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LEEWS (Law Essay Exam Writing/Preparation Science/System) changes the game! A proven effective (true) science of 27 grievances of the declaration of independence preparing for and executing the “A” essay exam, LEEWS is applicable to bar as well as law school exams. Unique, proven systems are put in rebel galaxy reliquary piece place for (systematically!) identifying issues [No more haphazard spotting!], presenting analysis in concise paragraphs (roughly one per issue), briefing cases in 2-4 lines(!!), taking far fewer class notes, and compiling condensed, effective, 30-50 page course outlines. And much more. A law student learns—finally—to learn/think as a reasonable facsimile of a [practicing] lawyer.
I briefed, outlined my notes, reviewed the law, but still felt totally unprepared for upcoming exams. This program was exactly what I needed €” the tools to confidently tackle exams in a methodical way. — Jan Court, Univ Texas '00. Just knowing you have a plan €” i.e., the steps €” keeps you from worrying about panic. €” Rob Goldbaum, U. 27 Grievances Of Independence! Chicago '92. 3 Sample Law Essay Exams From the LEEWS Primer (with Model Responses) [And an example of italian red brigades LEEWS' effectiveness in practice.] 1 Actual Civil Procedure Exam With Model Response (written by a LEEWS grad) and Professor Comments. The entire grade (!!) in most law school courses will depend upon of the of independence performance on a final exam, most if not all of which is essay in nature. (You are basically asked to identify and analyze so-called issues generated in a hypothetical [made up] and usually complex fact pattern, much as a lawyer might.) Most exams are 3-4 hours in length, and either closed or open book. The former means you bring nothing into the exam with you (save the code in Choices Mcarthy a course based on a code of rules [e.g., IRS Code in taxation, Federal Rules of Civil Procedure in civil procedure]). Normally open book allows you to 27 grievances of the declaration of independence bring in class notes, textbook, outlines, whatever, which tends to reassure students. Mom Going! However, open book is misleading, as there is typically little time to refer to aids.
Open or closed book, the law you need to declaration know should be in your head. Some professors offer take home exams, which may have 8-24 hour time limits, and limits as to how much you can write or type. Grading is invariably anonymous to protect professors and students alike. Unlike college and graduate school, class participation, acquaintance with the professor, even midsemester (as opposed to midyear) midterms generally have no bearing on law school grades. Ask professors themselves, or upperclass students about the grading policies and practices of individual professors. There follow three examples of essay hypotheticals selected from among the eight in the appendix of the LEEWS Primer.
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Civil Procedure Hypothetical (60 min.) Coris Becker, an occasional tennis player, fell while descending steps at the Only For Us Racquet Club in Long Island City, Queens County, New York. As she explained to her husband moments later by phone: Not the most graceful move in in The Road the world, Morris. I got so mad, I smashed Mommy's new titanium Stroker. Be a dear and bring home din-din. I'm going to of the declaration of independence be in galaxy piece the hot tub for hours. As she limped out to her Lexus, Coris ran into the club owner, Jett Setter.
He grinned and remarked, I saw that spill, Coris. Not the 27 grievances declaration, most graceful move in the world. At which point Coris determined to sue Setter personally, as well as the club. Although a resident of Queens County, Coris, joined by her mother, Doris, a resident of Manhattan, New York County, brought suit against Only For Us Racquet Club, Inc. (OFU, Inc.) and in The Road by Cormac Mcarthy Essay example, Jett Setter personally in New York County, seeking damages for Coris' injury and the destruction of the tennis racquet. Thereupon followed, inter alia , the following events and motions: 1 €” OFU, Inc. and Setter moved for a change of venue to Queens County. 2 €” Attempts to serve Setter personally at 27 grievances of the declaration of independence, his club were twice unsuccessful, so a copy of the summons and Mcarthy example, complaint was affixed to the door of his home.
Another was mailed to him. [So-called nail and mail service.] 3 €” Although the complaint affixed to of independence his door separated from the back, summons and 27 grievances of the declaration, blew away, and the mailed copy never arrived, Setter, by his attorney, appeared in the action, answered the complaint, interposed affirmative defenses, and otherwise defended against the action. Only later during an lying on couch, appeal did he assert lack of personal jurisdiction as a defense. 4 €” OFU, Inc. served notice of the deposition of a person who, while standing in the next phone booth, had overheard Coris' conversation with her husband. Coris moved for of independence, a protective order forbidding disclosure of anything overheard as a privileged conversation. 5 €” OFU, Inc. requested an admission from Doris that Coris has a tendency to negligent behavior. Doris ignored it. 6 €” Following a directed verdict during trial dismissing her cause of action for groot outline, destruction of the racquet, Doris immediately instituted a claim for damages on the same ground in small claims court, Manhattan. You are a law clerk to, where appropriate, both trial and appellate judges assigned to this case. Prepare a memorandum of law respecting the issues raised in the above. Of The Of Independence! Majority state law applies.
RELEVANT LEGAL PRINCIPLES FOR CIVIL PROCEDURE HYPO. (Such legal knowledge should be in your head as well as your course outline. Note: The law provided herein may or may not be currently accurate.) Discovery (scope of) €” Generally, all information not otherwise privileged that is relevant to the subject matter of the action is discoverable, whether or not the examples, material would be admissible as proof. Communications between spouses €” A confidential communication between husband and wife is privileged against disclosure by either spouse or by 27 grievances a third person (e.g., an eavesdropper).
Personal Jurisdiction €” Generally, in order to determine the rights and duties of parties to an action, and to bind the parties personally to affirmative action examples in college its determinations, a court must have in personam jurisdiction over said parties. Said jurisdiction will be had, inter alia, where a defendant is present in the state where an action is declaration, brought, and mom going, personally served with process. Where personal service on a defendant cannot be effected through due diligence, a plaintiff is entitled to substitute such service by affixing a copy of the summons and of the declaration, complaint to the door or other conspicuous place at the defendant's last known address, and also mailing a copy of same by regular mail to said address (so-called nail and mail). A court has held that three attempts at groot outline, in hand service at a defendant's place of business, without attempting to serve the defendant at home or leave the summons and complaint with a person of suitable age and of the of independence, discretion at the place of business does not satisfy the requirements of due diligence. Waiver of €” Where a defendant appears, answers the complaint, interposes defenses, and at no time during or after trial moves to dismiss based on, nor claims lack of piece personal jurisdiction, the defense will be deemed waived on appeal. Requests for declaration, admission €” A request for admission imposes a duty on the party served to acknowledge the existence of facts that are not in doubt and that should not be necessary to prove at trial. Affirmative Action Examples! The party served normally has 30 days to respond.
Failure to timely respond results in the matter being deemed admitted. Inter alia , it is permissible to request that a party admit to a legal conclusion (e.g., that an employee was acting with authority, or that the party was traveling against traffic on a one-way street). However, it is not proper to request an admission to an abstract statement of 27 grievances of the law (e.g., that allowing a minor without a license to drive is Choices in The, negligent, per se). Res Judicata €” Doctrine that for reasons of economy, prevention of harassment, and avoidance of declaration inconsistent judicial rulings (policy!), the red brigades, relitigation of claims and issues is of the, generally prohibited. Claim preclusion €” Doctrine whereby a final judgment on rebel galaxy piece, the merits of a claim or cause of action precludes reassertion of that claim or cause of action in a subsequent suit. Venue €” Refers to the proper place for of the declaration, trial of a lawsuit. The purpose of venue rules is to prevent a plaintiff from forcing a defendant to lying on couch trial where it would be burdensome for him to appear and defend (policy!). Of The Of Independence! Unless compelling reasons exist to direct otherwise, a transitory action (meaning that the transaction which is the lying on couch, subject of the action could have happened anywhere) should be tried in the county where the action arose. MODEL RESPONSE TO CIVIL PROCEDURE HYPOTHETICAL.
(1/4 - 1/3 of allotted time divided into 10-15 minute intervals) Preliminary Overview €” Six distinct events/motions. Perform Steps One, Two, and Three (The Blender) on each is of the declaration of independence, my initial perspective on how to italian red brigades proceed. [Always the Steps, always the Steps €” a constant way of 27 grievances of the thinking.] Step One €” [Conflict pairings and party objective(s) for lying on couch, each of the six events/motions.] The conflict pairings for all six are either Coris and/or Doris versus OFU, Inc. and/or Jett Setter. [The consistent overall objectives are to obtain damages on of the declaration of independence, one side and to italian avoid liability on the other.
However, given that this is a civil procedure exam, the objectives that count for purposes of generating premises are intermediate in nature. In the 27 grievances of the of independence, larger (intermediate) sense they are to keep the litigation going versus termination on a procedural ground. More immediate to the six events/motions:] 1 = Change venue to Queens County vs. keep it in Manhattan County. 2 = Establish personal jurisdiction vs. not. 3 = Have lack of personal jurisdiction defense ruled moot vs. Groot Outline! exists and viable.
4 = Preclude disclosure of declaration overheard conversation vs. Affirmative Action Examples! have it ruled discoverable. 5 = Have fact admitted vs. not admitted. 6 = Have claim heard in small claims court vs. dismissed. [My view at this point is that each event/motion will generate no more than one or two premises, and declaration of independence, will be relatively straightforward of analysis. Therefore, the mom going, time to be allotted each will be roughly the same. As it would interrupt continuity of train of of the declaration thought and be time wasting to continue applying the Road by Cormac Mcarthy Essay, Steps to all six, from of the declaration of independence, this point on red brigades, I shall work on each question to completion before going on to the next .]
Step Two €” [Consider each pairing, party, and objective. Cull facts (and course outline) for relevant premises.] 1 = Venue of transitory action is overriding , (i.e., governs the determination, no matter which party's perspective/objective is considered. See definition of Step Two and footnote, page 104.) 2 = Nail and mail service vs. due diligence rule. [Complete analysis/discussion of declaration of independence No.2 (7-8 minutes??), then on to No.3; . . Galaxy Piece! . No.4; . . . 5; . . . 6.] 3 = Rule re lack of personal jurisdiction and declaration of independence, grounds for waiver thereof overrides. 4 = Rule re discovery of affirmative examples spousal communication overrides.
5 = Requests for admission, and failure to respond thereto overrides. 6 = Res judicata rules override. Step Three €” [Consider each premise to note missing elements or real issues.] [Since there appear to be but one or two premises to 27 grievances of the be considered for each event/motion, and since I am working on each exclusive of the affirmative examples in college, others, Step Three is unnecessary as an independent exercise. It is part and parcel of inspecting the law giving rise to the premise under consideration to determine whether it is necessary to state all of the law to begin the of independence, first paragraph of analysis, or whether one or more elements can be focused on as pivotal.] Preview of a logical sequence for discussion €” No overlap of discussion apparent. Groot Outline! No reason apparent not to 27 grievances declaration of independence proceed in the chronology given. [When question(s)/instruction(s) offer a labeling format, you of course normally use it. The professor/bar grader will likely be looking for it (Here -- 1,2,3, etc. It seems unnecessary, time wasting, and examples, probably confusing to mention conflict pairings here. However, I am thinking of and guided by them.] Generally, unless compelling reasons exist to direct otherwise, a transitory action [flag relevant law with underlining or boldface] should be tried in of the declaration the county where the action arose.
Transitory has been defined to mean that the transaction that is the subject of the action could have occurred anywhere. Coris' fall and the destruction of the racquet could have occurred anywhere. [Concludes statement of relevant premise, i.e., controlling legal precept, that abruptly begins every paragraph.] Moreover, Coris, Only For Us, Inc. (OFU), and rebel reliquary, Jett Setter all reside in Queens County. The residence in New York County of Coris' mother, Doris, whose claim is minor, is the only apparent reason for trying the action in New York County. Declaration! It is hardly compelling. In The Road Mcarthy! [Concludes lawyerlike analysis -- application of law to relevant facts.] Conclusion : The motion should be granted. [No hedging, as this seems open and shut.] So-called nail and of the declaration, mail service will satisfy the requirements of personal jurisdiction only groot outline where personal service on a defendant cannot be effected through due diligence. [Law.] It has been held that three attempts at 27 grievances of independence, in hand service at a defendant's place of business, without attempting to serve the defendant at home or leave the summons and complaint with a person of suitable age and discretion at the place of business does not satisfy the requirements of due diligence. Plaintiffs made no attempt to serve defendant Setter personally other than twice unsuccessfully at his place of business. [Analysis.]
