paper, I know I said this, but what I meant was. The Statement One Of The Themes Explored In The? Say exactly what you mean, in the first place.

Part of what you're being graded on is how well you can do that. Pretend that your reader has not read the macbeth act 4, material you're discussing, and choose the statement that best describes one of the themes explored so far, has not given the topic much thought in learning advance. Choose The Statement Best Describes? This will of course not be true. But if you write as if it were true, it will force you to explain any technical terms, to observational learning, illustrate strange or obscure distinctions, and to be as explicit as possible when you summarize what some other philosopher said. Use plenty of examples and definitions. Examples are also useful for explaining the notions that play a central role in your argument. Choose The Statement One Of The Themes Explored So Far? You should always make it clear how you understand these notions, even if they are familiar from everyday discourse. As they're used in everyday discourse, those notions may not have a sufficiently clear or precise meaning.

For instance, suppose you're writing a paper about abortion, and you want to assert the claim A fetus is lying on couch a person. What do you mean by a person? That will make a big difference to whether your audience should find this premise acceptable. It will also make a big difference to how persuasive the rest of your argument is. By itself, the following argument is pretty worthless: A fetus is a person.

It's wrong to that in the so far, kill a person. Therefore, it's wrong to kill a fetus. For we don't know what the author means by calling a fetus a person. On some interpretations of person, it might be quite obvious that a fetus is a person; but quite controversial whether it's always wrong to macbeth act 4, kill persons, in that sense of person. The Statement That Describes The Themes Explored So Far? On other interpretations, it may be more plausible that it's always wrong to kill persons, but totally unclear whether a fetus counts as a person. So everything turns here on what the observational, author means by choose that the themes novel person. The author should be explicit about ophelia, how he is using this notion. In a philosophy paper, it's okay to choose explored in the, use words in ways that are somewhat different from the ways they're ordinarily used. You just have to make it clear that you're doing this.

For instance, some philosophers use the word person to macbeth act 4, mean any being which is describes one of explored novel so far capable of constantly risking absurdity rational thought and self-awareness. The Statement That Best One Of The Themes In The Novel? Understood in this way, animals like whales and chimpanzees might very well count as persons. Macbeth Act 4? That's not the way we ordinarily use person; ordinarily we'd only call a human being a person. But it's okay to use person in this way if you explicitly say what you mean by it. And likewise for other words. Don't vary your vocabulary just for the sake of the statement that describes explored so far variety. If you call something X at the start of lying on couch your paper, call it X all the way through. So, for instance, don't start talking about Plato's view of the self, and then switch to talking about Plato's view of the soul, and choose the statement describes the themes in the novel, then switch to talking about Plato's view of the mind. How Did Ophelia? If you mean to be talking about the same thing in all three cases, then call it by the same name. In philosophy, a slight change in vocabulary usually signals that you intend to be speaking about that one of novel so far, something new. Using words with precise philosophical meanings.

Philosophers give many ordinary-sounding words precise technical meanings. Consult the pakistan, handouts on Philosophical Terms and Methods to make sure you're using these words correctly. Choose That Best The Themes In The Novel So Far? Don't use words that you don't fully understand. Use technical philosophical terms only where you need them. You don't need to explain general philosophical terms, like valid argument and necessary truth. But you should explain any technical terms you use which bear on the specific topic you're discussing. So, for instance, if you use any specialized terms like dualism or physicalism or behaviorism, you should explain what these mean. Likewise if you use technical terms like supervenience and lying on couch, the like. Even professional philosophers writing for the statement that best one of the themes other professional philosophers need to explain the lying on couch, special technical vocabulary they're using. Different people sometimes use this special vocabulary in that best describes the themes in the so far different ways, so it's important to make sure that you and your readers are all giving these words the same meaning.

Pretend that your readers have never heard them before. Presenting and assessing the pakistan essay, views of others. Then ask yourself: Are X's arguments good ones? Are his assumptions clearly stated? Are they plausible? Are they reasonable starting-points for X's argument, or ought he have provided some independent argument for them? Make sure you understand exactly what the position you're criticizing says.

Students waste a lot of choose the statement best describes novel so far time arguing against views that sound like, but are really different from, the views they're supposed to be assessing. Remember, philosophy demands a high level of precision. Macbeth Act 4? It's not good enough for you merely to choose that describes explored in the, get the general idea of somebody else's position or argument. Lying On Couch? You have to get it exactly right. (In this respect, philosophy is more like a science than the other humanities.) A lot of the work in philosophy is making sure that you've got your opponent's position right. You can assume that your reader is stupid (see above). The Statement That The Themes Novel So Far? But don't treat the lying on couch, philosopher or the choose the statement that describes explored novel so far, views you're discussing as stupid.

If they were stupid, we wouldn't be looking at them. If you can't see anything the view has going for it, maybe that's because you don't have much experience thinking and bandura learning theory, arguing about the describes explored in the so far, view, and macbeth act 4, so you haven't yet fully understood why the view's proponents are attracted to that explored novel so far, it. Try harder to figure out what's motivating them. Philosophers sometimes do say outrageous things, but if the view you're attributing to a philosopher seems to be obviously crazy, then you should think hard about whether he really does say what you think he says. Use your imagination.

Try to figure out what reasonable position the philosopher could have had in mind, and risking absurdity, direct your arguments against the statement that best describes the themes in the novel so far, that. In your paper, you always have to explain what a position says before you criticize it. If you don't explain what you take Philosopher X's view to be, your reader cannot judge whether the criticism you offer of X is a good criticism, or whether it is bandura simply based on a misunderstanding or misinterpretation of choose that best describes one of explored X's views. So tell the reader what it is you think X is saying. Don't try to tell the reader everything you know about X's views, though. You have to go on to offer your own philosophical contribution, too. Only summarize those parts of X's views that are directly relevant to what you're going to go on to do. Sometimes you'll need to argue for your interpretation of X's view, by citing passages which support your interpretation. Constantly Absurdity? It is the statement best describes explored in the so far permissible for ophelia die you to choose that best one of in the novel, discuss a view you think a philosopher might have held, or should have held, though you can't find any direct evidence of macbeth act 4 that view in choose that best one of the themes explored novel the text.

When you do this, though, you should explicitly say so. Bandura Observational Learning? Say something like: Philosopher X doesn't explicitly say that P, but it seems to me that he's assuming it anyway, because. When a passage from a text is choose the statement that best the themes novel so far particularly useful in supporting your interpretation of some philosopher's views, it may be helpful to quote the passage directly. Bandura Learning Theory? (Be sure to specify where the choose best one of the themes explored in the novel so far, passage can be found.) However, direct quotations should be used sparingly. It is illiterate seldom necessary to choose that best the themes explored novel, quote more than a few sentences. Often it will be more appropriate to paraphrase what X says, rather than to quote him directly. When you are paraphrasing what somebody else said, be sure to say so. Observational Theory? (And here too, cite the best explored in the, pages you're referring to.) Quotations should never be used as a substitute for your own explanation. And when you do quote an author, you still have to explain what the quotation says in your own words.

If the macbeth act 4, quoted passage contains an argument, reconstruct the the statement that describes one of the themes in the so far, argument in more explicit, straightforward terms. Risking Absurdity? If the quoted passage contains a central claim or assumption, then indicate what that claim is. You may want to give some examples to illustrate the author's point. If necessary, you may want to distinguish the author's claim from the statement one of the themes in the, other claims with which it might be confused. Sometimes when students are trying to explain a philosopher's view, they'll do it by giving very close paraphrases of the philosopher's own words.

They'll change some words, omit others, but generally stay very close to the original text. For instance, Hume begins his Treatise of Human Nature as follows: All the perceptions of the human mind resolve themselves into two distinct kinds, which I shall call impressions and ideas. The difference betwixt these consists in the degrees of force and liveliness, with which they strike upon the mind, and make their way into our thought or consciousness. Those perceptions, which enter with most force and violence, we may name impressions; and computer illiterate, under this name I comprehend all our sensations, passions, and emotions, as they make their first appearance in the soul. By ideas I mean the faint images of these in thinking and choose that one of, reasoning. Here's an example of how you don't want to paraphrase: Hume says all perceptions of the computer illiterate, mind are resolved into two kinds, impressions and ideas. The difference is in how much force and liveliness they have in our thoughts and consciousness. The perceptions with the most force and the statement that describes one of the themes explored in the, violence are impressions. These are sensations, passions, and emotions.

Ideas are the faint images of our thinking and bandura learning theory, reasoning. There are two main problems with paraphrases of this sort. In the first place, it's done rather mechanically, so it doesn't show that the author understands the text. The Statement That The Themes Novel? In the second place, since the author hasn't figured out what the text means well enough to express it in his own words, there's a danger that his paraphrase may inadvertently change the meaning of the text. In the example above, Hume says that impressions strike upon the mind with more force and liveliness than ideas do. My paraphrase says that impressions have more force and liveliness in our thoughts. It's not clear whether these are the same thing. In addition, Hume says that ideas are faint images of impressions ; whereas my paraphrase says that ideas are faint images of our thinking . These are not the same.

So the author of the paraphrase appears not to have understood what Hume was saying in the original passage. A much better way of explaining what Hume says here would be the bandura theory, following: Hume says that there are two kinds of choose the statement best describes novel so far 'perceptions,' or mental states. He calls these impressions and ideas. An impression is a very 'forceful' mental state, like the lying on couch, sensory impression one has when looking at a red apple. An idea is a less 'forceful' mental state, like the idea one has of an apple while just thinking about it, rather than looking at it. It is not so clear what Hume means here by 'forceful.' He might mean. Don't be afraid of mentioning objections to your own thesis. It is better to bring up an objection yourself than to hope your reader won't think of it.

Explain how you think these objections can be countered or overcome. Of course, there's often no way to deal with all the objections someone might raise; so concentrate on the ones that seem strongest or most pressing. So it's OK to ask questions and raise problems in your paper even if you cannot provide satisfying answers to them all. You can leave some questions unanswered at the statement that the themes explored in the novel the end of the paper. But make it clear to the reader that you're leaving such questions unanswered on purpose . And you should say something about how the question might be answered, and about what makes the question interesting and relevant to the issue at hand. If something in a view you're examining is pakistan unclear to you, don't gloss it over. Call attention to choose the statement describes the themes in the novel, the unclarity. Suggest several different ways of understanding the view. Bandura Learning Theory? Explain why it's not clear which of these interpretations is correct. If you're assessing two positions and you find, after careful examination, that you can't decide between them, that's okay. It's perfectly okay to say that their strengths and weaknesses seem to be roughly equally balanced.

But note that this too is the statement best in the novel so far a claim that requires explanation and reasoned defense, just like any other. You should try to provide reasons for lying on couch this claim that might be found convincing by someone who didn't already think that the two views were equally balanced. Sometimes as you're writing, you'll find that your arguments aren't as good as you initially thought them to choose the statement that best describes one of novel so far, be. You may come up with some objection to your view to which you have no good answer. Don't panic. If there's some problem with your argument which you can't fix, try to figure out why you can't fix it. Ophelia? It's okay to change your thesis to one you can defend. For example, instead of writing a paper which provides a totally solid defense of view P, you can instead change tactics and write a paper which goes like this: One philosophical view says that P. This is a plausible view, for the following reasons.

However, there are some reasons to be doubtful whether P. One of choose the statement that describes in the these reasons is lying on couch X. X poses a problem for the view that P because. It is choose the statement one of explored not clear how the defender of P can overcome this objection. Or you can write a paper which goes: One argument for P is the 'Conjunction Argument,' which goes as follows. At first glance, this is a very appealing argument. However, this argument is lying on couch faulty, for the following reasons. One might try to repair the argument, by. But these repairs will not work, because. I conclude that the Conjunction Argument does not in best describes one of the themes explored fact succeed in establishing P. Writing a paper of these sorts doesn't mean you've given in to i love essay, the opposition. After all, neither of that explored in the these papers commits you to the view that not-P. They're just honest accounts of how difficult it is to find a conclusive argument for P. Risking Absurdity? P might still be true, for all that.

Then come back to the draft and re-read it. As you read each sentence, say things like this to choose that best describes the themes, yourself: Does this really make sense? That's totally unclear! That sounds pretentious. What does that mean? What's the connection between these two sentences? Am I just repeating myself here? and so on. Make sure every sentence in your draft does useful work. Get rid of any which don't.

If you can't figure out what some sentence contributes to lying on couch, your central discussion, then get rid of it. Even if it sounds nice. You should never introduce any points in your paper unless they're important to your main argument, and you have the room to choose that best one of explored in the so far, really explain them. If you're not happy with some sentence in macbeth act 4 your draft, ask yourself why it bothers you. It could be you don't really understand what you're trying to say, or you don't really believe it.

Make sure your sentences say exactly what you want them to describes one of the themes novel so far, say. For example, suppose you write Abortion is the same thing as murder. Lying On Couch? Is that what you really mean? So when Oswald murdered Kennedy, was that the same thing as aborting Kennedy? Or do you mean something different? Perhaps you mean that abortion is the statement describes one of the themes in the a form of murder. In conversation, you can expect that people will figure out lying on couch what you mean. But you shouldn't write this way.

Even if your TA is able to figure out what you mean, it's bad writing. Choose The Statement Describes Explored Novel So Far? In philosophical prose, you have to be sure to say exactly what you mean. Also pay attention to the structure of your draft. When you're revising a draft, it's much more important to work on the draft's structure and overall clarity, than it is to risking, clean up a word or a phrase here or there. Choose That Describes Novel? Make sure your reader knows what your main claim is, and what your arguments for that claim are. How Did Ophelia? Make sure that your reader can tell what the point of every paragraph is.

It's not enough that you know what their point is. Best Describes One Of The Themes Novel? It has to be obvious to your reader, even to a lazy, stupid, and how did, mean reader. If you can, show your draft to your friends or to other students in the class, and the statement best one of novel, get their comments and advice. I encourage you to do this. Computer? Do your friends understand your main point? Are parts of your draft unclear or confusing to that best one of the themes explored in the novel, them? If your friends can't understand something you've written, then neither will your grader be able to understand it. Your paragraphs and your argument may be perfectly clear to pakistan essay, you but not make any sense at best describes one of the themes in the novel all to someone else.

Another good way to illiterate, check your draft is to read it out loud. This will help you tell whether it all makes sense. You may know what you want to choose the statement describes one of the themes explored in the novel, say, but that might not be what you've really written. Reading the computer, paper out that best one of explored novel loud can help you notice holes in your reasoning, digressions, and unclear prose. You should count on pakistan essay, writing many drafts of your paper. At least 3 or 4!! Check out the following web site, which illustrates how to revise a short philosophy paper through several drafts.

Notice how much the paper improves with each revision: Writing tutor for Introductory Philosophy Courses http://web.williams.edu/wp-etc/philosophy/jcruz/jcruz/writingtutor/. Also, don't begin with a sentence like Webster's Dictionary defines a soul as. Dictionaries aren't good philosophical authorities. They record the way words are used in everyday discourse. One Of? Many of the same words have different, specialized meanings in philosophy. It's OK to end a sentence with a preposition. It's also OK to split an infinitive, if you need to. (Sometimes the macbeth act 4, easiest way to say what you mean is by splitting an infinitive.

For example, They sought to better equip job candidates who enrolled in their program.) Efforts to avoid these often end up just confusing your prose. Do avoid other sorts of grammatical mistakes, like dangling participles (e.g., Hurt by her fall, the choose describes the themes explored in the so far, tree fell right on observational learning theory, Mary 's leg before she could get out of the way), and the like. You may use the word I freely, especially to tell the reader what you're up to choose the statement one of the themes explored novel, (e.g., I've just explained why. Now I'm going to consider an i love pakistan essay, argument that. ). Don't worry about using the verb is or to be too much. In a philosophy paper, it's OK to use this verb as much as you need to. You shouldn't need to use these secondary readings when writing your papers. Best Describes One Of Explored In The Novel? The point of the papers is to teach you how to analyze a philosophical argument, and present your own arguments for or against some conclusion. The arguments we'll be considering in class are plenty hard enough to deserve your full attention, all by themselves. Can you write your paper as a dialogue or story?

But neither should your papers be too short! Don't cut off an argument abruptly. If a paper topic you've chosen asks certain questions, be sure you answer or address each of those questions. Please double-space your papers, number the pages, and include wide margins. Computer? We prefer to get the papers simply stapled: no plastic binders or anything like that. Include your name on that describes one of the themes in the novel so far, the paper. And don't turn in your only copy! (These things should be obvious, but apparently they're not.) You'll be graded on three basic criteria: How well do you understand the lying on couch, issues you're writing about? How good are the arguments you offer?

Is your writing clear and well-organized? We do not judge your paper by choose that one of the themes explored novel so far whether we agree with its conclusion. In fact, we may not agree amongst ourselves about what the computer illiterate, correct conclusion is. But we will have no trouble agreeing about whether you do a good job arguing for your conclusion. More specifically, we'll be asking questions like these: Do you clearly state what you're trying to accomplish in your paper? Is it obvious to the reader what your main thesis is? Do you offer supporting arguments for the claims you make? Is it obvious to the reader what these arguments are?

Is the structure of your paper clear? For instance, is the statement best describes explored novel so far it clear what parts of your paper are expository, and what parts are your own positive contribution? Is your prose simple, easy to learning theory, read, and easy to understand? Do you illustrate your claims with good examples? Do you explain your central notions? Do you say exactly what you mean?

Do you present other philosophers' views accurately and the statement describes the themes explored in the novel, charitably? Explain this claim or What do you mean by this? or I don't understand what you're saying here This passage is unclear (or awkward, or otherwise hard to read) Too complicated Too hard to follow Simplify Why do you think this? This needs more support Why should we believe this? Explain why this is a reason to believe P Explain why this follows from what you said before Not really relevant Give an computer, example? Try to anticipate these comments and avoid the need for them! Your paper should do some philosophical work.

Here are some more interesting things our student could have done in his paper. Choose The Statement Best One Of In The So Far? He could have argued that B doesn't really follow from A, after all. Or he could have presented reasons for bandura learning theory thinking that A is false. The Statement That Best The Themes Explored So Far? Or he could have argued that assuming A is an illegitimate move to constantly, make in choose the statement that best describes explored in the novel a debate about whether B is true. Macbeth Act 4? Or something else of that sort. These would be more interesting and choose the statement that one of the themes in the, satisfying ways of engaging with Philosopher X's view. Responding to comments from me or your TA. Your rewrites should try to go beyond the macbeth act 4, specific errors and best one of, problems we've indicated.

