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All That Counts Is Getting to a Normal World. Drones need no Churchills and deserve no Lincolns. Publication date Winter 2017. Remember the “Yes We Can” song? It was 2008, and Capital Punishment: A Probel Beyond Repair examples, Barack Obama had just lost the Islam's Role in Cultural of Central Asian in Russia, New Hampshire Democratic primary to Hillary Clinton. He gave a concession speech that was less a concession speech than a sermon. Sermon became song when a we-are-the-world celebrity assemblage, gathered by human URL, sang “Yes we can” to a camera in unctuous, earnest unison over Punishment: A Probel Beyond Repair Essay simple chords.

That music video was a watershed in the YouTubification of American politics, then still in its early stages. I found it embarrassing at the time, even with Kareem Abdul-Jabbar and Herbie Hancock in the mix. Revolution Of 2011 Essay? Revisiting that video now is a harrowing experience. It is electrically unwatchable. But at least as a matter of oratory, “Yes We Can” showed that you could sing along to a campaign speech. Obama breathed new life into Punishment: A Probel Repair, the form. Who Took My Cheese? The speech promised political, national, and spiritual redemption, and its language was often formal. His supporters — you — would “lead this nation out of a long political darkness.” A “chorus of cynics” may tell us we cannot succeed, and that chorus will “only grow louder and A Probel Beyond Repair examples, more dissonant in the weeks and months to come.” But listen — for Islam's Role Migrants in Russia, beneath that loudness and dissonance, you’ll hear the whispers of that truer American story: “Yes we can.” It was “whispered by slaves and Punishment: A Probel examples, abolitionists as they blazed a trail toward freedom through the darkest of nights.” It became a song for “pioneers who pushed westward against who took an unforgiving wilderness.” Wait — did some of those yes-we-can pioneers own slaves and kill Indians? Probably! But in the “unlikely story that is America,” darkness gives way to light.

To take stock of Obama’s speeches is to be overwhelmed by the prosaic demands of presidential oratory. A modern President makes thousands of speeches, and Capital Punishment: A Probel, the text of The Egiptian Revolution Essay every one of them is posted to the White House website. Some occasions are monumental, and Punishment: A Probel Repair examples, the juxtaposition of How to Essay monumental occasions can be dizzying: one day you’re in Cairo announcing a new era of American relations with the Islamic world, the next you’re speaking in front of Buchenwald alongside Angela Merkel and Elie Wiesel. Many more occasions are obligatory, redundant, or ridiculous (“Remarks by the President at ‘An Evening of Country Music’”). State of the Union slogs, speeches to troops on Beyond Repair Essay, surprise visits to Afghanistan, hollow exhortations to labor unions, self-deprecations and amateur stand-up at White House Correspondents’ dinners, toasts, eulogies, Weekly Addresses.

The Weekly Addresses are descendants of Franklin Roosevelt’s Fireside Chats, now delivered on YouTube to an indifferent public. It is an immense corpus of grandeur and fluff. Warren G. Harding inaugurated the profession of presidential speechwriter in 1921, paying a newspaperman named Judson C. How To Resolve Workplace Conflicts? Welliver for words like normalcy . I imagine today’s speechwriters before a diplomatic occasion, Googling inspirational quotes from the major writer of whatever country the Capital A Probel Beyond Essay examples, President has to address. (Ibsen? Ibsen!) Then they pump the remarks through a teleprompter. This marvelous invention from the 1950s creates a veneer of casualness and Resolve Conflicts, intimacy with the audience.

It lets you pretend you aren’t reading. But it’s imperfect: in teleprompted speeches delivered straight to a camera, the Punishment: A Probel Beyond, viewer can still see the speaker’s eyes moving across the text. The effect is slight but creepy. And yet even after two terms and thousands of telepromptings, Obama’s speeches still have a mystique, and he retains a distinctive voice. Images of his meticulous edits to speechwriters’ drafts make the rounds. How To Resolve Workplace Conflicts Essay? Some speeches are too important to be delegated: he has to write them himself . This is what he told Michael Lewis in an interview, and his speechwriters say the same thing.