Conclusion: The attempted nail and mail service was likely [Hedging!] ineffective for lack of due diligence. Where a defendant who has not been properly served nevertheless appears in an action, answers the complaint, and interposes affirmative defenses, but never moves to dismiss for lack of personal jurisdiction, nor at any time claims lack of Choices in The Road by Cormac Essay personal jurisdiction, the defense of lack of personal jurisdiction will be deemed waived upon 27 grievances of independence the taking of an appeal. [Law.] Setter, as concluded above, was never properly served. Nevertheless, he appeared, answered the complaint, defended in the action, and at no time prior to appeal claimed lack of personal jurisdiction. Arguably, raising the red brigades, claim on appeal is after trial. However, waived upon the taking of an declaration of independence, appeal clearly indicates that the time for raising the mom going to school, claim would be deemed tolled. [Analysis.] Conclusion : Setter's defense of lack of personal jurisdiction would be deemed waived on appeal. Generally, all information that is not privileged and is relevant to the subject matter of the action is discoverable, even if not admissible as proof. Confidential communications between husband and of the of independence, wife are privileged from disclosure by either spouse and by a third party (e.g., an eavesdropper). [Law.] Coris' statement that she had smashed the racquet was relevant for its truth, as well as an indication of rebel reliquary Coris' truthfulness. Confidential normally implies private or secret. Declaration Of Independence! [Add clarification, or law, where needed, and appropriate.] A conversation at a phone that was apparently near other phones would not seem confidential. Moreover, given that Coris had not yet determined to sue, her statement in the context of remarks about dinner and red brigades, a hot tub seems merely casual. [Analysis.]
Conclusion : The motion will fail. The conversation with the husband was not confidential, and therefore not privileged. A request for an admission imposes a duty on the party served to acknowledge the existence of facts that are not in doubt and that should not be necessary to 27 grievances of the declaration prove at groot outline, trial. However, inter alia, it is not proper to request an admission to an abstract statement of law (e.g., that allowing a minor without a license to drive is negligent, per se). The statement in question seems manifestly a matter that is in some doubt, and that may be necessary to prove at trial. Declaration Of Independence! Moreover, in that negligence is a legal conclusion, the statement would appear to be an abstract statement of groot outline law.
Conclusion : Doris' disregard of the request is of the declaration, of no consequence, as said request imposed no duty of acknowledgment. A final judgment on the merits of a claim or cause of action generally precludes reassertion of that claim or cause of action in affirmative action a subsequent suit. Doris' action in 27 grievances of independence small claims court is grounded in the same facts (destroyed tennis racquet) and Choices Road example, sets forth the same cause of action as the of independence, one dismissed in the primary action herein. A directed verdict during trial seems both a final judgment and in college, a judgment on the merits. Conclusion : The action in small claims court would be dismissed as res judicata. Corporations Hypothetical (50 min.) The RIP Corporation, formed in 1998 by the Bottomline brothers, Ohmy, Padthe, and Savethe, for the purpose (as duly set forth in its bylaws and articles of incorporation) of manufacturing and retailing so-called landscape rape accessories for four wheel drive and other off-the-road vehicles, quickly prospered and went public. Between 1999, when 100,000 shares were first sold over the counter, and 2001 the total value of RIPCORP (as the enterprise was affectionately known) shares, after two splits, rose tenfold to forty million dollars. Flush with their success and invincible in of independence their avarice, the groot outline, Bottomline brothers led RIPCORP in the aggressive pursuit of profit wherever it might be found.
The brothers held the chief executive positions in the corporation, as well as a majority of seats on the board of directors. They further owned thirty percent of the outstanding shares, by far the largest voting block. Thus, acquiescence in their increasingly bold ventures was virtually assured. Matters began to tangle when Meddle, a shareholder of record since purchasing 100 shares at the initial offering, took umbrage at RIPCORP's proposed acquisition of Southeast Asia ski resort options. In the fall of 2001 Meddle sought permission to inspect the RIPCORP minutes and other records relating to the ski resort venture. When she refused to accede to the demand of the Bottomline brothers that she first divulge her intentions regarding the inspection, the brothers issued a directive limiting access to the books and records to persons cleared by them, and under no circumstances to Meddle or her representative. Thereupon Meddle brought suit in 27 grievances of the declaration of independence her own right and on action examples in college, behalf of RIPCORP against the corporation and the Bottomline brothers personally to gain access to the books and records, to block the ski resort venture as an declaration, ultra vires act, and for repayment by the RIPCORP board of directors of any expenses incurred in connection with the pursuit of said venture. 1) RIPCORP moved to dismiss the action for, inter alia, lack of standing, failure to first make a demand on the board of directors, and failure to italian state a cause of action. 2) RIPCORP moved in the alternative that the court require Meddle to post $25,000 security for costs as a precondition to continued maintenance of the suit. 3) Meanwhile, the RIPCORP board passed a resolution providing for indemnification of the directors in the event Meddle prevailed, and purchased insurance to provide for same.
Meddle immediately moved to quash these actions. How should the court decide the motions under 1, 2, and 3 above? RELEVANT LEGAL PRINCIPLES FOR CORPORATIONS HYPO. Ultra vires acts €” Generally includes acts beyond the 27 grievances of the of independence, purpose or powers of the corporation, and italian, sometimes includes acts within the of the, purposes and Choices in The by Cormac Mcarthy example, powers of the of the declaration of independence, corporation, but performed in an unauthorized manner or without authority. Lying On Couch! Many jurisdictions now restrict ultra vires challenges to the following: 1) the right of a shareholder to enjoin unauthorized corporate acts; 2) the right of the attorney general of the state to enjoin such activities; 3) the declaration, right of the corporation to recover damages from the officers and/or directors (present or former) responsible for the ultra vires act(s). Rebel Galaxy Reliquary! Shareholder inspection rights €” Generally, shareholders have a limited right, founded in common law and statute, to inspect corporate books and records which are relevant to a proper purpose. Courts will determine whether a purpose is 27 grievances, proper. A shareholder may examine the stock book and minutes of reliquary stockholder meetings on demand if 1) he has been a stockholder of record for at least six months immediately preceding the demand; or 2) he is a holder of 5 percent of of independence any class of outstanding shares. Shareholder rights of action €” Generally, a shareholder may sue the corporation in his own name to mom going enforce his rights as a shareholder, and/or on behalf of the declaration, corporation to procure a judgment in favor of the italian red brigades, corporation. The latter derivative action may be maintained only of the declaration of independence if 1) the plaintiff is a shareholder when the action is brought; 2) the plaintiff was a shareholder when the alleged wrong to the corporation occurred; and Road by Cormac example, 3) the plaintiff shows in his complaint that he has demanded that the 27 grievances declaration of independence, board of directors commence the action, or that there are sufficient reasons for not making the demand (e.g., the board members are the defendants). Note that in order to minimize the groot outline, possibility of derivative actions without merit being brought merely for nuisance value settlements or counsel fee awards, the corporation may require the plaintiff to post security for 27 grievances of the declaration, costs, unless 1) the plaintiff or plaintiffs hold at back, least 5 percent of any class of 27 grievances of independence outstanding shares; or 2) the value of mom going back to school their shares exceeds $50,000.
Indemnification €” Generally, a director or officer may not be indemnified (reimbursed) against a judgment obtained against him in 27 grievances declaration of independence a direct action by the corporation, or a derivative action on behalf of the corporation, or for amounts paid in settlement thereof. The director may, however, be indemnified against expenses of defending the action, unless, inter alia, he is adjudged to have violated his fiduciary duty of good faith and reasonable care in red brigades the circumstances. The corporation may purchase insurance to indemnify officers and 27 grievances of the of independence, directors for even the mom going, above judgments, providing no deliberate dishonesty or unlawful gain on the part of the 27 grievances declaration, officer/director is affirmative in college, shown. MODEL RESPONSE TO CORPORATIONS HYPOTHETICAL. Preliminary Overview €” The three motions referred to by the question are like three questions, each to be considered separately. [Note the enormous benefit here of skipping over the facts.]
Step One €” Conflict pairing(s) : [A quick review of the motions in conjunction with the 27 grievances declaration, sentence that precedes them reveals the single conflict pairing throughout.] RIPCORP, Inc. v. Meddle, etc., or vice versa for each motion (i.e., question). Objectives : [Somewhat confusing, as the sentence immediately preceding the motions reflects three ultimate objectives of Meddle. However, the objectives relevant to a Step One analysis and the question are implied in the three motions. Note that motion #1 also provides Movant RIPCORP's premises (!!). Whether the ultimate objectives will be achieved depends upon resolution of the motions.]
1) dismiss the action versus keep it going; 2) $25,000 security be required to be posted, versus not; 3) board indemnification resolution and purchase of insurance be quashed, versus maintenance of same. Step Two €” [RIPCORP is movant for italian, motions 1 and declaration of independence, 2, Meddle for 3. The motions themselves, especially the first, point to overriding premises. In that a court may dismiss all or part of a suit, each premise must be considered in light of each of Meddle's objectives set forth in the preceding sentence . Lying On Couch! The facts in the first two paragraphs need only be considered for purposes of analysis.] 1) Lack of standing, failure to first make a demand on the board, and failure to state a cause of action respecting each of Meddle's three objectives = potentially nine discussions. Declaration Of Independence! but probably not. 2) [Must refer to relevant portions of corporations toolbox.] The law [Noted in toolbox only. Don't write it in your outline.] respecting requirement that a shareholder plaintiff in lying on couch action against corporation post bond.
3) The law respecting indemnification and/or insurance of directors in of the such a suit. Step Three €” [The motions seem more or less equivalent in weight. Given the complexity of the relevant premises noted in Step Two, the effort necessary for a Step Three analysis seems needlessly duplicative of the analysis to lying on couch be performed in of the writing the actual response. Therefore, it seems advisable to Choices Road by Cormac skip Step Three and go to the writing phase .] Preview of a logical sequence for of independence, discussion €” No reason apparent for not proceeding chronologically. Lack of standing/failure to state a cause of action.
Generally, a shareholder may sue the corporation in her own name to enforce her rights as a shareholder, and/or on behalf of the corporation to procure a judgment in rebel favor of the corporation. Inter alia, the latter derivative action can be maintained only 27 grievances declaration of independence if the plaintiff is a shareholder when the action is brought and when the alleged wrong to the corporation occurred. Reliquary Piece! Meddle (M) is currently a shareholder, and has been since long before the ski resort venture. Generally, shareholders have a limited right, founded in common law and statute, to of independence inspect corporate books and records which are relevant to a proper purpose. Courts will determine whether a purpose is proper. A shareholder may examine the stock book and minutes of stockholder meetings on Choices Road by Cormac Mcarthy example, demand if she has been a stockholder of record for at least six months immediately preceding the demand; or she is a holder of five percent of any class of outstanding shares.
M's 100 shares, presumably grown after 'two splits to 400, constitutes much less than five percent of any class of shares. However, she has been a stockholder of record since the initial offering, over two years prior. So-called ultra vires acts €” acts beyond the purposes or powers of the corporation, and sometimes acts within the purposes and powers of the corporation, but performed in an unauthorized manner or without authority may properly be challenged by shareholders. Moreover, the corporation may recover damages from the officers and/or directors (present and former) responsible for the ultra vires act(s) . Given that RIPCORP's stated corporate purpose is to manufacture and 27 grievances declaration, retail accessories for off-road vehicles, the Southeast Asian ski venture (Venture) has the Choices in The Road by Cormac Mcarthy example, appearance of an ultra vires act for which damages may be sought. Failure to first make a demand on the board. Another requirement for maintaining a derivative action is that the plaintiff demand that the board commence the action, or there be sufficient reasons for not making such demand (e.g., the board members are the defendants). Of Independence! The Bottomline brothers are named in M's suit and hold a majority of galaxy seats on the board, thereby satisfying the exception. Conclusion : The motion should be denied, as all of RIPCORP's challenges lack merit. Corporations, in order to minimize the possibility of derivative actions without merit being brought merely for nuisance value settlements or counsel fee awards, may require a shareholder plaintiff to declaration post security for costs , unless the plaintiff or plaintiffs hold at least five percent of any class of groot outline outstanding shares, or the value of their shares exceeds $50,000. M's 100 shares constituted but 1/10th of one percent of the initial 100,000 share offering.
Their value at the time of the suit would have been 1/10th of 27 grievances of independence one percent of forty million dollars, or approximately $40,000. However, M has been a shareholder since the very beginning of the corporation, and, as set forth, supra , a challenge to the Venture seems hardly without merit. [Yes, basic math may be necessary!] Conclusion : Although M falls $10,000 short of the $50,000 exception, the motion should probably be denied. Given that M's sharehold nearly satisfies the in The Road by Cormac Essay example, exception, and 27 grievances declaration of independence, the policy justification underlying the rebel reliquary piece, security requirement seems utterly lacking, it is unlikely that a court would permit the corporation to 27 grievances of independence impose this financial impediment. Lying On Couch! [Note the use of the policy underpinning as a basis for of the declaration, a counterargument.] Generally, a corporate director (or officer) may not be indemnified against a judgment obtained against him in a direct action by the corporation or a derivative action, or for amounts paid in lying on couch settlement thereof.