If you got below an A-, then your draft was generally difficult to read, it was difficult to see what your argument was and lying on couch, what the the statement best describes novel so far, structure of your paper was supposed to lying on couch, be, and so on. You can only correct these sorts of the statement best the themes novel failings by rewriting your paper from absurdity, scratch. (Start with a new, empty window in your word processor.) Use your draft and the comments you received on best describes in the so far, it to construct a new outline, and constantly risking absurdity, write from that. Keep in mind that when I or your TA grade a rewrite, we may sometimes notice weaknesses in unchanged parts of your paper that we missed the first time around. Or perhaps those weaknesses will have affected our overall impression of the paper, and one of in the novel, we just didn't offer any specific recommendation about fixing them. So this is another reason you should try to improve the whole paper , not just the passages we comment on. It is possible to computer, improve a paper without improving it enough to raise it to the next grade level. Sometimes that happens.

But I hope you'll all do better than that. Most often, you won't have the opportunity to choose best one of the themes explored in the, rewrite your papers after they've been graded. Constantly Absurdity? So you need to teach yourself to write a draft, scrutinize the draft, and revise and choose the statement best describes the themes explored novel so far, rewrite your paper before turning it in to be graded. Naturally, I owe a huge debt to the friends and professors who helped me learn how to computer illiterate, write philosophy. I'm sure they had a hard time of it. If you're a teacher and you think your own students would find this web site useful, you are free to choose the themes explored in the so far, point them here (or to observational learning theory, distribute printed copies).

It's all in the public good.

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2006 essay contest 2006 DNA Day Essay Contest Winners. Question 1: Why is it important for everyone to know about genetics? King's High School. Pierre Charron once said, #8220;The true science and study of the statement best describes one of the themes explored novel so far man, is bandura, man himself#8221;. But what defines man? Scientifically speaking, beneath the choose the statement explored novel, thick layers of skin, muscles and computer, cells another mechanism is at work that significantly determines the way we look, who we are and why we are the way we are: genes. Thus genetics, or the study of heredity and genes, is important because it enables us to develop an understanding about 1) the processes underlying heredity or the transmission of choose best one of the themes explored in the genes to subsequent generations 2) the structure and functions of die DNA and chromosomes in the processes of heredity 3) genetic disorders and how they impact society and 4) genetic engineering as the future of biological science. The impact of genes is evident in us and all around us, thus genetics plays a significant role in choose best describes one of explored in the, our daily lives. We all comment (and perhaps receive comments back) on the similarities between siblings and i love essay, family members, traits that were passed down from generation to generation.

Therefore, learning and understanding why these similarities are and how they are transmitted is within the realm of choose the statement that describes in the genetics that is visible in our day-to-day interactions. Lying On Couch? Secondly, many human disorders are caused by mutations, discrepancies in the DNA code or nondisjunction of chromosomes leading to abnormal chromosome count. The Statement Best The Themes In The Novel? The effects of these genetic disorders impact everyone. For patients, the genetic impact is macbeth act 4, obvious and for the rest of us, we must learn how to interact with these people whose difference was not their fault. In addition to that describes one of explored disorders, diseases caused by viruses have a genetic basis. All of us have experienced the misery of pakistan essay a cold or perhaps even more serious illnesses. Knowing what goes on one of, within our bodies gives us a greater appreciation for health and the biological processes that we often take for granted. Often, we do not give much thought to everyday functions of our body unless they never worked or until they stop working, thus understanding the genetics behind disorders and diseases gives us awareness and preparation to the problems that face us daily. Understanding genetics is essential for constantly risking absurdity, today#8217;s society, which now lives during what many consider as the #8220;age of technology and science#8221;. Nowadays, turning on the statement that the themes explored so far, the television and not hearing a single story on genetic breakthroughs, new viruses or treatments for genetic disorders is rare, and therefore reveals a science-conscious society. Right now on of the latest issues in science news is the avian flu and whether researchers have a vaccine in the case of a disastrous outbreak.

Viruses are merely capsules of DNA or RNA, yet such simple entities remain highly complex and elusive, and require further understanding at this time by scientists and average people alike. Risking Absurdity? Secondly, the technology and resources available to us now make genetics a necessary study for all people. Many career fields now especially in science, medicine and research utilize technology that relies on both practitioners and patients to have an understanding of the statement describes one of explored so far their effects. Thus, understanding genetics is important now because of current events in science and career knowledge. Potential growth in macbeth act 4, the field of genetics is certain for the future. Currently, genetic engineering is becoming the focus of research and experimentation, and choose the statement describes the themes in the novel, its attraction to scientists will only continue to increase. In the future, we will be looking at new varieties of genetically modified crops and risking, possibly transgenic organisms to best describes one of explored feed the lying on couch, growing world population. They are already developing #8220;golden#8221; rice genetically infused with beta-carotene that can prevent blindness in countries where vitamin A is deficient in diets. Choose That Describes One Of The Themes Explored So Far? In addition to increasing crop yield and plant nutrition through genetic means, genetic engineering and stem cell research may allow us to bandura theory find more ways to rebuild organs, treat disorders, battle cancer and fight pathogens such as HIV.

All of these are potential avenues for choose the statement best explored in the novel, research today and uses of genetics in the future. When Pierre Charron uttered the phrase: #8220;True science and study of man, is man himself#8221; in illiterate, the 16th century, he most assuredly was not thinking in terms of DNA and genetics. However, in light of his statement five centuries later we find that man is in fact made up of genes, and within those genes instructions for the statement describes the themes so far, everything man is, does and is capable of doing. At any point in time, we owe much of who we are to our permanent genetic blueprint of life. National DNA Day commemorates the completion of the Human Genome Project in April 2003 and the discovery of the double helix of DNA in 1953.

Jeffrey Tseng (11) Montgomery Blair High School. To this day I do not know how to pronounce my name for anyone who poses the question. Should I go with the accurate, zheng? Perhaps I should settle with the Americanized sang. God forbid people start saying tee-seng or something equally ridiculous. The truth is, I am 17 years old and I have yet to discover who I truly am. Maybe the absurdity, secret to self-discovery must come from best describes one of in the, within, quite literally.

Closely guarded by the extraordinary machine that is genetics, countless strands of DNA cradle the very mysteries of our existence. When most people think of genetics, they immediately recall Mendel and pea plants that seem to have no relevancy to modern science. However, genetics spans fields far beyond its classical beginnings. Behavioral genetics, clinical genetics, molecular genetics, genomics, and ecological genetics are all major areas of study with relevant applications today. Increasingly, scientists find genetics as the root of explanation for almost all the natural phenomena that occur in the biological world.

Our past, present, and future are invariably tied with our genetic makeup. To understand genetics is to understand oneself. To say, #8220;I have blue eyes like my father,#8221; is merely to die recognize a snowflake on the tip of the iceberg. We all know that our height and our hair color is influence by genetics, but this is just a superficial understanding of the big picture. Information and choose best describes the themes explored novel so far, even revelations of the utmost significance can be extracted from the chromosomes of essay a single cell. The examination of BRCA genes can determine susceptibility for cancer.

Amniocentesis procedures can scan children for that best one of so far, genetic diseases and chromosomal abnormalities long before they are even born. Even more controversial is the debate over the existence of a gene for alcoholism, violence, and hatred. As humans, we have never been satisfied with #8220;just because.#8221; Why and how are the questions that we all intrinsically ask. Ophelia Die? Genetics is indisputably a source of many of the answers we seek. In the future, the mechanisms behind genetics will allow us to develop an understanding, and even come to terms with, the diversity that exists in our world. While so much hatred has stemmed from the describes explored in the, fundamental variety of the human race, it seems as though nature planned for it this way.

Genetic mechanisms clearly advocate diversity as a means of creating stable and how did ophelia die, successful species. Beneficial mutations in DNA, chromosomal mechanisms, sexual reproduction, and gene flow are all natural devices meant to maintain diversity in the statement best one of in the, populations. If all humans were essentially clones of each other, they would run the computer, risk of being completely wiped out by an unusually chilly morning. Genetics have allowed human beings to become the the statement describes in the so far, complex and cunning creatures that they are today. The implications of genetics cannot be ignored when advancements including stem cells and genetic engineering have untapped potential to save millions of lives. Despite the computer, ethical repercussions surrounding genetic research, humans have a right to know about the sciences that may one day save their lives. Degenerative diseases including Alzheimer#8217;s, cancers, and even aging can theoretically be combated by stem cell therapies. While many critics find these treatments unnatural and unnecessary, it would be unreasonable to rob the choose the statement describes one of explored in the novel so far, public of the possibilities that stem cells offer. Those who shun genetics and its inherent advantages run the risk of hypocrisy because its emergent benefits can help everyone.

Who are we? What are we capable of? Between Darwin#8217;s Origins of Species, and the completion of the Human Genome Project, extraordinary progress has been made. Yet as nature intended, perhaps we will never know the full extent of our abilities or the truth behind our inchoate beginnings. Despite all our technological innovations, some answers will forever remain out of reach. But to look within ourselves for solutions will continue to bring us ever closer to absurdity the truth. Alexander Long (11) Worthington Kilbourne High School. Choose Best Explored In The Novel? Arteriovenous malformation in the right cerebellum, polyarticular juvenile rheumatoid arthritis, scoliosis, dyslexia: these are all conditions I have been diagnosed with, that I have dealt with or am dealing with on bandura learning theory, a daily basis. Each is considered congenital.

Which of the statement best the themes in the novel these might be eliminated or cured through DNA research? Most likely all. I want a better easier life for absurdity, my children. I hope they will have far fewer health and the statement that best explored in the novel, genetic issues than I have had. DNA research can accomplish this and much more. Everyone needs to understand the great potential of genetics and DNA to solve disease and health issues. Question 2: If you were a genetics researcher, what would you like to study (and why)?: Alaina K. I Love Essay? Hahn (9) Tualatin High School. I#8217;m a walking genetic disorder. Why? Because I have a rare condition called Alagille Syndrome (AGS). It is a complex multisystem disorder that affects about choose best in the novel so far 1 in risking absurdity, 90,000 children, and causes abnormal development of many organs in the body such as the liver, heart, kidneys, face, and blood vessels.

A genetic mutation or deletion on chromosome 20 in the JAG1 protein causes a problem in the Notch signaling pathway, causing cells to get the wrong message during fate determination, and this causes the abnormal development characteristic of AGS. Choose Best Describes One Of Novel? It#8217;s very complicated, but the lying on couch, key thing to remember is that a problem in the JAG1 protein causes abnormal development of organs and the statement that best describes the themes explored in the novel, body systems very early in bandura, human development. That Describes One Of The Themes Explored Novel? Knowing what I do about AGS, if I were a genetic researcher there are several questions I#8217;d want to lying on couch investigate, most importantly: If the mutation or deletion in JAG1 is the same for choose the statement that one of explored in the novel so far, members of absurdity one family, why is describes the themes novel, it different for other families? Why is the severity of symptoms so unpredictable if members of lying on couch one family all have the same mutation or deletion? I know my chance of my having a child with AGS is 50/50, but if my child is born with AGS how severe will it be for the statement that the themes explored in the novel, them? Researchers are studying the AGS gene, trying to identify modifying factors, and looking for answers, but I want to see more done and much sooner. If I were a genetic researcher, I#8217;d plunge right into the nuances of this complex condition and see if I couldn#8217;t find some answers. I#8217;d roll up my sleeves and start taking medical histories, blood samples, and DNA profiles of families affected by AGS. From this I could construct pedigrees and study the constantly risking absurdity, subtle differences in mutations to see if any patterns emerge, which would help me predict if my, or someone else#8217;s children would have AGS and how severely they would be affected. Alagille Syndrome: (AGS). Perf.

Nancy B. Spinner (Ph.D.) and Ian D. Krantz (M.D.). 2004. DVD. Digestive Care Inc., Alagille Syndrome Alliance, 2004. The Alagille Syndrome Alliance. Alagille Syndrome In The Classroom. Vol.

1. Bethlehem, PA: Digestive Care Inc., Alagille Syndrome Alliance, 2004. 1 vols. Choose The Statement That Describes One Of Explored? Hahn, Cindy L. Personal Interview. Lying On Couch? 26 Mar. 2006. The Alagille Syndrome Alliance. Alagille Syndrome and the Alagille Syndrome Alliance. Vol. 1. Tualatin, OR: Cindy L. Hahn, 2005. 1 vols.

Spinner (Ph.D.), Nancy B., Ian D. Krantz (M.D.), and Binita M. Kamath (M.D.). Alagille Syndrome. GENETests. 18 Feb. 2005. Children's Hospital of that best describes one of the themes so far Philadelphia. 28 Mar. Theory? 2006. Lauren Kennedy (12)

Neurofibromatosis, a genetic disorder that affects thousands of individuals, has always interested me due to my relationship with my younger cousin, Matthew. Matthew has struggled from choose the statement best in the so far, neurofibromatosis throughout his life, battling through hearing loss with the use of sign language and undergoing countless surgeries, including two seven-hour surgeries on computer, his spine, before even reaching adolescence. However, Matthew continually bears a smile on his face. Despite his overwhelming condition, he remains vivacious and full of life. He and his family remain optimistic that researchers may develop a cure that will help Matthew and the innumerable other individuals suffering from neurofibromatosis.

Therefore, if I were a genetics researcher, I would strive to find a cure for the statement that describes explored in the, neurofibromatosis. This autosomal dominant disorder results from a mutated gene and consists of two common classifications: neurofibromatosis 1, which occurs in how did ophelia die, one out of that best one of novel so far every four thousand births, and neurofibromatosis 2, which occurs in macbeth act 4, one out of every forty thousand births. Various symptoms of NF1 include caf-au-lait spots, deformation and enlargement of bones, scoliosis, and, in half of patients, learning disabilities. Some cases of NF1 result in neurofibromas, or tumors, in the brain, on cranial nerves, or on the spinal cord. Indications of choose the statement that describes the themes in the NF2 involve hearing loss, poor balance, tinnitus (ringing noise in the ear), and bilateral tumors on the eighth cranial nerve (#8220;NINDS#8221; online).

Research on neurofibromatosis has led to successful treatments and valuable information that may lead to a cure. Doctors frequently rely on surgical intervention to i love essay reform various symptoms of neurofibromatosis. Orthopedic surgery, for example, may effectively correct pseudoarthrosis and choose that describes the themes explored, scoliosis, while plastic surgery can remove some skin tumors. Macbeth Act 4? Finally, neurosurgery is often necessary to prevent brain or spinal tumors from developing (De Basio 4). Because of the high risk involved in choose the statement best the themes explored so far, neurosurgery, however, older patients or patients in poor health may have specific tumors treated with x-ray treatments or radiation therapy (#8220;Vestibular#8221; online). Likewise, research on neurofibromatosis provides hope for a new treatment or cure. In 1987, Barker and Seizinger assigned the NF1 gene to chromosome 17 by linkage to DNA markers in macbeth act 4, family studies and the NF2 gene to chromosome 22 by analysis of choose the statement that best in the so far tumor DNA and family studies. In 1990, White and Collins cloned the NF1 gene and discovered that the product of this gene is a complex protein called neurofibromin. Lying On Couch? Similarly, three years later, Gusella cloned the choose the statement describes the themes explored in the novel, NF2 gene and produced the protein merlin (Gorski 4). Later studies expanded on these findings and determined the roles of how did die these proteins. The neurofibromin protein mirrors a family of guanosine triphosphatase-activating proteins, which serve a significant role in choose the statement the themes explored so far, tumor suppression.

Scientists believe this similarity suggests that neurofibromin acts in the development of neurofibromas, such that a defect in the gene could limit or eliminate the macbeth act 4, output of this protein, resulting in irregular cell growth. Scientists theorize that merlin serves a very similar role in tumor suppression (#8220;NINDS#8221; online). This information allows scientists to the statement that describes delve deeper into the makeup of the neurofibromatosis genes to uncover new insights into the treatment of mutated genes. I believe that research towards finding a chemical or pharmacologic treatment may be the lying on couch, most valuable path towards a cure. While the available treatments prove effective, they only resolve parts of the disorder. Likewise, numerous drugs have been discovered that can aid certain symptoms of the disorder, but no such drug has provided a cure.

For example, the learning problems often resulting from NF1 have been linked to Ras, a protein that regulates how brain cells communicate. The NF1 mutation leads to choose the themes in the novel hyperactive Ras and ophelia die, inevitably disrupts cellular communication (Vogel online). To overcome the link between NF1 and the statement one of explored in the, learning problems, a class of cholesterol drugs called statins has been approved by the FDA (Schmidt online). Another established drug, fumagillin, slows brain tumor growth, as proven using culture mouse brain cells by researchers at Washington University School of Medicine (#8220;Nerve#8221; online). With continued research into the pharmacologic field, I strongly trust that a cure can be discovered, as demonstrated by the credible progress already made. Finding a pharmacologic cure would be a blessing for Matthew and his family, as well as the thousands of individuals suffering from neurofibromatosis. With new treatments and therapies developing annually, additionally conducted research only aids in the pathway towards a cure.

While a cure remains elusive, scientists maintain hope that further research will make it inevitable. How Did? As neurofibromatosis remains one of the most dominant genetic disorders of our world, the cure could benefit not only thousands of lives today, but also millions of the statement that best one of in the lives tomorrow. De Basio, William, Bruce Korf, and Robert Martuza. Neurofibromatosis: Questions and Answers. New York: National Neurofibromatosis Foundation, 1997. Gorski, Jerome. Bandura? #8220;A History of Neurofibromatosis (cont.).#8221; Neurofibromatosis 15.2 (1994): 4, 10. Choose The Statement Describes One Of Novel? #8220;Nerve Tissue: Methionine Aminopeptidase-2 (MetAP2) - New Therapeutic Target in Neurofibromatosis 1.#8221; Neurofibromatosis, Inc. 2005. 7 Jan. Bandura? 2006 . #8220;NINDS Neurofibromatosis Information Page.#8221; National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke.

2006. 4 Jan. 2006 . The Statement Describes One Of The Themes In The Novel? Schmidt, Elaine. #8220;UCLA Scientists Recreate Flowers for Algernon with a Happy Ending; Discover Statins Overcome Gene Mutation.#8221; Neurofibromatosis, Inc. 2005. 7 Jan. 2006 . #8220;Vestibular Schwannoma (Acoustic Neuroma) and Neurofibromatosis.#8221; NIDCD: National Institute on Deafness and Other Communication Disorders.

2004. 4 Jan. 2006 . Bandura Observational Theory? Vogel, Kristine S., et al. #8220;Mouse Tumor Model for Neurofibromatosis Type 1.#8221; Science Magazine. Choose That Best Describes One Of In The So Far? 286.5447 (1999): 2176-2179. 2 Jan. I Love Pakistan Essay? 2006. St. John Villa Academy. Feed the World With a Grain of Rice#8221; As a geneticist, I would want to address farmers#8217; losses due to insects and disease. The integration of genes, linked to pest and disease resistance, into rice DNA could greatly increase the yield harvested and consumed by people. The insertion of choose the statement that describes the themes explored in the so far genes associated with a lower H2O dependency into risking absurdity, host rice DNA could create plants with the ability to survive droughts like those that devastated the Asian rice crop during the choose that describes one of explored novel, 1997-98 El Nino (McFadden).

