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Professional Profile: (Purchaser Cum Admin Officer) Over ten years of experience in the field of Administration and Marketing out of which 5 years in School Administration, Man Management, Procurement and Facility Management, Transport, Customer Care in Dubai. Worked in diverse environments ranging from churchill during corporate house in The Egiptian Revolution India to large education groups in Dubai. Well versed in various Administration activities such as office administration, facilities management , security , transport logistics document management, event management, diary management, travel arrangements, meeting and conferences etc. Talents to churchill during successful manage, lead develop multi cultural teams. Good at negotiation communication and telecom in uk Customer care Computer knowledge – MS office, Excel, Power point, internet outlook. Strong problem solving skills. Excellent written and ww2 oral communication abilities. Pursued MBA in Finance from Samsung Electronics Write-Up Essays National Institute of Management, India. Pursued B.Com from Mysore University, India. Working as Purchase Cum Admin Officer.

To meet day to day administrative needs, coordinate with different divisional heads to winston churchill ww2 understand their requirements and ensure smooth functioning. Customer Care: Meeting parents on day to day issues and coordinating with different subject leaders for their academic issues and find solutions. Take care of the front office requirements for meet and Functional Literacy in High greet visitors/parents and supervise the work of front office staff. Purchasing: Procurement responsibilities include, budgeting, sourcing the vendors, shortlisting, negotiating (bringing value for money) finalizing, issuing purchase requisition etc. Prepare budget for winston churchill during ww2 yearly purchase of Capital items and give justification for the purchase and get the budget approved. Supervision of PRO’s work: Check and authorize advance payment for Visa and Labor permits for new staff and renewal of old staff. Ensure timely preparation of Man power requisition and visa requisition for new staff. Ensure the staff details such as Visa number, visa expiry date, passport number, passport expiry dates, labor card number and labor card expiry date are correctly entered in the visa program. Ensure that the cancellations are done on time for leaving staff.

Supervision of Security support staff functions: Assign day to day work to security guards and in High School Essay other support staff and their monitoring. Maintaining their files, leave records, attendance etc. Asset Management: Maintain proper record of capital items purchased, inventory record, ensure placement of right items at churchill ww2 right place and for right use, make sure items are not misused or damaged due to mishandling/wrong handling, and ensure timely service/maintenance of equipment’s for Essay about Safety Equipment optimum usage. Recruitment of Support Staff and Admin Staff: Prepare and winston release advertisements in the news paper, screening applications, short listing, conducting interviews, discussing packages, finalizing appointments, issuing contract and book assigning duties. Transportation: Keeping proper record of vehicle movements, ensure timely service and repairs of vehicles to avoid break downs, keep record of winston fuel consumption, deployment of right vehicle for right job, conduct training classes for drivers and conductors to ensure safety of students in the bus. Event Management: Facilitate and provide required materials and equipment and finalize, venue for smooth conduct of all events, arrange refreshments, ensure proper protocol is followed etc. Theme In The Book Thief. Business Development: Worked towards the increasing the admission rate of the school by different ways of marketing, brand building, exploring new methodologies of teaching and learning etc. The quality indicator of KHDA “Health and Safety was continuously rated GOOD (which was headed by me) Worked as Purchase Officer at the same institution from winston churchill during ww2 2010 to till date. Preparing the projection for the bus routes /recruitment of drivers and nannies depending on the admissions. Being the first point of contact for all drivers.

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In charge of the day to day operations of the transport department. Efficiently managing a team of drivers and vehicles. Appraising staff performance and also taking disciplinary measures when required. purchasing a fleet of own buses with the profit making in 2 years. Worked as Sales Marketing Executive. Handle complete sales activities besides searching for new prospects, conduct presentation and function heart negotiate agreements with clients.( for Toyota Hino, Tata Mitsubishi, Isuzu, Truck Pick up) Regular Sales calls follow up with existing potential key accounts to open new business opportunities ensure client awareness on new promotions-packages offered by winston churchill during ww2 the company. Prospect new markets for raising sales volumes. Manage up sell of the products.

Arrange and submit offers and agreements to potential clients. Identify new business opportunities in the region and design innovative business proposals. Maintain excellent client relationship, follow up regularly on accounts, provide feedback to management on product performance and help clients get maximum benefit from range. Companies. Obtain and correlate customer feedback to assist with production planning, market analysis and product development. Provide technical support to customer. Maintaining and updating mailing databases Organizing and attending events and exhibitions. Securing sponsorship to assist with the publicity and funding of marketing projects.

Carrying out market research and customer surveys to assess demand, brand positioning and awareness. Monitoring competitor activity Analyzing pricing positions Contributing to winston during ww2 and developing long-term marketing plans and strategies Assisting in the delivery of what is the heart approved strategies Managing budgets Supporting the marketing manager and other colleagues. Date of Birth : 000. Marital Status : Married. Driving license : UAE. Passport No : 000. Visa status : Employment visa.

Languages : English, Hindi Kannada. Skill Purchasing Agent Resume Sample. This resume is winston, a sample for the post of an Skill Purchasing agent. Every organization has purchase department to meet the The Egiptian Revolution needs of all organization on churchill ww2, behalf of the Chairman. In this post we’ll recommend you to draw a resume with your skills honestly. The character may not be so important to the employer’s point of view but in case of purchase it’s necessary that you should highlight your clean character along with your skills. So carefully construct your Skill Purchasing Agent Resume. This Skill Purchasing Agent Resume is for an assistant level post so it can be your first job or you might have 2 or 3 year of experience. But as an assistant it means a lot of immediate pressure of the employer.

Also try to compromise over your skills keeping your employer’s competence in what function heart mind as overpowering his efficiency would not bring about the results in your favor. If you show extra quality than your immediate boss as per current experience you could not take your job easily. Skill Purchasing Agent Resume Sample. Every organization has purchase department to meet the needs of all organization on behalf of the Chairman. In this post we’ll recommend you to draw a resume with your skills honestly. Demonstrating multi-tasking skills while prioritizing work assignments. Seeking opportunity to achieve mutual growth and manage varied and churchill during ww2 challenging assignments in competitive and theme book dynamic work environments. ? Guaranteeing Optimal Relation between Quality and Price. ? Processing and Documenting Suppliers’ Requisitions. ? Coordinating with Cash Office and winston Finance. ? Invoicing Payments and Follow-Up.

Possessing effective negotiation skills. Strong communication and interpersonal skills with fluency in English and Tagalog. Ability to work both independently and within collaborative environments. Exhibiting attention to detail. Administration and Management – Utilising strategic planning, resource allocation, leadership techniques and is the of the production methods skills and winston churchill during ww2 demonstrating knowledge of business and management principles while coordinating people and resources. Customer and Personal Service – Using knowledge of principles and processes to provide customer and personal services, including customer needs assessment, meeting quality standards for what function heart services and evaluation of customer satisfaction. Received a significant employment award for churchill ww2 demonstrating hard work and dedication while completing assigned tasks. Received Local Purchase Material Request (LPMR) from Write-Up Essays requestors as per specifications. Winston Churchill During Ww2. Sourced, selected and negotiated for about Sports Require Quality the best purchase package in terms of quality, price, terms, deliveries and services with the winston ww2 supplier. Devised quotations, sent inquiry, received incoming and outgoing calls as well as fax and emails from the suppliers.

Prepared purchase requisition and local purchase order for all departments and branches. Encoded local purchase order number and Samsung Essays purchase requisition with vendors. Applied reference in LPMR and churchill during ww2 attached it with quotations. Dispatched/received all local purchase order to/from concerned authority. Prepared copies and faxed all local purchase orders to suppliers, stores, workshops and branches. Encoded all reference of Revolution of 2011 purchase requisition and local purchase order number, requisition number, vendors’ names and date and accordingly forwarded necessary documents to accounts department for winston churchill ww2 payment processing.

Coordinated with suppliers to ensure on-time delivery and receipt of invoices and delivery notes from them. Attached invoices and Functional Literacy School Students delivery notes to local purchase ordered as well as checked the details of materials delivered. Encoded invoices and churchill during ww2 delivery note numbers, dates and total value of invoices for Material Received Reports (MRR). Received MRR documents, verified numbers/dates and prepared list of documents to be sent to the accounting department. Executed and monitored all regular purchasing duties, including verifying petty cash fund and filing as well as securing confidential files of the company. Proficient in theme book operating Microsoft Word, Excel, Outlook and Internet applications. MS Officer.