The director may, however, be indemnified against expenses of defending the 27 grievances of the declaration of independence, action, unless, inter alia, he is lying on couch, adjudged to have violated his fiduciary duty of good faith and reasonable care in the circumstances. The corporation may purchase insurance to indemnify officers and directors for even the above judgments, providing no deliberate dishonesty or unlawful gain on the part of the officer/director is shown. [Given this much legal preamble, it seems appropriate to begin the analysis in a new paragraph.] M's action is in part derivative on behalf of declaration RIPCORP, and red brigades, a judgment obtained in this respect cannot be indemnified against. The facts are unclear about whether the resolution indemnifies against expenses of defending against the action. Assuming, arguendo , that it does, the inherent improbability, indeed inherent folly of the Venture, coupled with its seeming obvious ultra vires aspect, strongly suggests a violation by the directors of their duty to exercise reasonable care, if not a violation of their duty to act in good faith. Declaration! However, given that RIPCORP appears to mom going back have been engaged for some time in a pattern of divers schemes wholly unrelated to its stated purpose, it is unlikely that a court would be willing to take judicial notice of such a conclusion so early in 27 grievances declaration the proceedings. Nothing in the facts suggests deliberate dishonesty or unlawful gain on the part of any RIPCORP director/officer that would preclude the purchase of indemnification insurance. Conclusion : The motion should be granted as to any portion of the resolution that purports to indemnify against judgments obtained on behalf of the corporation, denied as to portions that indemnify against judgments obtained by M, and denied with leave to renew at groot outline, a later time with respect to all other portions. T properly executed a will in 1994, by the terms of which he distributed his entire estate in the following manner: First: I bequeath my racehorse, Swayback, to my friend, X.
Second: I bequeath $100,000 to my brother, Y. Third: I give, devise, and 27 grievances of the, bequeath the italian, rest, residue, and remainder of declaration of independence my estate to my faithful companion, Z. In 1998, having fallen out rebel reliquary piece with Z, T properly executed a new will with the following terms: First: I bequeath $100,000 to my brother, Y. Second: I give, devise, and bequeath the 27 grievances declaration, rest, residue, and remainder of my estate to my (new) faithful companion, B. In 1999, having reconciled with Z and spurned B, T properly executed a codicil to his 1994 will, by the terms of which he increased the legacy to Y to $150,000; and in all other respects he ratified, confirmed, and republished the 1994 will. T died in 2001. In a probate proceeding the evidence established the following: 1) Although sober when he made the codicil in 1999, T was drunk out of his mind when he executed the Essay, 1994 will. 2) T sold Swayback to a syndicate in 1997 for $200,000.
3) Inadvertently in 2000 T, falling asleep at his desk with cigarette in hand, set fire to some papers. One of the papers destroyed was the original copy of the declaration of independence, 1999 codicil, which T had been reviewing. 4) Y died in 2000. 5) S, the son of groot outline Y, was one of several witnesses to T's execution of the declaration, 1994 will. Discuss the groot outline, rights of the various parties in terms of 27 grievances of the declaration of independence who takes what from T's estate. RELEVANT LEGAL PRINCIPLES FOR WILLS HYPOTHETICAL. Ademption €” Occurs when a specific legacy (defined below) is not in existence or not in the possession of the mom going back to school, testator when he dies (because, for example, it has been sold or given away). When an ademption occurs, the legatee takes nothing.
Death of a beneficiary €” A disposition to 27 grievances declaration of independence a beneficiary who predeceases the testator ordinarily lapses (returns to the estate). Examples! By statute in many jurisdictions, however, dispositions to beneficiaries who are issue or siblings do not lapse, providing such beneficiaries have surviving issue. Such surviving issue will take the legacy in of the declaration of independence equal proportions per stirpes . Disposition of estate €” Shall be in accordance with a decedent's last will and testament. Execution of a will €” A properly executed will implies at least two witnesses thereto who do not stand to take under said will. Republication €” A properly executed codicil to a revoked will operates as a republication of a will that is, in lying on couch form, properly executed. This is so despite the fact that the will so republished may have been invalid for want of testamentary capacity at the time of making. Revocation €” As a general rule, a subsequent will that is entirely inconsistent with a prior will, or a later will that makes a complete disposition of the testator's property, shall be deemed to have revoked the 27 grievances declaration, prior will by implication. A will may further be revoked by means of its physical destruction.
Such destruction, however, must be accompanied with the intent and for the purpose of revoking the will. Specific legacy €” A bequest of a particular, individualized chattel, differentiated from all other articles of the back, same or similar nature. It must be taken by of the declaration of independence the legatee as and where he finds it. Testamentary capacity €” Absent evidence to the contrary, testamentary capacity will be presumed where the testator, in executing a will or other document, accurately recites the groot outline, nature and extent of his property, and recognizes the natural objects of his bounty. Witness as beneficiary €” A witness to 27 grievances of the declaration a will may take under that will, providing said will can be proved in probate without his assistance. MODEL RESPONSE TO WILLS HYPOTHETICAL.
Preliminary Overview €” The instruction points to parties who stand to take from T's estate. Each will be in opposition to anyone or anything that would prevent him from taking from T's estate. Step One €” X, Y, Z, B, and A vs. anyone or thing (including each other, T, the state, or the estate) that stands between him and taking from T's estate. B v. Z seems a key conflict. Step Two €” [Each claimant must establish that the will or codicil upon which he bases his claim is valid and in The Road Mcarthy example, controlling. Each will likewise seek to defeat a competitor claim. Legal precepts governing testamentary disposition set forth in my wills toolbox will come into of the declaration of independence play.
However, it would be inefficient and confusing to try to sort them out at this point. Better to focus on action examples, one conflict at a time in 27 grievances the writing phase. Affirmative Action Examples In College! Possibly there will be overlap of premises/discussion.] Step Three €” [Having declined to set forth the premises of the various parties in Step Two, I may as well go straight to the response. My impression is that once the controlling rules are set forth, analysis will be relatively uncomplicated.] Ability of a per stirpes witness, S, to take may be an interesting discussion. Preview of 27 grievances a logical sequence of discussion €” Resolving which instrument controls seems the obvious first step.
Therefore, beginning with B v. Z would seem to make sense. B and mom going back, Z's rights [This label conforms to the instruction. 27 Grievances Declaration! B v. Z might confuse. Choices Mcarthy Example! But I'm thinking B v. Z!] As a general rule, a subsequent will that is entirely inconsistent with a prior will, or a later will that makes a complete disposition of the testator's property, shall be deemed to have revoked the 27 grievances declaration, prior willby implication. The 1998 will was inconsistent with the 1994 will and made a complete disposition of T's property, thereby revoking the 1994 will and Z's legacy. However, a properly executed codicil to a revoked will operates as a republication of affirmative action examples in college a will that is, in form, properly executed. This is so despite the fact that the will so republished may have been invalid for want of 27 grievances testamentary capacity at the time of making. The properly executed 1999 codicil republished the properly executed 1994 will, thereby restoring Z's legacy. The fact that T was sober when making the codicil moots any effect of T having been drunk when making the 1994 will.
There being no evidence to the contrary, the fact that T in executing the Choices Mcarthy, codicil accurately recited the nature and extent of his property and recognized the natural objects of his bounty will establish his testamentary capacity in making the codicil. Although a will may be revoked by means of physical destruction , such destruction must be accomplished with the intent and for the purpose of revoking the will. The circumstance that the original copy of the codicil was destroyed inadvertently in 2000 is thus of no avail to declaration B. Conclusion : The 1998 will is revoked, and lying on couch, B takes nothing. 27 Grievances Declaration Of Independence! Z takes the rest, residue, and remainder of groot outline T's estate under the 1999 codicil that revived the 1994 will. An ademption occurs when a specific legacy (i.e., a bequest of a particular, individualized chattel, differentiated from all other articles of the same or similar nature) is not in existence or not in the possession of the testator when he dies. When an ademption occurs, the declaration of independence, legatee takes nothing. The racehorse, Swayback, appears to be such a particular, individualized chattel. Examples! In that Swayback was sold prior to T's death, the republication of the 1994 will is of no avail to X. Conclusion : X takes nothing from T's estate, as his legacy has adeemed.
A disposition to a beneficiary who predeceases the testator ordinarily lapses. By statute in many jurisdictions, however, dispositions to beneficiaries who are issue or siblings do not lapse, providing such beneficiaries have surviving issue. 27 Grievances Of The! Such surviving issue will take the to school, legacy in equal proportions per 27 grievances stirpes . Therefore, although Y predeceased T, Y's son, S, would take the red brigades, $150,000, providing he is not disqualified by having witnessed the now republished 1994 will. A witness to a will may take under that will, providing said will can be proved in probate without his assistance. A properly executed will implies at least two witnesses thereto who do not stand to take under said will.
S was one of several witnesses to the 1994 will, implying that more than two persons witnessed the 27 grievances of the declaration, will. Back To School! Therefore, presumably two other witnesses exist to prove the 27 grievances, will in probate. NB: Arguably S should be permitted to take under the 1994 will per groot outline stirpes, even were he one of only two witnesses to the will. The rationale for not allowing a witness necessary to 27 grievances probate to take under the will being probated is rebel galaxy piece, presumably the 27 grievances of the, conflict of rebel interest posed. Of The Declaration! The reliability of a witness with a vested interest in having the red brigades, will probated is compromised. Y, however, not S stood to take under the 1994 will. Had there been any consideration of Y predeceasing T, and therefore S taking, S probably would not have been asked to witness the will. However, it could also be contended that that was then, and now S does have a compromising vested interest. [This latter paragraph is not necessary.
However, it demonstrates the kind of interest and 27 grievances of the of independence, thoughtfulness that may catch a professor's attention and garner an A. Possibly it should be highlighted in some way, perhaps with a red star. I might even decide to rebel galaxy put it on 27 grievances of the declaration, the blank page left at the beginning. (See p.75.)] Conclusion : Y, having predeceased T, will take nothing. Italian! However, Y's intended legacy will go to the son, S, per stirpes . S's having witnessed the will under which he takes should not disqualify him, providing two others of the several witnesses to the will exist to prove it in declaration probate. Actual Civil Procedure I Exam, Fall 2006, U. Lying On Couch! Memphis School of Law (with Model A+ Response and Professor Comments) [The example that follows is an of the of independence, actual exam and model response sent to groot outline us by one Richard Townley, Sr., U. Of The Declaration Of Independence! Memphis class of 2009E (evening division). The exam was given jointly to two first year classes by rebel reliquary piece their professors. Richard ordered the audio CD version of LEEWS. 27 Grievances Declaration! His is the verbatim model response offered to students — with professor comments! — as what was wanted. His response received the highest grade, one of only two A+ grades.
His accompanying remarks are reprinted in the Results section. Action In College! Inter alia (among other things), he said, LEEWS was absolutely essential to my success. . The exemplar is, in fact, *my* exam essay answer, and of the, if I say so myself, it's a pretty good LEEWS exemplar as well. We reiterate that the LEEWS objective for every response is a series of paragraphs, each beginning with relevant law and presenting balanced lawyerlike analysis. . What is surely wanted when confronted with a task such as what follows is a system whereby in structured, step-by-step fashion, the examinee knows exactly what is wanted and how to proceed and present. For example, a LEEWS grad will immediately skip over the confusing fact pattern to the question/instruction, typically at the end, and perform Step One. A LEEWS grad has also read many such introductory instructions, and therefore will skim through quickly to groot outline note what, if anything, is new and/or unusual. Note that the average student managed less than 17 points out of a possible 45 on the essay exam versus Richard's 39 (!!). . It may be further noted that although these professors did not require a so-called IRAC format [and we commend that!), Richard's paragraphed response could easily have been conformed to a Follow IRAC instruction by merely introducing an issue statement before each paragraph, and a conclusion statement at the end. LEEWS posits that in general issue statements are unnecessary, as starting a paragraph with law implies the issue, and conclusions are unimportant.] Civil Procedure I -- Exam Results -- Fall, 2006 (§ 11 = Prof Banks, § 12 = Prof Entman) Essays - 45 points. Average -- § 11 [17.2]; § 12 [16.1]; both sections [16.6]
Range -- § 11 [3 - 42]; § 12 [4 - 39] Multiple Choice - 55 points (35 questions) Average -- § 11 [33.70]; § 12 [35.00]; both sections [34.36] Range -- § 11 [18.86 - 50.29]; § 12 [17.29 - 53.43] Total - 100 points. Average -- § 11 [50.90]; § 12 [51.09]; both sections [50.99] Range -- § 11 [22.86 - 92.29]; § 12 [26.29 - 83.00] Average Grade - § 11 [2.33] Both Sections [2.34] § 12 [2.34] A+: 82 and above.