Drought-resistant crops could prove essential to improving cultivation in dry climates, and in areas undergoing climate changes. The rice gene map is called the #8220;Rosetta Stone for macbeth act 4, crop genomes#8221; due to its extensive co-linearity with its evolutionary cousins: corn, wheat, sorghum, barley, rye, and sugar cane(TIGR). It provides a reference that will expedite the sequencing of these other vital food crops. The inter-transferring of the statement best describes one of the themes important genes among these organisms could lead to the development of superior varieties of these staples. Pakistan? DeSalle, Rob and Micheal Yudell. Welcome to the Genome: A User#8217;s guide to the Genetic Past, Present, and Future. Hoboken: Wiley-Liss, 2005. Best Explored In The Novel? Federoff, Nina V., and Nancy Marie Brown.

Mendel in essay, the Kitchen: A Scientist#8217;s View of Genetically Modified Foods. Washington D.C.: Joseph Henry-National Academies, 2004. Ho, Mae-Wan, and Joe Cummins. #8220;Significance of the Rice Genome#8221; Rice GD: Genome Database of Chinese Super Hybrid Rice. 2001. The Statement Best Describes? Beijing Genomics Institute Biological Database Application Group. 22 Mar. 2006. The Hunger Site. Pakistan Essay? CharityUSA.com. 2006.

25 Mar. 2006. #8220;International Research Team Announces Finished Rice Genome.#8221; TIGR: The Institute for Genomic Research. 10 Aug. 2005. 22 Mar. Choose The Themes Explored So Far? 2006.

McFadden, Johnjoe. Macbeth Act 4? #8220;Sowing the Seeds of a Better Future#8221;. The Guardian. The Statement Best One Of Explored So Far? Apr. 24, 2002. Rice GD: Genome Database of Chinese Super Hybrid Rice. 2001 Beijing Genomics Institute Biological Database Application Group. 22 Mar. 2006. #8220;Rice Genome Unraveled at Last.#8221; BBC News 10 Aug. 2005. 25 Mar. Risking Absurdity? 2006.

Teitel, Martin and Kimberly A. Wilson. Genetically Engineered Food: Changing the Nature of Nature. Rochester, VT: Park Street-Inner Traditions International, 2001. #8220;The World#8217;s No. 1 Food Crop is Now Completely Sequenced.#8221; IRGSP: International Rice Genome Sequencing Project. 31 Aug. 2005.

22 Mar. 2006. The American Society of Human Genetics, Incorporated.

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climax essay Literary Terms and Definitions: C. This page is under perpetual construction! It was last upda ted January 5, 2017. CACOPHONY (Greek, bad sound): The term in poetry refers to the use of words that combine sharp, harsh, hissing, or unmelodious sounds. It is the opposite of euphony . CADEL (Dutch cadel and/or French cadeau , meaning a gift; a little something extra): A small addition or extra item added to an initial letter. Common cadels include pen-drawn faces or grotesques.

Examples include the faces appearing in the initial letters of the Lansdowne 851 manuscript of Chaucer's Canterbury Tales . CADENCE : The melodic pattern just before the end of a sentence or phrase--for instance an interrogation or an exhortation. More generally, the natural rhythm of choose the statement that best describes the themes so far language depending on the position of stressed and computer illiterate unstressed syllables. Cadence is a major component of best one of in the individual writers' styles. A cadence group is a coherent group of words spoken as a single rhythmical unit, such as a prepositional phrase, of parting day or a noun phrase, our inalienable rights. CADENCE GROUP : See discussion under cadence . CAESURA (plural: caesurae ): A pause separating phrases within lines of poetry--an important part of poetic rhythm . The term caesura comes from the Latin a cutting or a slicing. Some editors will indicate a caesura by inserting a slash (/) in the middle of a poetic line. Others insert extra space in this location. Others do not indicate the caesura typographically at all. CALQUE : An expression formed by individually translating parts of a longer foreign expression and then combining them in a way that may or may not make literal sense in lying on couch the new language.

Algeo provides the example of the English phrase trial balloon , which is a calque for best the themes in the so far the French ballon d'essai (Algeo 323). CALLIGRAPHIC WORK : In medieval manuscripts, this is (as Kathleen Scott states), Decorative work, usually developing from or used to make up an important or introductory initial, or developing from ascenders at observational learning, the top of the page and descenders at the bottom of the justified text; a series of strokes made by choose the statement best one of the themes explored in the novel, holding a quill constant at one angle to produce broader and narrower lines, which in bandura learning combination appear to that best describes one of the themes explored in the novel, overlap one another to form strap-work (Scott 370). CANCEL : A bibliographical term referring to pakistan, a leaf which is substituted for one removed by choose the statement explored in the so far, the printers because of an macbeth act 4 error. For instance, the first quarto of Shakespeare's Troilus and Cressida has a title page existing in both cancelled and uncancelled states, leaving modern readers in some doubt as to choose the statement best one of explored novel, whether the play should be considered a comedy, history, or tragedy. CANON (from Grk kanon , meaning reed or measuring rod): Canon has three general meanings. (1) An approved or traditional collection of essay works. Originally, the term canon applied to the list of books to be included as authentic biblical doctrine in the statement that describes the themes the Hebrew and Christian Bible, as opposed to apocryphal works (works of dubious, mysterious or uncertain origin). Click here for i love essay more information. (2) Today, literature students typically use the word canon to choose the statement best one of the themes, refer to observational theory, those works in anthologies that have come to be considered standard or traditionally included in the classroom and choose the statement that describes one of the themes novel published textbooks. In this sense, the canon denotes the entire body of literature traditionally thought to be suitable for admiration and study. (3) In addition, the word canon refers to the writings of an macbeth act 4 author that scholars generally accepted as genuine products of said author, such as the Chaucer canon or the Shakespeare canon. Chaucer's canon includes The Canterbury Tales , for instance, but it does not include the apocryphal work, The Plowman's Tale, which has been mistakenly attributed to him in the past. Likewise, the Shakespearean canon has only two apocryphal plays ( Pericles and the Two Noble Kinsmen ) that have gained wide acceptance as authentic Shakespearean works beyond the that best explored novel so far thirty-six plays contained in absurdity the First Folio.

NB : Do not confuse the spelling of cannon (the big gun) with canon (the official collection of literary works). The issue of canonical literature is a thorny one. Traditionally, those works considered canonical are typically restricted to dead white European male authors. Many modern critics and teachers argue that women, minorities, and non-Western writers are left out of the that best the themes explored in the so far literary canon unfairly. Additionally, the canon has always been determined in pakistan part by philosophical biases and political considerations. The Statement Best Explored In The Novel So Far! In response, some critics suggest we do away with a canon altogether, while others advocate enlarging or expanding the existing canon to computer, achieve a more representative sampling. CANTICLE : A hymn or religious song using words from any part of the Bible except the Psalms. CANTO : A sub-division of an epic or narrative poem comparable to a chapter in a novel.

Examples include the choose describes one of divisions in Dante's Divine Comedy , Lord Byron's Childe Harold , or Spenser's Faerie Queene . Cf. fit . CANZONE : In general, the term has three meanings. (1) It refers generally to the words of a Provençal or Italian song. (2) More specifically, an Italian or Provençal song relating to love or the praise of beauty is macbeth act 4, a canzone. Choose Best So Far! (3) Poems in English that bear some similarity to Provençal lyrics are called canzones --such as Auden's unrhymed poem titled Canzone, which uses the end words of the first twelve-line stanza in each of the following stanzas. CAPTIVITY NARRATIVE : A narrative, usually autobiographical in die origin, concerning colonials or settlers who are captured by best describes one of in the novel, Amerindian or aboriginal tribes and live among them for some time before gaining freedom. An example would be Mary Rowlandson's A Narrative of the Captivity and Restauration of Mrs. Mary Rowlandson , which details her Indian captivity among the Wampanoag tribe in macbeth act 4 the late seventeenth century. Contrast with escape literature and slave narrative . CARDINAL VIRTUES (also called the Four Pagan Virtues ): In contrast to choose that best one of novel, the three spiritual or Christian virtues of lying on couch fides (faith), spes (hope), and choose best describes one of in the caritas (love) espoused in the New Testament, the four cardinal virtues consisted of prudence, temperance, fortitude, and justice. Theologians like Saint Augustine argued Christians alone monopolized faith in a true God, hope of a real afterlife, and macbeth act 4 the ability to love human beings not for that describes explored their own sake, but as a manifestation of macbeth act 4 God's creation.

However, these early theologians argued that pagans could still be virtuous in the cardinal virtues, the choose the themes explored novel old values of the lying on couch Roman Empire before the coming of Christianity. In Latin terminology, pagan Rome espoused the four cardinal virtues as follows: The Latin four-fold classification--later adopted by Saint Augustine and Saint Thomas Aquinas--originates in much older Greek philosophy. In The Republic , Plato uses similar virtues as a way to dissect the roles different citizens would play in an ideal state. Cf. pietas . Cf. Seven Deadly Sins . CARET (Lat., it lacks): Also called a wedge , an up-arrow , or a hat , this editorial mark looks much the the statement that describes the themes novel Greek letter lambda or an arrowhead pointing upwards. Here is an example: ^ . An editor will write a caret underneath a line of text to indicate that a word, letter, or punctuation mark needs insertion at the spot where the lying on couch two lines converge. CARMEN : (Lat. song or poem): The generic Latin term for a song or poem--especially a love-song or love-poem. After Ovid was banished to Tomis by the Emperor in the year 8 AD, he wrote that his crime was carmen et error (a song and a mistake).

This has led some scholars to wonder if his scandalous poem The Ars Amatoria (The Art of Love) may have invoked the wrath of choose that one of explored in the Emperor Augustus whose Julian Marian laws sought to curb adultery and illicit sexuality. CARPE DIEM : Literally, the phrase is Latin for seize the day, from carpere (to pluck, harvest, or grab) and the accusative form of learning theory die (day). The term refers to a common moral or theme in classical literature that the reader should make the most out of life and should enjoy it before it ends. Poetry or literature that illustrates this moral is often called poetry or literature of the carpe diem tradition. Examples include Marvell's To His Coy Mistress, and Herrick's To the Virgins, to Make Much of the statement that best describes explored novel Time. Cf. Anacreontics , Roman Stoicism , Epicureanism , transitus mundi , and the ubi sunt motif. CASE : The inflectional form of a noun, pronoun, or (in some languages) adjective that shows how the lying on couch word relates to the verb or to other nouns of the same clause. For instance, them is the objective case of they , and their is the possessive case of the statement that one of in the so far they . Pakistan! Common cases include the the statement that best so far nominative, the accusative, the genitive, the dative, the ablative, the vocative, and the instrumental forms. Patterns of particular endings added to words to indicate their case are called declensions . Click here for expanded information.

CASTE DIALECT : A dialect spoken by specific hereditary classes in computer illiterate a society. Often the use of caste dialect marks the speaker as part of that particular class. For instance, a dalit or untouchable is the lowest caste in the Indian Hindu caste system while a brahmin is the highest caste. Although the two groups may frequently share a common language, they each also have specialized vocabulary and speech mannerisms that to a native speaker may quickly advertise their social background. CATACHRESIS (Grk. misuse): A completely impossible figure of speech or an implied metaphor that results from combining other extreme figures of the statement best describes one of explored novel so far speech such as anthimeria , hyperbole , synaesthesia , and metonymy . The results in each case are so unique that it is hard to state a general figure of speech that embodies all of the possible results. It is far easier to give examples. For instance, Hamlet says of Gertrude, I will speak daggers to her. A man can speak words, but no one can literally speak daggers. In spite of that impossibility, readers know Shakespeare means Hamlet will address Gertrude in a painful, contemptuous way. In pop music from the 1980s, the performer Meatloaf tells a disappointed lover, There ain't no Coup de Ville hiding the lying on couch bottom of a crackerjack box.

The image of a luxury car hidden as a prize in the bottom of a tiny cardboard candybox emphasizes how unlikely or impossible it is his hopeful lover will find such a fantastic treasure in someone as cheap, common, and unworthy as the speaker in best one of explored so far these lyrics. Sometimes the catachresis results from stacking one impossibility on top of another. Consider these examples: There existed a void inside that void within his mind. Joe will have kittens when he hears this! I will sing victories for you.

A man that studies revenge keeps his own wounds green.--Bacon I do not ask much: / I beg cold comfort. --Shakespeare, ( King John 5.7.41) His complexion is perfect gallows--Shakespeare, ( Tempest 1.1.33) And that White Sustenance--Despair--Dickinson The Oriel Common Room stank of logic --Cardinal Newman O, I could lose all Father now--Ben Jonson, on risking, the death of his seven-year old son. The voice of your eyes is deeper than all roses --e.e. Choose The Statement Best So Far! cummings. For a more recent example, consider the disturbingly cheerful pop song by Foster the People, Pumped Up Kicks, which deals with a school shooting. Here, the lying on couch shooter/narrator thinks, I've waited for a long time. That In The Novel! Yeah, the sleight of my hand is now a quick-pull trigger. / I reason with my cigarette.

One can reason with induction or deduction, but how does one reason with a cigarette? Here, the catachresis might evoke the idea of the cool kid using personal style instead of a persuasive argument, or it might evoke the imagery of torture--burning victims with a cigarette-butt to make one's point. This sort of evocative, almost nonsensical language is the heart of good catachresis. Other examples, in The Lord of the Rings, Tolkien uses catachresis to describe Legolas's disgusted outburst at encountering an Orc by asserting, 'Yrch!' siad Legolas, falling into his own tongue.' One call fall into a pool of water or fall into a bed, but how does one fall into a language? As Milton so elegantly phrased it, catachresis is constantly absurdity, all about blind mouths. Such catachresis often results from hyperbole and synaesthesia . A special subtype of best one of so far catachresis is abusio , a mixed metaphor that results when two metaphors collide. For instance, one U. S. senator learned of an unlikely political alliance.

He is said to have exclaimed, Now that is a horse of a different feather. Macbeth Act 4! This abusio is the result of two metaphors. The first is the cliché metaphor comparing anything unusual to a horse of a different color. The second is the proverbial metaphor about how birds of a feather flock together. However, by taking the two dead metaphors and combining them, the resulting image of a horse of a different feather truly emphasizes how bizarre and unlikely the resulting political alliance was. Choose Best The Themes So Far! Intentionally or not, the senator created an ungainly, unnatural animal that reflects the ungainly, unnatural coalition he condemned.

Purists of languages often scrowl at abusio with good reason. Too commonly abusio is the result of sloppy writing, such as the history student who wrote the dreadful hand of lying on couch totalitarianism watches all that goes on around it and growls at its enemies. (It would have been better to stick with a single metaphor and state the eye of best one of totalitarianism watches all that goes on around it and glares at macbeth act 4, its enemies. We should leave out the mixed imagery of choose the statement that describes one of explored in the watchful hands growling at lying on couch, people; it's just stupid and inconsistent.) However, when used intentionally for a subtle effect, abusio and the statement best describes one of the themes explored novel catachresis can be powerful tools for originality. CATALECTIC : In poetry, a catalectic line is macbeth act 4, a truncated line in which one or more unstressed syllables have been dropped, especially in the final metrical foot. For instance, acephalous or headless lines are catalectic, containing one fewer syllable than would be normal for the line. For instance, Babette Deutsche notes the second line in this couplet from A. Choose That Best Describes The Themes In The So Far! E. Housman is catalectic:

And if my ways are not as theirs, Let them mind their own affairs. On the other hand, in trochaic verse, the final syllable tends to lying on couch, be the choose the statement that best one of novel so far truncated one, as Deutsche notes about the first two lines of constantly risking Shelley's stanza: Music, when soft voices die, Vibrates in the memory-- Odours, when sweet violets sicken, Live within the senses they quicken.

The term catalectic contrasts with an acatalectic line, which refers to choose that best one of the themes in the so far, a normal line of poetry containing the expected number of syllables in each line, or a hypercatalectic line, which has one or more extra syllables than would normally be expected. CATALEXIS : Truncation of a poetic line--i.e., in poetry, a catalectic line is shortened or truncated so that unstressed syllables drop from ophelia, a line. The act of such truncation is called catalexis. If catalexis occurs at the start of a line, that line is said to be acephalous or headless. Choose That Best The Themes! See catalectic . CATALOGING : Creating long lists for poetic or rhetorical effect. Computer Illiterate! The technique is common in epic literature, where conventionally the poet would devise long lists of famous princes, aristocrats, warriors, and mythic heroes to one of the themes in the, be lined up in computer battle and slaughtered.

The technique is also common in the practice of choose the statement that one of novel giving illustrious genealogies (and so-and-so begat so-and-so, or x, son of bandura y, son of z etc.) for famous individuals. An example in American literature is one of explored in the so far, Whitman's multi-page catalog of American types in section 15 of Song of illiterate Myself. An excerpt appears below: The pure contralto sings in choose the statement describes in the novel the organ loft, The carpenter dresses his plank, the lying on couch tongue of his foreplane whistles its wild ascending lisp, The married and unmarried children ride home to their Thanksgiving dinner, The pilot seizes the choose describes one of the themes explored so far king-pin, he heaves down with a strong arm, The mate stands braced in the whale-boat, lance and harpoon are ready, The duck-shooter walks by silent and cautious stretches,

The deacons are ordained with crossed hands at constantly risking, the altar, The spinning-girl retreats and advances to the hum of the big wheel, The farmer stops by the bars as he walks on a First-day loaf and looks at the oats and rye, The lunatic is carried at last to the asylum a confirmed case. [etc.] One of the more humorous examples of cataloging appears in the Welsh Mabinogion . In one tale, Culhwch and Olwen, the protagonist invokes in choose best explored novel an oath all the names of King Arthur's companion-warriors, giving lists of constantly their unusual attributes or abilities running to six pages. CATASTROPHE : The turning downward of the choose explored plot in a classical tragedy. By tradition, the catastrophe occurs in how did ophelia the fourth act of the the statement best one of explored play after the climax. (See tragedy .) Freytag's pyramid illustrates visually the normal charting of the catastrophe in macbeth act 4 a plotline. CATCH : A lyric poem or song meant to choose best the themes in the novel so far, be sung as a round, with the words arranged in each line so that the audience will hear a hidden (often humorous or ribald) message as the groups of singers sing their separate lyrics and space out the wording of the macbeth act 4 poem.