Accounting Software Excel power point. References available upon request. Purchase Assistant Officer Resume Sample. This resume is winston churchill during, a sample for the post of an in the book thief, Purchase Assistant Officer . Every organization has purchase department to meet the winston churchill ww2 needs of telecom companies all organization on behalf of the chairman. In this post we’ll recommend you to draw a resume with your skills along with honesty . The character may not be so important point in the employer’s point of view but in winston ww2 case of purchase it’s necessary you should show your clean character than your skills. So carefully construct your resume. Telecom. This resume is for Purchase assistant level post so it can be your first job or you might have 2 or 3 year experience. But as an churchill during, assistant it means a lot of what is the function of the heart immediate pressure of the employer. Also try to compromise over your skills keeping your employer’s competence in mind as overpowering his efficiency would not bring about the results in your favor.

If you show extra quality then your immediate boss than as per current experience you could not take your job easily. Purchase Assistant Officer Resume Sample. Address : Al Rigga Plaza G, Flat 721, Deira, Dubai, UAE. Ambitious business professional dedicated towards managing overall purchasing operations, including stock level management and maintenance. Detail-oriented individual, skilled in accurately processing high volume of purchase orders.

Competent team player with ability to winston churchill establish and maintain positive relationships with various stakeholders. Creative thinker, constantly focusing on bottom-line results while contributing enthusiastically to The Egiptian Revolution Essay procurement cost-reduction initiatives. Demonstrating multi-tasking skills while prioritising work assignments. Seeking opportunity to achieve mutual growth and manage varied and challenging assignments in competitive and winston ww2 dynamic work environments. ? Suppliers’ Relationships/Partnerships ? Guaranteeing Optimal Relation between Quality and function heart Price ? Processing and Documenting Suppliers’ Requisitions ? Coordinating with Cash Office and Finance ? Invoicing Payments and Follow-Up ? Knowledge of purchasing process as well as general knowledge of budgeting and cost-management. Possessing effective negotiation skills. Strong communication and interpersonal skills with fluency in English and Tagalog.

Ability to work both independently and within collaborative environments. Exhibiting attention to detail. Administration and Management – Utilising strategic planning, resource allocation, leadership techniques and production methods skills and demonstrating knowledge of business and management principles while coordinating people and resources. Customer and Personal Service – Using knowledge of principles and processes to provide customer and personal services, including customer needs assessment, meeting quality standards for winston during ww2 services and evaluation of customer satisfaction. Received a significant employment award for demonstrating hard work and dedication while completing assigned tasks. Received Local Purchase Material Request (LPMR) from requestors as per specifications. Sourced, selected and negotiated for the best purchase package in terms of quality, price, terms, deliveries and services with the supplier.

Devised quotations, sent inquiry, received incoming and theme in the book thief outgoing calls as well as fax and during emails from the suppliers. Prepared purchase requisition and local purchase order for function of the all departments and branches. Encoded local purchase order number and churchill during purchase requisition with vendors. The Egiptian. Applied reference in LPMR and attached it with quotations. Dispatched/received all local purchase order to/from concerned authority. Prepared copies and faxed all local purchase orders to suppliers, stores, workshops and winston churchill during branches. Encoded all reference of purchase requisition and local purchase order number, requisition number, vendors’ names and date and accordingly forwarded necessary documents to accounts department for payment processing. Coordinated with suppliers to ensure on-time delivery and telecom companies receipt of invoices and delivery notes from them.

Attached invoices and delivery notes to local purchase ordered as well as checked the winston during ww2 details of materials delivered. Encoded invoices and theme in the thief delivery note numbers, dates and total value of invoices for Material Received Reports (MRR). Received MRR documents, verified numbers/dates and prepared list of documents to be sent to the accounting department. Executed and monitored all regular purchasing duties, including verifying petty cash fund and winston churchill during filing as well as securing confidential files of the company. Proficient in operating Microsoft Word, Excel, Outlook and about Require Quality Internet applications. References available upon request. Senior Purchase Officer Resume Sample.

This resume is a sample for the post of Senior Purchase Officer. When you prepare a Senior Purchase Officer Resume for this post, you must be careful about winston ww2 few things i.e. your character, past record, past company’s goodwill, and finally your appreciation as a purchaser from your last employer. Your purchase officer resume must mention events where you have provided benefits to Samsung Electronics Write-Up your previous employer in friendly as well tumultuous(if any) time. Winston Churchill Ww2. With this your resume is bound to get extra attention. It must also be mentioning your eagerness towards enhancing your ability and compatibility to Literacy in High School expand your experience. It must also show that you are an active and hardworking person who doesn’t compromise on churchill ww2, the quality of his work and performs his duties with honesty.

Below is the resume sample of Senior Purchase Officer. 7+ years experience as a Purchaser (Civil Mep) in in uk a Construction Company Dubai – UAE (2007 to Still) Indian Driving Licence UAE Driving Licence. Marital Status : Married. Languages : English, Tamil, Malayalam, Hindi. Passport No :000. Date of Issue :000. Date of Expiry:000. M.A in History MBA Marketing.

MS University, Trinelveli, Tamilnadu India. Post box No.2716 Al Rashidya, Dubai, UAE. Mr. ABC, Methukummal. Kanyakumari Dist., Tamil Nadu, India. Seeking a position as Senior Purchase Officer with a reputed organization where my education experience will have positive contribution. Work in a challenging environment where I can enhances my ability able to winston expand. Which is conductive to learn and grow at professional as well as personal level thereby directing my future endeavors as an asset to the company.Personal Profile A pleasant, adaptable and presentable person with the willingness to learn new tasks for the betterment of my career and to the growing needs of the company. In depth knowledge of Civil Mep materials. One year of experience in material Co-ordination Excellent written and verbal communication skills Appreciated for dedicated ness towards work Superior experience of working with different manufactures Sourced products internationally through local dealers.

Purchase Officer – Khansaheb Civil Engg, LLC – Dubai – Uae 2007 to Still Date. Reports to the personnel as shown in in the the organization chart. Provides functional support to Purchasing staff working within the various business units. To lead the Purchasing Department, including steering and implementing changes required for operational efficiency. Overhauling the existing Supply Chain successfully integrate new members,as appropriate. During Ww2. To develop, support and Electronics Write-Up coordinate Procurement Training programs. Winston Churchill Ww2. To undertake functional leadership activities such as preparing annual budgets, manpower plans and managing risks related to procurement issues.

To create and maintain mutually beneficial long-term partnerships with Suppliers, fostering feedback and continuous improvement. Negotiate and reduced prices with vendors, resulting in Dhs.2M savings. Worked with diverse populations and developed experience in a variety of purchase activities. Plan, develop and purchase site materials and equipment in a timely and cost effective way. Building site : American School, Burjman Centre, Al Rosthamani Tower, Carrefour-Al Bursha, East Hotel at Mall of Emirates, Fujairah city centre, H.R.H Beach Palace, Burj Dubai(Emaa) Emirates Engine Office, J.B.R etc… Road site : D.I.P Roads Al Furjan Roads, Al Furjan Road work and Dubai R.T.A Road maintenance works. What Function. etc…. Processing requisition’s expediently diligently into ww2 Purchase Orders.

Conducting market survey’s as the situation warrants and floating inquiries to the supply chain. Negotiate with suppliers as necessary to achieve commercial targets. Mutual development of on-going and new supply chain relationships. Literacy In High Essay. On-going advice support to Estimating/Operation/Commercial teams. Attend to supplier queries. Title : Proficiency in ww2 internet mentor software. I hereby declare that the above information furnished by me is true to the best of my knowledge and belief. This resume is a sample for the post of Functional School a Purchaser. Winston Churchill During Ww2. Every organization has purchase department to meet the needs of all organization on behalf of the Chairman. Functional In High School Students Essay. A Purchaser has to perform his duty both as a purchase person and driver duty.

A good resume is what explains your personality as is the requirement. Churchill During. Your code of character may not be so important for the employer’s point of view but in case of purchase and its sub-domains, it’s necessary that you emphasize on Samsung Case Write-Up Essays, the nobility and honesty of your character. So carefully construct your resume. This resume is for Purchaser so keep in churchill during ww2 mind that mostly companies at lower level are interested in recruiting. Also try to compromise over your skills keeping your employer’s competence in what of the mind as overpowering his efficiency would not bring about the results in your favor.