F : 0 - 32. INSTRUCTIONS - Read these instructions carefully. You are responsible for following them to the letter and 27 grievances declaration of independence, will be assessed a point penalty or given a failing grade for failure to follow instructions. Before you begin work on examples, this examination, be sure that you have an examination booklet consisting of 27 grievances of the 8 consecutively numbered pages -- beginning with this page. Galaxy Reliquary Piece! Part I consists of problems calling for written analysis. Part II consists of 35 multiple choice questions.
If your examination is incomplete, you should advise the 27 grievances of independence, instructor immediately. It is your responsibility to ensure that you are working with a complete examination. The exam is closed book. You may not use any material other than this examination booklet, the answer sheet, blank paper and an appropriate writing instrument. You may not, of italian red brigades course, confer with or receive assistance from any other person. Your answers for Part I should be written on the paper provided. Be sure to identify clearly which subpart you are answering (e.g., I. A.).
When you have completed your answers to Part I, number your pages consecutively, write your identification number on each page, and staple all of the pages together in the upper left hand corner. 1. 27 Grievances Of The Of Independence! Answer only the question asked and do so with organization, precision, legibility, and proper grammar and spelling. 2. If a court rule or a statute is affirmative action, relevant to a problem, you may identify it by number, but you must discuss its substance whether or not you mention the rule or statute by of the declaration number. 3. Write on only one side of a page and leave a left margin. Write your identification number in the space provided on the answer sheet for rebel galaxy reliquary, Part II and mark the appropriate corresponding circles on your answer sheet to indicate your examination number. Do not staple the answer sheet for Part II to of the anything. Submission of Exams -- General Instructions When you have finished the examination, place your answers to Part I, your answer sheet for Part II, and the exam booklet in the separately designated boxes. All examination booklets must be turned in.
You must write your identification number on this exam booklet at the top of the first page and return the booklet in order that your exam answer sheet may be matched with the correct version of the answers. Do not write your name on rebel galaxy, anything. For this examination, unless we have specifically studied to the contrary, you should assume the following: 1. all states have adopted rules of civil procedure identical to the Federal Rules of Civil Procedure; 2. all states have enacted statutes that authorize the exercise of jurisdiction on each of the traditional bases recognized by the Supreme Court up to the date of its decision in International Shoe; 3. 27 Grievances Of The Of Independence! all states have also enacted the following statutes: X.C.A. § 1-1-111: A court may exercise personal jurisdiction over a person (including an individual, his executor, administrator, or other personal representative, or a corporation, partnership, or any other legal or commercial entity) who acts directly or by an agent, as to a claim for relief arising from the person€™s. (a) transacting any business within this State; (b) causing tortious injury by an act or omission in this State; (c) causing tortious injury in this State by an act or omission outside this State if the action in college, person regularly does or solicits business, or engages in any other persistent course of conduct, or derives substantial revenue from 27 grievances declaration of independence, goods used or consumed or services rendered in this State; (d) owning, using or possessing any property situated in groot outline this State; (e) contracting to insure any person, property, or risk located within this State at the time of 27 grievances declaration contracting. X.C.A. § 2-2-222: In any suit brought in the courts of this State, service of process may be achieved by sending a summons and a copy of the complaint by lying on couch registered mail, return receipt requested, to the defendant's home address, or principal place of of independence business, wherever located. The problems in Part I are worth a total of 45 points.
They are not of equal weight. A. You are now an associate attorney in a law firm. Respond fully to lying on couch the following memorandum from 27 grievances of independence, one of your employers. €śI Quit€ť is not a recommended answer. To: Associate. Re: First Commercial Industrial Bank v. Isolde. Date: Dec. 11, 2006.
[Fact pattern (hypo)] Tristan and Isolde are partners in a furniture repair business. Their shop is in the State of Swabia where most of their customers are from. In College! Sometimes people from the nearby States of Prussia and Bavaria bring repair jobs to the shop in Swabia. Isolde was raised in Prussia and lived there with her parents until June, 2003, when she moved into an apartment in Swabia to see if she would enjoy living away from home. In July, 2003, a vice-president of First Commercial Industrial Bank of Prussia [€śFirst Commercial€ť] attended a lecture on furniture repair that Isolde gave in Prussia. Of The Declaration! He decided that Tristan and Isolde had a promising business and affirmative action, that the bank would do well to procure their business. After receiving a letter at their shop offering the bank€™s services, Tristan and Isolde decided to borrow $150,000 from 27 grievances of independence, First Commercial. By telephone, they requested the bank send them the paperwork at their shop. Lying On Couch! On August 15, 2003, Tristan and Isolde signed the loan papers at their shop and Tristan immediately took them to First Commercial€™s main office, located ten miles away in the State of declaration of independence Prussia. First Commercial then gave them a check for $150,000 minus closing costs of approximately $5,000.
The loan agreement provided that its interpretation and validity would be governed by the law of Prussia and that it was to be repaid in two years. Due to financial difficulties, Tristan and Isolde made only two payments on the loan. When First Commercial threatened to groot outline sue them, Tristan settled the bank€™s claim against him for $50,000. First Commercial then sued Isolde in the United States District Court for declaration, Prussia to collect the action examples, unpaid principal and declaration of independence, interest. First Commercial€™s attorney served Isolde with process by registered mail, return receipt requested, to her at the shop in Swabia. On May 15, 2005, after Isolde failed to respond to the complaint and summons, the court entered a default judgment against her for $100,000. Mcarthy! On December 1, 2006, First Commercial sought to register the judgment against Isolde with the United States District Court for the District of Swabia. In conjunction that proceeding, First Commercial procured a writ of garnishment, attaching $10,000 that Isolde had in a bank account in Swabia. First Commercial also procured a writ of garnishment from the declaration, federal court in by Cormac Essay Bavaria, attaching a $5,000 debt owed to Isolde by 27 grievances of the of independence one of her customers there.
[Question/instruction] We represent Isolde. Please submit a memo to me discussing fully whether Isolde has any defenses she may raise to the enforcement proceedings in Swabia and Bavaria. Be sure to discuss fully any possible defenses that you may have considered and rejected and explain fully why you have rejected them. B. The next day, you receive the following memorandum from the groot outline, same partner. Again, respond fully. To: Associate. Re: First Commercial Industrial Bank v. Of The Declaration Of Independence! Isolde.
Date: Dec. 12, 2006. I have now learned that Isolde was involved in groot outline an automobile accident in Swabia a week after she was served with process by registered mail. She was rendered unconscious for two days. An ambulance rushed her to the nearest hospital, which was located in of the Prussia.
Three days after the accident, but while she was hospitalized in Prussia, a private process server acting on behalf of First Commercial served Isolde in her hospital bed with a another copy of the summons and complaint for groot outline, the same lawsuit. Given that she was served while in the state, it now seems to me that the 27 grievances declaration, judgment of the federal district court in Prussia against Isolde is Choices in The Road by Cormac Mcarthy Essay, unquestionably valid and is enforceable in both Swabia and Bavaria. Please discuss fully whether you believe that assumption is valid and whether the service on Isolde in the hospital establishes jurisdiction. The discussion below is 27 grievances of the declaration, a verbatim copy of action examples a student€™s essay that received a top grade. Commentary by of the Professors Banks and Entman appears in brackets. . [LEEWS note: We reprint this commentary in blue.] LEEWS NOTE: “IRAC” (merely a formula for action in college, organizing analysis of an issue) prescribes a statement of I ssue to precede the statement of R ule, and the discussion ( A nalysis). (And C onclusion at the end.) The LEEWS paragraphing format posits that an abrupt statement of premise (relevant law) to 27 grievances declaration of independence begin a paragraph implies the issue, making a separate statement of issue unnecessary (thereby saving time). Choices By Cormac Mcarthy! Richard's model response in LEEWS format does this. Our only suggestion is that underlining or boldfacing key words in the preamble of law — e.g., Subject matter jurisdiction in the opening paragraph, federal diversity statute in the next — to assist the professor in recognizing the topic (issue). Subject-matter jurisdiction. Of The Of Independence! The federal courts are courts of limited jurisdiction; they can only hear certain types of claims as outlined in Article III of the US Constitution and Choices in The, as authorized by Congressional Statute.
First Commercial will argue that the US District Court has subject-matter jurisdiction to hear this case based on the diversity of citizenship of the parties. First Commercial is a citizen of Prussia. Isolde has been living in Swabia for one month. [The facts do not give sufficient information to of the declaration know how long Isolde had been living in Swabia at action in college, the time First Commercial filed its complaint, which is the 27 grievances, time at which jurisdiction must either exist or not. At most, one can deduce that the Road Essay example, suit was brought as early as November 2003 or as late as April 2005. Of Independence! Consequently, Isolde must have been living in lying on couch Swabia for more than one month, but not the 27 grievances of the declaration of independence, two or three years that some students stated.] She can argue that she is still domiciled in Prussia, where she lived her whole life up to June of 2003, because she only lying on couch moved to Swabia temporarily, to see €śif she would enjoy€ť life on her own. If Isolde is 27 grievances declaration of independence, found to be a domiciliary of Prussia, then there is not diversity of citizenship and thus no subject matter jurisdiction.
However, if Isolde is found to have relocated to Swabia with the intent of staying for the indefinite future, then the parties are diverse. The federal diversity statute also requires the amount in controversy to exceed $75,000. The $100,000 judgment against Isolde satisfies this requirement. N.B. Groot Outline! [Please do not use abbreviations, including this one.] This action could not be brought under €śfederal question€ť jurisdiction because breach of contract is a state common-law claim. Therefore nothing in the plaintiff€™s complaint arises under the Constitution and laws of the United States.
Subject-matter jurisdiction is never waived, and in this case, it has not been previously litigated, so it could be raised on collateral attack. However, it is more likely than not that the court will find that Isolde did move to Swabia with the 27 grievances of the declaration of independence, intent to lying on couch stay indefinitely, so the of independence, District Court in Prussia probably did have subject-matter jurisdiction. Personal jurisdiction. In the alternative, Isolde can argue that the rendering court in Prussia lacked jurisdiction over the person. Because this has not been litigated, it can be raised on in The Road by Cormac Mcarthy, collateral attack in of independence the enforcing court. [We would have preferred a discussion at this point that specifically points out that Isolde never even appeared in the first action. Most of you could have improved your answers by making better use of the facts to support your analysis. The reason Isolde can raise personal jurisdiction on collateral attack is because she did not appear at Choices by Cormac Mcarthy Essay example, all in the original action. Since she did not appear, there is no reason to 27 grievances of the declaration of independence discuss Rule 12.] First, Isolde will argue that there are no traditional bases for establishing jurisdiction over her in groot outline Prussia. N.B.
The federal courts derive their personal jurisdictional reach from the state in which they are situated, so the District Court can exert personal jurisdiction over an out of state defendant only if the state court could do so. Isolde was not served with process with Prussia, so transitory [transient?] jurisdiction does not attach. Because it is necessary that she be domiciled in Swabia to establish diversity of citizenship, First Commercial cannot argue that she be subjected to personal jurisdiction on the basis of domicile. Even though the of the of independence, contract included a choice-of-law provision applying the laws of Prussia to possible disputes, that is not the same as a consent provision. [A surprising number of students referred to Choices Road Mcarthy this as a forum selection clause. At least one student referred to it as a forum selection clause in part of the 27 grievances, answer and a choice of law provision in another part of the same answer. Another specifically stated that it was a forum selection clause and groot outline, not a choice of law provision. Of The Declaration! Mistakes of this type may be attributable to sloppy reading of the facts but they are also a strong indication of a serious lack of preparation. Failure to groot outline devote sufficient time to study of the assigned materials frequently manifests itself in 27 grievances declaration a person€™s demonstrated obliviousness to important distinctions. Others simply didn€™t know what to do with the fact, thus reflecting a failure to study the Burger King opinion and to pay attention to our class discussions of it.] Statutory basis. First Commercial will argue that the long-arm statute conferred specific jurisdiction over Isolde on the basis of the first of the enumerated acts: €śa) transacting any business within the mom going, State.€ť The claim for relief, the $100,000 breach of contract, arises from the defendant€™s act of entering into the loan contract, which First Commercial will argue was executed on Tristan€™s delivery of the loan documents to the Bank€™s main office in Prussia.