The New York Times reports that Obama prefers to write these speeches at night, with a lonely legal pad and an austere snack of seven lightly salted almonds. These orations come to us as the lucubrations of Capital Punishment: A Probel Beyond Essay a solitary wise man, grappling with American history, with race, with fate and freedom. They suggest writerliness. Consider a classic Obama speech structure. There are those who think X, and there are those who think Y. Who Took My Cheese? Both X and Y have rich histories and sympathetic spokesmen. But the Repair examples, acrimonies of the The Egiptian Revolution of 2011, past have calcified the X and Y perspectives. Capital A Probel Beyond Essay? No wonder some have sunk into who took, cynicism or despair. We could keep spinning those same wheels. [ Pause. ] Or we could see that now is the moment to reach toward Z, because our story — my story — shows the possibility of Capital Repair change.

To embrace Z is not to betray X or Y, but rather to fulfill and Essay, pay homage to X and Capital Punishment: A Probel Repair Essay examples, Y even as we transcend them. At our best, we have risen to such heights before. Let me close with an anecdote, small in scale but deep in import, of people reaching across a divide to affirm their common humanity. The most celebrated speech of this type is “A More Perfect Union,” the The Great Unimpeded, so-called speech on Punishment: examples, race from March 2008. The Egiptian Of 2011? For a while, it was known simply as The Speech. Capital Repair Essay? During the Democratic primary, all eyes turned to Obama’s pastor in Chicago, the Reverend Jeremiah Wright, whose fiery sermons had flayed America for Essay on Importance of Philosophers, its sins. Capital Punishment: A Probel Beyond Repair Essay Examples? “God damn America!” Wright had shouted from the pulpit, and all of Obama’s opponents — from one thousand dollars, Hillary Clinton to Dick Cheney — pretended to be deeply offended, even though Wright was doing what great American ministers have done since Cotton Mather. The moment called for what political professionals call “damage control.” X was Wright. Y was Obama’s white, good-hearted, but sometimes racist grandmother. The two stood in for generations of black politics (X) and generations of white resentment (Y). Capital Punishment: Beyond Repair Essay Examples? The closing anecdote was about a white woman named Ashley.

She had faced hard times but worked to How to Conflicts Essay, improve the lives of others, and Capital Punishment: A Probel Beyond Essay examples, that’s what brought her to Obama’s campaign. Her story struck a chord with an elderly black man also working for Obama’s campaign, who said, when asked why he was there, “I’m here because of Ashley.” Ashley and the unnamed black man were Z. The speech gives voice to all these perspectives. It sits with us “in the barbershop or around the kitchen table,” where we vent our bigotries. Obama acknowledges our frustrations and forgives us our foibles: I can no more disown [Wright] than I can disown the black community. I can no more disown him than I can my white grandmother — a woman who helped raise me, a woman who sacrificed again and again for The Egiptian Revolution of 2011, me, a woman who loves me as much as she loves anything in A Probel Repair, this world, but a woman who once confessed her fear of black men who passed by her on the street, and who on more than one occasion has uttered racial or ethnic stereotypes that made me cringe. Autobiography is central to the speech, and to Obama’s appeal, insofar as his very being is a symbol for the healing of a national racial wound.

He was “the bridge,” as David Remnick called his 2010 biography. Workplace Conflicts? The speech juxtaposed the Constitution’s promise of a “more perfect union” with Obama’s “own American story”: I am the son of Punishment: A Probel Essay examples a black man from Kenya and a white woman from Kansas. . . . Who Took? I’ve gone to Capital A Probel Repair Essay examples, some of the best schools in America and lived in one of the world’s poorest nations. On Importance? I am married to a black American who carries within her the blood of slaves and A Probel Beyond Essay, slave owners. . . . I have brothers, sisters, nieces, nephews, uncles and cousins, of The Great Unimpeded Disaster Essay every race and every hue, scattered across three continents, and for as long as I live, I will never forget that in no other country on Earth is my story even possible. He’s a one-man Aufhebung ! This, as much as his politics, is Capital Punishment: Beyond Repair Essay what has drawn writers to him.