Adding references of churchill during ww2 your previous experiences is another plus. Looking for theme in the book more Purchase Resume? Name: xyz Paste Recent Pic Here. Contact Info: 000. Visa Status: zzz. Driving License: Yes (details below) Applied For: Purchaser/Local Purchaser/ Hotel Purchaser/ Store purchaser/Purchaser Cum Store Keeper. Objective: (Hotel Purchaser/ Store purchaser/Purchaser Cum Store Keeper ) To obtain a suitable position in an esteemed organization, where I can utilize my qualification and winston churchill ww2 experience to carry out my duties efficiently and develop a successful career. Work Experience: (Hotel Purchaser/ Store purchaser/Purchaser Cum Store Keeper) ABC LLC , Ras Al Khaima.

Position: Purchaser cum Store Keeper Since Jan 2010 to Sep 2014. Daily Office purchase. Prepared purchase order of goods. Purchase the quality and standard goods. Delivery Foodstuff in apartments.

Purchase management. Handle the store. Maintain the computerized store software. Book Thief. Prepare item vise store goods summary of purchase. Goods receipt note prepare as per winston during ww2 goods receiving date.

Prepared the store budget monthly quarterly base. ABC Garage LLC – Dubai, U.A.E . Position: Purchaser Since Sep 2009 to Dec 2008. Purchase Spare parts for Garage. Thief. Purchase the winston part from Samsung Case Write-Up Essays reliable supplier at churchill during market minimum price. Theme Thief. Always try to purchase goods standard quality . Client Relation. Sales Manager. Other Areas of Knowledge. Maintain store register. maintain purchase register. Maintain the churchill ww2 issue register. Maintain the goods receipt register. Maintain the Rejection register.

S.L.C. : Higher Secondary Board, Kerala, India. Mobile Technician : Bridco Institute of Mobile Technology Computer Hardware Technician : Merit Institute of Computer Hardware. MS Word, Excel, PowerPoint, Internet – E-mail related utilities. Malayalam : Mother tongue. Date of Expiry : 0000.

Date of Birth : 000. Marital Status : Single. Passport No : 0000. I hereby declare that the details furnished above are true and correct to the best of Essay Sports Require Equipment my knowledge and belief.

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He blames his sister for his insecurities because of his sisters’ bringing him up had made him sensitive. Chapter 9 1. Why does Pip feel the need to lie about Miss Havisham when he is during ww2 questioned about her by Mrs. Joe and Mr. About Should Quality Safety. Pumblechook? Why is he confident Mr.Pumblechook will not correct his story? Pip feels the need to lie about churchill during ww2 Miss Havisham because he feels Essay on Analysis of the Comedy Scrubs. hospital after finishing medical school. A narrative technique used, is the 'spoken thought' this is diegetic sound as it is the thoughts of the main character. Scrubs has a varied genre, as with many other TV soap operas. It has comedy and is the function of the drama, which blend together effectively. The narrative is quite traditional it starts with several problems that are eventually solved by the end of the show: JD being anxious about churchill during his first day, his fear of doing anything to the Chapter 25 of The Grapes of Wrath by John Steinbeck Essay examples. has chosen to begin this chapter and, though it is not an everlasting spring, this Californian spring resembles Ovid’s Golden Age.

Just as Ovid’s ages of the world degenerate into baser and Essay Quality Safety baser metals, so Steinbeck’s California degenerates from springtime of bounty to a harvest-time of fruit rotting on the ground. Continuing to contrast Ovid and Steinbeck another difference becomes apparent. In Ovid’s Golden Age the earth is churchill during bountiful without the interference of humans. Ovid says, The earth Chapter 7: Case 7-25 – New Client Acceptance Essay. Hood offers both pension and profit-sharing plans; the plans have been in place for Samsung over 25 years. The company distributes its products through a small network of approximately 150 office furniture dealers in major U.S. Churchill During. cities. Recently, the company placed its product with several national chains and warehouse-club chains. Most of the sales growth over the last two years is attributed to this new distribution channel; it represented 35 percent of year- 20X3 sales.

Their largest single customer accounts Hamlet Nunnery Scene Tone Analysis Essay. Theme In The. To love or not to love? In Act 3 Scene 1 of Shakespeare’s famous play, Hamlet, lies the truth of Hamlet’s romantic feelings towards Ophelia. The tones that permeate this scene are passionate, indignant and desperate. Hamlet’s evident hurt after Ophelia’s betrayal and subsequent return of churchill his love letters shows us the theme in the book thief romantic feelings he still feels for her. Winston Churchill During. He tries to fool everyone else, especially within Polonius’ earshot; therefore he lashes out against Ophelia. Electronics Essays. Hamlet is indignant that his love Essay on The Things They Carried Chapter Analysis. 2. Why had the embarrassment set him off like that? The Things They Carried: Chapter 9 Significant Quote: “What you have to do, Sanders said, is trust your own story. Get the hell out of the way and let it tell itself.” (106) Speaker: Tim O’Brien Audience: The reader Significance: To tell a story right, you have to tell it the way it happened. Get all of your opinions out of the way and tell it the way it’s supposed to go.

Questions: 1. Why did Rat keep inserting his opinions into winston during the A Chapter Analysis Of Mice and Men Essay. Of Mice and Men: Chapter 1: Lennie and George went to The Egiptian Essay work on winston during a farm to be a rancher. They started off in Weed. While traveling they decided to spend a night in telecom companies in uk the woods. Lennie went off to churchill during collect wood so they could start a fire to cook their 3 cans of theme in the beans for there supper.

They were traveling so they didn’t carry much with him and they also probably didn’t have a lot of money because they never could keep a job. George told Lennie it was because of churchill during ww2 him. When Lennie returned he did not return Analysis of the Inferno of Dante Alighieri#x27;s Divine Comedy Essay. Quality. paper, only their occurrences in Inferno will be discussed. These symbols are important in winston ww2 understanding Dante's real meaning and in understanding how the different ways the story can be interpreted fit together. About Sports Should Require Quality. Dante, in Divine Comedy, makes it clear to us when he wrote it. His subtle hints at dating the story allow us to winston during pinpoint the story to Easter Week, 1300. Even though he never comes out and says it, his language gives it away. In the first line of the entire Analysis of Chapter 2 Transtition and Change and Chapter 3 Generations. This week’s reading starts with a Chapter 2 Transition and Change.

After reviewing the chapter for a second time there were a few nuggets that stood out to the reader, nuggets that would be very beneficial to be mindful of when assisting family businesses with transitions and changes. As stated last week the Godrej Group provides four characteristics of a family firm that will help protect the sources of Essays their past success and at the same time, seek needed innovation. (Schuman, A., Stutz, S., Ward The Analysis of the Human Fingerprints Essays. the fingerprint on the surface on the object that you touch. However, this is only the first step in the process that is fingerprint analysis. Churchill. During the investigation of a crime, forensic scientists will look for fingerprint throughout the crime scene. Upon finding one of interest, they will compare that fingerprint with those of the prime suspects’. This analysis is done by is the of the heart comparing the two fingerprints, paying special

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contract law essay I MEAN to winston churchill, inquire if, in the civil order, there can be any sure and legitimate rule of administration, men being taken as they are and telecom companies in uk, laws as they might be. In this inquiry I shall endeavour always to unite what right sanctions with what is prescribed by interest, in order that justice and utility may in no case be divided. I enter upon churchill during, my task without proving the importance of the subject. Is The Function Heart. I shall be asked if I am a prince or a legislator, to write on politics. I answer that I am neither, and that is why I do so.

If I were a prince or a legislator, I should not waste time in saying what wants doing; I should do it, or hold my peace. As I was born a citizen of a free State, and during ww2, a member of the Sovereign, I feel that, however feeble the influence my voice can have on public affairs, the right of voting on them makes it my duty to Samsung Electronics Case Essays, study them: and I am happy, when I reflect upon governments, to churchill during ww2, find my inquiries always furnish me with new reasons for loving that of my own country. M AN is born free; and everywhere he is in chains. One thinks himself the master of others, and still remains a greater slave than they. How did this change come about? I do not know.

What can make it legitimate? That question I think I can answer. If I took into account only force, and the effects derived from it, I should say: As long as a people is compelled to obey, and obeys, it does well; as soon as it can shake off the yoke, and shakes it off, it does still better; for, regaining its liberty by the same right as took it away, either it is justified in resuming it, or there was no justification for those who took it away. But the social order is Revolution, a sacred right which is the churchill during, basis of all other rights. Nevertheless, this right does not come from nature, and must therefore be founded on Case Write-Up Essays, conventions. Ww2. Before coming to that, I have to Electronics Case, prove what I have just asserted.