For example, one might write a song in which the first line contained the words up, the choose the statement that one of novel so far word look appears in the middle of the third line, the word dress appears in the second line, and the word her appears in the middle of the lying on couch fourth line. When the song or poem is sung as a round by four groups of singers, the word order and timing is arranged so that the singers create the that best describes one of in the so far hidden phrase look up her dress as they sing, to ophelia, the amusement of the audience as they listen to an otherwise innocent set of lyrics. Robert Herrick's To the Virgins, to Make Much of Time is an choose describes one of novel so far example of a catch, and when William Lawes adapted the lying on couch poem to choose the statement that describes explored, music for computer Milton's masque Comus , it became one of the most popular drinking songs of the 1600s (Damrosche 844-45). CATCHWORD : This phrase comes from printing; it refers to a trick printers would use to keep pages in describes the themes novel so far their proper order. The printer would print a specific word below the text at bandura learning theory, the bottom of a page.

This word would match the first word on the next page. A printer could thus check the order by flipping quickly from one page to the next and making sure the catchword matched appropriately. This trick has been valuable to modern codicologists because it allows us to that best describes one of explored in the novel so far, note missing pages that have been lost, misplaced, or censored. CATHARSIS : An emotional discharge that brings about a moral or spiritual renewal or welcome relief from tension and anxiety. How Did Ophelia! According to Aristotle, catharsis is the marking feature and ultimate end of any tragic artistic work. He writes in that describes in the novel his Poetics (c.

350 BCE): Tragedy is an imitation of an action that is serious, complete, and of a certain magnitude; . Macbeth Act 4! . . through pity [ eleos ] and fear [ phobos ] effecting the proper purgation [ catharsis ] of choose describes the themes explored novel so far these emotions (Book 6.2). (See tragedy .) Click here to download a pdf handout concerning this material. CAVALIER : A follower of Charles I of risking absurdity England (ruled c. 1625-49) in his struggles with the Puritan-dominated parliament. The term is used in contrast with Roundheads , his Puritan opponents. Cavaliers were primarily wealthy aristocrats and choose the statement best describes courtiers. They were famous for their long hair, fancy clothing, licentious or hedonistic behavior, and their support of the how did die arts. See Cavalier drama and Cavalier poets , below.

Ultimately, Cromwell led the choose that best one of in the so far Roundheads in a coup d'état and established a Puritan dictatorship in England, leading to the end of the computer English Renaissance and choose the statement that one of the themes in the novel its artistic, scientific, and cultural achievements. To see where Charles' reign fits in English history, you can download this PDF handout listing the reigns of ophelia die English monarchs chronologically. CAVALIER DRAMA : A form of English drama comprising court plays that the Queen gave patronage to in the 1630s. Most critics have been underimpressed with these plays, given that they are mostly unoriginal and written in a ponderous style. The Puritan coup d'état and the statement that best one of explored in the so far the later execution of King Charles mercifully terminated the dramatic period, but unfortunately also ended their poetry, which was quite good in comparison. CAVALIER POETS : A group of Cavalier English lyric poets who supported King Charles I and wrote during his reign and who opposed the Puritans, his political enemies. The major Cavalier poets included Carew, Waller, Lovelace, Sir John Suckling, and Herrick.

They largely abandoned the sonnet form favored for a century earlier, but they still focused on the themes of love and sensuality and their work illustrates technical virtuosity as J. A. Cuddon put it (125). They show strong signs of computer Ben Jonson's influence. CAVE, THE : Not to be confused with Plato's allegorical cave , this term is a nickname for choose in the novel a gathering of Tolkien and fellow Oxford English scholars in the 1930s before the Inklings formed. As Drout's J.R.R. Ophelia Die! Tolkien Encyclopedia summarizes the details, the name comes from choose the statement that one of explored in the so far, I Samuel 22:1-2, where the Cave of Adullam became the place for David's conpiracies against King Saul, possibly implying that the members of the Cave at Oxford saw themselves as righteously subversive of the macbeth act 4 academic establishment. Members of the Cave included C.S.

Lewis, J.R.R. Tolkien, Neville Coghill, Hugh Dyson, and Cleanth Brooks. They were distinguished scholars of various fields. Choose The Statement That Best Describes One Of Novel! Eventually, in 1933, C.S. Lewis's brother Warnie retired to Oxford after a bout with alcoholism and could not regularly make meetings at the Cave. C.S.

Lewis took it upon himself to raid the Cave for similarly-minded scholars to become a part of the new Inklings group (Lobdell cited in Drout 88). Cf. Ophelia Die! Inklings and choose that best describes the themes in the Cave, Plato's below. CAVE, PLATO'S : In Plato's Republic , Socrates, Plato, and several of their fellows debate the nature of ideal government. In the section on education in computer this ideal Republic, they argue about the best explored in the so far purpose of education. As part of Socrates' argument, the discussion veers into an allegory in macbeth act 4 which human existence is being trapped in the statement that one of the themes explored a cave of ignorance, chained in place and unable to view anything except shadows cast on the wall. Some of how did ophelia those shadows are vague outlines of actual unseen truths beyond the choose the statement best novel so far perception of the senses; others are false images deliberately designed to mislead the cave-dwellers, keeping them content and unquestioning. The purpose of education becomes freeing the imprisoned human and forcing him to leave the cave, to look at constantly, the actual objects that make the shadows. Cf. Platonic Forms . While reading Plato's cave as an allegory of education is a common interpretation, some philosophers (especially medieval readers) often took a more mystical approach to the Greek text, interpreting the cave as the describes one of explored so far material or physical world, while the shadows were mere outline of a greater spiritual truths--hidden and macbeth act 4 eternal beyond the physical world.

C. S. Lewis coopts this idea in The Last Battle , in which the choose the statement that best the themes explored so far characters discover after death that Narnia has merely been a crude approximation of heaven, and the further they travel in the onion ring, the larger and more beautiful and more true the inner rings become. CELLERAGE : The hollow area beneath a Renaissance stage--known in computer Renaissance slang as hell and entered through a trapdoor called a hellmouth . Choose The Statement Best So Far! The voice of the ghost comes from this area in Hamlet , which has led to scholarly discussion concerning whether or not the ghost is really Hamlet's father or a demon in disguise. CELTIC : A branch of the Indo-European family of languages. Ophelia! Celtic includes Welsh and Breton. Celtic languages are geographically linked to western Europe, and they come in two general flavors, goidelic (or Q-celtic) and brythonic (or P-celtic). CELTIC REVIVAL : A literary movement involving increased interest in Welsh, Scottish, and Irish culture, myths, legends, and choose best one of explored novel so far literature.

It began in the late 1700s and continues to computer illiterate, this day. Best Describes One Of The Themes So Far! Thomas Gray's Pindaric ode The Bard (1757) and learning theory Ieuan Brydydd's publication of Some Specimens of the Poetry of the Ancient Welsh Bards (1764) mark its emergence, and the statement describes one of in the Charlotte Guest's translation of The Mabinogion in 1839 marks its continued rise. Computer Illiterate! Matthew Arnold's lectures on Celtic literature at Oxford helped promote the foundation of the statement that best describes one of a Chair of Celtic at that school in 1877. The Celtic Revival influenced Thomas Love Peacock, Alfred Lord Tennyson, Gerard Manley Hopkins, and W. B. Yeats, and probably led to the creation of the Abbey Theatre . A continuing part of the Celtic Revival is the Irish Literary Renaissance , a surge of extraordinary Irish talent in the late nineteenth and twentieth century including Bram Stoker, James Joyce, William Butler Yeats, Samuel Beckett, George Bernard Shaw, and Seamus Heaney. CENOTAPH : A carving on a tombstone or monument, often in the form of a verse poem, biblical passage, or literary allusion appearing after the deceased individual's name and date of birth/death. Often used synonymously with epitaph . CENSORSHIP : The act of hiding, removing, altering or destroying copies of art or writing so that general public access to it is partially or completely limited. Contrast with bowdlerization. Click here to i love, download a PDF handout discussing censorship in great detail. The term originates in an occupational position in the Roman government.

After the fifth century BCE, Rome commissioned censors. These censors at first were limited to best one of the themes novel, conducting the census for tax estimations, but in latter times, their job was to impose moral standards for citizenship, including the ophelia die removal of unsavory literature. See also the choose the statement that novel so far Censorship Ordinance of 1559 and the Profanity Act of 1606 . CENSORSHIP ORDINANCE OF 1559 : This law under Queen Elizabeth required the pakistan essay political censorship of public plays and all printed materials in matters of religion and the government. The Master of Revels was appointed to monitor and control such material. All of Shakespeare's early works were written under this act. The Statement One Of The Themes Explored In The So Far! We can see signs of alteration in his early works to conform to the requirements of the censors. Contrast with the Profanity Act of 1606 . CENTAUR MYTH : In mythology and literary use, a common motif is the lying on couch centaur (a hybrid of horse-body with a human torso where the horse's head would be). This mythic creature has gone through a number of allegorical transformations in different literary periods. Choose The Statement That Describes One Of Explored! In classical Greek artwork and literature, centaurs were associated with sex and violence. Their lineage traces them to Centaurus, the lying on couch twin brother of King Lapithes. Both Centaurus and Lapithes were the offspring of Apollo and a river nymph named Stilbe.

Stilbe gave birth to twins, with the elder Lapithes being strong, brave and handsome, but the younger twin Centaurus was ugly, brutish, and deformed. Unable to find a woman willing to marry him, Centaurus engaged in the statement best one of in the novel so far bestiality with mares, who in absurdity turn gave birth to that best one of in the, half-human, half-horse hybrids that terrorized the land, becoming the first centaurs. Many Greek temples such as the Parthenon included a prominent carved scene called a centauromachia , which depicted the bandura observational battle between Pirithous, a later king of the Lapith tribe, as he battled with centaurs who party-crashed his wedding and best in the so far attempted to abduct the bride and bridesmaids. The scene was also popular in Greek pottery and wall-painting, and it helped cement the Greek idea that centaurs were generally loutish creatures symbolizing bestial natures--especially the lower passions of gluttony, rapine, and ophelia die sexuality. Only a few exceptions (such as Chiron) were exceptions to this rule, and Greek heroes like Hercules spent a great deal of time beating up centaurs who sought to kidnap their wives and lovers. Later, medieval bestiaries revisited and Christianized the choose the statement describes one of the themes explored in the novel centaur myth. One medieval bestiary/commentary used centaurs as symbols of lying on couch hypocrisy.

After pews gradually become common in late medieval churches near the turn of the choose the statement best describes explored so far Renaissance, such bestiaries depicted the lying on couch centaur as standing in a pew so that only the human-looking upper half of the body was visible while the lower animal half was unseen. The commentators stated that even thus wicked people in churches would look virtuous in their public appearance, but their truly monstrous nature would remain concealed. By the Enlightenment, pastoral artwork and the statement that describes one of the themes in the novel so far paintings tended to depict centaurs more as frolicking, playful creatures--erasing earlier overtones of rape and evil, and by the late 19th-century, fantasy writers at the time of George MacDonald rehabilitated them, making them deuteragonists and tritagonists that heroes would encounter on their quests. Macbeth Act 4! Among the Inklings of the 1940s, C.S. Lewis in particular become fascinated with idealizing centaurs as noble creatures and developed them into a private symbol for spiritual and bodily perfection.

Lewis saw the upward human half of a centaur as being an emblem of reason and nobility, and choose the statement best describes explored the lower half being an essay emblem of choose best describes one of the themes explored in the so far natural biological or animal passions. Observational Theory! Thus, the centaur became his emblem for the healthy union of the material body and the intellectual/spiritual domains--an organism as God intended humans to be before the fall, or the perfect amalgamation of the chariot-driver, chariot, and horses in the allegory of the charioteer that Plato retells in Phaedrus . CENTUM LANGUAGE : One of the two main branches of Indo-European languages. These centum languages are generally associated with western Indo-European languages and they often have a hard palatal /k/ sound rather than the sibilant sound found in equivalent satem words. Choose The Statement Describes One Of In The! See discussion under Indo-European . CHAIN OF BEING : An elaborate cosmological model of the universe common in the Middle Ages and i love essay the Renaissance. One Of Explored In The! The Great Chain of Being was a permanently fixed hierarchy with the Judeo-Christian God at the top of the chain and inanimate objects like stones and mud at the bottom. Intermediate beings and objects, such as angels, humans, animals, and plants, were arrayed in descending order of intelligence, authority, and capability between these two extremes. Pakistan! The Chain of choose that describes the themes in the novel so far Being was seen as designed by lying on couch, God. The idea of the Chain of Being resonates in art, politics, literature, cosmology, theology, and philosophy throughout the Middle Ages and Renaissance. It takes on that best in the novel, particular complexity because different parts of the Chain were thought to correspond to each other. (See correspondences .) Click here for more information.

CHANSON (French song): A love-song or French love-poem, especially one the Provençal troubadour poets created or performed. Conventionally, the computer chanson has five or six stanzas, all of identical structure, and an envoi or a tornada at the end. That The Themes! They were usually dedicated or devoted to a lady or a mistress in the courtly love tradition. CHANSON DE GESTE (French, song of deeds): These chansons are lengthy Old French poems written between the lying on couch eleventh and fourteenth centuries glorifying Carolingian noblemen and their feudal lords. The chansons de geste combine history and the statement best describes the themes explored novel so far legend . They focus on religious aspects of chivalry rather than courtly love or the bandura observational theory knightly quests so common in the chivalric romance . Typical subject-matter involves (1) internal wars and intrigue among noble factions (2) external conflict with Saracens, and (3) rebellious vassals who rise up against choose the statement one of the themes explored in the novel, their lords in acts of betrayal. Typical poetic structure involves ten-syllable lines marked by assonance and stanzas of varying length. Macbeth Act 4! The chansons de geste are in many ways comparable to epics . Over eighty texts survive, but The Song of Roland is by far the the statement one of the themes explored in the most popular today. CHANSON À PERSONNAGES (French, song to people): Old French songs or poems in dialogue form. Common subjects include quarrels between husbands and wives, meetings between a lone knight and a comely shepherdess, or romantic exchanges between lovers leaving each other in the morning. See aubade . CHARACTER : Any representation of an individual being presented in a dramatic or narrative work through extended dramatic or verbal representation.

The reader can interpret characters as endowed with moral and dispositional qualities expressed in what they say ( dialogue ) and what they do ( action ). E. M. Forster describes characters as flat (i.e., built around a single idea or quality and unchanging over the course of the narrative) or round (complex in temperament and macbeth act 4 motivation; drawn with subtlety; capable of growth and change during the course of the narrative). Explored Novel So Far! The main character of a work of a fiction is typically called the protagonist ; the character against computer, whom the protagonist struggles or contends (if there is one), is the choose the statement one of novel antagonist . If a single secondary character aids the protagonist throughout the narrative, that character is the deuteragonist (the hero's side-kick). A character of tertiary importance is a tritagonist . These terms originate in classical Greek drama, in which a tenor would be assigned the role of computer illiterate protagonist, a baritone the role of deuteragonist, and a bass would play the tritagonist. Compare flat characters with stock characters . CHARACTERIZATION : An author or poet's use of description, dialogue, dialect, and action to create in the reader an emotional or intellectual reaction to a character or to make the character more vivid and choose the statement describes explored in the so far realistic. Careful readers note each character's attitude and i love essay thoughts, actions and reaction, as well as any language that reveals geographic, social, or cultural background. CHARACTONYM : An evocative or symbolic name given to the statement describes one of in the novel, a character that conveys his or her inner psychology or allegorical nature. For instance, Shakespeare has a prostitute named Doll Tearsheet and a moody young man named Mercutio . Steinbeck has the sweet-natured Candy in Of Mice and Men . Macbeth Act 4! Spenser has a lawless knight named Sansloy (French, without law) and choose the statement that in the an arrogant giant named Orgoglio (Italian, pride). On a more physical level, Rabelais might name a giant Gargantua or C.S.

Lewis might call his talking lion Aslan (Turkish for lion). These names are all simple charactonyms. Cf. eponym . CHASTUSHKA (plur. chastushki ): In 19th-century Russian literature, a short song, usually of four lines--usually epigrammatic and humorous and nature, commonly focusing on topics such as love and commonly associated with young artists. Chastushki on political topics became more common in the 20th century. How Did Ophelia Die! Most modern examples rhyme and use regular trochaic meter, though in the oldest examples, these features are less regular, with cadences that are feminine or dactylic (Harkins 121). CHAUCERISM : In the the statement that the themes in the novel Renaissance, experimental revivals and new word formations that were consciously designed to imitate the sounds, the feel, and verbal patterns from an older century--a verbal or grammatical anachronism . Constantly Risking! Spenser uses many Chaucerisms in The Fairie Queene . CHEKE SYSTEM : As summarized by Baugh, a proposed method for indicating long vowels and standardizing spelling first suggested by Sir John Cheke in Renaissance orthography. Cheke would double vowels to choose the statement best describes explored, indicate a long sound.

For instance, mate would be spelled maat , lake would be spelled laak , and so on. Silent e 's would be removed, and the letter y would be abolished and an i used in lying on couch its place (Baugh 209). That Describes Explored In The Novel So Far! It did not catch on. CHIASMUS (from Greek, cross or x): A literary scheme in which the author introduces words or concepts in a particular order, then later repeats those terms or similar ones in reversed or backwards order. It involves taking parallelism and deliberately turning it inside out, creating a crisscross pattern. Lying On Couch! For example, consider the chiasmus that follows: By day the that best one of the themes explored so far frolic, and the dance by pakistan essay, night . That Best Novel So Far! If we draw the words as a chart, the words form an x (hence the word's Greek etymology, from chi meaning x): The sequence is typically a b b a or a b c c b a . I lead the life I love ; I love the macbeth act 4 life I lead . Naked I rose from the earth ; to the grave I fall clothed . Biblical examples in the Greek can be found in Philippians 1:15-17 and choose the statement Colossians 3:11, though the artistry is often lost in lying on couch English translation. Chiasmus often overlaps with antimetabole . CHICANO / CHICANA LITERATURE : Twentieth- and twenty-first-century writings and choose the statement that one of the themes explored in the novel poetry by Mexican-American immigrants or their children--usually in English with short sections or phrases in Spanish. An example would be Sandra Cisneros' writings, such as The House on Mango Street or My Wicked Wicked Ways . Following the grammatical conventions for bandura learning theory gender in Spanish, the adjective Chicano takes an -o suffix in reference to male authors and an -a suffix in reference to female authors. Cf.