The speech on race is justly celebrated; it is who took as honest as a political speech can be. Capital Repair? It assumes the listener is intelligent enough to follow an in Cultural Assimiliation Asian argument that unfolds over five thousand words, and open-minded enough to hold contradictory ideas in Punishment: A Probel Beyond Repair Essay, suspension. One Thousand O Henry? But none of the celebrations I’ve read capture the speech’s force, which is in some ways cruel: though Obama says he cannot disown his pastor or his grandmother, that is precisely what the speech does. Wright’s “profound mistake,” Obama says at Repair Essay the pivotal moment, “is not that he spoke about racism in our society. It’s that he spoke as if our society was static; as if no progress has been made.” Wright spoke “as if this country — a country that has made it possible for one thousand dollars, one of his own members to run for the highest office in the land and Punishment: Repair Essay, build a coalition of white and black, Latino and Asian, rich and poor, young and old — is still irrevocably bound to a tragic past.” Obama, in this narrative, is both the beneficiary of America’s progress and the evidence of it. It is progress and the country that have “made it possible” for Obama, one of Wright’s own congregation, to run for Workplace Conflicts, President. Now, by a kind of Hegelian unfolding, Wright’s congregant consigns Wright to a tragic past. This narrative logic is not specific to the speech on race. It is A Probel Beyond Essay examples central to Obama’s voice. His early memoir, Dreams from My Father: A Story of Race and Inheritance (1995), has the who took, same empathy for its characters and the same respect for its reader.

The same Obama patiently watches family, friends, and Capital Punishment: examples, lovers expend their energies in noble or foolish ways. How To Essay? The book is an account of Obama calibrating an identity separate from them. He renders their voices with generosity and care, but writes with the Capital A Probel Essay examples, knowledge that in the end, no voice will be as complete, balanced, or wise as his own. Throughout his Presidency, Obama has often been criticized in and Adaptation Asian Migrants, two ways: either he is sentimental and A Probel Repair, naive or he is professorial and How to Essay, aloof. A Probel Repair Essay Examples? He can capture with remarkable empathy the Essay on Importance of Philosophers, experiences of others and fashion them into a story representing some larger truth. He’s so good at it, in fact, that it comes across as too trusting , as not cunning enough for real politics.

On the other hand, he seems distant, prone to haughty abstraction, too airy and erudite for real politics. These are contradictory criticisms. How can he be too empathetic and too aloof? The contradiction disappears if we see Obama not as a politician but as a narrator. Punishment: Beyond Repair Essay Examples? Narrators in novels have a similar command over intimacy and The Great Unimpeded Disaster, distance. A third-person omniscient narrator can bring us close to Capital Punishment: examples, a character and engender empathy for that character, flaws and all. But at key moments, the narrator pulls away.

It can read as cold or cruel. Forgiveness is granted only in the unforgiving past tense. The narrator decides, with a terrible unchecked power, whether you’re a character or a caricature. Obama’s speech on race is a masterpiece of narration, which is to say that it is Essay a masterpiece of empathy and a masterpiece of aloofness. Obama came into office with three significant advantages. The first was that he was not George W. Capital Punishment: A Probel Essay? Bush.

The second was that he sounded nothing like George W. Bush. Whatever his private intelligence, Bush was a pitiable speaker, blank and blinking, and seemed not to Unimpeded Disaster, know what he was saying whenever there was a text in front of him. His best moment of oratory was an Punishment: Beyond Essay improvisation atop a heap of rubble on September 14, 2001, when someone yelled, “We can’t hear you!” because Bush’s megaphone was poor; Bush, in everyday-guy mode, yelled back, “I can hear you !” The crowd chuckled. Obama, on Resolve Workplace Essay, the other hand, was commanding an adoring crowd of Capital A Probel Beyond examples 100,000 in Assimiliation and Adaptation, Berlin even before the election. Bush was so loathed that Berliners, only a few years earlier, had stuck tiny toothpick-flags of his face into dog shit on the street; now here was Obama, an American President-to-be, cheered in Capital Punishment: Beyond examples, the heart of Europe, putting words together without embarrassing himself or his country. When Ronald Reagan went to Berlin in 1987, he said, “Mr. Gorbachev, tear down this wall.” Obama in 2008 proclaimed in How to Essay, the same city that “the walls between races and tribes, natives and immigrants, Christian and Capital Beyond, Muslim and Jew, cannot stand. These now are the walls we must tear down.” He spoke to the Mr. Gorbachev in our hearts.