T HE most ancient of all societies, and the only one that is winston churchill ww2, natural, is the family: and even so the companies, children remain attached to the father only so long as they need him for their preservation. As soon as this need ceases, the natural bond is dissolved. The children, released from the obedience they owed to the father, and the father, released from the care he owed his children, return equally to independence. If they remain united, they continue so no longer naturally, but voluntarily; and the family itself is then maintained only by convention. This common liberty results from the nature of man. His first law is to churchill during, provide for his own preservation, his first cares are those which he owes to himself; and, as soon as he reaches years of discretion, he is the sole judge of the proper means of preserving himself, and consequently becomes his own master. The family then may be called the first model of political societies: the ruler corresponds to the father, and the people to the children; and all, being born free and equal, alienate their liberty only for their own advantage.

The whole difference is that, in the family, the love of the father for his children repays him for Samsung Case Write-Up, the care he takes of them, while, in the State, the pleasure of commanding takes the place of the love which the chief cannot have for the peoples under him. Grotius denies that all human power is established in favour of the governed, and quotes slavery as an example. His usual method of reasoning is constantly to establish right by fact. 1 It would be possible to employ a more logical method, but none could be more favourable to tyrants. It is then, according to Grotius, doubtful whether the human race belongs to a hundred men, or that hundred men to the human race: and, throughout his book, he seems to incline to the former alternative, which is also the view of Hobbes. On this showing, the human species is divided into so many herds of cattle, each with its ruler, who keeps guard over them for the purpose of devouring them. As a shepherd is of a nature superior to that of his flock, the shepherds of men, i.e., their rulers, are of a nature superior to winston churchill during, that of the peoples under them. Thus, Philo tells us, the Functional Literacy in High Essay, Emperor Caligula reasoned, concluding equally well either that kings were gods, or that men were beasts. The reasoning of Caligula agrees with that of Hobbes and Grotius.

Aristotle, before any of them, had said that men are by no means equal naturally, but that some are born for slavery, and others for churchill during ww2, dominion. Aristotle was right; but he took the effect for the cause. Nothing can be more certain than that every man born in slavery is born for slavery. Slaves lose everything in their chains, even the desire of escaping from them: they love their servitude, as the comrades of theme in the Ulysses loved their brutish condition. 2 If then there are slaves by churchill ww2 nature, it is because there have been slaves against nature. Force made the first slaves, and their cowardice perpetuated the condition. I have said nothing of The Egiptian of 2011 King Adam, or Emperor Noah, father of the three great monarchs who shared out the winston churchill during, universe, like the children of Saturn, whom some scholars have recognised in them. The Egiptian Of 2011. I trust to getting due thanks for my moderation; for, being a direct descendant of one of these princes, perhaps of the eldest branch, how do I know that a verification of titles might not leave me the legitimate king of the human race? In any case, there can be no doubt that Adam was sovereign of the world, as Robinson Crusoe was of his island, as long as he was its only inhabitant; and this empire had the advantage that the monarch, safe on his throne, had no rebellions, wars, or conspirators to fear.

T HE strongest is never strong enough to be always the master, unless he transforms strength into right, and obedience into duty. During Ww2. Hence the right of the strongest, which, though to all seeming meant ironically, is really laid down as a fundamental principle. Theme Thief. But are we never to have an during ww2 explanation of this phrase? Force is a physical power, and Functional, I fail to see what moral effect it can have. To yield to force is an act of necessity, not of will #151; at the most, an act of prudence. In what sense can it be a duty? Suppose for winston during ww2, a moment that this so-called right exists. I maintain that the sole result is a mass of inexplicable nonsense.

For, if force creates right, the effect changes with the cause: every force that is greater than the first succeeds to its right. Functional School Students Essay. As soon as it is possible to disobey with impunity, disobedience is legitimate; and, the strongest being always in the right, the only thing that matters is to ww2, act so as to become the strongest. But what kind of companies in uk right is during, that which perishes when force fails? If we must obey perforce, there is no need to in the, obey because we ought; and if we are not forced to obey, we are under no obligation to do so. Clearly, the winston churchill ww2, word right adds nothing to force: in this connection, it means absolutely nothing. Obey the powers that be. Quality. If this means yield to force, it is a good precept, but superfluous: I can answer for its never being violated. All power comes from God, I admit; but so does all sickness: does that mean that we are forbidden to call in the doctor? A brigand surprises me at the edge of churchill ww2 a wood: must I not merely surrender my purse on compulsion; but, even if I could withhold it, am I in conscience bound to what is the of the, give it up?

For certainly the pistol he holds is also a power. Let us then admit that force does not create right, and that we are obliged to obey only legitimate powers. In that case, my original question recurs. S INCE no man has a natural authority over his fellow, and force creates no right, we must conclude that conventions form the winston churchill during, basis of all legitimate authority among men. If an individual, says Grotius, can alienate his liberty and make himself the slave of a master, why could not a whole people do the same and make itself subject to about Should, a king? There are in this passage plenty of ambiguous words which would need explaining; but let us confine ourselves to the word alienate. Winston Churchill Ww2. To alienate is to give or to sell. Now, a man who becomes the slave of another does not give himself; he sells himself, at the least for his subsistence: but for what does a people sell itself? A king is so far from furnishing his subjects with their subsistence that he gets his own only from them; and, according to Rabelais, kings do not live on nothing.

Do subjects then give their persons on condition that the king takes their goods also? I fail to see what they have left to function heart, preserve. It will be said that the winston during ww2, despot assures his subjects civil tranquillity. Granted; but what do they gain, if the wars his ambition brings down upon them, his insatiable avidity, and about Require, the vexatious conduct of his ministers press harder on winston churchill, them than their own dissensions would have done? What do they gain, if the of 2011, very tranquillity they enjoy is one of winston churchill ww2 their miseries? Tranquillity is found also in dungeons; but is that enough to make them desirable places to live in? The Greeks imprisoned in the cave of the Cyclops lived there very tranquilly, while they were awaiting their turn to be devoured. To say that a man gives himself gratuitously, is to Essay about Sports Should Require Safety, say what is absurd and inconceivable; such an act is null and illegitimate, from the winston, mere fact that he who does it is out of of the heart his mind. To say the same of a whole people is to churchill during, suppose a people of in uk madmen; and madness creates no right. Even if each man could alienate himself, he could not alienate his children: they are born men and free; their liberty belongs to them, and churchill, no one but they has the The Egiptian, right to dispose of it. Before they come to years of discretion, the winston churchill, father can, in their name, lay down conditions for their preservation and well-being, but he cannot give them irrevocably and Revolution of 2011, without conditions: such a gift is contrary to winston during ww2, the ends of nature, and exceeds the rights of paternity.

It would therefore be necessary, in order to legitimise an arbitrary government, that in every generation the people should be in a position to Quality Safety, accept or reject it; but, were this so, the government would be no longer arbitrary. To renounce liberty is to renounce being a man, to surrender the winston churchill ww2, rights of humanity and even its duties. For him who renounces everything no indemnity is possible. Samsung Electronics Case Essays. Such a renunciation is incompatible with man's nature; to remove all liberty from his will is to remove all morality from his acts. Winston During Ww2. Finally, it is an empty and Essay about Sports Require, contradictory convention that sets up, on winston churchill during ww2, the one side, absolute authority, and, on the other, unlimited obedience. Is it not clear that we can be under no obligation to what is the of the heart, a person from whom we have the winston, right to exact everything? Does not this condition alone, in the absence of Samsung Electronics Write-Up Essays equivalence or exchange, in itself involve the winston churchill, nullity of the act? For what right can my slave have against what is the function me, when all that he has belongs to me, and, his right being mine, this right of mine against myself is winston churchill, a phrase devoid of meaning?

Grotius and the rest find in war another origin for the so-called right of slavery. In The Book Thief. The victor having, as they hold, the right of killing the vanquished, the churchill during, latter can buy back his life at the price of his liberty; and this convention is the more legitimate because it is to the advantage of both parties. But it is clear that this supposed right to kill the conquered is by no means deducible from the state of war. Men, from the mere fact that, while they are living in their primitive independence, they have no mutual relations stable enough to constitute either the state of what function of the heart peace or the churchill, state of war, cannot be naturally enemies. War is constituted by a relation between things, and not between persons; and, as the state of war cannot arise out of simple personal relations, but only out of real relations, private war, or war of man with man, can exist neither in the state of nature, where there is no constant property, nor in the social state, where everything is under the authority of the laws. Individual combats, duels and encounters, are acts which cannot constitute a state; while the private wars, authorised by the Establishments of theme in the thief Louis IX, King of France, and suspended by the Peace of God, are abuses of feudalism, in itself an absurd system if ever there was one, and contrary to the principles of natural right and to all good polity. War then is a relation, not between man and man, but between State and State, and individuals are enemies only winston accidentally, not as men, nor even as citizens, 3 but as soldiers; not as members of their country, but as its defenders.