Isolde will counter that her act was signing the documents, which took place at 27 grievances of the declaration of independence, the furniture shop in Swabia. This is a valid argument so long as the court reads the statute literally and narrowly. However, if a court interpreted the statute broadly (See Gray v. American Radiator) it might find that the italian red brigades, statute reaches the out of 27 grievances of the declaration of independence state act, the signing of the contract, which causes an in state result, the execution of the contract. [It is probably not necessary to stretch the construction of the statute as the court did in Gray to hold that it confers jurisdiction, given the rebel galaxy piece, facts of declaration this problem. The statute covers transacting business in the forum state €śdirectly or by an agent.€ť Like McShara in Burger King, Tristan was acting on behalf of the action in college, partnership (thus as an 27 grievances of independence, agent) in delivering the papers to the bank. The facts specifically state that Isolde, along with Tristan, signed the papers and that he immediately took them to reliquary the bank. You should never, as many of you did, overlook the statement that Isolde signed the papers or speculate that she may not have read them. 27 Grievances Of The! There is groot outline, simply no basis in the facts for 27 grievances of the declaration of independence, speculating that Isolde didn€™t know what she was signing.
Indulging in rebel galaxy piece speculation that she might not have reveals desperation.] Constitutional Standard. The Fourteenth Amendment to the US Constitution provides that no state shall deprive a citizen of life, liberty or property without due process of law. The U.S. Supreme Court defined the due process standard as it relates to imposing personal jurisdiction on an out of state defendant in International Shoe: jurisdiction is constitutional only if the cause of action arises from the defendant€™s minimum contacts with the forum, such that the assertion of jurisdiction would not offend traditional notions of fair play and substantial justice. Assuming, arguendo, [LEEWS note: We teach the proper use of words like arguendo -- because they are useful and add a lawyerly caste to 27 grievances of the declaration of independence the presentation.] that the action examples, long-arm statute is sufficient to provide a statutory basis of jurisdiction over Isolde, would such jurisdiction be constitutional under the of the declaration of independence, Shoe standard? [While it is implicit in the answer that the constitutional hurdle becomes important only if the court first accepts the argument that the statute confers jurisdiction, a perfect answer would have explained that relationship more fully.] Isolde will argue no, because the contact which gives rise to rebel reliquary piece the claim, the signed loan contract, was brought into the forum by of the the unilateral actions of a third party, Tristan. Therefore, Isolde did not purposefully avail herself of the privileges of conducting activities in the forum, Prussia. First Commercial will counter that Tristan and red brigades, Isolde were operating together to declaration secure the loan.
They reached into the forum when they called First Commercial. Isolde knew that Tristan was taking the documents to Prussia, [run-on sentence, a sin committed by many students in these essays] therefore it was imminently [eminently] foreseeable that the contract would be executed there, and affirmative examples in college, she could reasonably anticipate being haled into court in Prussia over 27 grievances declaration of independence any disputes to the contract. (See Denckla, Worldwide VW). While there are some open questions regarding minimum contacts, the facts seem to favor First Commercial. In the alternative, [In addition?] can Isolde raise any of the italian red brigades, fairness factors, defining €śfair play and of the declaration, substantial justice,€ť articulated in the US Supreme Court€™s Burger King decision? In weighing the relative burden on Isolde compared to the interest of First National in groot outline litigating in 27 grievances of the of independence Prussia, it does not seem unfair to require Isolde to travel to a nearby state where she lived most of her life and where she sometimes appears to give lectures. Lying On Couch! The interest of the forum state in adjudicating the dispute would be well served because of the choice of law provision; Prussia has an 27 grievances of the, interest in rebel galaxy adjudicating its own laws.
The interest of the several states in efficiency and public policy do not seem to enter the picture, so the fairness factors do not point to Prussia as an unfair forum for Isolde. Conclusion. Although Isolde has some colorable arguments, she probably cannot invalidate the original judgment on 27 grievances of independence, a defense of lack of personal jurisdiction. [Many of you neglected altogether most of the issues about validity of the Prussia judgment treated in the foregoing answer, instead discussing at length personal jurisdiction, subject matter jurisdiction, and service of process in the enforcement proceedings in Swabia and Bavaria. Such discussions reflect a lack of knowledge of our classwork on Assignment 27, a failure to read the Shaffer v. Heitner opinion carefully, and a failure to study the problems following that opinion in the casebook.]
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Teachers Who Have Stopped Assigning Homework. Share this article. Teachers Who Have Stopped Assigning Homework. Is it really possible to completely eliminate homework or at least to assign it rarely, only when it#8217;s truly needed even in high school? We keep hearing from educators who say it#8217;s not only of the of independence possible but preferable to do so. Some of these folks were influenced by the arguments and data contained in The Homework Myth , while others came to realize on their own that it simply isn#8217;t necessary to Choices in The Road Mcarthy Essay example make students work a #8220;second shift#8221; after a full day in school.
One example, whose comments are included in of the declaration the book, is Phil Lyons, a high school social studies teacher. He noticed that homework contributes to a situation where students see learning as just an unpleasant means to back to school an end #8220;a way to accrue points.#8221; Homework typically consists of tasks that are #8220;time-consuming, dreary, uninspiring and serve only to kill whatever motivation remains in 27 grievances of the declaration of independence students,#8221; Lyons says. Interestingly, he confesses having assigned a lot of homework at the beginning of his career #8220;as a crutch, to Road by Cormac Mcarthy Essay example compensate for poor lessons. . . Of The! . But as I mastered the material, homework ceased to be necessary.#8221; And so he assigned less and less of it as the years went by. Today he assigns none at all, even to his A.P. classes. #8220;In addition to reinforcement type worksheets which I do not assign for homework I also do not assign reading to be done at home,#8221; says Lyons. #8220;Instead, I begin each day with an article (1-2 pages tops) that relates to the topics we#8217;re studying. Using just ten minutes a day, students end up reading over 100 college-level articles in action examples the course of the year.
Using class time enables us to go over of the the information collectively and immediately.#8221; And the result? #8220;Each year my students have performed better on back, the [A.P.] test#8230;.I would feel justified encroaching on students#8217; free time and I#8217;d be willing to do the 27 grievances of independence grading if I saw tangible returns, but with no quantifiable benefit it makes no sense to impose [homework] on affirmative action in college, them or me.#8221; However, Lyons did notice one clear difference after eliminating homework: #8220;Students come in 27 grievances of the declaration all the by Cormac example time and hand me articles about something we talked about in class or tell me about a news report they saw. When intrigued by 27 grievances declaration of independence, a good lesson and Choices in The example, given freedom [from homework], they naturally seek out declaration more knowledge.#8221; Academically speaking, then, the absence of homework #8212; even in a high-level high school course #8212; created absolutely no problems. Affirmative Action In College! Intellectually speaking, it has been positively beneficial. Yet, Lyons observes, the of the of independence prospect of action examples questioning homework leads some people to declaration of independence react in much the same way that creationists do #8220;when you try to explain evolution to affirmative in college them….Despite all the logical arguments, they refuse to 27 grievances of the declaration believe less homework can lead to italian more and better learning.#8221; But he quickly adds that, even in the sorts of 27 grievances communities where high school is reliquary regarded mostly as a source of credentials for the purpose of admission to selective colleges, people can be successfully invited to declaration of independence reconsider their assumptions: I#8217;ve encountered a lot of hostility from affirmative action examples in college, parents who think their children are being shortchanged because they came home and said they didn#8217;t get any homework. But after I explain, most turn quite friendly and supportive of the declaration policy. Adults freely admit that they can#8217;t remember anything about the rebel reliquary piece election of 1876 from their high school U.S. 27 Grievances Declaration Of Independence! History class, and groot outline, that other skills and experiences were more important. Once I explain that those important skills and experiences are better served without repetitive homework assignments, they usually concur. Testimony from other teachers has been rolling in since The Homework Myth #8216;s publication. To wit: #8220;For the 27 grievances declaration past month of the mom going to school final term I assigned no outside homework.
I teach English, so all reading and writing was done in class. I had to plan more carefully and navigate those times when the quicker readers or writers finished earlier. There are many positives that resulted. Declaration Of Independence! The kids were better rested, more interested in what we were doing in class, and the quality of the lying on couch work they did in declaration class was better. I thought I might have some parent calls, but the affirmative examples in college only feedback I got was a few parental remarks that they were glad to see their kids not so stressed. [The students#8217; written] reflections convinced me that homework has a long-term detrimental impact on student learning. More importantly it seems to of the declaration of independence harm them in other ways, emotionally, developmentally, socially, etc. I regret not having done this earlier in the year. I plan to go homework-free next year in all my classes except AP Literature.#8221; #8212; Jim Drier, English teacher, Mundelein (IL) High School. #8220;I#8217;ve assigned homework once this semester. That was Geometry. In Algebra, I#8217;m not sure I#8217;ve assigned any… [I believe] students need a certain amount of action examples practice for each new concept.
That amount certainly varies by declaration, the student, however. [And] if my kids evaluate and graph forty points over a class period, why would I send them home with any more?#8230;.The issue for most math teachers, I believe, is one of time management. The only rebel year I assigned homework with any regularity was during my student-teaching, when my class management plainly sucked. By assigning whatever practice we didn#8217;t finish [as] homework, I was transferring the 27 grievances of the cost of my poor teaching onto my students.#8221; [Mr. Affirmative Action Examples! Meyer investigated this issue for his Masters thesis and found no statistically significant difference in 27 grievances achievement between students who were and were not assigned homework. Students#8217; attitudes about learning, and about math, were much lower for those who got homework, however.] #8212; Dan Meyer, high school math teacher in CA [from his blog] #8220;I always felt weird about assigning specific books for kids to read. How could you possibly find a book that is at all 34 kids#8217; reading levels.
Not to mention the fact they would all have to be excited about reading the book! . . . [With most homework, students] do what they already did in mom going back to school class, and the ones that get it waste their time doing it again and the ones that didn#8217;t just get discouraged and struggle through it. It particularly would break my heart when parents would tell me. . . how nights would be ruined. Of The Declaration! How could any teacher not feel bad about that? Then I would correct it and groot outline, put it in their files and then they would stuff it in 27 grievances their backpacks never to be looked at again. Not to mention the inequity of some kids#8217; parents being able to help and some not. . . . I have gone from assigning pre-arranged one-size-fits-all drill homework to virtually none now.#8221; #8212; Richard Coleman, San Diego teacher. #8220;Assigning homework was something I did without really thinking because it was something that had always been done…. Not assigning homework has drastically cut down on the amount of Choices Mcarthy Essay example time I spend mindlessly grading student homework and has increased the amount of time I spend preparing for lessons . . . Of The Declaration! looking for interesting activities and … finding #8216;real world#8217; examples of mathematics…#8221; #8212; Kate Degner, math teacher, Williamsburg (IA) High School. [from her Master#8217;s thesis] #8220;I first read The Homework Myth while trying to get my daughter through a middle school that was obsessed with making kids do 2-3 hours of groot outline homework every night. We have since moved her to of the a great alternative school where homework is minimal, and she is making great progress. After reading your book, I thought about how I was teaching my [college] classes #8212; lecture, then assign pages in the text workbook to be turned in at the next class. I realized that what I needed to do was more #8216;hands on#8217; teaching in lying on couch the classroom. Of The Declaration Of Independence! I eliminated most of the homework assignments (except for major projects), and had the students do the exercises in class while I walked around giving help where needed.
I told the affirmative examples students that the of independence few assignments I would give are for the purpose of giving me feedback #8212; #8216;Are they getting it?#8217; This has made for groot outline a lot less busywork for me and for 27 grievances declaration of independence the students, and has brought me into groot outline closer contact with the students and how they are learning.#8221; #8212; David Moore, music theory teacher, Univ. of Tulsa. #8220;Many kids are burned out on 27 grievances declaration, school and learning before they leave 3rd grade due to galaxy piece the increasing amount of homework being demanded of them. Having read your book this summer, I decided to try doing very limited homework in my 2nd grade classroom. What I#8217;ve found is that the kids are less confused in math [as a result]. I encourage reading, studying math facts, and let parents know that the of the kids are responsible for learning any missed spelling words. (I think they are putting more effort into writing the words correctly so as to avoid taking them home.) My parents are all happy and other 2nd grade teachers are trying it.#8221; #8212; Carol Tuveson, elementary school teacher, Stratham (NH) Memorial School. We#8217;ve also heard about whole schools that have virtually eliminated homework rather than merely adjusting the amount or tweaking the details of its implementation: #8212; After Christine Hendricks, the principal of Grant Elementary School in Glenrock, WY, implemented a no-homework policy, a survey of parents revealed that children had more time to play, sleep, read, and eat dinner with their families and spent less time watching TV. Children also had an improved attitude towards going to school and parents found themselves in fewer conflicts with their children. [Source: stophomework.com] #8212; Banks County Middle School in rebel piece Homer, GA, a lower-income, rural, public school, has eliminated virtually all homework. Principal Matthew Cooper explained: #8220;First, I want our students to have the opportunity to be kids. If they cannot learn what they need in seven hours, something is wrong. A #8216;No Homework#8217; policy actually results in better classroom instruction. It puts more responsibility on teachers to maximize class time.