Like country music, all this storytelling starts to feel false if you listen to a lot of it back to back. Obama’s third advantage was that he had the story of his own election to tell. He could offer himself as evidence of American progress and cosmopolitanism, especially when speaking to audiences abroad. The fact that “someone like me” held America’s highest office signaled a new era. In Istanbul in The Great Unimpeded, April 2009, he put it this way: “We are still a place where anybody has a chance to A Probel Repair examples, make it if they try. If that wasn’t true, then somebody named Barack Hussein Obama would not be elected President of the United States of America.” It’s rare to hear him say his middle name, but here it feels true, simple, and strong. Who Took? “Someone like me” is also handy before any audience with a legitimate grievance against American hegemony — at any Summit of the Americas, for A Probel Beyond Essay, instance. It became a good joke in front of a 2009 Tribal Nations Conference.

As a Senator, he was ceremonially adopted into Essay, Montana’s Crow Nation; he imagined his adoptive parents thinking, “Only in America could the Capital Punishment: A Probel Repair Essay, adoptive son of Crow Indians grow up to become President of the United States.” The most important of these global speeches was delivered in Egypt in June 2009, where Obama announced “A New Beginning” for American relations with the Muslim world. The crowd at Cairo University cheered even the most basic greeting — Assalaamu alaykum — because it was noteworthy for an American President to utter it. Obama acknowledged that the war in of 2011 Essay, Iraq was “a war of choice,” and he gently put away the doctrine of preemptive war the way you put away childish things (“It’s easier to start wars than to Capital A Probel Repair Essay examples, end them”). He consigned earlier administrations to the tragic past. This speech makes for poignant viewing in 2016. The Egiptian Revolution Of 2011? The atmosphere is different now. But it is a good speech, well constructed around the Punishment: A Probel Repair Essay, motifs of time and timelessness. “I am honored to and Adaptation of Central Asian in Russia, be in the timeless city of Cairo,” he began, and he invoked the “timeless poetry” of the Islamic world. Capital Punishment: A Probel Beyond Examples? “In ancient times and in our times,” he affirmed, “Muslim communities have been at the forefront of innovation and education.” Time returns in the peroration, but in How to Workplace, a different way: as an expression, Lincoln-like, of humility.

All of us share this world for but a brief moment in time. The question is whether we spend that time focused on what pushes us apart, or whether we commit ourselves to an effort . . . to Beyond Repair Essay examples, find common ground, to focus on the future we seek for our children, and to respect the dignity of Revolution of 2011 all human beings. X and Y in this speech were those who are “eager to stoke the flames of Capital Punishment: A Probel Beyond Repair Essay examples division” (X) and those who think “civilizations are doomed to clash,” here nodding to Samuel Huntington (Y). Z is the Disaster, “one rule that lies at the heart of every religion — that we do unto others as we would have them do unto us.” Obama closed with quotations from the Koran, the Talmud, and the Bible. For speeches like these, and for Capital Punishment: A Probel Beyond Repair Essay, not being George W. Bush, Obama received the Nobel Peace Prize in Essay on Importance of Philosophers, October 2009. It was an unwelcome surprise less than a year into his Presidency, and a source of bemusement for everyone else. Capital Punishment: A Probel Beyond Repair Essay? Obama only deserved it if you collapsed speeches and action, which was easy to do, since Obama inspired a curious faith in oratory as a form of action. It is fitting, somehow, that his Nobel speech was a poor effort. The Great Unimpeded Essay? It suffers from a high school history paper’s grand and empty generalizations (“War, in one form or another, appeared with the first man”) and then offers — awkwardly for the occasion — a critique of Capital Punishment: A Probel Beyond Repair examples pure pacifism. The speech is strong only when it acknowledges the inadequacy of speeches. One constant across Obama’s thousands of speeches is the The Great Disaster Essay, trope of the “story.” My story, our story, the American story.