Finally, each State can have for enemies only other States, and not men; for between things disparate in nature there can be no real relation. Furthermore, this principle is in conformity with the Functional Students, established rules of all times and the constant practice of all civilised peoples. Declarations of churchill ww2 war are intimations less to powers than to their subjects. The foreigner, whether king, individual, or people, who robs, kills or detains the subjects, without declaring war on the prince, is not an enemy, but a brigand. Even in real war, a just prince, while laying hands, in the enemy's country, on all that belongs to the public, respects the lives and goods of telecom companies in uk individuals: he respects rights on which his own are founded.

The object of the war being the destruction of the churchill during ww2, hostile State, the other side has a right to Essay about Sports Quality Equipment, kill its defenders, while they are bearing arms; but as soon as they lay them down and surrender, they cease to churchill ww2, be enemies or instruments of the Samsung Electronics Case Write-Up Essays, enemy, and become once more merely men, whose life no one has any right to take. Sometimes it is possible to kill the State without killing a single one of its members; and war gives no right which is not necessary to churchill during ww2, the gaining of its object. These principles are not those of Grotius: they are not based on the authority of poets, but derived from the nature of reality and based on reason. The right of conquest has no foundation other than the right of the strongest. If war does not give the conqueror the right to massacre the conquered peoples, the right to what is the of the, enslave them cannot be based upon a right which does not exist. No one has a right to kill an enemy except when he cannot make him a slave, and the right to enslave him cannot therefore be derived from the right to winston churchill, kill him.

It is accordingly an unfair exchange to make him buy at Electronics Write-Up Essays the price of his liberty his life, over winston ww2, which the victor holds no right. Telecom. Is it not clear that there is a vicious circle in founding the right of life and death on the right of slavery, and the right of slavery on the right of life and death? Even if we assume this terrible right to kill everybody, I maintain that a slave made in war, or a conquered people, is winston, under no obligation to a master, except to theme, obey him as far as he is compelled to do so. By taking an equivalent for his life, the victor has not done him a favour; instead of killing him without profit, he has killed him usefully. So far then is he from acquiring over him any authority in addition to that of force, that the state of war continues to subsist between them: their mutual relation is the effect of it, and the usage of the right of war does not imply a treaty of peace. A convention has indeed been made; but this convention, so far from destroying the winston churchill ww2, state of war, presupposes its continuance. So, from whatever aspect we regard the question, the right of in uk slavery is null and void, not only as being illegitimate, but also because it is absurd and meaningless. The words slave and right contradict each other, and are mutually exclusive.

It will always be equally foolish for a man to say to a man or to a people: I make with you a convention wholly at your expense and wholly to my advantage; I shall keep it as long as I like, and you will keep it as long as I like. 5. THAT WE MUST ALWAYS GO BACK TO A FIRST CONVENTION. E VEN if I granted all that I have been refuting, the friends of despotism would be no better off. Churchill During. There will always be a great difference between subduing a multitude and ruling a society. Even if scattered individuals were successively enslaved by one man, however numerous they might be, I still see no more than a master and his slaves, and certainly not a people and its ruler; I see what may be termed an aggregation, but not an association; there is as yet neither public good nor body politic. The man in question, even if he has enslaved half the world, is still only an individual; his interest, apart from that of others, is still a purely private interest. If this same man comes to Literacy in High Students, die, his empire, after him, remains scattered and without unity, as an winston churchill during oak falls and dissolves into a heap of ashes when the fire has consumed it.

A people, says Grotius, can give itself to a king. Then, according to theme in the, Grotius, a people is a people before it gives itself. The gift is winston ww2, itself a civil act, and in the book, implies public deliberation. It would be better, before examining the winston churchill during ww2, act by which a people gives itself to a king, to examine that by which it has become a people; for this act, being necessarily prior to the other, is the true foundation of society. Indeed, if there were no prior convention, where, unless the election were unanimous, would be the obligation on the minority to submit to what is the of the, the choice of the majority?

How have a hundred men who wish for a master the right to vote on winston churchill during, behalf of Essay about Sports ten who do not? The law of churchill majority voting is itself something established by convention, and presupposes unanimity, on one occasion at least. I SUPPOSE men to have reached the is the function, point at during which the obstacles in the way of their preservation in Essay the state of churchill ww2 nature show their power of resistance to be greater than the resources at the disposal of each individual for his maintenance in that state. In The Thief. That primitive condition can then subsist no longer; and the human race would perish unless it changed its manner of winston during existence. But, as men cannot engender new forces, but only unite and direct existing ones, they have no other means of preserving themselves than the formation, by aggregation, of a sum of forces great enough to overcome the resistance. These they have to bring into play by means of a single motive power, and cause to act in concert. This sum of forces can arise only where several persons come together: but, as the force and liberty of theme in the thief each man are the chief instruments of his self-preservation, how can he pledge them without harming his own interests, and neglecting the care he owes to himself? This difficulty, in ww2 its bearing on my present subject, may be stated in the following terms: The problem is to find a form of association which will defend and protect with the whole common force the person and Sports Should Quality, goods of each associate, and in which each, while uniting himself with all, may still obey himself alone, and remain as free as before. This is the winston during ww2, fundamental problem of which the Functional in High School Students Essay, Social Contract provides the churchill ww2, solution.

The clauses of this contract are so determined by the nature of the theme in the book thief, act that the churchill, slightest modification would make them vain and ineffective; so that, although they have perhaps never been formally set forth, they are everywhere the same and telecom companies, everywhere tacitly admitted and recognised, until, on the violation of the social compact, each regains his original rights and resumes his natural liberty, while losing the conventional liberty in favour of which he renounced it. These clauses, properly understood, may be reduced to one #151; the churchill, total alienation of each associate, together with all his rights, to the whole community; for, in the first place, as each gives himself absolutely, the theme book, conditions are the same for winston during ww2, all; and, this being so, no one has any interest in making them burdensome to telecom, others. Moreover, the alienation being without reserve, the union is as perfect as it can be, and no associate has anything more to demand: for, if the individuals retained certain rights, as there would be no common superior to decide between them and the public, each, being on winston churchill during ww2, one point his own judge, would ask to be so on all; the state of nature would thus continue, and the association would necessarily become inoperative or tyrannical. Finally, each man, in giving himself to all, gives himself to nobody; and as there is no associate over whom he does not acquire the same right as he yields others over himself, he gains an equivalent for everything he loses, and an increase of force for the preservation of what he has. If then we discard from the social compact what is not of its essence, we shall find that it reduces itself to the following terms: Each of Samsung Electronics Case Write-Up Essays us puts his person and all his power in common under the winston churchill ww2, supreme direction of the general will, and, in our corporate capacity, we receive each member as an indivisible part of the whole. At once, in place of the individual personality of each contracting party, this act of association creates a moral and collective body, composed of telecom as many members as the assembly contains votes, and receiving from this act its unity, its common identity, its life and its will. This public person, so formed by the union of all other persons formerly took the name of winston churchill during city , 4 and now takes that of Republic or body politic ; it is called by its members State when passive. Sovereign when active, and Power when compared with others like itself. Those who are associated in it take collectively the name of people , and severally are called citizens , as sharing in the sovereign power, and subjects , as being under the Samsung Case Write-Up, laws of the State. But these terms are often confused and taken one for another: it is enough to know how to distinguish them when they are being used with precision.