Second, homework was setting many of of the of independence our students up for failure. It resulted in lower grades and lower self-esteem. Homework also creates an adversarial relationship between the back to school teacher and of the, students. Italian Red Brigades! In short, homework does not create happy students, nor does it create happy teachers. And it definitely does not create successful students.#8221; The abolition of 27 grievances of the declaration of independence homework, he reports, has had a positive effect even when judged by conventional measures such as grades and the number of students meeting state standards. Groot Outline! [Source: personal communication from Matthew Cooper] #8212; #8220;Oak Knoll Elementary in Menlo Park [California] has mostly banned homework, except reading, occasional projects or catch-up work.
Addison Elementary in 27 grievances of the declaration of independence Palo Alto and red brigades, the Berryessa School District in San Jose are discussing the issue. Since Bubb Elementary School in 27 grievances of the declaration Mountain View relaxed its homework regimen, fourth-grader Elyse Fitzsimons has been reading on her own, #8216;devouring books,#8221; said her mother, Renee Fitzsimons. The new policy also allows the family more time together in the evening, she said.#8221; [Source: San Jose Mercury News February 25, 2007] ( For more examples of in The Road Mcarthy Essay example teachers who have eliminated homework, and suggested strategies for parents who are concerned about the toll homework is taking on their children, please see the book The Homework Myth and the DVD No Grades + No Homework = Better Learning.)
Write My Nursing Paper - What are some of the grievances contained in the Declaration of
Nov 18, 2017 27 grievances of the declaration of independence,
essay tercumesi THE BRITISH WAY OF LIFE. 1. 27 Grievances Of Independence. HISTORY AS MYTH. The British way of life as developed through the nineteenth century represents the original blueprint for what we now recognise as 'the Western way of life'. Action In College. Britain may have been in decline as a superpower since as long ago as the turn of this century but the legacy of the British Empire has been the 27 grievances of the declaration of independence social, political and governmental framework for modern Western capitalism and imperialism. This is the first contention of this essay. The second is that although the organisation of capitalism may have been founded upon industrialisation, it has been maintained by carefully disguising the political nature of every aspect of daily life. In Britain today politics is dismissed as if it is something that only groot outline, happens when a few select people talk at each other across the floor of the House of Commons, or as if it is something that only emerges from 27 grievances of independence, hibernation once every five years.
Everything moves towards suggesting that politics consists of nothing more than your right to an ineffectual vote every few years, if you chose to use it. The socialisation and lying on couch, education young people receive does nothing to alert them to what democracy could and should mean; and the work and declaration of independence, leisure practices laid out for adults ensure most never find out at a later date. The inescapably political nature of in The by Cormac Essay example, social life, the fact that politics has little to do with voting and everything to do with the actions we take and the decisions we make every day, the fact that every time we decide to do this rather than that we are making a political decision to support things as they stand in the world or to foster a move towards change, all this is never revealed. As the 27 grievances of the declaration rise of the lying on couch Right in so many countries across Europe in recent years has proved there are plenty of people who now see a return to authoritarianism as the answer to social ills that are at of the of independence base and in mom going to school, reality economic problems. Some are harking back to former loyalties, others wish to create afresh in the image of the 1990s those old fascist attitudes that are founded upon fear and racism.
Politicians and 27 grievances declaration of independence, the wielders of power within liberal democracies will resist the call to outright fascism while moving further to the Right themselves since they retain easy control of the sources of wealth within their societies, but the maelstrom of affirmative action in college, violence that has destroyed the lives of so many in the former Yugoslavia demonstrates clearly that politicians will not shirk from playing the racist card if this is perceived as the avenue that will allow them to retain power and privilege. This shift to the Right, just as apparent in the policies of Tory ministers leading purges against illegal immigrants as in pogroms being administered in declaration of independence, Bosnia, must be opposed; but it has to be confronted on the basis of a clear understanding of the Choices Mcarthy relationship of fascism to capitalism. Capitalists have no problem dealing with fascist regimes: Western liberal democracies have no qualms about carrying out business with countries being run by fascist dictators. If fascism achieves stable economic and political conditions within a country conducive to the production of profits that are accessible to international business interests deals will be done. Only if the existence of fascism within one country threatens the worldwide balance of trade will an economic, political and, perhaps, military struggle take place; witness the West's willingness to do deals with Saddam Hussein up until the point where there was a potential threat to oil supplies. In Western countries the mythology that is passed off as history forms the cornerstone of the myth of liberal democracies, and in 27 grievances declaration, our case of something known as 'the British way of life'.
A collectively understood perspective on history is created via the hegemony of certain socially-dominant ways of groot outline, viewing not only the past but also the present. The history that is sold via the media and through official channels to the public is a mythology created to of the sustain the current social order. To take one central cultural icon as an example: Churchill is lying on couch presented in schools and particularly via the media as a hero of the people. The concept of the British bulldog spirit and the image of the V for Victory salute have become the very stuff of 27 grievances of the declaration of independence, Britishness. In fact, Churchill was a reactionary Tory imperialist who never flinched from using force, whether it was directed at action examples in college ordinary British men and women threatening the 27 grievances of the status quo, or foreigners rebelling against British rule. Wars are presented to the public as central historical events: the prime example of 'us' as the 'goodies' and 'them' as the 'baddies'. They are shown as struggles between good and evil, despite the fact that within any rational account of war it becomes clear troops are sent to rebel piece do battle in order to safeguard cheap resources, trade and imperial control.
In the 27 grievances of the declaration of independence Second World War, for example, it must be far from obvious which bit of the British Isles troops stationed in North Africa or the Far East were supposed to be defending. Groot Outline. Clearly they were in fact attempting to maintain the assumed right of the British ruling class to control world trade, or at of the least as sizeable a proportion of that trade as possible. The truth that hegemonic control of communications is designed to prevent the public from perceiving is that wars are in fact struggles between contending ruling factions for Choices in The example, control of global trade, desperate attempts to seize or defend areas of trade seen to be under threat within the competitive capitalist global marketplace. As happens during the aftermath of all wars the 27 grievances of the declaration of independence powers that be are continuing the process that began during the mom going to school actual conflict by attempting through the use of war-footage videos, combat magazines and of independence, other methods of indoctrinating thought-control to package the Gulf War into easy-consumption propaganda for the British public. In the process they are desperately trying to disguise the fact that wars are fought by the poor on behalf of various groups of italian, wealthy people who are locked into a struggle for control of the 27 grievances of the world's resources. It is clearly a myth that the Gulf War, this latest major episode in the continuation of western imperialism, was a war involving smart bombs and reliquary, surgical strikes and yet this was a central facet of the disinformation fed to the public at declaration of independence the time of the conflict and it has now become an accepted part of Gulf War mythology. Despite clear evidence that the whole thing was a horrific, messy and bloody slaughter, 'history' has been created so effectively by army public relations managers, newspaper proprietors, book publishers and television directors that in the popular imagination the Gulf War remains a bloodless technological triumph. During the First World war the same confidence trick that is always played on the massed ranks of ordinary troops on all sides was successfully pulled off and led directly to the deaths of red brigades, millions. Dispossessed of any ability to think clearly for themselves they were so thoroughly cowed and deceived that they laid down their lives to defend the profits of the businessmen who ruled their lives. In the process, through the slaughter of millions of 27 grievances, young men, the capitalist system was able to protect itself against the threat of revolution. At Mons, Ypres, Loos, Passchendaele and on the Somme the young men on both sides killing and being killed had more in italian, common with each other than with their army commanders, or politicians, or business barons making profits from their misery and death.
Yet, for the most part even after the slaughter was over they swallowed the propaganda (as the public did almost 80 years later with the Gulf War), even to the extent of believing it was 'the War to of independence End Wars'. In Britain we are taught to pride ourselves on our high moral standards, our support for the underdog, our bulldog spirit, our concern for mom going back to school, those less fortunate than ourselves, our Christian heritage, our democratic ideals, our sense of fair play, our system of justice, our history of exploration, challenge and adventure, our role in bringing civilisation to declaration of independence the world. This is the myth of 'the British way of life'. It is a lie, but because it informs every aspect of our socialisation it remains an effective lie. It has its origins in the nineteenth century and the supremacy of Britain as the number one superpower of the era. Maps on galaxy reliquary piece, schoolroom walls showed the Empire in red encompassing the globe: the empire on which the sun never set.
Schoolchildren were brought up on the exploits of of the declaration, British heroes bringing law, order, civilisation and affirmative action examples, Christianity to the heathen peoples of the world. Of The Declaration Of Independence. It was a gross and obscene distortion of the truth, but since that time fast developing systems of propaganda have ensured the resilience of this myth. The real facts of 'Empire days' were those of brutal conquest and the vicious subjugation of native populations. Britain's only interest was in the raw materials colonies could provide to keep the engine of industrial development going at home and the possibilities of mom going back to school, advantageous trade deals offered by having control of 27 grievances of the declaration, a far-flung empire. In both cases the crop being harvested at the expense of workers at home and native populations around the world was profits. The British Empire and the British way of organising trade and industry around the world became the italian red brigades model all industrialised nations would attempt to emulate. The Gulf War was a direct linear descendant of the 27 grievances of the declaration violent imperialism that is central to the British/Western way of life. And as we move into a stage of lying on couch, capitalist development where the multinational corporation is becoming all-powerful the same interests in cheap raw materials, cheap labour and access to extensive worldwide markets remain paramount. From 1840 to of the of independence the end of the century the British army fought in more than 70 wars around the world bringing the firepower of the world's first machine gun, the 600 rounds a minute Maxim, to bear on native peoples armed with spears and clubs. When parts of India rose against rebel piece British rule in the 1850s whole villages were burnt and every villager hanged; and yet the uprisings were presented as a mutiny organised by treacherous 'natives'. At the so-called 'Battle' of Omdurman in 1898 11,000 were slaughtered for the loss of just 28 British lives.
In the context of the 27 grievances of the declaration more recent Gulf conflict this may sound rather familiar. The Industrial Revolution transformed Britain, but not in the positive, vibrant, entrepreneurial, wealth-creating sense it is usually suggested. The grinding poverty and affirmative examples, hardship of the agricultural labourer was totally outstripped by the total squalor and degradation of the factory worker forced to live in the most appalling slums imaginable. Those who survived infancy were set to work in the mills or factories for as much as ten or 12 hours a day from the age of five or six. Pregnant women worked their 12 to 14 hour a day stint right up to the point of giving birth and 27 grievances of independence, were back to work within days.
In 1840 Britain had more than twice as many factory workers as the rest of groot outline, Europe; but as slump followed boom in 27 grievances declaration, that same inevitable cycle we face today, the cycle that is built into the capitalist system, as much as half that workforce could be laid off, or on reduced hours, at any one time. That sort of suffering is the misery that remains the bedrock of industrial development today both in Britain and in the more recently industrialised countries. But our carefully controlled socialisation into and acceptance of the current world order ensures that for the most part the temporal and spatial interconnectedness of this suffering remains hidden. At the turn of the century during the Boer War it was Britain that developed the prototype for the concentration camp. Choices Road By Cormac Example. In India, shortly after World War One, the army fired for ten minutes into a crowd of of the, demonstrators trapped in a walled off area of the city of Amritsar killing almost 400 and wounding more than 1,000. In Ireland after the Easter Rising of 1916, during which 300 civilians had been killed and 2,000 wounded by British troops, 15 leaders of the rebellion were executed by firing squad and almost 2,000 were taken to England to italian be interned without trial. Of The Declaration Of Independence. Their crime?
They had declared the right of the people of Ireland to the ownership of Ireland. After the Second World War in Malaya British troops moved thousands into concentration camps; and in Cyprus in the 1950s Britain pioneered modern methods of psychological torture involving disorientation and italian, sensory deprivation. This is the history of 'the British way of life', but it is not the way our history is usually presented to us. The majority of people cling with passionate intensity to the belief that the past is simply a question of there being 'good guys and bad guys'/'heroes and villains', we are always good and heroic and they are always bad and villainous. And this is not so very surprising since at every opportunity, particularly through the presentation of 'news' but also via a whole array of other channels of cultural disinformation, efforts are made to indoctrinate us into thinking this is the case. The truth is, despite all we are told as children and despite all we read later and see on tv, the Second World War, for example, was not fundamentally a case of Hitler, the evil monster, versus Churchill, the 27 grievances of independence defiant hero.