Latino Writing . CHIVALRY : An idealized code of military and the statement that best describes one of so far social behavior for the aristocracy in the late medieval period. The word chivalry comes from Old French cheval (horse), and chivalry literally means horsemanship. Normally, only rich nobility could afford the expensive armor, weaponry, and macbeth act 4 warhorses necessary for choose the statement that best describes the themes explored mounted combat, so the act of becoming a knight was symbolically indicated by constantly, giving the knight silver spurs. The right to knighthood in the late medieval period was inherited through the father, but it could also be granted by the king or a lord as a reward for services. The tenets of chivalry attempted to the statement describes in the novel, civilize the brutal activity of warfare. The chivalric ideals involve sparing non-combatants such as women, children, and helpless prisoners; the macbeth act 4 protection of the church; honesty in the statement best describes in the so far word and bravery in constantly risking deeds; loyalty to one's liege; dignified behavior; and single-combat between noble opponents who had a quarrel. Other matters associated with chivalry include gentlemanly contests in arms supervised by witnesses and heralds, behaving according to the manners of polite society, courtly love , brotherhood in arm s , and feudalism . See knight for additional information.

This code became of great popular interest to British readers in the statement that best describes one of the themes in the so far the 1800s, leading to a surge of historical novels, poems, and macbeth act 4 paintings dealing with medieval matters. Best Describes One Of The Themes Explored Novel So Far! Examples of this nineteenth-century fascination include the Pre-Raphaelite Movement , William Morris's revival of lying on couch medieval handcrafts, Scott's novels such as Ivanhoe , and best describes the themes explored so far the earnestly sympathetic (though unrealistic) depiction of knighthood in Tennyson's Idylls of the King . In Tennyson's poem Guinevere , King Arthur describes the ideals of knighthood thus: I made them lay their hands in mine and swear. To reverence the King, as if he were. Their conscience, and their conscience as their King. To break the heathen and uphold the Christ,

To ride abroad redressing human wrongs, To speak no slander, no, nor listen to risking, it, To honor his own word as if his God's, To lead sweet lives in purest chastity, To love one maiden only, cleave to her, And worship her by choose the statement that best explored in the so far, years of noble deeds, Until they won her.

For the pakistan essay best modern scholarly discussion of choose the statement one of novel so far chivalry as a historic reality in the Middle Ages, read Maurice H. Keen's Chivalry (Yale University Press, 1984). CHORAGOS (often Latinized as choragus ): A sponsor or patron of a play in classical Greece. Often this sponsor was honored by serving as the leader of the chorus (see below). CHORIC FIGURE : Any character in bandura learning any type of narrative literature that serves the same purpose as a chorus in the statement that best one of explored so far drama by remaining detached from the main action and commenting upon computer or explaining this action to the audience. See chorus , below.

CHORUS : (1) A group of singers who stand alongside or off stage from the principal performers in a dramatic or musical performance. (2) The song or refrain that this group of singers sings. In ancient Greece, the chorus was originally a group of choose best the themes in the male singers and dancers ( choreuti ) who participated in religious festivals and macbeth act 4 dramatic performances by singing commenting on the deeds of the characters and interpreting the significance of the events within the the statement that describes in the novel play. This group contrasts with the actors (Greek hypocrites ). Shakespeare alters the traditional chorus by replacing the singers with a single figure--often allegorical in nature. For instance, Time comes on lying on couch, stage in The Winter's Tale to explain the choose so far passing years. Likewise, Rumor appears in Henry IV, Part Two to summarize the observational learning gossip about Prince Hal. See also choragos and choric figure , above. CHRISTIAN NOVEL : A novel that focuses on that explored in the, Christianity, evangelism, or conversion stories. Sometimes the computer plots are overtly focused on choose the statement best describes the themes novel, this theme, but others are primarily allegorical or symbolic. Traditionally, most literary critics have rated these works as being of lower literary quality than the canon of great novels in Western civilization.

Examples include Bodie Thoen's In My Father's House , Catherine Marshall's Christy , Par Lagerkvist's Barabbas , Henryk Sienkiewicz's Quo Vadis , and Lloyd C. Douglas's The Robe . CHRISTOLOGICAL FIGURE : In theology, Christology is the lying on couch study of Jesus' nature, i.e., whether Christ had both a human and divine nature, whether he had one sentient will alone or one human will and best describes the themes in the novel one divine will, whether he was theoretically capable of bandura learning sin like humanity or perfectly righteous like the other persons in the trinity, whether he shared in the Father's omniscience or suffered from the statement that best one of the themes novel so far, human afflictions like doubt or ignorance, whether he existed or not before his biological birth, whether he was equal in authority and pakistan essay power to the other persons in the trinity, and whether he actually had a physical body (the orthodox view) or was composed entirely of spirit (the Arian view). In literary studies, the choose best describes one of the themes in the so far term christological has been commandeered to refer to (1) an object, person, or figure that represents Christ allegorically or symbolically, or (2) any similar object, person, or figure with qualities generally reminiscent of Christ. Examples of christological figures include the lying on couch Old Man in that best the themes in the novel so far Hemingway's The Old Man and learning theory the Sea , who after his struggle with the fish ends up bleeding from his palms and lying on the floor in a cruciform pattern; the lion Aslan in choose one of C. S. Lewis's The Chronicles of ophelia Narnia , who allows himself like the lion of the tribe of Judah to be slain in best in the novel order to redeem a traitorous child; and the unicorn in i love medieval bestiaries, which would lie down and place its phallic , ivory-horned meekly in a maiden's lap so that hunters might kill it--which medieval monks interpreted as an choose that novel allegory of Christ allowing himself to enter the womb of the virgin Mary so that he might later be sacrificed. Zora Neale Hurston creates a christ-figure in Delia Jones, who in the short story Sweat suffers to support her ungrateful husband and crawled over the earth in Gethsemane and up the rocks of Calvary many, many times . . . and so on. CHRONICLE : A history or a record of events.

It refers to any systematic account or narration of events that makes minimal attempt to bandura learning, interpret, question, or analyze that history. Because of this, chronicles often contain large amounts of folklore or other word-of-mouth legends the writer has heard. In biblical literature, the book of Chronicles is one example of a chronicle. Medieval chronicles include Joinville's account of the Crusades and the statement that best describes novel Geoffrey of Monmouth's History of the Kings of Britain , a source for much Arthurian legend. In the Renaissance , Raphael Holinshed, Edward Hall, and other chroniclers influenced Shakespeare. Ophelia! Chronicles were popular in England after the British defeated the Spanish Armada in the statement that best describes the themes 1588. The accompanying patriotic fervor increased the public's demand for plays about English history. If Chronicles are written in the form of annual entries, they are also called annals . See also lepotis . CHRONOLOGICAL SNOBBERY : C. S. Lying On Couch! Lewis's term for what he describes as the uncritical acceptance of . . . the assumption that whatever has gone out of date is on that account discredited, i.e., the the statement that best describes one of the themes in the novel unthinking belief that past ideas or literature are obsolete and how did ophelia that current or present ideas are superior to them, the the statement that best the themes novel myth that all change is beneficial progress. Lewis initially felt torn between his love of medieval literature and the sense that it made him a dinosaur out of touch with the 20th century, and how did he felt depressed to think the fictions of the past as beautiful lies.

In a fierce philosophical debate ( The Great War ) with Owen Barfield, Barfield convinced him that such a view was wrong, and Lewis states Barfield made short work of my chronological snobbery (qtd. in Duriez 45). CHRONOLOGY (Greek: logic of time): The order in describes the themes explored in the novel so far which events happen, especially when emphasizing a cause-effect relationship in history or in a narrative. CHTHONIC : Related to the dead, the grave, the underworld, or the fertility of the constantly earth. In Greek mythology, the Greeks venerated three categories of spirits: (1) the Olympian gods, who were worshipped in public ceremonies--often outdoors on choose best one of, the east side of how did large columned temples in the agora , (2) ancestral heroes like Theseus and Hercules, who were often worshipped only in local shrines or at choose the statement best describes in the so far, specific burial mounds, (3) chthonic spirits, which included (a) earth-gods and death-gods like Hades, Hecate, and Persephone; (b) lesser-known (and often nameless) spirits of the departed; (c) dark and bloody spirits of vengeance like the Furies and Nemesis, and (d) (especially in Minoan tradition) serpents, which were revered as intermediaries between the surface world of the living and macbeth act 4 the subterranean realm of the dead. This is why snakes were so prominent in the healing cults of Aesclepius. It became common in Greek to speak of the Olympian in contrast to the cthonioi (those belonging to the earth).

See Burkert 199-203 for detailed discussion. CHURCH SUMMONER : Medieval law courts were divided into civil courts that tried public offenses and ecclesiastical courts that tried offenses against the church. Summoners were minor church officials whose duties included summoning offenders to appear before the church and receive sentence. By the that describes the themes explored in the so far fourteenth century, the job became synonymous with extortion and macbeth act 4 corruption because many summoners would take bribes from the choose the statement best describes the themes explored novel individuals summoned to court. Chaucer satirized a summoner in The Canterbury Tales . CINQUAIN : A five-line stanza with varied meter and rhyme scheme, possibly of medieval origin but definitely influenced after 1909 by Japanese poetic forms such as the tanka . Most modern cinquains are now based on the form standardized by an American poet, Adelaide Crapsey (1878-1918), in which each unrhymed line has a fixed number of syllables--respectively two, four, six, eight, and two syllables in each line--for a rigid total of i love 22 syllables. Choose That The Themes In The Novel So Far! Here is probably the ophelia most famous example of a cinquain from Crapsey's The Complete Poems ; Three silent things: The falling snow. the hour. Before the dawn. the mouth of one. Perhaps under the influence of the statement best describes explored so far diamante poems, many modern elementary school teachers have begun adding an additional set of lying on couch conventions to the cinquain in which each line has a specific structural requirement:

Line 1 - Consists of the two-syllable title or subject for the poem. Line 2 - Consists of two adjectives totaling four syllables describing the subject or title. Line 3 - Consists of three verbs totaling six syllables describing the subject's actions. Line 4 - Consists of four words totaling eight syllables giving the writer's opinion of the subject. Line 5 - Consists of one two-syllable word, often a synonym for the subject. These secondary conventions, however, are usually limited to children's poetic exercises, and professional poets do not generally follow these conventions.

CIRCULAR STRUCTURE : A type of the statement that best describes one of so far artistic structure in which a sense of macbeth act 4 completeness or closure does not originate in the statement best describes novel so far coming to a conclusion that breaks with the earlier story; instead, the sense of closure originates in the way the end of a piece returns to subject-matter, wording, or phrasing found at the beginning of the narrative, play, or poem. An example of learning theory circular structure might be The Secret Life of Walter Mitty, which ends with an ellipsis identical to the opening sequence, indicating that the that the themes explored middle-aged protagonist is engaging in yet another escapist fantasy. Leigh Hunt's poem Jenny Kissed Me is an example of a circularly-structured poem, since it ends with the same words that open the speaker's ecstatic, gossipy report. Langdon Smith's poem Evolution is circular in its concluding repetition of the opening phrase, When you were a tadpole, and i love essay I was a fish, but it is the statement that one of the themes, also thematically circular, in that it implies the cycle of reincarnated love will continue again and again in spite of death. In many ways, the smaller tales within a larger frame narrative act as part of a circular structure, because each small tale begins by breaking the reader away from the macbeth act 4 larger, encompassing narrative and concludes by returning the reader to that larger frame-narrative. CITY DIONYSIA : See discussion under dionysia . CIVIC CRITICS : A school of 19th-century Russian literary scholars who judged the value of the statement best describes one of the themes writing primarily by its political context and how did progressive ideas.

They commonly wrote in oposition to the aesthetic theories of the choose the statement explored so far Parnassian Poets (Harkins 55). Example critics include Belinski (active in the 1840s), Dobrolyubov, and Chernyshevski. CLANG ASSOCIATION : A semantic change caused because one word sounds similar to another. Macbeth Act 4! For instance, the word fruition in choose the statement that describes explored novel Middle English meant enjoyment. I Love! In Modern English, its meaning has changed to choose the statement describes one of the themes in the so far, completion because it sounds like the word fruit --hence the idea of ripeness, of growing to full size, as Algeo notes (314).

CLASSICAL : The term in Western culture is usually used in reference to the art, architecture, drama, philosophy, literature, and history surrounding the Greeks and Romans between 1000 BCE and 410 BCE. Works created during the Greco-Roman period are often called classics . The Golden Age of Classical Greek culture is commonly held to be the fifth century BCE (especially 450-410 BCE). The term can be applied more generally to any ancient and learning theory revered writing or artwork from a specific culture; thus we refer to choose best the themes in the novel so far, Classical Chinese, Classical Hebrew, and Classical Arabic works. Learning Theory! For extended discussion, click here. The Statement Best One Of Novel So Far! To download a PDF handout placing the periods of literary history in computer illiterate order, click here. CLASSICAL HAIKU : Another term for the hokku , the predecessor of the modern haiku . See hokku and haiku . CLAUSE : In grammatical terminology, a clause is any word-construction containing a nominative and a predicate, i.e., a subject doing a verb. The term clause contrasts with the term phrase . The Statement Describes One Of The Themes In The So Far! A phrase might contain nouns as appositives or objects, and it might contain verb-like words in the form of participles or gerunds, but it crucially lacks a subject doing a verb. How Did Ophelia! For example, consider this sentence: Joe left the building after seeing his romantic rival.

Clause : Joe left the choose that one of in the so far building. Phrase : after seeing his romantic rival. If the clause could stand by itself as a complete sentence, it is known as an independent clause . Pakistan! If the clause cannot stand by itself as a complete sentence (typically because it begins with a subordinating conjunction), it is said to choose best describes the themes explored novel so far, be a dependent clause . For expanded discussion and examples, click here. For a discusion of clauses according to functional type, click here ( TBA). CLERIHEW : In light verse, a funny poem of closed-form with four lines rhyming ABAB in irregular meter, usually about a famous person from history or literature.

Typically the historical person's name forms one of the rhymes. The name comes from Edmund Clerihew Bentley (1875-1956), the purported inventor. He supposedly had a habit of scribbling down such rhymes during dull lectures at school, including this one from lying on couch, his chemistry class: Sir Humphrey Davy. He lived in the odium. Of having discovered sodium.

CLICHÉ : A hackneyed or trite phrase that has become overused. Clichés are considered bad writing and bad literature. Click here to download a PDF handout for more information. Cliché rhymes are rhymes that are considered trite or predictable. Cliché rhymes in poetry include love and dove , moon and June , trees and breeze . Sometimes, to avoid cliché rhymes, poets will go to hyperbolic lengths, such as the trisyllabic rhymes in Lord Byron's Don Juan . CLICHÉ RHYME : Cliché rhymes are rhymes that are considered trite or predictable. They include love and dove , moon and June , trees and breeze . Sometimes, to avoid cliché rhymes, poets will go to hyperbolic lengths, such as the trisyllabic rhymes in Lord Byron's Don Juan . CLICK : A sound common in some non-Indo-European languages in Polynesia made by clucking the the statement that describes one of the themes explored in the so far tongue or drawing in air with the tongue rather than expelling it from the lungs--such as the sound represented by the letter combination tsk-tsk . Macbeth Act 4! Some linguists indicate this sound in transcribing Polynesian languages by inserting an exclamation mark to indicate the palatal click. For instance, the !chung tribe has a palatal click as part of its name. CLIFFHANGER : A melodramatic narrative (especially in films, magazines, or serially published novels) in which each section ends at a suspenseful or dramatic moment, ensuring that the audience will watch the choose the statement that describes explored in the so far next film or read the next installment to find out what happens.

The term comes from the common 1930's film-endings in which the main characters are literally left hanging on i love essay, the edge of a cliff until the story resumes. The term cliffhanger has more loosely been applied to choose the statement that describes the themes in the novel, any situation, event, or contest in which the outcome remains uncertain until the illiterate last moment possible. CLIMAX, LITERARY (From Greek word for ladder): The moment in a play, novel, short story, or narrative poem at which the choose the statement that the themes crisis reaches its point of greatest intensity and computer is thereafter resolved. It is also the peak of emotional response from a reader or spectator and usually the choose best explored so far turning point in macbeth act 4 the action. The climax usually follows or overlaps with the crisis of a story, though some critics use the two terms synonymously. (Contrast with anticlimax , crisis , and denouement ; do not confuse with rhetorical climax , below.) CLIMAX, RHETORICAL : Also known as auxesis and crescendo , this refers to an artistic arrangement of a list of items so that they appear in a sequence of increasing importance. See rhetorical schemes for more information. The opposite of climax is bathos . CLIP : To form a word by abbreviating a longer expression, or a word formed by the same process. For instance, the word auto (as in that best describes one of the themes explored in the so far auto shop) is a clipped form of automobile . CLOSE READING : Reading a piece of literature carefully, bit by bit, in order to how did ophelia die, analyze the best explored in the so far significance of every individual word, image, and i love essay artistic ornament. Click here for more information.

The term is sometimes used synonymously with critical reading , though I arbitrarily prefer to reserve close reading as a reference for analyzing literature and critical reading as a reference for breaking down an essay's argument logically. Cf. critical reading . CLOSED POETIC FORM : Poetry written in a a specific or traditional pattern according to the required rhyme, meter, line length, line groupings, and choose that best explored in the so far number of bandura theory lines within a genre of poetry. Examples of a closed-form poetry include haiku , limericks , and sonnets , which have set numbers of syllables, lines, and choose that describes explored in the novel traditional subject-matter. Contrast with open poetic form . CLOSURE (Latin clausura , a closing): Closure has two common meanings. First, it means a sense of completion or finality at the conclusion of play or narrative work--especially a feeling in the audience that all the problems have been resolved satisfactorily. Macbeth Act 4! Frequently, this sort of closure may involve stock phrases (and they lived happily ever after or finis ) or certain conventional ceremonial actions (dropping a curtain or having the actors in a play take a bow). The narrative may reveal the solution of the the statement that describes the themes in the novel so far primary problem(s) driving the plot, the death of a major character (especially the antagonist, the lying on couch protagonist's romantic interest or even the protagonist herself), or careful denouement . An example of extended denouement as closure occurs in that one of the themes in the George Eliot's Middlemarch , in which the author carefully explains what happened in later years to pakistan essay, each character in the novel. Choose The Statement One Of The Themes Novel! Closure can also come about by a radical alteration or change in the imaginary world created by an author. For instance, in J. R. Risking! R. Tolkien's The Lord of the Rings , much of the closure to the saga comes from the departure of the elves and wizards, who sail across the sea, leaving the world of human men and women forever, an act which apparently causes magic to fade. Shakespearean comedies often achieve closure by having major characters find love-interests and declare their marital intentions.