T HIS formula shows us that the winston churchill during, act of association comprises a mutual undertaking between the public and the individuals, and that each individual, in making a contract, as we may say, with himself, is bound in a double capacity; as a member of the Sovereign he is bound to the individuals, and as a member of the State to the Sovereign. But the maxim of civil right, that no one is bound by companies undertakings made to himself, does not apply in this case; for there is a great difference between incurring an churchill during ww2 obligation to yourself and function of the, incurring one to a whole of which you form a part. Attention must further be called to the fact that public deliberation, while competent to bind all the subjects to winston during ww2, the Sovereign, because of the The Egiptian of 2011 Essay, two different capacities in which each of them may be regarded, cannot, for the opposite churchill during ww2, reason, bind the Sovereign to Electronics Case Write-Up, itself; and that it is consequently against during the nature of the body politic for Samsung Essays, the Sovereign to impose on winston churchill during ww2, itself a law which it cannot infringe. Being able to regard itself in only one capacity, it is in the position of an individual who makes a contract with himself; and theme book, this makes it clear that there neither is nor can be any kind of ww2 fundamental law binding on the body of the companies, people #151; not even the social contract itself. This does not mean that the body politic cannot enter into churchill during ww2, undertakings with others, provided the contract is not infringed by them; for in relation to what is external to it, it becomes a simple being, an individual. But the body politic or the Sovereign, drawing its being wholly from the sanctity of the contract, can never bind itself, even to an outsider, to do anything derogatory to the original act, for telecom companies in uk, instance, to alienate any part of itself, or to submit to another Sovereign. Violation of the act by which it exists would be self-annihilation; and that which is itself nothing can create nothing. As soon as this multitude is so united in winston during one body, it is impossible to offend against one of the members without attacking the what is the, body, and still more to churchill ww2, offend against the body without the members resenting it.

Duty and interest therefore equally oblige the two contracting parties to give each other help; and the same men should seek to combine, in their double capacity, all the advantages dependent upon that capacity. Again, the Sovereign, being formed wholly of the individuals who compose it, neither has nor can have any interest contrary to theirs; and consequently the sovereign power need give no guarantee to its subjects, because it is impossible for the body to wish to hurt all its members. We shall also see later on that it cannot hurt any in particular. The Sovereign, merely by function of the heart virtue of what it is, is always what it should be. This, however, is not the winston churchill during, case with the relation of the subjects to the Sovereign, which, despite the common interest, would have no security that they would fulfil their undertakings, unless it found means to assure itself of their fidelity. In fact, each individual, as a man, may have a particular will contrary or dissimilar to what function of the heart, the general will which he has as a citizen.

His particular interest may speak to him quite differently from the common interest: his absolute and naturally independent existence may make him look upon what he owes to the common cause as a gratuitous contribution, the loss of which will do less harm to ww2, others than the payment of it is theme in the thief, burdensome to himself; and, regarding the moral person which constitutes the State as a persona ficta , because not a man, he may wish to enjoy the rights of citizenship without being ready to ww2, fulfil the duties of a subject. The continuance of about Sports Should Safety Equipment such an injustice could not but prove the undoing of the body politic. In order then that the winston churchill ww2, social compact may not be an empty formula, it tacitly includes the undertaking, which alone can give force to the rest, that whoever refuses to obey the general will shall be compelled to do so by the whole body. This means nothing less than that he will be forced to be free; for this is the condition which, by giving each citizen to his country, secures him against all personal dependence. In this lies the key to the working of the political machine; this alone legitimises civil undertakings, which, without it, would be absurd, tyrannical, and liable to the most frightful abuses. T HE passage from the state of about Sports Should Require Safety Equipment nature to the civil state produces a very remarkable change in man, by substituting justice for instinct in his conduct, and giving his actions the morality they had formerly lacked.

Then only, when the voice of duty takes the place of winston during physical impulses and right of appetite, does man, who so far had considered only Samsung Electronics Case Write-Up Essays himself, find that he is forced to act on different principles, and to consult his reason before listening to his inclinations. Churchill During Ww2. Although, in this state, he deprives himself of some advantages which he got from telecom companies, nature, he gains in winston ww2 return others so great, his faculties are so stimulated and developed, his ideas so extended, his feelings so ennobled, and his whole soul so uplifted, that, did not the abuses of this new condition often degrade him below that which he left, he would be bound to bless continually the happy moment which took him from it for ever, and, instead of a stupid and about Quality Safety Equipment, unimaginative animal, made him an intelligent being and winston churchill, a man. Let us draw up the whole account in telecom in uk terms easily commensurable. What man loses by the social contract is his natural liberty and an unlimited right to everything he tries to get and succeeds in winston churchill getting; what he gains is civil liberty and the proprietorship of The Egiptian Revolution of 2011 all he possesses. If we are to avoid mistake in weighing one against the other, we must clearly distinguish natural liberty, which is bounded only by winston during ww2 the strength of the in the, individual, from civil liberty, which is limited by the general will; and possession, which is winston churchill during, merely the effect of force or the right of the first occupier, from property, which can be founded only on a positive title. We might, over and above all this, add, to what man acquires in Samsung Essays the civil state, moral liberty, which alone makes him truly master of himself; for the mere impulse of appetite is slavery, while obedience to a law which we prescribe to ourselves is liberty.

But I have already said too much on this head, and the philosophical meaning of the word liberty does not now concern us. E ACH member of the community gives himself to churchill ww2, it, at the moment of its foundation, just as he is, with all the resources at his command, including the goods he possesses. This act does not make possession, in changing hands, change its nature, and Functional Literacy in High Students Essay, become property in the hands of the Sovereign; but, as the forces of the winston churchill during, city are incomparably greater than those of an individual, public possession is also, in fact, stronger and more irrevocable, without being any more legitimate, at any rate from the point of view of foreigners. For the State, in relation to its members, is master of Samsung all their goods by the social contract, which, within the State, is the basis of all rights; but, in relation to other powers, it is so only by the right of the first occupier, which it holds from its members. The right of the first occupier, though more real than the right of the strongest, becomes a real right only when the right of property has already been established. Every man has naturally a right to churchill, everything he needs; but the positive act which makes him proprietor of one thing excludes him from everything else.

Having his share, he ought to keep to it, and can have no further right against the community. In High Students Essay. This is why the right of the winston churchill, first occupier, which in the state of nature is so weak, claims the respect of Write-Up Essays every man in civil society. In this right we are respecting not so much what belongs to another as what does not belong to ourselves. In general, to establish the right of the first occupier over a plot of ground, the churchill, following conditions are necessary: first, the theme book, land must not yet be inhabited; secondly, a man must occupy only the amount he needs for his subsistence; and, in the third place, possession must be taken, not by an empty ceremony, but by labour and cultivation, the only sign of winston during proprietorship that should be respected by others, in default of Essay Sports Require a legal title. In granting the during ww2, right of first occupancy to necessity and labour, are we not really stretching it as far as it can go? Is it possible to leave such a right unlimited? Is it to telecom companies, be enough to set foot on a plot of common ground, in order to be able to call yourself at churchill once the master of it?

Is it to be enough that a man has the strength to expel others for what function, a moment, in order to establish his right to churchill ww2, prevent them from ever returning? How can a man or a people seize an immense territory and keep it from the rest of the world except by a punishable usurpation, since all others are being robbed, by such an act, of the place of habitation and the means of subsistence which nature gave them in common? When Nunez Balboa, standing on the sea-shore, took possession of the South Seas and theme thief, the whole of South America in the name of the crown of Castile, was that enough to winston churchill during ww2, dispossess all their actual inhabitants, and to shut out from them all the princes of the world? On such a showing, these ceremonies are idly multiplied, and the Catholic King need only take possession all at Samsung Essays once, from his apartment, of the whole universe, merely making a subsequent reservation about winston churchill ww2, what was already in the possession of other princes. We can imagine how the lands of individuals, where they were contiguous and came to be united, became the public territory, and about Sports Require, how the right of Sovereignty, extending from the subjects over winston, the lands they held, became at once real and about Require Equipment, personal. Winston During Ww2. The possessors were thus made more dependent, and the forces at their command used to guarantee their fidelity. The advantage of what of the this does not seem to have been felt by ancient monarchs, who called themselves Kings of the Persians, Scythians, or Macedonians, and seemed to regard themselves more as rulers of churchill ww2 men than as masters of a country. Essay About Should Require Quality Safety Equipment. Those of the present day more cleverly call themselves Kings of France, Spain, England, etc.: thus holding the land, they are quite confident of holding the inhabitants. The peculiar fact about this alienation is that, in taking over winston during ww2, the goods of of 2011 individuals, the community, so far from churchill during ww2, despoiling them, only assures them legitimate possession, and changes usurpation into of the, a true right and enjoyment into proprietorship. Thus the possessors, being regarded as depositaries of the public good, and having their rights respected by all the members of the State and maintained against foreign aggression by all its forces, have, by a cession which benefits both the public and still more themselves, acquired, so to speak, all that they gave up.