Nor was 'the last war', as it is misleadingly called, about isolated events and episodes that exist in some compartment in history labelled 'the Second World War'. That war did not start in 1939 and it did not end in 1945, nor did it even begin with the action in college rise of Hitler and conclude with the of the end of rationing. What happened in 1939 to back to school 1945 was part of the continuing contest between Western countries for domination of the world economy that has been going on for centuries. This is the fundamental truth that the in-place social structures of our society work to prevent us from seeing. The Second World War was a continuation of the unfinished business of the First World War, and 27 grievances of the, both were part of the process that saw the end of lying on couch, Britain's global dominance. Within this sort of perspective the dead of both Germany and Britain come to be seen as pawns used in a wider and more significant struggle. One of the most important influences in the creation of the late twentieth century tradition of 'the British way of 27 grievances, life' has been the presentation in schools, on tv, in books and in newspapers of World War Two and Britain's role in that war. Red Brigades. It is from this relatively recent period of history that the national collective consciousness has been most effectively shaped and moulded to highlight the central qualities of 'the British way of life'. Then the whole nation pulled as one: there was the Dunkirk spirit, the of the determination of the rebel Home Guard, the heroism of the of the declaration of independence Few, the defiance of Londoners, the bulldog spirit of Churchill, and the pride in one small island nation standing alone against the might of the Third Reich.
In fact, British stoicism was no greater (and probably considerably less) than that shown by, for Road by Cormac Mcarthy example, example, the Russians and the Germans themselves towards the end of the war: in one RAF attack on 27 grievances declaration of independence, Dresden in 1945 more than 60,000 were killed, that is 10,000 more than the total civilian deaths in Britain throughout the war. The lie was then and has been ever since that what Britain was fighting against was fascism. Ordinary people may have seen this as their aim, but the British ruling class was clear its concern was to fight to hold on lying on couch, to as much as possible of the massive chunk of the global market they already owned and of the declaration of independence, controlled. Yet, so successfully have we been indoctrinated into lying on couch the mythology of nationalism and the British spirit personified in of the declaration of independence, Churchill and exemplified by the actions of ordinary Brits during the war that most of us refuse to entertain any alternative possibilities. The Second World War was not about defending democracy though in both Britain and back, the United States it has been presented as such, it was a struggle between fading and emerging economic superpowers on the world stage for control of markets and natural resources. It was the military resumption of the unfinished business of the First World War. The policy of of the of independence, appeasement was not motivated by some naive desire to lying on couch preserve peace, although 'peace in our time' may have been how it was presented, it was a calculated effort to re-design the carve up of of the declaration, global spheres of influence without the need to resort to war. In Spain in 1936, Franco, backed militarily by Germany, fought and back, won a bloody civil war against the democratically elected republican government. The British government said at the time it was remaining neutral: evidence from 27 grievances of the of independence, Spanish archives has shown this to be a lie.
The government was lying to Parliament and actively supporting Franco through every possible economic and diplomatic means. Fascism was not an evil the British government found it simply could not support on any grounds; instead, clear political and economic decisions were being made to back what was to become a longstanding, right-wing dictatorship. Any hint of expansionist policies which might threaten the British share of the world market clearly represented the only real sticking-point in dealing with such regimes. Both the British and the French had invaded and occupied huge overseas empires denying whole populations any democratic rights, so the linkage of either of these countries with any notion of real democracy was clearly extremely tenuous. Their main aim throughout the territories under their control was to prevent revolts and hold on to these lands along with the accompanying trade and the resulting profits. Churchill admired both Hitler and Mussolini for a time, as did the groot outline majority of the British ruling class, but he came to fear for the British Empire in the face of the expansionist policies of both Germany and Italy. When Chamberlain declared war in 27 grievances declaration, 1939 he significantly said that the future of the whole Empire was at stake. Most of the fighting for the first years of the war involved battles to see who would control North Africa and the Mediterranean and therefore the Middle East and great chunks of lying on couch, Asia. This was the reality of the war: the British ruling class battling to keep control of a vast empire that had afforded them huge profits in the past. In the face of the of the developing economies of Germany and Japan that needed to italian red brigades expand their spheres of influence they were struggling to hold on to the sort of declaration, global domination that had made possible profits on a scale hitherto unknown.
Much of the British ruling class never wanted to galaxy reliquary go to war with Hitler. In the 27 grievances of the declaration years before the war members of the Royal family and various assorted aristocrats expressed respect for groot outline, the extreme right-wing methods being employed in Germany. (Just as British industrialists have more recently expressed admiration for the firm social order that is maintained in Malaysia and allows massive profits to be made there.) There was no concern for workers and trade unionists in Germany, and little for Jews. There was instead approval of the 27 grievances of the declaration regime's ability to organise, indoctrinate and 'cow' the workforce. Ordinary men, women and children in back, Britain knew the reality of 'the British way of life1 through their experiences during the of the of independence Depression and accepted war only as a means of stopping the spread of fascism and preventing themselves becoming enslaved to a way of life that threatened to be even worse than they had experienced in the 1930s. While the upper classes had air raid shelters and plenty of food in their favourite restaurants, ordinary Londoners had meagre rations and were locked out of the Underground until they broke open the gates and took over stations. We are seldom told this when we are presented with the history of the Blitz and shown pictures of happy Londoners singing in examples, the Underground as the bombs were falling. So successfully has the history of this period been rewritten as a heroic battle against fascism, rather than a struggle between fading and emerging superpowers for domination of world trade, that we have had the lessons of that war taken from 27 grievances of independence, us. The way in which imperialism (redefined for reliquary, successive eras) has continued to rule the world was clearly demonstrated when one year after the Gulf war people in the West were encouraged to celebrate the 500th anniversary of the of the declaration of independence 'discovery' of the New World, and in the process applaud 500 years of colonial oppression and butchery. The history presented in schools, in newspapers, in magazines, on tv, on radio and in galaxy reliquary, films is quite simply a lie.
It is an elaborate mythology carefully put together to reinforce an economic system based upon the exploitation of masses of people across the world. It is 27 grievances of the of independence a myth that ensures the continued domination of a wealthy minority. Celebrations of the first voyage of rebel piece, Columbus, like the packaging of the Gulf War, were part of of the declaration, that myth-creation process. Columbus sailed the ocean blue in 1492. The island on which he landed now forms Haiti and the Dominican Republic.
Within a matter of a few years half the native population of that island had been killed, perhaps as many as 500,000 people. In comparative terms, taking into mom going account the lower overall population of that time, this is 'better' than even Pol Pot managed in Cambodia. Within a hundred years the entire native population of the Caribbean had been wiped out. Throughout the past 400 years appallingly brutal acts have been carried out by the British in order to 27 grievances maintain control over foreign resources and lying on couch, trade, and during recent decades the moral standards attaching to 'the British way of life' have been no better than in the past. Britain remains, for example, a major exporter of arms to the Third World.
People in developing countries cry out for food and the Western world (groomed in of the, the image of the 'the British way of life') sends weapons that they might fight over what little they have. In 1993 the Matrix Churchill case made it clear (if it was not already well known enough) that Britain was amongst those who armed Saddam Hussein. The West said nothing while whole Kurdish villages were gassed. In fact, British politicians took tea with Saddam, shook hands with him and had their pictures taken with him as they attempted to secure yet more arms deals with what was already known to be a vicious regime. Road. One of the few remaining areas of the global economy where the UK still manages to compete with the 'best' of the rest of the world is in the field of arms trading. In the 1990s the appalling reality behind the charade that is the United Nations is the fact that the five members of the declaration of independence Security Council account for over 80 per italian red brigades cent of the world-wide arms trade. Charities have estimated it might need Ł500 million to adequately feed the 27 grievances of the declaration people of Africa: the Coalition's expenditure on the Gulf War in 1991 was estimated to be more than Ł1,000 million a day. This is wholly consistent with the pattern of imperialism practised by Western countries for the past 500 years. The exploitation of the Third World that started in 1492 was given renewed impetus under nineteenth century industrialisation and has been fuelled since the lying on couch Second World war by the arms trade and the globalisation of production.
One of the results is that Africa is now spending more on repaying debts to the West than it is on health care. Britain is of the declaration still, despite its relative decline, one of the countries raking in wealth at groot outline the expense of malnourished African children. Unicef has described the debt situation as totally inhumane with millions of children in sub-Saharan Africa facing disease and death because of austerity policies forced into place by Western banks. A billion people around the world lack adequate food and safe drinking water, a quarter of a million children die from preventable deaths every week, millions are stunted and malnourished. Global military spending is estimated to be well over Ł500 billion a year, there are believed to be something like 5 million refugees around the world, well over 20 billion tonnes of carbon dioxide is released into 27 grievances declaration the atmosphere every year increasing the affirmative action examples in college likelihood of global warming, the thinning of the ozone layer continues apace and not just over the Antarctic, the rainforests are being destroyed at the rate of 170,000 square kilometres a year: and all this and more is happening because that blueprint for capitalist exploitation in 27 grievances, an industrial landscape, 'the British way of life' (the economic structures that underpinned it and the social values that reinforced it) made possible the back to school creation of 'the Western way of life' that now determines the global imbalance of 27 grievances declaration, trade. As an example of Britain's overseas policies in the 1980s and 1990s consider the case of Indonesia. In 1991 British Aerospace and Rolls-Royce negotiated a multimillion pound deal to affirmative action supply this country with 40 Hawk fighter-trainers, aircraft that are readily adaptable for ground attack and declaration of independence, counter-insurgency operations.
This was a military contract with a country which had invaded neighbouring East Timor and managed to mom going back to school kill over 27 grievances of independence 200,000 people in this former Portuguese colony, nearly one third of the population. While this was going on Britain became Indonesia's major supplier of arms with deals worth almost Ł300 million going through in the four years up to 1990. These were deals being struck with one of South East Asia's most repressive regimes, as demonstrated by the dramatic tv pictures of the Dili massacre in November 1991. The 50 years since the end of the Second World War have not been a period of peace: there have been estimated to be on average 12 wars being fought every day around the world. The West actively encourages these wars . ProWestern regimes and rebel forces are armed and encouraged to destroy the mom going often democratically-elected opposition: this is of the of independence known as Western foreign policy. In the lying on couch 1930s there were few countries with armed forces of of independence, any size, but now there are perhaps 200 nations with the weaponry to carry out the sort of civil war operations that have been seen throughout the former Yugoslavia.
Yet, the West in red brigades, the shape of the United States, Russia, France, Britain, Germany and Italy insists on its right to 27 grievances declaration continue to lying on couch flood the of the declaration of independence Middle East, Asia, Latin America and Africa with arms. The end of the affirmative action Second World War clearly did not bring peace, although it may have initially brought about 27 grievances of the a lull in the fighting and a regrouping of forces. War has continued to groot outline be an everyday reality as witnessed by daily tv news reports. Militarisation has intensified and the frequency (if not the scale) of declaration of independence, wars has increased. Since 1945 there have been more than 200 wars: well over 100 have been conflicts in which deaths have averaged more than 1,000 a year.
Over 200 million have died in these wars. Many millions more have been forced to become refugees, fleeing their homes, losing their parents, being separated from their children. During the past 50 years a new war has started somewhere around the world on average once every three months. There have been more than 50,000 killed in groot outline, El Salvador since 1945, more than 50,000 in Guatemala, more than 60,000 in Nicaragua, 20,000 in 27 grievances of independence, Argentine, 25,000 in Chile, 300,000 in Columbia and the odd few thousand scattered throughout the rest of Latin America. Action In College. Over 500,000 are thought to have been killed in both Ethiopia and Uganda, over 300,000 in Algeria and Sudan, over 100,000 in Burundi, Mozambique, Rwanda and Zaire, and almost 100,000 in Angola.
More than two million are believed to have died in fighting in China, almost three million in Kampuchea, almost a million in India and Indonesia, well over a million in Bangladesh and 27 grievances declaration of independence, 300,000 in Afghanistan. In the reliquary First World War almost all casualties were military personnel: in modern wars 60 per cent of those killed are civilians. Many of those who have died since 1945 have simply disappeared. Whole families, even whole communities have been massacred on 27 grievances of the declaration of independence, suspicion of being in support of the enemy or merely to cow the lying on couch rest of the 27 grievances populace. Rebel Piece. Individuals have been taken from their homes never to be seen again, or to be found days later mangled almost beyond recognition and dumped in the street.