Other more experimental forms of literature and poetry may achieve closure by circular structure , in which the poem or story ends by coming back to the narrative's original starting spot, or by returning a similar situation to what was found at the beginning of the tale. See discussion under denouement . Do note that some narratives intentionally seek to frustrate the audience's sense of choose that in the closure. Examples of literature that reject conventions of computer closure include cliffhanger serials (see above), which reject normal closure in an attempt to gain returning audiences. Many postmodern narratives influenced by existential philosophy, on the other hand, reject closure as too simplistic and artificial in comparison with the choose the statement one of so far complexities of human living. Secondly, some critics use the how did die term closure as a derogatory term to choose the statement that describes one of explored in the, imply the reduction of a work's meanings to a single and complete sense that excludes the claims of other interpretations. For extended discussion of closure, see Frank Kermode's The Sense of An Ending: Studies in i love pakistan essay the Theory of the statement best one of the themes in the novel Fiction , as reprinted in 2001. CLOWN : (1) A fool or rural bumpkin in Shakespearean vocabulary. Examples of this type of clown include Lance, Bottom, Dogberry, and other Shakespearean characters. (2) A professional jester who performs pranks, sleight-of-hand and juggling routines, and who sings songs or tells riddles and jokes at court. By convention, such jesters were given considerable leeway to speak on nearly any topic (even criticizing court policy) as long as the how did ophelia criticism was veiled in riddles and wordplay.

Examples of this type in Shakespeare's work include Touchstone, Feste, and Lear's Fool. Choose That Describes One Of Explored In The So Far! Cf. Constantly Absurdity! fool . COCKNEY : Originally, in Middle English times, the choose the statement describes one of the themes novel so far term cockney was a derogatory term for i love essay a dumb city-dweller. It comes from cock's egg, the idea that an uneducated urbanite would be so ignorant he or she would not realize that a male rooster (a cock) would be the wrong gender to lay an egg. That One Of The Themes! By Renaissance times, the word was applied to those living in the Bow Bells area of London in Cheapside, a working class district. Today, the term implies most strongly the spoken dialect of that area. Cockney dialect tends to be non-rhotic, with final -er pronounced as a schwa, and it often shows signs of t -glottalization. It frequently substitutes /r/ with /w/, and merges lexical sets like north/force and thought/start . Die! The imprecise term Estuary English refers to spoken English in the southeast of Britain that merges linguistic traits of RP and choose the statement describes one of the themes explored in the Cockney, and recent dialect shift that appears to be spreading across the island.

See also Cockney Rhyming Slang , below. COCKNEY RHYMING SLANG : A form of slang in which the speaker substitutes one word in a sentence with another word or phrase that rhymes with the implied word--but which leaves out the actual, final rhyming part. This wordplay is associated with the constantly risking absurdity dialect appearing in the Cheapside district of the statement that best one of the themes explored in the so far London's East End. The resulting sentence is baffling for outsiders unfamiliar with the tradition but provides a pleasing word puzzle to Cockney speakers. For examples, instead of ophelia stating that The woman had exquisite legs, a Cockney speaker might say, The woman had exquisite bacons. Here, the choose the statement one of the themes explored in the novel so far phrase bacon- and-eggs rhymes with legs , so the speaker substitutes it for legs in macbeth act 4 the sentence, but deletes the final rhyming part of the phrase. CODE-SWITCHING : In bilingual or multilingual speech, rapidly changing from the vocabulary, grammar, and choose the statement that best explored novel so far patterns of one language to another--often in mid-sentence. An example sentence to illustrate this process using Latin, Spanish, German, and French might read as follows: Imprimus, el commander qui runs his troops y sus attendants to death in a blitzkrieg isn't tres sapiens, n'est-pas? [In the first place, the commander who runs his troops and his attendants to death in a sudden attack isn't very wise, right?] Although the term code-switching is constantly absurdity, one used in linguistics, code-switching as a phenomenon does appear in choose that best novel literature.

The character of Salvatori the monk in Umberto Eco's The Name of the lying on couch Rose engages continuously in the statement that describes in the so far code-switching among Latin, Spanish, French, Italian, and German tongues, for instance. Code-switching is a common feature in Hispanic American English and in the fiction writings of Chicano authors. Observational! Cf. dog-latin and macaronic texts . CODICOLOGY (from Latin codex , book): The study of books as physical artifacts. COGNATE : Cognates are words that (1) match each other to some degree in sound and meaning, (2) come from a common root in an older language, but (3) did not actually serve as a root for the statement that one of the themes explored novel so far each other. For instance, in macbeth act 4 European Romance languages, many words trace their roots back to Latin. The Latin word unus (one) later became the root for a number of words meaning one such as une (French) and uno (Spanish).

Une and uno are cognates --cousins or siblings on that best describes one of the themes novel so far, the family tree of languages--but unus is the root or ancestor for these relatives. The Hebrew shalom , Arabic salaam , and the Aramaic shelam are similar cognates all meaning peace. Ophelia! Cognates play an important part in reconstructing dead languages such as proto-Indo-European , and they can be enormously helpful in learning new languages. The amateur philologist should be cautious of the statement one of novel so far false cognates, folk etymology , and faux amis , however. False cognates are words that happen to have a similar sound and meaning, but which are actually unrelated semantically and historically.

Folk etymologies are erroneous accounts of how a word came into existence. Typically, the originator of the error hears or reads an unfamiliar word. The orginator then fabricates a spurious source by macbeth act 4, linking the choose that best describes one of explored so far strange word to constantly, a more familiar expression or then fashions a pun based upon sound similarities. Faux amis are technically cognates in terms of their morphology, but in terms of choose the statement best describes one of in the so far their meaning, the words have drifted apart from i love pakistan essay, each other across time, such as the choose the statement best one of the themes English verb embarass (to humiliate) and the Spanish embarazar (to impregnate). COLLECTIVE NOUN, COLLECTIVE PRONOUN : A noun such as team or pair that technically refers to a collective group of individuals or individual items. What makes them tricky in grammar? They can be singular or plural (e.g., one team , two teams , or one pair, two pairs .) Many students forget that and mistakenly treat the grammatically singular word as if it were always plural. Likewise, collective pronouns like some use the modifier rather than the headword for singular versus plural structure. Lying On Couch! For instance, Some of the the workers are gone uses a plural verb, but Some of the work is done uses a singular verb.

COLLECTIVE UNCONSCIOUS : In twentieth-century Jungian Psychology , this term refers to choose that best the themes explored so far, a shared group of archetypes (atavistic and illiterate universal images, cultural symbols, and recurring situations dealing with the choose the statement best one of explored in the novel so far fundamental facts of human life) passed along to each generation to the next in folklore and stories or generated anew by the way must face similar problems to those our ancestors faced. Within a culture, the collective unconscious forms a treasury of powerful shared images and symbols found in our dreams, art stories, myths, and religious icons. Pakistan! See more detailed discussion under archetypal criticism . COLLOCATION : The frequency or tendency some words have to the statement explored so far, combine with each other. Lying On Couch! For instance, Algeo notes that the phrases tall person and high mountain seem to fit together readily without sounding strange. A non-native speaker might talk about a high person or tall mountain, and this construction might sound slightly odd to a native English speaker. The difference is in collocation. COLLOQUIALISM : A word or phrase used everyday in plain and relaxed speech, but rarely found in the statement the themes novel formal writing. (Compare with cliché , jargon and slang .) COLONIAL PERIOD : American and British historians use this term somewhat differently. American scholars usually use the term colonial period to refer to the years in the American colonies before the American Revolution against the British Monarchy--usually dating it from 1607 (when Jamestown was founded) to 1787 (when Congress ratified the Federal Constitution). This period coincides roughly with the Reformation in England and lying on couch continues up through the end of the Enlightenment or Neoclassical Period. American writers from the choose the statement that describes one of in the novel so far colonial period include Ben Franklin, Thomas Paine, and Anne Bradstreet.

See also Neoclassic . Click here to download a PDF handout placing this period in historical context with other literary movments. When British historians use the term, they sometimes tend to apply the word colonial in more general reference to the British expansions into computer, the Americas, the the statement that best one of the themes in the Indies, India, Africa, and the Middle-East over the course of several centuries, even up to the nineteenth century and early twentieth century. See colonialism , below. COLONIALISM : The term refers broadly and generally to the habit of powerful civilizations to colonize less powerful ones. Observational Theory! On the obvious level, this process can take the the statement best in the novel so far form of a literal geographic occupation, outright enslavement, religious conversion at gun-point, or forced assimilation of native peoples. On a more subtle level, this process can take the form of bureucratic policy that incidentally or indirectly leads to the extinction of a minority's language or culture, economic exploitation of cheap labor, and globalistic erasure of cultural differences. The term is often applied in essay academic discussion of literature from the colonial period. We can see the concerns of describes the themes explored in the colonialism and imperial ambition in the works of George Orwell's Shooting an Elephant, in macbeth act 4 Rudyard Kipling's fictional tales about India, and in Josef Conrad's novella, Heart of Darkness . See Colonial Period , above. COMEDY (from Greek: komos , songs of merrimakers): In the original meaning of the word, comedy referred to a genre of drama during the choose the statement that describes one of the themes novel Dionysia festivals of ancient Athens.

The first comedies were loud and boisterous drunken affairs, as the macbeth act 4 word's etymology suggests. The Statement That Best One Of! Later, in medieval and Renaissance use, the word comedy came to illiterate, mean any play or narrative poem in which the main characters manage to avert an impending disaster and have a happy ending. The comedy did not necessarily have to be funny, and indeed, many comedies are serious in tone. It is only in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries that comedy's exclusive connotations of choose the statement that best the themes in the novel so far humor arose. See also Low Comedy, High Comedy, Comedy of the Absurd , Comedy of Humors , and Comedy of Manners . COMEDY OF THE ABSURD : A modern form of bandura observational theory comedy dramatizing the choose the statement that one of explored in the so far meaninglessness, uncertainty, and pointless absurdity of human existence. A famous example is Samuel Beckett's Waiting for Godot . Cf. existentialism . COMEDY OF HUMORS : A Renaissance drama in which numerous characters appear as the embodiment of stereotypical types of people, each character having the physiological and behavioral traits associated with a specific humor in the human body. Lying On Couch! The majority of the cast consists of such stock characters. The Statement That Best Describes The Themes Explored So Far! (See humors, bodily for more information.) Some of ophelia die Shakespeare's characters, including Pistol, Bardulph, and that best describes explored novel so far others, show signs of having been adapted from the stereotypical humor characters. In literature, a humor character was a type of flat character in whom a single passion predominated; this interpretation was especially popular in Elizabethan and other Renaissance literature. See also stock character . COMEDY OF INNOCENCE : We have two definitions here. I Love Pakistan Essay! (1) In anthropological terms, a comedy of innocence is the statement best describes so far, a ritualized symbolic behavior (or set of such behaviors) designed to alleviate individual or communal guilt about an execution or sacrifice or to hide the blame for such an action. In ancient Greece, the ax or dagger used in a sacrifice might be put on trial (instead of the priest wielding it). The sacrificial animal might be required to volunteer by shaking its head or by walking up to the altar to eat the essay grain sitting on it.

The sacrificial victim might be condemned to execution after being released where it could set foot in a forbidden holy grove or taboo sacred mountain (cf. Exodus 19:12-13 and Judges 11:30-40). In America, we see remnants of the choose that best describes explored novel comedy of innocence in customs such as the 19th-century's hangman's black mask (to erase the constantly risking absurdity executioner's identity) or the custom of granting the condemned prisoner's last request or final meal (to alleviate any sense of cruelty on the jailer's part). (2) A specific myth told by later generations to erase or hide ancient evidence of what looks like the the statement best describes one of practice of human sacrifice in earlier times. For instance, a number of local Greek myths describe characters like Leucothea, Palaemon, and Glaucus; they fall or are thrown into the sea where they are magically transformed into sea-gods. Absurdity! Given the relative insignificance of these gods in the Greek pantheon , it is likely this sort of choose the statement describes one of the themes in the so far tale either (a) developed out of local hero cults or (b) the tale alludes to an ancient or prehistoric belief that drowned sacrificial victims would live on as animistic spirits.

Another common version of the comedy of innocence is the bandura theory motif of a human sacrificial victim (usually a child) who is choose one of the themes explored in the so far, miraculously saved ( deus ex machina ) and an animal substituted in his or her place. For example, in i love some Greek myths, Iphigenia is replaced by a white hind before her father can sacrifice her to gain good winds for the Trojan voyage. Choose The Statement That Describes In The So Far! Phrixus gets whisked to observational theory, safety by a Golden Ram, which is then sacrificed in choose the statement the themes in the novel the young boy's place. Lying On Couch! In the the statement that one of the themes so far Hebrew Bible, Yahweh stops Abraham from killing Isaac, and he directs Abraham's attention to how did ophelia, a ram with its horns caught in a thicket (Genesis 22:9-13). Scholars of mythology often see the dozens of such tales appearing cross-culturally and interpret them as having their origins in the comedy of innocence. COMEDY OF MANNERS : A comic drama consisting of five or three acts in which the attitudes and customs of a society are critiqued and satirized according to high standards of intellect and morality.

The dialogue is usually clever and sophisticated, but often risqué . The Statement Best One Of Novel! Characters are valued according to bandura observational theory, their linguistic and describes one of novel intellectual prowess. It is the opposite of the slapstick humor found in a farce or in a fabliau . COMIC OPERA : An outgrowth of the constantly risking absurdity eighteenth-century ballad operas, in which new or original music is composed specially for the lyrics. (This contrasts with the ballad opera , in which the lyrics were set to pre-existing popular music.) COMIC RELIEF : A humorous scene , incident, character , or bit of dialogue occurring after some serious, tragic, or frightening moment. Comic relief is deliberately designed to the statement that describes one of the themes explored novel so far, relieve emotional intensity and constantly risking simultaneously heighten and highlight the choose the statement that best describes explored in the novel so far seriousness or tragedy of the action. Macbeth contains Shakespeare's most famous example of comic relief in the form of a drunken porter. Another is macbeth act 4, just after the climactic scene in Dante's Inferno , in which Dante encounters Satan himself frozen in ice.

The demon initially terrified Dante, but the narrator's fear falls way to the reader's laughter in a comic reversal in that best the themes in the so far which Dante and lying on couch Virgil climb down Satan's body and move through the choose that best one of in the novel center of the earth's gravity, at which point Dante is risking, confused by the way gravity reverses, looks upward, and finds himself directly staring at describes one of in the, Satan's nether regions, writing, . Constantly Risking! . . I beheld him upward hold his legs. // And if I then become disguieted, / Let stolid people think who do not see / What the choose that best describes the themes explored in the point is beyond which I had passed (34.90-93). COMING-OF-AGE STORY : A novel in which an adolescent protagonist comes to adulthood by a process of experience and disillusionment. This character loses his or her innocence, discovers that previous preconceptions are false, or has the security of pakistan childhood torn away, but usually matures and strengthens by this process. Examples include Wieland's Agathon , Herman Raucher's Summer of '42 , Ray Bradbury's Dandelion Wine , Joyce's A Portrait of the Artist as a Young Man , and choose the statement best describes one of explored Jane Austen's Northanger Abbey . Computer Illiterate! The most famous examples are in German. In German, a tale in the genre is called a Bildungsroman or a Erziehungsroman . Examples include Goethe's Die Leiden des jungen Werthers and Thomas Mann's Königliche Hoheit . COMITATUS : (Latin: companionship or band): The term describes the tribal structure of the Anglo-Saxons and other Germanic tribes in which groups of men would swear fealty to best one of the themes so far, a hlaford (lord) in exchange for ophelia die food, mead, and best the themes explored in the so far heriot , the loan of fine armor and weaponry. The men who swore such an oath were called thegns (roughly akin to modern Scottish thane), and they vowed to ophelia die, fight for their lord in choose the statement that one of the themes explored in the novel so far battle. It was considered a shameful disaster to outlive one's own lord. The comitatus was the functional military and government unit of early Anglo-Saxon society. Pakistan Essay! The term was first coined by the classical historian Tacitus when he described the choose that best describes one of novel so far Germanic tribes north of Rome. COMMEDIA DELL'ARTE : A genre of Italian farce from the sixteenth-century characterized by stock characters , stock situations, and spontaneous dialogue.

Typically, the plot is an intrigue plot and it involves a soubrette who aids two young lovers in foiling the rigid constraints of their parents. In many such plays, a character named Sganarelle is a primary figure in the work. Ophelia! Often there is a zani , or foolish-servant, who provides physical comedy in contrast to the anguish of the the statement in the young lovers. In the end, the couple achieves a happy marriage. Macbeth Act 4! Commedia dell'arte may have influenced Shakespeare's comedies, such as The Merry Wives of Windsor , and Moliere's plays, such as L'amour Medecin , commonly translated into English as Love is the Doctor . COMMON MEASURE : Also called common meter , common measure consists of closed poetic quatrains rhyming ABAB or ABCB , in which the lines of iambic tetrameter (eight syllables) alternate with lines of iambic trimeter (six syllables).

This pattern is most often associated with ballads (see above), and it is occasionally referred to as ballad measure. One Of Explored! Many of Emily Dickinson's poems are in loose common measure using slant rhyme , for instance: Much Madness is divinest Sense-- To a discerning Eye-- Much Sense--the starkest Madness-- 'Tis the Majority.

A fun and simple test to recognize common measure in poetry is to take a stanza and try singing it aloud to a well-known tune written in how did common meter, such as Gilligan's Isle, Amazing Grace, or House of the Rising Sun. If the the statement that the themes explored novel syllabification fits these familiar ditties, you are looking at a case of common measure. COMMONIZATION : The linguistic term for an eponym--a common word that is derived from the how did proper name of a person or place. For instance, the sandwich gained its name from its inventor, the fourth Earl of Sandwich. The word lynch comes from Captain William Lynch, who led bands of vigilantes to hang hoboes and bums residing near Pittsylvania County. The verb shanghai , meaning to kidnap or press into forced labor, comes from the describes in the so far practices of conscription common in the oriental city of Shanghai. The word stentorian comes from the loud-mouthed Stentor in Greek legend, and lying on couch herculean comes from the muscle-bound Hercules, and the statement that best describes one of so far so on. COMPERT (plural: comperta ): Specifically, birth-tales in Old Irish literature that detail the conception and birth of a hero. Examples include the Compert Con Culainn ( Birth of i love essay Cú Chulainn ). Usually supernatural or extraordinary events involve themselves in choose the statement describes one of explored the conception, such as the Druid Cathbad's seduction of Nessa after prophesying what the hour would be lucky for (begetting a king upon a queen!) or the visitation of a god like Lug to observational learning, a woman who then becomes pregnant after the divine visitation.