This paradox may easily be explained by the distinction between the rights which the Sovereign and the proprietor have over the same estate, as we shall see later on. It may also happen that men begin to unite one with another before they possess anything, and that, subsequently occupying a tract of country which is enough for all, they enjoy it in common, or share it out ww2, among themselves, either equally or according to a scale fixed by the Sovereign. However the acquisition be made, the right which each individual has to Samsung Electronics Write-Up, his own estate is always subordinate to the right which the community has over all: without this, there would be neither stability in churchill the social tie, nor real force in the exercise of Sovereignty. I shall end this chapter and theme in the book thief, this book by remarking on a fact on which the whole social system should rest: i.e., that, instead of destroying natural inequality, the fundamental compact substitutes, for such physical inequality as nature may have set up between men, an equality that is moral and legitimate, and that men, who may be unequal in strength or intelligence, become every one equal by convention and legal right. 5. 1. Ww2. Learned inquiries into public right are often only the history of past abuses; and Literacy Students Essay, troubling to study them too deeply is a profitless infatuation ( Essay on the Interests of France in Relation to its Neighbours, by the Marquis d'Argenson). Winston Churchill. This is exactly what Grotius has done. 2. See a short treatise of The Egiptian Revolution of 2011 Plutarch's entitled That Animals Reason. 3. The Romans, who understood and respected the right of during war more than any other nation on earth, carried their scruples on this head so far that a citizen was not allowed to serve as a volunteer without engaging himself expressly against the enemy, and against such and such an enemy by name. A legion in which the younger Cato was seeing his first service under Popilius having been reconstructed, the theme in the, elder Cato wrote to Popilius that, if he wished his son to continue serving under him, he must administer to him a new military oath, because, the first having been annulled, he was no longer able to bear arms against the enemy. The same Cato wrote to his son telling him to take great care not to go into battle before taking this new oath.

I know that the siege of winston churchill during Clusium and other isolated events can be quoted against me; but I am citing laws and customs. The Romans are the people that least often transgressed its laws; and no other people has had such good ones. 4. The real meaning of this word has been almost wholly lost in modern times; most people mistake a town for a city, and a townsman for a citizen. They do not know that houses make a town, but citizens a city. The same mistake long ago cost the Carthaginians dear. I have never read of the title of citizens being given to the subjects of any prince, not even the ancient Macedonians or the English of to-day, though they are nearer liberty than any one else. The French alone everywhere familiarly adopt the name of citizens, because, as can be seen from their dictionaries, they have no idea of its meaning; otherwise they would be guilty in usurping it, of the The Egiptian, crime of lèse-majesté : among them, the name expresses a virtue, and not a right. When Bodin spoke of our citizens and ww2, townsmen, he fell into a bad blunder in taking the one class for the other. M. d'Alembert has avoided the error, and, in his article on Geneva, has clearly distinguished the four orders of men (or even five, counting mere foreigners) who dwell in our town, of which two only theme thief compose the Republic. During. No other French writer, to my knowledge, has understood the real meaning of the word citizen.

5. Under bad governments, this equality is theme in the, only apparent and illusory: it serves only to-keep the pauper in his poverty and the rich man in the position he has usurped. In fact, laws are always of use to those who possess and harmful to those who have nothing: from which it follows that the social state is advantageous to men only when all have something and none too much.

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database essays Database Testing: How to Regression Test a Relational Database. In this article I argue for a fully automated, continuous regression testing based approach to database testing. Just as agile software developers take this approach to winston ww2 their application code, see Agile Testing and The Egiptian Revolution, Quality Strategies, we should also do the same for our databases. Data is an important corporate asset . Doesn't it make sense to invest the effort required to validate the churchill during ww2 quality of data via effective testing? My July 2006 survey into Sports Should Safety, the current state of data management indicates that 96% of respondents believe that data is a corporate asset. Yet of them only 40% had a database test suite in place to validate the data and of those without a test suite only 32% had even discussed the concept. Mission-critical business functionality is churchill during implemented in RDBMSs . In the what is the heart survey, 63.7% of winston churchill during, respondents indicated that their organizations did this, but of those only 46% had regression tests in place to validate the logic. Shouldn't we be doing better?

Current approaches aren't sufficient . The current state of the art in many organizations is for data professionals to control changes to Revolution the database schemas, for winston churchill during developers to visually inspect the database during construction, and to Literacy in High Students perform some form of formal testing during the test phase at churchill the end of the lifecycle. Unfortunately, none of these approaches prove effective. Application developers will often go around their organization's data management group because they find them too difficult to work with, too slow in the way they work, or sometimes they don't even know they should be working together. The end result is is the heart that the teams don't follow the during ww2 desired data quality procedures and as a result quality suffers. Although visual inspection of query results is The Egiptian a good start it is churchill during ww2 little more than a debugging technique in theme thief practice that will help you to find problems but not prevent them.

Testing late in the lifecycle is better than nothing, but as Barry Boehm noted in the early 80s it's incredibly expensive to fix any defects you find at that point. Testing provides the winston during ww2 concrete feedback required to identify defects . How do you know how good the quality of your source data actually is without an effective test suite which you can run whenever you need to? Support for evolutionary development . Many evolutionary development techniques, in particular database refactoring, are predicated upon the idea that it must be possible to determine if something in the database has been broken when a change has been made. Book Thief! The easiest way to do that is to churchill ww2 simply run your regression test suite. Isn't it time that we stopped talking about data quality and actually started doing something about it? Here's a few interesting questions to ask someone who isn't convinced that you need to test the DB: If you're implementing code in the DB in the form of stored procedures, triggers, . shouldn't you test that code to theme in the thief the same level that you test your app code? Think of during ww2, all the data quality problems you've run into over the years. Wouldn't it have been nice if someone had originally tested and discovered those problems before you did? Wouldn't it be nice to have a test suite to run so that you could determine how (and if) the DB actually works? I think that one of the reasons that we don't hear much about database testing is because it is a relatively new idea within the data community.

Many traditional data professionals seem to what of the think that testing is winston churchill during something that other people do, particularly test/quality assurance professionals, do. This reflects a penchant for over-specialization and a serial approach towards development by Electronics Essays, traditionalists, two ideas which have also been shown to be questionable organizational approaches at best. Table 1. What to test in an RDBMS. O/R mappings (including the meta data) Incoming data values Outgoing data values (from queries, stored functions, views . Churchill During! ) Scaffolding code (e.g. triggers or updateable views) which support refactorings Typical unit tests for your stored procedures, functions, and The Egiptian Revolution of 2011 Essay, triggers Existence tests for database schema elements (tables, procedures, . ) View definitions Referential integrity (RI) rules Default values for a column Data invariants for a single column Data invariants involving several columns. Agile software developers take a test-first approach to development where they write a test before you write just enough production code to fulfill that test. The steps of test first development (TFD) are overviewed in the UML activity diagram of during, Figure 2. The first step is to quickly add a test, basically just enough code to fail. Next you run your tests, often the Samsung Case Write-Up Essays complete test suite although for sake of speed you may decide to run only a subset, to ensure that the new test does in fact fail.

You then update your functional code to make it pass the new tests. The fourth step is to run your tests again. If they fail you need to winston churchill ww2 update your functional code and retest. Functional Literacy Students! Once the winston tests pass the next step is to start over. Figure 2. Samsung! The Process of Test First Development (TFD).

Test-driven development (TDD) is an evolutionary approach to churchill ww2 development which combines test-first development and Case, refactoring. Winston! When an agile software developer goes to implement a new feature, the The Egiptian Revolution first question they ask themselves is Is this the winston during ww2 best design possible which enables me to add this feature? If the answer is companies yes, then they do the work to add the feature. Churchill During Ww2! If the answer is no then they refactor the design to make it the best possible then they continue with a TFD approach. This strategy is applicable to developing both your application code and your database schema, two things that you would work on in parallel. When you first start following a TDD approach to theme in the development you quickly discover that to make it successful you need to automate as much of the process as possible? Do you really want to manually run the same build script(s) and the same testing script(s) over churchill ww2 and over again? Of course not. So, agile developers have created OSS tools such as ANT, Maven, and Cruise Control (to name a few) which enable them to automate these tasks. More importantly, it enables them to automate their database testing script into the build procedure itself.

Although you want to in High School Essay keep your database testing efforts as simple as possible, at first you will discover that you have a fair bit of both learning and set up to do. Winston During Ww2! In this section I discuss the need for various database sandboxes in which people will test: in short, if you want to do database testing then you're going to need test databases (sandboxes) to work in. I then overview how to write a database test and more importantly describe setup strategies for database tests. Finally, I overview several database testing tools which you may want to consider. A common best practice on agile teams is to ensure that developers have their own sandboxes to work in. A sandbox is basically a technical environment whose scope is well defined and what is the function of the heart, respected. Figure 4 depicts the various types of sandboxes which your team may choose to work in.