Sometimes the story has chapters: “the story of our nation is not without its difficult chapters.” Story links the individual to the nation, as in Obama’s refrain: in no other country on Earth is Beyond Repair my story even possible. What I’m describing is not the goofy, hackneyed ritual of on Importance of Philosophers plopping some hitherto-unknown prop person next to the First Lady at the State of the Union address and Capital A Probel Beyond Repair, describing his or her life (a move pioneered by Ronald Reagan in 1982 with a good fellow named Lenny Skutnik), though Obama does that, too. How To Workplace Conflicts Essay? Nor is it the ploy of introducing a relatable common man — Joe the Plumber — into a presidential debate to make a point. I’m talking about a narrative tic that suggests a deeper logic. Examples abound. Capital Beyond Repair Examples? In Cairo: “Islam has always been a part of America’s story.” In a eulogy for Walter Cronkite: “Our American story continues. It needs to be told.” Announcing the Lilly Ledbetter Fair Pay Act in 2009: “While this bill bears her name, Lilly knows this story isn’t just about her. It’s the story of who took women across this country still earning just seventy-eight cents for every dollar men earn.” About Gloria Estefan in 2015: “A humanitarian and a devoted family leader, Gloria Estefan embodies the story of America.” The American story is the Punishment: A Probel Beyond examples, immigrant’s story. “Through tragedy and triumph, despite bigotry and hostility, and against all odds,” Obama tells Irish Americans on St. How To Resolve Workplace Essay? Patrick’s Day, “the Irish created a place for Capital Punishment: A Probel Beyond Repair examples, themselves in the American story.” The American story is the veteran’s story, too: “Each American who has served in Iraq has their own story.

Each of you has your own story. The Egiptian Revolution Of 2011? And that story is now a part of the history of the United States of America.” You can have a story, or embody a story, but stories are always about something larger than yourself. Repair? You can contribute to The Great Unimpeded Essay, the “American story,” because America also has a story, and that story is about something. It might be about Punishment: A Probel examples democracy, or diversity, or it might just be about its own aboutness: meaning depends on Islam's of Central Migrants in Russia, seeing America itself in allegorical terms. There’s a folksy country-music logic to all this storytelling. “After all, that’s what country music is all about — storytelling,” Obama told a group of country musicians at “An Evening of Country Music” at Capital Beyond Repair the White House, in remarks that were charming precisely because he does not listen to country music. “It’s about folks telling their life story the Disaster Essay, best way they know how — stories of love and Capital Punishment: A Probel Beyond, longing, hope and heartbreak, pride and pain. Stories that help us celebrate the good times and Role in Cultural Assimiliation and Adaptation of Central Asian in Russia, get over the bad times. Stories that are quintessentially American.” Like country music, all this storytelling starts to feel false if you listen to a lot of it back to back. Even as cliche, “story” reveals something about Obama’s understanding of the self. Story is the key to selfhood, whether it’s an individual story, the Capital A Probel Beyond examples, group story, or the national story. Obama bestows storyhood on us — you have a story, therefore you exist — and inducts us into How to Resolve Workplace Conflicts, a common plot in which all characters possess equal narrative value.

Obama’s ascendancy is concurrent with the ascendancy of critical theory, and A Probel Beyond Repair, with the theories of selfhood and subjectivity that took hold in the multicultural academy in the 1980s, when he came of age intellectually. Everything is a text, Derrida insisted, but Obama turns text into story and offers a calm of How to reconstructionism after the storm of deconstructionism. To have your story told — to be included in the canon — is to be. Before it was the American national motto, e pluribus unum referred to Punishment: A Probel Repair Essay, the gathering of different texts into a magazine or a single volume; before the American Revolution, e pluribus unum was the slogan of the Gentleman’s Magazine, and it appears in 18th-century poetry collections. In a profound sense, Obama has restored that original meaning of the dollars, motto. Pushed to its idealistic extreme, “story” would suggest that politics is not a matter of negotiation, nor even, ultimately, of Capital Punishment: Repair Essay examples power. It is a matter of anthology-building.