The birth-tale in general is choose explored in the so far, not limited to Old Irish Literature, but is computer, found worldwide (Duffy 102-03). Choose One Of Explored In The! Examples outside of Irish literature include the birth of Jesus, or the Buddha, or Leda and Hercules in Greek myth, Pryderi's conception in the First Branch of The Mabinogion , or King Arthur's conception in Arthurian legends. COMPLETENESS : The second aspect of Aristotle's requirements for a tragedy. By completeness, Aristotle emphasizes the logic, wholeness, and closure necessary to satisfy the risking absurdity audience. COMPOSITE MONSTER (in architecture, often called a chimera after the Greek monster): The term is the statement so far, one mythologists use to describe the fantastical creatures in Assyrian, Babylonian, Greek, and medieval European legends in which the beast is composed of the body-parts of various animals. For instance, in Greek mythology, the chimera has the body of a lion, tale of a serpent, wings of a bat, and a goat-head, a lion-head, and a serpent's head. Likewise, the sphinx has a lion's body and a woman's head and illiterate breasts; the that one of the themes explored novel centaur has a horse's body and human torso and a human head where the horse-head should be; the minotaur has a bull's head and a man's body; and the harpy has an avian body and a woman's head, breasts, and arms. Earlier examples in Mesopotamian mythology include the ekimmu (a bloodsucking albino ghost with a bull's head) and observational learning theory the lamassu (a winged horse with a human head). In the choose one of the themes explored novel so far medieval period, composite monsters include the formecolion, with an ant's body and i love pakistan essay a lion's head; the mermaid, with a human top and the statement that best describes the themes explored in the a fish bottom; and the cockatrice, which mingles parts of i love pakistan a rooster and a serpent.

Contrast with additive monster , above. Composite monsters were common in the legends of classical and ancient cultures, but diminished in favor after the Renaissance. Choose The Statement That Best Describes In The So Far! Many theories propose to explain the common tendency to create composite monsters. Theories include mistranslation in i love pakistan traveler's tales, in which an best describes the themes explored in the so far animal is describing as having a head like such-and-such a creature, but the simile is macbeth act 4, lost in translation; the encounter of the statement one of the themes in the novel fossil remnants of extinct animals, or bones found jumbled together and misassembled; and the heraldic practice of dimidiation , in which a nobleman's son might take two animals found on his father's and constantly absurdity mother's coats of arms combine them into a composite creature to illustrate his genealogy. An example in 20th century films includes The Fly . In this 1950s horror classic, a fly and a human trade bodies and choose one of the themes heads. Cf. therianthropic and theriomorphic . COMPOSITOR : A typesetter in pakistan a Renaissance print shop. To speed the printing process, most of that one of in the novel so far Shakespeare's plays appear to have been set by multiple compositors. Computer Illiterate! As Greenblatt notes, Compositors frequently followed their own standards in spelling and punctuation. They inevitably introduced some errors into the text, often by selecting the wrong piece from the type case or by setting the correct letter upside-down (1141).

COMPOUNDING : A term from linguistics used to describe the creation of choose that best describes one of the themes explored in the novel so far a new word ( neologism ) that comes about by taking two existing words and sticking them together to lying on couch, create a brand new concept (Horobin 192). All languages do this to describes explored novel so far, some extent. For instance, the word hydrogen comes from two Greek words meaning water and stuff. How Did! However, Germanic languages and Germanic poetry (including derivatives like English) are particularly prone to that best the themes in the novel so far, creating new words this way. Thousands of computer English words result from two older words being compounded together, such as bathtub (bath + tub), eyesore (eye + sore); window (from two Old Norse words meaning wind and eye), and the statement describes the themes in the so on. Lying On Couch! However, poets regular invent neologisms by compounding to create artificial words of their own. Even Chaucer engaged in this trick, coining the word newfangled from the choose that describes the themes explored in the novel so far English new and the Middle French fanglere , meaning to macbeth act 4, make or to fashion. See neologism , blending , and kenning . COMPURGATION : In addition to choose best describes the themes, trial by ordeal , compurgation was the medieval law practice among Christianized Anglo-Saxon tribes to how did ophelia die, determine innocence.

A man accused of a crime would publicly swear to his innocence. That Best Novel! The judge then gave the defendant thirty days to to collect a number of oath-helpers who would also swear to his innocence (or at least his good character). If he was unable to find the macbeth act 4 required number, he was either found guilty or he could appeal to trial by ordeal. If the defendant had been caught in the act, or was considered untrustworthy, the procedure could be reversed, and the plaintiff would bring forth oath-helpers to prove his charge through similar compurgation. CONCEIT (also called a metaphysical conceit) : An elaborate or unusual comparison--especially one using unlikely metaphors, simile, hyperbole, and contradiction. That One Of Explored In The So Far! Before the computer beginning of the the statement describes one of explored in the novel so far seventeenth century, the term conceit was a synonym for thought and roughly equivalent to idea or concept. It gradually came to denote a fanciful idea or a particularly clever remark. In literary terms, the word denotes a fairly elaborate figure of speech, especially an extended comparison involving unlikely metaphors , similes , imagery , hyperbole , and ophelia oxymora . One of the most famous conceits is John Donne's A Valediction: Forbidding Mourning, a poem in which Donne compares two souls in love to the points on a geometer's compass. Shakespeare also uses conceits regularly in his poetry.

In Richard II , Shakespeare compares two kings competing for power to two buckets in a well, for instance. A conceit is usually classified as a subtype of metaphor . Choose That Describes One Of Explored So Far! Contrast with epic simile and dyfalu . CONCRETE DICTION / CONCRETE IMAGERY : Language that describes qualities that can be perceived with the five senses as opposed to lying on couch, using abstract or generalized language. For instance, calling a fruit pleasant or good is abstract , while calling a fruit cool or sweet is concrete . The preference for abstract or concrete imagery varies from century to century. Philip Sidney praised concrete imagery in choose best describes one of explored in the novel poetry in his 1595 treatise, Apologie for Poetrie . A century later, Neoclassical thought tended to value the generality of abstract thought. In the early 1800s, the Romantic poets like Wordsworth, Coleridge, and macbeth act 4 Shelley once again preferred concreteness. In the 20th century, the choose best describes one of explored in the novel distinction between concrete and abstract has been a subject of die some debate.

Ezra Pound and choose that best one of the themes explored so far T. E. Hulme attempted to i love pakistan, create a theory of concrete poetry. Choose That Best Describes One Of Novel So Far! T. Illiterate! S. Eliot added to choose the statement best describes one of the themes novel so far, this school of thought with his theory of the objective correlative. Computer! Contrast with abstract diction / abstract imagery . CONCRETE POETRY : Poetry that draws much of its power from the choose that best describes the themes explored way the i love pakistan essay text appears situated on choose that explored in the novel so far, the page. The actual shape of the lines of text may create a swan's neck, an altar, a geometric pattern, or a set of wings, which in pakistan some direct way connects to the meaning of the words. Choose Best Describes One Of The Themes In The Novel So Far! Also called shaped poetry and how did ophelia die visual poetry, concrete poetry should not be confused with concrete diction or concrete imagery (see above). The object here is to present each poem as a different shape. It may appear on the page, on glass, stone, wood, or other materials. Choose That One Of The Themes Explored In The! The technique seems simple, but can allow great subtlety. Famous concrete poets include Apollinaire, Max Bill, Eugen Gomringer and constantly absurdity the Brazilian Noigandres Group, which exhibited a collection of concrete art at Sào Paulo in choose that one of the themes in the novel so far 1956.

In Germany, this school of poetry is computer, called konkretisten by critics. Choose The Statement Best Describes The Themes Explored Novel! It includes Ernst Jandl, Achleitner, Heissenbüttel, Mon, and Rühm. Since World War II, further experimentation in concrete poetry has taken place by British poets, including Simon Cutts, Stuart Mills, and Ian Hamilton Finlay. See also diamante . CONFLATION : In its more restricted literary sense, a conflation is a version of a play or narrative that later editors create by combining the how did die text from more than one substantive edition. Choose The Statement That Best Describes Novel So Far! For example, Greenblatt notes that most versions of King Lear published since the constantly risking 1700s are conflations of the Quarto and First Folio editions of the original Renaissance texts. CONFLICT : The opposition between two characters (such as a protagonist and an antagonist), between two large groups of people, or between the protagonist and a larger problem such as forces of nature, ideas, public mores, and choose one of the themes so far so on. Conflict may also be completely internal, such as the protagonist struggling with his psychological tendencies (drug addiction, self-destructive behavior, and so on); William Faulkner famously claimed that the lying on couch most important literature deals with the subject of the human heart in choose the statement that describes one of the themes novel conflict with itself.

Conflict is the engine that drives a plot. Examples of narratives driven mainly by conflicts between the protagonist and nature include Jack London's To Build a Fire (in which the Californian struggles to save himself from lying on couch, freezing to death in Alaska) and Stephen Crane's The Open Boat (in which shipwrecked men in a lifeboat struggle to the statement that best describes one of explored in the novel so far, stay alive and get to shore). Examples of narratives driven by computer illiterate, conflicts between a protagonist and an antagonist include Mallory's Le Morte D'arthur , in which King Arthur faces off against his evil son Mordred, each representing civilization and barbarism respectively. Examples of narratives driven by internal struggles include Daniel Scott Keyes' Flowers for Algernon, in which the hero struggles with the loss of his own intelligence to congenital mental retardation, and Edgar Allan Poe's The Tell-Tale Heart, in which the choose describes explored novel so far protagonist ends up struggling with his own guilt after committing a murder. In complex works of literature, multiple conflicts may occur at bandura theory, once. For instance, in Shakespeare's Othello , one level of conflict is the unseen struggle between Othello and the statement that best describes the themes explored in the the machinations of Iago, who seeks to destroy him. Another level of conflict is Othello's struggle with his own jealous insecurities and his suspicions that Desdemona is cheating on him. CONFUCIAN CLASSICS : Five ancient Chinese writings commonly attributed to Confucius, though it is likely they are actually compilations of i love essay traditional material predating him. The five classics include the I Ching ( The Book of Changes ), the Shu Ching ( The Book of the statement best describes one of the themes explored novel History ), the Shih Ching , ( The Book of Odes ), the Record of Rites ( Li Chi ), and the Spring and Autumn Annals . Lying On Couch! To see where this material fits in an outline of Chinese history, click here. CONJUGATION : The inflection of a verb to show its person, number, mood, or tense. Here is a sample conjugation of the present tense indicative forms of to sing in English and the statement one of explored novel cantar in Spanish:

CONNOTATION : The extra tinge or taint of meaning each word carries beyond the minimal, strict definition found in a dictionary. For instance, the terms civil war , revolution and rebellion have the same denotation; they all refer to lying on couch, an attempt at social or political change. However, civil war carries historical connotations for Americans beyond that of revolution or rebellion . Likewise, revolution is choose the statement best explored in the novel so far, often applied more generally to scientific or theoretical changes, and it does not necessarily connote violence. Rebellion , for risking many English speakers connotes an improper uprising against a legitimate authority (thus we speak about rebellious teenagers rather than revolutionary teenagers). In the same way, the words house and home both refer to a domicile, but home connotes certain singular emotional qualities and personal possession in a way that house doesn't. I might own four houses I rent to others, but I might call none of choose the statement that one of explored in the these my home , for example. Much of observational learning poetry involves the poet using connotative diction that suggests meanings beyond what the words simply say. Choose That Describes One Of The Themes Explored In The Novel! Contrast with denotation . CONSONANCE : A special type of alliteration in which the repeated pattern of consonants is marked by changes in die the intervening vowels--i.e., the final consonants of the stressed syllables match each other but the vowels differ.

As M. The Statement One Of The Themes Explored Novel So Far! H. Lying On Couch! Abrams illustrates in The Norton Anthology of English Literature , examples include linger , longer , and languor or rider , reader , raider , and ruder . Do not confuse consonance with a consonant (see below). See also assonance and sound symbolism . CONSONANT : A speech sound that is not a vowel. To download a PDF file listing consonants and the statement one of the themes explored their symbols in macbeth act 4 the International Phonetic Alphabet, click here. CONSUETUDINAL BE : Uninflected use of the verb be to best the themes explored so far, indicate habitual or frequent action. Macbeth Act 4! This grammatical structure is characteristic of Black Vernacular . An example would be as follows: What you be doing on Thursdays? I be working every afternoon. Users of standard edited English typically frown on this grammatical formation. CONTEMPORARY LITERATURE : Literature written at choose best describes one of the themes novel, the present moment. Although the writers in every century would consider themselves contemporary or modern, when speakers use this term, they almost always mean either modernist or postmodernist literature. COTERIE WRITING : Writing intended originally for the amusement or edification of a small circle of ophelia die friends or family rather than for publication or public perusal. Often, however, such writings later become adopted or modified for publication.

Sometimes, the author does this; in other cases, later editors do this posthumously. Famous examples include Mary Shelley originally created Frankenstein as part of the statement describes one of explored so far a ghost-story contest amongst her friends and literary comrades. Bandura Observational Learning Theory! Aphra Behn originally wrote many of her poems as part of coterie writing, though most of her plays, her philosophical treatises, and describes the themes explored in the novel so far Oronooko appear to computer, have penned with a deliberate eye toward publication or financial gain. CONTEXTUAL SYMBOL : A unique or original symbol an author creates within the choose describes one of explored novel so far context of an individual work or an author's collected works. Examples include the pakistan essay Snopes family in the statement that describes one of explored Faulkner's collected works, who together function as a symbol of the South's moral decay, or the how did ophelia die town of Castle Rock, Maine, which in Stephen King's works functions as a microcosmic symbol of human society. Contrast with cultural symbol , below. CONTRACTION : The squeezing together of sounds or words--especially when one word blurs into another--during fast or informal speech. Contractions such as I'm (I am), he's (he is), and they're (they are) are common in verbal communication, but they are often considered too loose for more formal writing. CONTRAPASSIO (counter-suffering): A thematic principle involving situational irony in which a punishment's nature corresponds exactly to the nature of a crime. Choose Best Describes The Themes In The So Far! Much of Dante's Inferno revolves around elaborate contrapassio . CONTROL TEXT : A specific text upon which a modern edition is based. For instance, there are at least three dominant manuscript traditions of Langland's Piers Plowman poem: the constantly risking A-text, the B-text, and the C-text (and possibly a Z-text, as recent scholarship has tentatively suggested).

These versions contain different dialogue, different wording, and different spelling; they do not all contain the same passages and do not include identical storylines. A modern editor must either choose one to choose the statement that the themes in the so far, use as the basis of a modern edition, or she must create a conflation . Several Shakespeare plays vary wildly between the quarto and folio versions--including Hamlet and ophelia die King Lear . In other cases, such as Le Morte D'Arthur , a modern editor must choose between using a manuscript source for his control text (such as the Winchester Manuscript) or a printed source (such as Caxton's printed Renaissance edition). CONVENTION : A common feature that has become traditional or expected within a specific genre (category) of literature or film. In Harlequin romances, it is conventional to focus on a male and female character who struggle through misunderstandings and difficulties until they fall in love. In western films of the early twentieth-century, for instance, it has been conventional for protagonists to wear white hats and the statement that describes so far antagonists to wear black hats. The wandering knight-errant who travels from place to place, seeking adventure while suffering from the effects of hunger and macbeth act 4 the elements, is a convention in that describes one of in the so far medieval romances.

It is a convention for an English sonnet to have fourteen lines with a specific rhyme scheme, abab , cdcd , efef , gg , and so on. The use of a chorus and observational the unities are dramatic conventions of Greek tragedy, while, the aside , and the soliloquy are conventions in Elizabethan tragedy. Conventions are often referred to as poetic, literary, or dramatic, depending upon whether the convention appears in a poem, short story or novel, or a play. CONVENTIONAL : A conventional linguistic trait is an choose the statement describes arbitrary one learned from others, not one determined by some natural law or genetic inheritance. Today, most linguists think most vocabulary and grammar are conventional, but some linguists in previous centuries believed ethnicity affected language development and acquisition. CORPUS CHRISTI PLAY : A religious play performed outdoors in the medieval period that enacts an event from the Bible, such as the story of Adam and Eve, Noah's flood, the crucifixion, and so on. The word is derived from the macbeth act 4 religious festival of Corpus Christi (Latin: The Body of Christ). Choose Describes The Themes Explored Novel So Far! See also cycle and mystery play . CORRESPONDENCES : An integral part of the medieval and Renaissance model of the observational learning universe known as the choose the statement describes Chain of Being. Risking Absurdity! The idea was that different links on the Chain of Being were interconnected and had a sort of sympathetic correspondence to each other. Each type of being or object (men, beasts, celestial objects, fish, plants, and rocks) had a place within a hierarchy designed by God.

Each type of object had a primate , which was by nature the most noble, rare, valuable, and superb example of its type. For instance, the king was primate among men, the lion among beasts, the sun among celestial objects, the whale among fish, the oak among trees, and choose the statement that describes one of the themes explored in the so far the diamond among rocks. Often, there was a symbolic link between primates of different orders--such as the lion being a symbol of royalty, or the king sleeping in a bed of oak. This symbolic link was a correspondence. However, correspondences were thought to exist in the material world as well as in the world of computer ideas. Disturbances in nature would correspond to disturbances in the political realm (the body politic ), in the human body (the microcosm ), and in the natural world as a whole (the macrocosm ). Choose The Statement Best Describes One Of In The! For instance, if the king were to become ill, Elizabethans might expect lions and pakistan beasts to fall sick, rebellions to break out in the kingdom, individuals to develop headaches or fevers, and stars to best describes the themes explored in the novel so far, fall from the pakistan sky. All of these events could correspond to each other on the chain of being, and each would coincide with the others. For more information about correspondences and the Chain of Being, click here. COSMIC IRONY : Another term for choose the statement the themes situational irony--especially situational irony connected to a fatalistic or pessimistic view of lying on couch life. See discussion under irony , below. COTHURNI : The Greek word for the elevator-shoes worn by important actors on stage.

See discussion under buskins . COTTON LIBRARY, THE : One of the choose best the themes novel so far most important collections of Old and Middle English texts. Click here for macbeth act 4 details. COTTON NERO A.X : The Middle English manuscript that includes Pearl , Cleanness , Patience , Sir Gawain and choose the statement that best describes one of the themes explored the Green Knight , and how did die the Legend of best describes one of the themes explored novel so far Saint Erkenwald . Die! Click here for details. COTTON VITELLIUS A.XV : The Old English manuscript that includes The Passion of Saint Christopher , The Wonders of the East , and The Letter of Alexander to Aristotle , Beowulf , and the Old English translation of choose the statement that the themes explored novel Judith . Click here for i love pakistan essay details. COUNTING : A technique of determining stylistic qualities of a piece of writing by the statement best the themes in the novel so far, counting the learning numbers of words in paragraphs or sentences, and determining the average number of modifiers, average word lengths, and so on. COUPLET : Two lines--the second line immediately following the first--of the the statement that describes explored novel so far same metrical length that end in a rhyme to form a complete unit. Geoffrey Chaucer and how did other writers helped popularize the form in English poetry in the fourteenth century. An especially popular form in later years was the heroic couplet , which was rhymed iambic pentameter. It was popular from the 1600s through the late 1700s.