In each sandbox you'll have a copy of the database. In the development sandbox you'll experiment, implement new functionality, and winston ww2, refactor existing functionality, validate your changes through testing, and then eventually you'll promote your work once you're happy with it to the project integration sandbox. In this sandbox you will rebuild your system and then run all the tests to ensure you haven't broken anything (if so, then back to the development sandbox). Occasionally, at least once an Revolution of 2011 Essay, iteration/cycle, you'll deploy your work to the level (demo and pre-production testing), and rerun your test suite (including database tests) each time that you do so to ensure that your changes integrate with the changes made by other developers. Every so often (perhaps once every six to twelve months) into production. The primary advantage of sandboxes are that they help to reduce the risk of winston during ww2, technical errors adversely affecting a larger group of people than is absolutely necessary at Functional Students Essay the time. There's no magic when it comes to writing a database test, you write them just like you would any other type of test.

Database tests are typically a three-step process: Setup the test . You need to put your database into a known state before running tests against it. There are several strategies for doing so. Run the test . Using a database regression testing tool, run your database tests just like you would run your application tests. Check the results . You'll need to be able to churchill do table dumps to obtain the Functional Students Essay current values in churchill during ww2 the database so that you can compare them against the results which you expected.

The article What To Test in an RDBMS goes into greater detail. Fresh start . A common practice is to theme rebuild the churchill database, including both creation of the schema as well as loading of about Sports Safety, initial test data, for winston churchill during every major test run (e.g. testing that you do in your project integration or pre-production test sandboxes). Have source test data . In Uk! You can maintain an winston churchill, external definition of the test data, perhaps in flat files, XML files, or a secondary set of thief, tables. Winston! This data would be loaded in telecom companies in uk from the external source as needed. Test data creation scripts . You develop and winston churchill ww2, maintain scripts, perhaps using data manipulation language (DML) SQL code or simply application source code (e.g. Java or C#), which does the necessary deletions, insertions, and/or updates required to create the Sports Quality Safety test data. Self-contained test cases . Each individual test case puts the database into a known state required for the test. These approaches to creating test data can be used alone or in combination. A significant advantage of writing creation scripts and winston ww2, self-contained test cases is that it is much more likely that the developers of that code will place it under configuration management (CM) control.

Although it is possible to put test data itself under CM control, worst case you generate an export file that you check in, this isn’t a common practice and Functional Students, therefore may not occur as frequently as required. Churchill! Choose an approach that reflects the culture of your organization. Where does test data come from? For unit testing, I prefer to create sample data with known values. This way I can predict the actual results for the tests that I do write and is the function, I know I have the appropriate data values for those tests. Winston During Ww2! For other forms of testing -- particularly load/stress, system integration, and in the book thief, function testing, I will use live data so as to winston churchill during ww2 better simulate real-world conditions.

One danger with database regression testing, and with regression testing in Samsung Electronics Case Write-Up Essays general, is coupling between tests. If you put the database into a known state, then run several tests against that known state before resetting it, then those tests are potentially coupled to one another. Coupling between tests occurs when one test counts on another one to successfully run so as to during ww2 put the database into a known state for it. Self-contained test cases do not suffer from this problem, although may be potentially slower as a result due to Functional Literacy in High School Students the need for additional initialization steps. 4.4 What Testing Tools Are Available? To make a long story short, although we're starting to see a glimmer of hope when it comes to database testing tools, as you can see in Table 2, but we still have a long way to winston during go. Luckily there are some good tools being developed by the open source software (OSS) community and The Egiptian Revolution, there are some commercial tools available as well. Having said that, IMHO there is during ww2 still significant opportunity for tool vendors to improve their database testing offerings.

AnyDbTest DBFit DBUnit NDbUnit SQLUnit TSQLUnit (for testing T-SQL in MS SQL Server) Visual Studio Team Edition for Database Professionals includes testing capabilities XTUnit. During development cycles, the is the function primary people responsible for doing database testing are application developers and agile DBAs. Winston During Ww2! They will typically pair together, and because they are hopefully taking a TDD-approach to development the implication is that they'll be doing database unit testing on a continuous basis. During the companies release cycle your testers, if you have any, will be responsible for the final system testing efforts and therefore they will also be doing database testing. The role of during ww2, your data management (DM) group, or IT management if your organization has no DM group, should be to The Egiptian Revolution Essay support your database testing efforts. They should promote the concept that database testing is important, should help people get the requisite training that they require, and ww2, should help obtain database testing tools for your organization. As you have seen, database testing is something that is theme in the book thief done continuously by the people on development teams, it isn't something that is done by another group (except of course for system testing efforts). In short, the DM group needs to support database testing efforts and then get out of the way of the people who are actually doing the work. 6. Introducing Database Regression Testing into Your Organization. Database testing is winston churchill during new to what many people, and as a result you are likely to face several challenges:

Insufficient testing skills . This problem can be overcome through training, through pairing with someone with good testing skills (pairing a DBA without testing skills and winston churchill, a tester without DBA skills still works), or simply through trial and Sports Require, error. The important thing is that you recognize that you need to churchill during ww2 pick up these skills. Insufficient unit tests for existing databases . Few organizations have yet to adopt the practice of database testing, so it is likely that you will not have a sufficient test suite for your existing database(s). Although this is unfortunate, there is no better time than the present to start writing your test suite. Insufficient database testing tools . As I said earlier, we still have a way to go with respect to tools. Reticent DM groups . Literacy School Students! My experience is that some data management (DM) groups may see the introduction of database regression testing, and agile techniques such as test-first development (TFD) and winston churchill during, refactoring, as a threat.

Or, as my July 2006 state of data management survey shows, a large percentage of what is the heart, organizations are not only not doing any database testing at all they haven't even discussed it. For many in the data management community the idea of churchill ww2, doing database testing is Require Quality rather new and churchill during, it's simply going to take a while for them to theme in the book thief think it through. I'm not so sure that you should wait to winston churchill during do such obvious process improvement. In general, I highly suggest that you read my article Adopting Evolutionary/Agile Database Techniques and consider buying the book Fearless Change which describes a pattern language for successfully implementing change within organizations. 7. What Of The Heart! Database Testing and Data Inspection. A common quality technique s to use data inspection tools to during examine existing data within a database.

You might use something as simple as a SQL-based query tool such as DB Inspect to select a subset of the data within a database to visually inspect the results. Electronics Case! For example, you may choose to view the unique values in a column to determine what values are stored in it, or compare the row count of a table with the count of the resulting rows from joining the table with another one. If the two counts are the ww2 same then you don't have an RI problem across the Electronics Write-Up join. As Richard Dallaway points out, the problem with data inspection is that it is often done manually and on an irregular basis. When you make changes later, sometimes months or years later, you need to redo your inspection efforts.

This is winston churchill during costly, time consuming, and error prone. Data inspection is more of a debugging technique than it is a testing technique. It is clearly an Revolution Essay, important technique, but it's not something that will greatly contribute to your efforts to during ww2 ensure data quality within your organization. I'd like to conclude this article by sharing a few database testing best practices with you: Use an in-memory database for regression testing . Electronics Case Write-Up Essays! You can dramatically speed up your database tests by during ww2, running them, or at Essay least portions of them, against an in-memory database such as HSQLDB. The challenge with this approach is that because database methods are implemented differently across database vendors that any method tests will still need to run against the actual database server. Start fresh each major test run . To ensure a clean database, a common strategy is that at the beginning of each test run you drop the database, then rebuild it from scratch taking into account all database refactorings and transformations to that point, then reload the ww2 test data, and then run your tests. Of course, you wouldn't do this to your production database. ;-) Take a continuous approach to regression testing . I can't say this enough, a TDD approach to in the book thief development is an during, incredibly effective way to work. Train people in testing . Many developers and DBAs have not been trained in testing skills, and they almost certainly haven't been trained in about Safety database testing skills.

Invest in your people, and winston churchill, give them the training and education they need to in uk do their jobs. Pair with novices with people that have database testing experience . One of the easiest ways to gain database testing skills is to pair program with someone who already has them. We actively work with clients around the world to improve their information technology (IT) practices, typically in during ww2 the role of mentor/coach, team lead, or trainer. Require Safety Equipment! A full description of what we do, and how to churchill ww2 contact us, can be found at Scott Ambler + Associates.