But stories are not history . Obama sometimes says that “History teaches us” this or that truth, as if History were the great pedant, the source of axiomatic wisdom. But more often, history is the who took my cheese, thing you grapple with. In Turkey in 2009, history was a weight: “History is often tragic, but unresolved, it can be a heavy weight.” In Cuba in 2016, history was a barrier: “Havana is only ninety miles from Florida, but to get here we had to travel a great distance — over barriers of history and ideology; barriers of Capital A Probel Repair Essay pain and separation.” History is the who took, ocean in which we float or drown. “The blue waters beneath Air Force One once carried American battleships to this island.” The same waters “carried generations of A Probel Beyond Repair Essay examples Cuban revolutionaries to the United States,” and the “tides of history” brought conflict, exile, and poverty in on Importance of Philosophers, the cold war. “I know the history, but I refuse to be trapped by Beyond, it,” he pivots, consigning the cold war to the tragic past. The speech can then cross that distance: “And I’ve come here — I’ve traveled this distance — on Islam's Role in Cultural and Adaptation Migrants in Russia, a bridge that was built by Capital Punishment: A Probel Beyond Repair Essay, Cubans on both sides of the Florida Straits.” History wounds. Story heals and transcends. A repetition of history signals a failure of politics. The repetition of stories demonstrates progress toward a secular millennium. Unimpeded? History is tragic. Punishment: Essay Examples? Story is romantic or comic.

Theories of history are always theories of the future, and one thousand, Presidents’ theories of history often involve occult, oracular communications with the future. George W. Bush, as the disaster of his presidency wore on, became a desperate reader of biographies. When Bush said “history will judge,” history was a kindly future biographer who would rescue him from the condemnation of every historian of the present. A Probel Repair Essay Examples? As time wore on, his speeches amounted to little more than clumsy, frantic prayers to that future pardoner. When Bush called himself “the decider” and called his memoir Decision Points , he was not just arrogating power to himself or speaking businessman-ese; he was suggesting that history consists of individual decisions, a leader alone in a room with limited options, a red pill and a blue pill, time marching mechanically on.

With such a narrow view of history, and such a record of terrible decisions, it’s not surprising that decisiveness was his only remaining virtue. Obama dramatizes not the individual decision but the generational one: the Essay on Importance of Philosophers, we of Punishment: A Probel Beyond “yes we can” is a generational we . Conflicts? Rhetorically at least, he is not the one making the decision; he summons a generation and narrates that generation’s decision. He invokes history not as a future biographer (a great memoirist needs no biographer), but as the many future generations that will judge ours. His theory of Punishment: Beyond Essay history posits not a mechanical series of decision points, but a mystical series of generational moments. In Obama’s speeches, every historical achievement is Resolve framed as a generational achievement, even if the demographics are vague: the American Revolution, the abolition of slavery, the civil rights movement. Early on, abolition was the generational achievement he called on most often to inspire the present. Capital Punishment: Repair? In February 2009, on the occasion of Abraham Lincoln’s two-hundredth birthday, Obama gave a stirring transgenerational speech. It is one of his best. “When posterity looks back on our time, as we are looking back on Lincoln’s,” he said, I don’t want it said that we saw an Role and Adaptation Asian Migrants economic crisis but did not stem it; that we saw our schools decline and our bridges crumble but we did not rebuild them; that the world changed in the 21st century but America did not lead it; that we were consumed with small things when we were called to do great things. Instead, let them say that this generation — our generation — of Beyond Repair Essay examples Americans rose to the moment and gave America a new birth of freedom and Essay of Philosophers, opportunity in our time. Generation occurs in Obama’s speeches almost as often as story , and it might be the quintessential Obama term.

It has both a biblical and a marketing resonance: it calls to mind both Ecclesiastes and Adweek . Consider a paragraph from Obama’s Second Inaugural Address: This generation of Americans has been tested by crises that steeled our resolve and proved our resilience. Capital Punishment: Essay? A decade of war is now ending. An economic recovery has begun. America’s possibilities are limitless, for we possess all the qualities that this world without boundaries demands: youth and drive; diversity and openness; an The Great Disaster Essay endless capacity for risk and a gift for reinvention. Capital Punishment: A Probel Beyond Repair? My fellow Americans, we are made for this moment, and one thousand dollars o henry, we will seize it — so long as we seize it together. The “generation” at work here has no demographic coherence or specificity (although I suspect he had in mind every demographic except the boomers), but it does have an essential narrative logic. It exists tautologically: We are made for Repair examples, this moment.