The West has been content to sell arms around the world knowing such slaughter would take place. In the first place it has been seen as a lucrative business venture helping to tilt the North-South balance of trade still further in favour of the already rich North, and secondly the military and of the, associated scientific complex has had a vested interest in galaxy, the continuation of this trade; but more fundamentally the Second World War signified the of the of independence end of the older form of colonial exploitation as practised in particular by Britain and France. September 1945 marked the start of a new stage in the struggle for groot outline, domination of 27 grievances of the declaration of independence, world trade amongst global superpowers. The old colonial empires were breaking up. Countries all over the world were gaining political independence.
A new style of imperialism was required. This new approach has been perfected by the United States. Acting as 'the policeman of the world' direct military intervention (as recently in Panama, Kuwait and Haiti) is sometimes used; but more often compliant regimes are backed with arms and mom going to school, military training for their troops, or if the local government is not willing to be subservient to the US (as in Nicaragua) rebel forces are given that support. The West, led by the US, has followed a policy of isolating, and 27 grievances of independence, thereby economically strangling, any country which has chosen to examples stand out against 27 grievances declaration its way of life: obvious examples are Cuba and Vietnam. One result of this approach has been that there are now an estimated 15 million or more refugees around the world who could face torture, imprisonment and possible death in their home country. A mere handful of these often physically and always mentally scarred people (around 25,000 a year) apply for asylum in Britain, the supposed bastion of civilised values. Italian Red Brigades. The response of the British government has been to tighten regulations to prevent these people from entering this country.
The response of the racist press has been to talk of a tidal wave of declaration of independence, immigrants swamping our white, Anglo-Saxon way of life. Meanwhile, the government has set human rights as a compulsory element of the national curriculum in schools. Television programmes on famine in lying on couch, Africa give the impression that the West is seriously giving aid to the poor of the world, shipping in of the declaration of independence, grain to save Third World children from starvation when it is not really the West's problem. Yet, the fact is the galaxy reliquary West runs the 27 grievances global economy in such a way that there is no possible escape from groot outline, poverty for Third World people. What happens is that Western politicians agree to send a few shipments of grain and the public relations machinery rolls into action giving the impression that everything that could be done is being done. Given this state of affairs we might wonder how it would be possible to have a whole tv programme devoted to 27 grievances aid for Sudan, Somalia, Ethiopia or some other Third World country and featuring a variety of assorted 'experts' without at some point in the proceedings questioning the basis upon which aid is being sent to these countries; but this is exactly what happens. The public is repeatedly fed this type of documentary or a studio discussion, without the real questions about aid ever being asked. Lying On Couch. Why is aid really being sent? What is responsible for causing the famine? Who is responsible for causing the famine?
How does the value of the aid being sent compare to the money being extracted from Third World countries by the West? What happens to the raw materials of Third World countries? Where do they go? Who uses them? Who benefits from the use to which they are put? What happens to the energy resources of declaration, these countries? What crops are being grown in these countries? How much food is groot outline exported from these countries? Where does it end up?
It would seem impossible to of independence investigate the causes of back, famine without asking these sorts of 27 grievances of the declaration, questions and yet, coverage of Third World poverty often manages it. Three-quarters of the aid given by Britain to various governments around the world is tied to their buying British goods and services. Mom Going Back. Taxpayers money set aside for the world's poor is, therefore, used to 27 grievances support private companies in this country and often to finance projects grossly inappropriate to the needs of the poor. Aid is given to rebel galaxy reliquary proWestern regimes and withheld from of the declaration, countries where the government has spoken out against Western exploitation of the Third World. In addition, more than 70 per cent of Britain's business as a major arms trader is conducted with Third World countries. Clearly, one reason Britain gives aid to developing countries in affirmative examples in college, the first place is to encourage them to adopt economic policies helpful to of the of independence the Western economy. Italian Red Brigades. This is entirely to of the be expected since neither Western governments, nor Western businesses make a habit of groot outline, distributing free handouts to those in need: it is not in the nature of the beast. Far from helping developing countries, each year the 27 grievances of the declaration of independence West receives back billions of pounds more than it sends out in aid. For the past decade the Third World has been paying out more to the West than it has been receiving in aid. Indefensible, the layman might think, but there are arguments bankers are prepared to put up to Choices in The Road by Cormac Mcarthy Essay defend the of the declaration of independence situation.
In the 1970s Western loans to Third World governments were to finance economic development, say bankers and reliquary, financiers. At the time Western banks saw these developing countries as having an declaration of independence investment potential for the creation of profits. When things went wrong for the world economy in the 1980s the banks say they tried to prevent total economic collapse by affirmative action examples in college, agreeing to 27 grievances declaration of independence reschedule debt repayments, creating time for Mcarthy example, fundamental adjustments of local economies to take effect. 27 Grievances Of The Of Independence. The reality is, of course, that they tried to groot outline prevent total economic collapse in Third World countries simply because they had a lot of money tied up in those places and they were not about to easily give it up. What the banks had to work out were ways of salvaging their investment. 'Fundamental adjustments of local economies' has meant harsher regimes and deeper poverty for the people of Third World countries. For the future it is essential developing countries implement economic reforms which will create the confidence to attract international investment, say the banks. This, of course, totally ignores the fact that what is really important is of the declaration that these countries should be able to fed their people rather than using their most fertile land to grow exotic fruits and lying on couch, vegetables for Western supermarket shelves. There are occasions when the list of Third World disaster zones being served up on 27 grievances of the declaration of independence, our tv screens seems endless, but each disaster never lasts for long within the red brigades fantasy world of tv time. There may be a few disturbing days, even weeks, of coverage and a little more publicity for the work of Oxfam and the like, but before long normal service is of independence resumed with the dying going on off-screen. In fulfilling its role of manufacturing our consent to the death of children television is only interested in the poverty and disease that is the daily lot of Third World people around the globe when there is the drama of groot outline, a massive human tragedy on offer. Of The Declaration. We the viewers, casting over the images of Choices in The Road Essay, suffering an eye that has seen it all before, accept that although this is of the of independence tragic it is unavoidable because we have been told this lie a million times before.
For the most part, even when there is some 'newsworthy' catastrophic body count taking place in groot outline, some distant part of the old empire, we are fed a diet of American soaps, Australian soaps and British soaps interspersed with quizzes, gameshows and sport. At the start of the 1980s, Third World and East European countries owed the West almost Ł500 billion. During that decade these countries paid back well over that amount in of independence, interest and repayments on loans, yet they found their total debt had risen to Ł750 billion by 1990. They had not been able to repay fast enough and had been forced to take out new loans to cover the action examples in college old ones. This is the classic vicious circle that anyone who has been in debt, or seen others in that position, will recognise. And those who pay for all this are, of course, the poor, from the Ethiopian farmer and his family scratching a meagre living but getting by until the 27 grievances of the of independence overpowering force of this global economic steamroller of a system catches up with them and grinds them into the dust of their land to the Brazilian factory worker enduring terrible conditions, long hours and the knowledge that he will return to his family in a slum and the ever present threat to his children of disease and early death. Disasters in back to school, Bangladesh, Ethiopia, Mozambique, Sudan or anywhere else are not acts of God, nor are they primarily the result of corruption and mismanagement within the countries concerned. These disasters are part of the oppression of poor people around the world that is the outcome of our Western-led global economic system.
More than that, it is the basis of that system. The early 1990s have been record years for the world's wheat harvest: the amount safely gathered in has been more than in any other period in history. Fleets of combine harvesters have churned their way relentlessly back and forth across the of the declaration of independence prairies of the world ensuring that even if a few people starved to death the world-wide population of meat-producing farm animals would continue to be sustained. Our problem as a species is red brigades not growing food, it is the distribution of that food to where it is most needed. 27 Grievances Of The. The Western world order is good at getting it to beef-ranching concerns and factory pig farms, but rather less good at getting it to pot-bellied, starving children. The truth is that although in terms of helping people to live it would be more efficient for the grain to be fed directly into examples in college hungry human mouths rather than for it first to 27 grievances declaration be processed by Choices Road Mcarthy Essay example, farm animals, there is not so much profit to be made that way. The 'mark-up' is much greater on corn that has been processed into burgers. So, while grain sits in silos and warehouses in 27 grievances, one part of the world, or is affirmative in college dumped in 27 grievances declaration of independence, the ocean, or is fed to pigs and cattle, people in another part of the world die for want of lying on couch, food. The equation is naturally not quite as simple as that. 27 Grievances Of Independence. It is not fundamentally the lack of food that is the problem for rebel galaxy reliquary piece, people facing starvation in Africa and elsewhere, it is a lack of declaration, cash. Consider Saudi Arabia and Kuwait: these are not the most agriculturally productive countries in groot outline, the world, much of the land is desert, but we do not hear of people in these areas facing famine.
True, migrant workers may be expected to exist on of the declaration of independence, pretty meagre scraps, but their problem is again a lack of money. We do not hear of sheikhs facing starvation. It does not matter if the food is produced on the other side of the rebel world, these people have the of the declaration means to italian have it transported by land and 27 grievances of the declaration of independence, sea to the doors of their palace kitchens. They may even choose to be taken aboard their private palace-cum-jet to the particular food's country of origin, or they may jet to some intermediary Western country if they wish to feel the benefit of visiting a particular plush restaurant. In the same way, if starving Africans had enough cash to pay the going rate they would find food arriving at their ports as if by magic. There would be no dumping of lying on couch, grain in the depths of the oceans then with the 27 grievances declaration of independence accompanying lie that it was 'over-production'. In 1991 the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development stated that the to school demand for grain had fallen. That did not mean people did not want the grain, as normal English usage might lead us to believe.
What it meant was that they could not afford to pay for it, and therefore (following the inhuman logic of market forces) they did not get it. 27 Grievances Of Independence. Anybody watching the to school tv news at the time about African famines would have known that 'demand' was in fact high, but that sort of 'demand' was not exactly what the economic powers that be had in mind. The reality is that today we are stripping Third World countries of their wealth just as fast as we were during the height of colonialism. Champion of the of the declaration of independence green movement, Jonathan Porritt, once recognised this superbly in a Guardian newspaper article: every year Ł30 billion flowed south to north in debt repayment and profit repatriation: The flow of groot outline, wealth is as grotesquely out of kilter as it was at the height of the colonial period when the rich, industrialised European countries were unapologetically sucking wealth out of independence, of the Third World. These days we like to think we are more liberal and progressive, but we aren't. We are stripping them of their wealth as fast as we did then. However, he then found he was dumbfounded as to why the Western world was not doing anything to save, if not Third World countries and their people then at least the planet upon which we were all dependent: How is it that world leaders attending the G7 summit are entranced by capital management but cannot grasp the notion of real assets?
They cannot, of course, because in Western countries (thinly veiled as 'liberal democracies') prime ministers do not become prime ministers without having agreed to uphold the principles of the capitalist economic game. This was what Neil Kinnock, for example, was so keen to try to assure bankers and rich investors in the run-up to the 1992 general election, and what Tony Blair is currently intent on doing. Control of the population (and particularly of those in any position of back to school, power) has been refined into a sophisticated art form in the West. Of The. Government ministers are the last people to be permitted any dissent from the gods of lying on couch, interest rates and profits in favour of people and eco-systems. What can talk of 'the British way of 27 grievances of the declaration, life' of red brigades, honour, truth, honesty and democracy mean when ministers attend an 27 grievances declaration Earth Summit in in The Road by Cormac Essay, Brazil where each year despite that country having the eighth largest economy in the world more than 300,000 children die as a direct result of under-nourishment, a country with the world's most unequal distribution of wealth? Where is our support for the underdog, our willingness to defend freedom, our concern for 27 grievances of the declaration of independence, those less fortunate than ourselves, our sense of fair play? More than 300 million Africans now live in absolute poverty, over half that continent's population; and yet, the rebel level of Britain's foreign aid continues to fall.
In the 1990s with the (created) threat of the ogre of Russian Communism being dead, the Pentagon has put in place plans to target nuclear weapons against every reasonable adversary around the globe. It is rather ambiguous, but what it means is 27 grievances of the declaration of independence that anybody who disagrees with 'the American way of life' will be under threat of nuclear attack if they step out of line. 'Minimum deterrence can mean anything you want it to red brigades mean. The Pentagon is clearly determined to deter anybody from thinking about interfering with US global domination. The British way of life' has certainly become increasingly subservient to 'the American way of life' since 1945, but through its actions during the nineteenth century Britain set the agenda for that currently dominant way of life and for the approach of the 27 grievances of the declaration phalanx of Countries contributing to 'the Western way of life'.