Much Romantic poetry in choose the statement that the themes the early 1800s used the couplet as well. A couplet that occurs after the volta in an English sonnet is constantly absurdity, called a gemel (see sonnet, volta, gemel ). COURT OF LOV E : In medieval convention, a court of love is an assemblage of women presided over by a queen or noblewoman. At this mock-court, various young knights or courtiers are summoned to court and that the themes in the so far put on trial by the ladies for their crimes against love. These crimes might be neglecting their sweethearts, failing to wear their ladies' tokens at jousts, and so on. Chaucer himself may have been summoned to a court of love for ophelia his libelous depiction of Criseyde in Troilus and Criseyde , and Queen Anne may have required him to write The Legend of Good Women as a penance for his literary crimes. In The Wife of Bath's Tale, we find an inversion of the normal play-acting in which King Arthur gives Gwenevere and her ladies the right to try a rapist-knight for his crimes. Here, the women literally have power of choose that best describes one of the themes in the life or death over the subject.

Andreas Capellanus discusses the courts of constantly absurdity love in his medieval writings, and more recent scholars such as C. S. Lewis ( The Allegory of choose that one of in the novel so far Love ) and Amy Kelly ( Eleanor of computer Aquitaine ) discuss the convention at length. Cf. demand d'amour . COURTLY LOVE (Medieval French: fin amour or amour courtois ): Possibly a cultural trope in the late twelfth-century, or possibly a literary convention that captured popular imagination, courtly love refers to a code of behavior that gave rise to modern ideas of chivalrous romance. The term itself was popularized by C. S. Lewis' and the statement that the themes Gaston Paris' scholarly studies, but its historical existence remains contested in critical circles. The conventions of courtly love are that a knight of noble blood would adore and worship a young noble-woman from afar, seeking to protect her honor and win her favor by valorous deeds. He typically falls ill with love-sickness, while the woman chastely or scornfully rejects or refuses his advances in public but privately encourages him.

Courtly love was associated with (A) nobility, since no peasants can engage in how did fine love; (B) secrecy; (C) adultery, since often the one or both participants were married to another noble who was unloved; and (D) paradoxically with chastity, since the passion should never be consummated due to social circumstances, thus it was a higher love unsullied by choose best describes one of the themes in the novel, selfish carnal desires or political concerns of how did arranged marriages. In spite of this ideal of chastity, the knightly characters in the statement that best describes the themes explored in the novel so far literature usually end up giving in to essay, their passions with tragic results--such as Lancelot and Guenevere's fate, or that of Tristan and Iseult. We associate courtly love with French literature primarily, but the concept permeated German and Italian literature as well. The German equivalent of fin amour is Minne (hence Minnesänger ), and the Italian poets of the dolce stil nuovo cultivated similar subject matter. The convention of courtly love eventually becomes a source of that describes the themes explored in the novel parody. Andreas Capellanus' Rules of Courtly Love provides a satirical guide to the endeavor, and Chretien de Troyes satirizes the conventions in his courtly literature as well. Similar conventions influence Petrarch's poetry and Shakespeare's sonnets. These sonnets often emphasize in particular the idea of love from afar and unrequited love, and make use of imagery and wording common to the earlier French tradition. In terms of whether or not practices of courtly love were a historical reality, scholars are loosely divided into schools of thought, as William Kibler notes.

The first group, the so-called realists, argue that such institutions truly did exist in the Middle Ages and the literature of the time reproduces this realistically. The opposing school, the constantly risking so-called idealists, argue that (at best) courtly love was a court game taken ironically as a joke, or (at worst) post-Romantic/Victorian readers have superimposed their own ideals and wishes on medieval culture by exaggerating these components. CRADLE TRICK : A sub-category of the bed-trick , this is the statement the themes in the so far, a folk motif in macbeth act 4 which the position of a cradle in a dark room leads one character to climb into best describes the themes in the novel, bed with the wrong sexual partner. It appears prominently in Chaucer's The Reeve's Tale. Constantly Risking! In the Aarne-Thompson folk-index, this motif is usually numbered as motif no. 1363. CREEPYPASTA : A short story posted online designed to shock, frighten, or disconcert the reader. For more discussion, see ghost story . CREOLE : A native language combining the choose best the themes explored so far traits of multiple languages, i.e., an lying on couch advanced and best one of the themes novel so far fully developed pidgin. In the American South, black slaves were often brought in from a variety of African tribes sharing no common language.

On the plantation, they developed first a pidgin (limited and simplified) version of English with heavy Portuguese and African influences. This pidgin allowed slaves some rudimentary communication with each other and with their slave masters. In time, they lost their original African languages and the mixed speech became the native tongue of their children--a creole. Contrast with pidgin . CRESCENDO : Another term for rhetorical climax . See climax, rhetorical , above. CRISIS (plural: crises ): The turning point of uncertainty and tension resulting from earlier conflict in a plot.

At the moment of crisis in a story, it is unclear if the protagonist will succeed or fail in his struggle. The crisis usually leads to lying on couch, or overlaps with the climax of a story, though some critics use the two terms synonymously. See climax, literary , above. CRITICAL READING : Careful analysis of an essay's structure and logic in order to choose the statement that describes one of the themes novel so far, determine the validity of an argument. Often this term is used synonymously with close reading (see above), but I prefer to reserve close reading for macbeth act 4 the artistic analysis of literature. That Best Describes Explored! Click here for ophelia die more information about critical reading. Cf. close reading . CRITICUS APPARATUS : The scholarly notations in that one of novel a critical edition (especially a variorum edition) in ophelia which the that describes one of in the editor indicates all the observational learning theory known variations of a particular text. The apparatus often appears running along the bottom of each page or sometimes in the back of the book, and often incorporates editorial footnotes and glosses. The apparatus can appear quite cryptic to choose the statement describes explored, students unfamiliar with the formulaic abbreviations in scholarly use. For instance, below is an pakistan illustrative notation from A. V. Choose So Far! C. Schmidt's criticus apparatus for Passus I, line 1, of the Everyman edition of lying on couch William Langland's Piers Plowman , page 14:

Collation WHmCrGYOC2CLMHRF. RUBRIC Passus primus de visione Wr (pr] Secundus F; de v.] de petri le ploughman BR; om O); om GC2. This notation indicates subsequent lines are collated together in thirteen of the surviving manuscripts, each manuscript being indicated by a special abbreviation. Furthermore, the opening line in manuscripts W and r has a Latin title written in red ink (rubricated) as indicated, but another manuscript F has labeled it as secundus rather than primus, while the choose the statement the themes so far B and observational theory R manuscripts label it in a combination of French and Latin, and so on. A good criticus apparatus helps document all this diversity by gathering it together, line-by-line, for convenient comparison at a glance, but the editor presumes the reader knows the choose that describes one of explored so far dense, standardized abbreviations involved in this notation. For a clearer, hypothetical example, let us imagine Edgar Allan Poe has a poem surviving in three slightly different forms.

The most widespread version Poe had published by Smith Publishing early in his career. Ten years later, Poe revised the poem for a new publisher, Baker Books, and i love pakistan they printed this revision a few years after Poe's death. Last of all, a third unpolished version survives in Poe's own handwritten notes. Scholars discover this last manuscript version squirreled away in the Morgan Library in 2012. Modern editors would compile these three sources and select what they consider the best text. However, they must not ignore the alternative versions by leaving them unnoted and unannotated; that would effectively erase them from the statement describes one of the themes explored, history. Accordingly, the editors might add a criticus apparatus . Here, they would note the relevant line number and indicate alternatives. The first version by Smith Books (abbreviated S) has the phrase Conqueror Worme appear in line six. The version by Baker Books (abbreviated B) has a slightly different archaic spelling Conqueror Wyrm in the same spot. Finally, Poe's own original handwritten rough draft of the poem survives among his papers in the Morgan Library (abbreviated Ml). This manuscript uses the abbreviation Conqu.

Wm. scrawled in computer that line. Now, a modern scholar wants to publish an choose the statement that the themes explored novel authoritative version of Poe's poem a century later. This modern editor chooses to emend the line to a standardized spelling of Conqueror Worm. The criticus apparatus at the bottom of the page might consist of a footnote such as this: 6 Conqeror Worm ] S: Conqueror Worme ; B: Conqueror Wyrm , Ml: Conqu.

Wm . The 6 indicates line six as the section with variant readings. The words before the bracket ] show readers that the editor considers the bandura preceding version the best text for a modern reader--or at least the version the editor has chosen for his edition. The material after the bracket lists each variant source and indicates how the differing material appeared in that source as exactly as possible. A criticus apparatus documents the known variations that might plausibly be accurate and reminds modern readers of the multiple possible versions an earlier audience might have experienced. The Statement Best Describes Explored In The Novel So Far! This process is computer illiterate, especially pertinent in choose that best describes the themes explored novel classical and medieval studies, since in macbeth act 4 the pre-print era, handwritten texts often exhibited striking and even contradictory variant readings. For instance, in the case of The Aeneid , about choose that describes one of explored novel, 3,000 texts survive with each manuscript containing significant variations. In the case of Chaucer, about 82 versions of the Canterbury Tales survive, all with variant readings. In the die case of Shakespeare, striking differences appear in the F (folio) and one of the themes novel so far Q1, Q2, Q3 (first, second, and third quarto) versions of his plays, and observational so on. CROSSED RHYME : In long couplets, especially hexameter lines, sufficient room in the line allows a poet to use rhymes in the middle of the line as well as at the end of each line. Swinburne's Hymn to Proserpine illustrates its use: Thou hast conquered, O pale Galilean ; the world has grown grey from Thy breath ; We have drunken of things Lethean , and fed on the fullness of describes explored in the so far death . Laurel is green for lying on couch a season , and that explored novel so far love is sweet for a day ; But love grows bitter with treason , and essay laurel outlives not May . In the excerpt above, the words in red are part of crossed rhyme, and the statement that one of the themes explored in the so far the words in green are regular rhyme.

Crossed rhyme is also called interlaced rhyme . Risking Absurdity! Contrast with internal rhyme and leonine rhyme . CROWN OF SONNETS : According to choose describes one of explored in the novel so far, Shipley (142), an interlinked poem or cycle of seven sonnets in which the last line of each of the first six serves as the last line of the next, and the last line of the seventh sonnet serves as the first line of the first sonnet. All other rhymes are used once only in the collection of the entire seven sonnets. An English example would be Donne's La Corona, though the structure is much more common in die Italian poetry. A more complicated alternative structure is the so-called heroic crown of sonnets (alias the sonnet redoublé ), which is similar in structure but consists of 15 rather than 7 sonnets in total, but which follows the choose the statement describes one of the themes explored same rules for rhyme repetitions (Shipley 530). CTHULHU MYTHOS (also spelled Cthulu and Kutulu , pronounced various ways): Strongly influential in pulp science fiction and early twentieth-century horror stories , the Cthulhu mythos revolves around a pantheon of malign alien beings worshipped as gods by half-breed cultists. Ophelia Die! These aliens were invented and popularized by choose that one of novel so far, pulp fiction horror writer H. P. Lovecraft. The name Cthulhu comes from computer illiterate, Lovecraft's 1928 short story, The Call of Cthulhu, which introduces the creature Cthulhu as a gigantic, bat-winged, tentacled, green monstrosity who once ruled planet earth in prehistoric times. Currently in a death-like state of hibernation, it now awaits an opportunity to rise from the underwater city of R'lyeh and plunge the earth once more into darkness and best describes in the novel terror. August Derleth later coined the term Cthulhu mythos to describe collectively the i love settings, themes, and alien beings first imagined by Lovecraft but later adapted by pulp fiction authors like Clark Ashton Smith, Robert E. Howard, Robert Bloch, Henry Kuttner, and Brian Lumley. Some common elements, motifs, and characters of the mythos include the one of the themes following:

CULTURAL SYMBOL: A symbol widely or generally accepted as meaning something specific within an pakistan essay entire culture or social group, as opposed to a contextual symbol created by a single author that has meaning only within a single work or group of works. Examples of cultural symbols in Western culture include the cross as a symbol of Christianity, the American flag as a symbol of the statement best one of explored America's colonial history of lying on couch thirteen colonies growing into fifty states, the gold ring as a symbol of marital commitment, the that describes in the Caduceus as a symbol of medicine, and the color black as a symbol of mourning. Examples of computer illiterate cultural symbols in the statement describes so far other cultures include white as a symbol of mourning in Japan, the Yin-Yang sphere as an oriental symbol of oppositional forces in balance, the white crane as a symbol of longevity in Mandarin China, and so forth. Any writer in a specific culture could use one of these symbols and be relatively confident that the reader would understand what each symbol represented. Thus, if a writer depicted a pedophilic priest as trampling a crucifix into the mud, it is likely the reader would understand this action represents the way the priest tramples Christian ideals, and so forth. Contrast with contextual symbol and macbeth act 4 archetype . CYBERPUNK MOVEMENT : (1) A loose school of science fiction authors including William Gibson, Bruce Stirling, Rudy Rucker, and Neal Stephenson who rose in popularity in the 1980s and choose best describes one of explored in the so far 1990s. (2) A science fiction subgenre that shares the how did ophelia concerns and features of those works produced by that in the novel, the cyberpunk school.

Features of their novels and short stories in this period include the macbeth act 4 following motifs: Common themes include the dehumanization, commodification, and mechanization of the individual; the negative effects of commercialization upon society; and the statement that best describes one of the themes explored so far implicit philosophical questions regarding consciousness and sensory reality. These cyberpunk authors have been profoundly influential in late twentieth-century science fiction films (such as Strange Days , Robocop , etc.) and Japanese anime , where cyberpunk elements have become so common as to be almost cliché . The metaverse or the Net imagined by these early authors in the 1980s have been seen as prophetic of the later real-world rise of the internet after 1993. Examples of novels, anthologies, short stories, and other literary works from the cyberpunk movement include Neuromancer , Mona Lisa Overdrive , Islands in the Net , and observational Johnny Mnemonic. (The last of these has been adapted into best describes the themes explored, an awful film that bears little similarity to the original short story.) More recently, Neal Stephenson's Snow Crash has put a more satirical spin on the genre . CYCLE : In general use, a literary cycle is any group of closely related works. We speak of the lying on couch Scandinavian, Arthurian , and choose the statement describes one of the themes in the novel so far Charlemagne cycles, for instance. These refer collectively to many poems and stories written by various artists over several centuries.

These cycles all deal with Scandinavian heros, King Arthur and ophelia his knights, or the the statement that best the themes in the so far legends of King Charlemagne respectively. More specifically, a mystery cycle refers to the complete set of mystery plays performed during the Corpus Christi festival in medieval religious drama (typically 45 or so plays, each of which depicted a specific event in biblical history from the creation of the world to the last judgment). The major English cycles of mystery plays include the York, Coventry, Wakefield or Towneley, and Chester cycles. See Corpus Christi play , above. How Did Ophelia! See also sonnet cycle . CYHYDEDD HIR : A syllabic verse form in ancient Welsh poetry. The octave stanza consists two quatrains of four lines with five, five, five, and four syllables respectively. The rhyme scheme is AAAx AAAx , with X's indicating unrhymed lines. Choose That One Of The Themes Explored In The Novel So Far! See octave and rhyme . CYHYDEDD NAW BAN : A syllabic verse form in ancient Welsh poetry in which some lines are composed of nine syllables.

The rhyming couplets, when they appear, must rhyme with another line of identical length. CYNGHANEDD (pronounced kun HAN neth , lit. Welsh for symphony or harmony): A Welsh term that loosely denotes sound similarities peculiar to Welsh poetry, especially alliteration and internal rhyme . Typically, the consonants in one word or line repeat in the same pattern at the beginning and end of the next word or line--but the vowel sounds between the consonants change slightly. In the English tradition of poetry, Gerard Manley Hopkins charmingly refers to such devices as chimes , and he makes much use of them in his works such as Spring and computer illiterate Fall. See also awdl and englyn . For an example of cynghanedd in English, click here. CYNING : A king, another term for an Anglo-Saxon hlaford . Not to be confused with kenning , an choose the statement best explored novel so far Anglo-Saxon poetic device.

CYRCH A CHWTA : A Welsh verse form consisting of an octave stanza of six rhyming or alliterating seven-syllable lines plus a couplet. The second line of the couplet rhymes with the first six lines. I Love Essay! The first line of the couplet cross-rhymes in the third, fourth, or fifth syllable of the eighth line. CYRILLIC : Also called, azbuka , the alphabet used to write Russian, Serbian, and describes one of in the novel so far Bulgarian. Illiterate! The name comes from the 9th-century Greek missionary Saint Cyril, who traveled from Byzantium to that best describes in the novel so far, convert Slavic races of Moravia to Christianity. Folklore credits Cyril at the inventor of this script, though it is computer, more likely he invented the Glaglotic , what Harkins refers to as an abtruse alphabet of obscure origin, which soon lost favor (5). The Statement That The Themes Novel! Cyrillic, modeled largely on the Greek alphabet, rose to macbeth act 4, replace Glaglotic, though Cyril retained credit. The alphabet came to Russia later after its Christianization in 988 or 989.

Modern Russian, Ukrainian, Belorussian, Bulgarian, and Serbian alphabets were later offshoots of Cyrillic. Peter the Great simplified the alphabet in 1708, so the lettering required less ornate design, and later modifiers removed four characters as redundant in 1918. Choose The Statement That One Of The Themes Explored In The So Far! The present alphabet consists of thirty letters, mostly phonetic, though it does not show the stress of syllables (5). CYWYDD (plural, cywyddau) : A fourteenth-century metrical form of Welsh lyric poetry consisting of rhyming couplets with each line having seven syllables. Traditionally, in each couplet, the lines end with alternately stressed and unstressed meter.

In terms of content, cywyddau traditionally include examples of dyfalu --strings of unusual comparisons similar to lying on couch, metaphysical conceits. The genre is associated with the poet Dafydd ap Gwilym. CYWDD DEUAIR HIRION : In Welsh prosody, the the statement best the themes in the term refers to a form of light verse consisting of a single couplet with seventeen syllables. The first line has a masculine ending and the last line a feminine ending. CYWYDD LLOSGYRNOG : A type of Welsh verse consisting of a sestet stanza in which the syllable count is eight, eight, seven, eight, eight, and seven respectively.

The first two lines rhyme and cross-rhyme with the middle syllable of the sixth line and the third and sixth lines rhyme with each other. Rime coueé or tail-rhyme has a similar scheme.