A generation can be defined as the How to Conflicts, thing that exists in the now of the narrative. In the narrative world of an Obama speech, the protagonist of every story is in Punishment: Repair Essay examples, some sense a generation, and the climax of Islam's Role in Cultural Assimiliation and Adaptation Asian Migrants in Russia every story is Beyond Repair examples a moment. For Bush, time was always running out, like Jack Bauer’s clock in 24 . The decision point was that instant when one billiard ball hits the next, and God willing, your aim was true. But in the greatest Obama speeches, because of their eloquence and ceremonial grandeur, time itself slows. The moment is Resolve Workplace Essay a sacred, baptismal pause. Christened as part of a generation, you, American citizen, are given a glimpse of the eternal. When Obama says, “This is our moment,” he means both the moment in the story and the moment in the speech — that dilated, mysterious, oratorical now . “This is Capital Repair examples our moment” is an Role in Cultural Assimiliation and Adaptation Asian Migrants in Russia incantation, powerful because it collapses speech, story, and action into a single, salvific, visionary event. The speech announces the moment, and it is the moment. The particular mood of the late Obama years — that inevitable feeling of Punishment: Beyond Essay examples loss or coming down among liberals, Democrats, and the center-left — is hard to name.

Disappointment is Essay too parental; disillusionment not right, either, because the heights of Obama rhetoric and inspiration were not necessarily illusions. The mood is not simply a product of paralyzed government, of the crimes and tragedies of foreign policy, of the Nobel Peace Prizes that brought no peace; it isn’t really about Obama’s failures or his successes, which are not my concern here. The feeling needs one of those compound German words, like Bedeutsamkeitserschopfung : momentousness fatigue. Examples? It’s a curious ambivalence to on Importance, want salvation while you’re weary of being saved. That mood was itself a luxury. So far I have said little about war. That is partly because modern wars rarely allow American Presidents much scope for oratory. Oval Office speeches solemnly announce the beginning of “military operations” — never outright war, because war is no longer declared but “authorized.” These speeches are pale impressions of Punishment: A Probel Essay examples Winston Churchill.

They fight on Revolution Essay, rhetorical beaches, unswerving, unflinching, indomitable, anaphoric, alliterative. Presidential war speeches grow paler and more euphemistic as war drags on. Punishment: Beyond Essay Examples? It proves impossible to who took my cheese, orate a war’s end if that war has no end. George W. Bush’s attempt — the “mission accomplished” speech aboard an aircraft carrier — was an embarrassment and Punishment: Beyond Essay, a moral crime. Drones need no Churchills and deserve no Lincolns. Oratorically at on Importance of Philosophers least, “Commander in Chief” is the worst of all presidential personae.

The title is drawn from a neutral and Essay, bureaucratic phrase in the Constitution (Article II, Section 2), but with the Essay on Importance of Philosophers, rise of the A Probel Essay, national security state in the 20th century, the term has taken on the weight and sanctimony of empire. “Commander in in Cultural and Adaptation Migrants, Chief” is our imperial cant, a robe and Capital Punishment: A Probel Repair Essay examples, scepter in Role in Cultural and Adaptation of Central Asian Migrants, verbal form. Most Commander-in-Chief speeches betray, consciously or not, a deep and irresolvable guilt. They sublimate that guilt into Capital A Probel, canned exhortations to “support our troops,” and encomia to “wounded warriors.” They deploy the falsest national “we.” In general, Obama has avoided blustery war speeches. The closest he’s come was his announcement in May 2011 that Osama bin Laden had been killed. Resolve Essay? It was delivered in the White House’s East Room, with the Capital A Probel Essay, podium placed in the open doorway of a pillared hall for added pomp. Essay On Importance Of Philosophers? It was one of the rare Obama speeches delivered live to TV stations as an Important Interruption, and was spoken to a camera with that awkward teleprompter effect. As a speech, it is almost as hollow and stilted as Bush’s “Mission Accomplished,” minus the banner and the aircraft carrier. It is heavy on justification, insisting that “Americans understand the costs of Capital Punishment: Repair Essay war” even though most Americans do not. It rests on cliches about values: “We will be relentless in defense of our citizens and o henry, our friends and Beyond Essay, allies.

We will be true to the values that make us who we are.” The peroration boasts that “America can do whatever we set our mind to” and then clumsily states that “that is the story of our history.” It’s a sign of hasty composition, and it raised the tent for the opportunistic PR circus that followed. Obama tried to Conflicts, convey the sense of an Punishment: Beyond Repair ending, but nothing of Role in Cultural Assimiliation and Adaptation of Central Asian Migrants in Russia substance had ended. Punishment: Beyond Essay Examples? He presided over war that doesn’t feel like war, so why should we expect great war oratory? Drones need no Churchills and deserve no Lincolns. Or perhaps I should put it this way: Obama has given great war speeches, only not about war. Obama’s great war speeches have been about domestic shootings. The saddest irony in the Obama corpus is Unimpeded Disaster Essay that these moments bring him closest to Lincoln.

The first was in November 2009, after the shooting at Fort Hood in Texas. Obama’s eulogy looked ahead to a future era, “long after they are laid to rest — when the fighting has finished, and our nation has endured; when today’s servicemen and women are veterans, and their children have grown.” It recalls the Gettysburg Address, in which Lincoln looked ahead to Capital Repair, an era that “will little note nor long remember what we say here,” but would “never forget what they did here.” Lincoln’s Second Inaugural likewise deploys a poignant future-perfect tense, imploring us “to care for dollars, him who shall have borne the battle and for Essay examples, his widow and his orphan.” Because the Islam's in Cultural of Central Migrants in Russia, victims of the Fort Hood shooting were servicemen and women, it was possible to see them as martyrs and to state with alliterative confidence that “we press ahead in pursuit of the peace that guided their service.” An archaic style is appropriate when the setting is military, as it was at the Washington Navy Yard in A Probel Essay examples, 2013: “May God hold close the souls taken from Unimpeded Essay, us and grant them eternal peace,” Obama said in closing. “And may God grant us the strength and A Probel Beyond Repair Essay, the wisdom to keep safe our United States of Unimpeded America .” Note the Capital Repair examples, pointedly formal word order: hold close the souls and keep safe our United States. After the Assimiliation, 2011 shooting of Punishment: A Probel Repair Essay Gabrielle Giffords and Essay on Importance of Philosophers, eighteen others in Tucson, Arizona, Obama gave another war speech, though the setting was not military. A Probel Essay Examples? He spoke of the men and women who had tackled the who took my cheese, shooter and aided the wounded.

They “remind us that heroism is found not only on Punishment: A Probel Beyond, the fields of battle. . . . Heroism is here, in The Great, the hearts of so many of our fellow citizens, all around us, just waiting to be summoned.” The speech refines grief into Beyond Repair Essay, patriotism. The historian Garry Wills suggested at the time that Obama’s speech in Tucson was his “finest hour.” Obama echoed Lincoln’s mourning at Gettysburg (“from these honored dead we take increased devotion to that cause for which they gave the who took, last full measure of devotion”), but moved beyond mourning toward the inspirational rhetoric of Henry V at Agincourt (“For he to-day that sheds his blood with me / Shall be my brother”). A Probel Beyond Repair Essay? There was even a touch of the The Egiptian of 2011, miraculous, when Obama reported that Giffords “opened her eyes for the first time” while he was in Capital Punishment: Beyond Repair examples, the hospital with her. The devices of traditional war oratory give order to chaotic events. At Fort Hood, Obama reflected on who we are : “We are a nation that endures because of the courage of those who defend it.” “We are a nation of laws.” “We’re a nation that is dedicated to the proposition that all men and women are created equal.” “That’s who we are as a people.” This broader purpose makes a tragedy meaningful rather than meaningless. But over time, the randomness of shootings becomes a challenge to oratory, because randomness defies any national purpose or story. Revolution Essay? And the affirmations of Punishment: Beyond war oratory erode. “That’s who we are” becomes the deceptive, desperate poetry of “This is not who we are.” Obama first stepped beyond the Revolution of 2011 Essay, templates of traditional war oratory in 2012, after the school shooting in Newtown, Connecticut. Capital Punishment: A Probel Repair? The speech begins with the standard national “we” and the formal language of eulogy (“I am very mindful that mere words cannot match the depths of your sorrow, nor can they heal your wounded hearts”).

But then the language turns normal, and the national “we” turns inward: “This is our first task: caring for our children. It’s our first job. If we don’t get that right, we don’t get anything right. That’s how, as a society, we will be judged.” There follows a set of questions: And by The Great Disaster, that measure, can we truly say, as a nation, that we are meeting our obligations?

Can we honestly say that we’re doing enough to Capital Punishment: A Probel Beyond Repair Essay examples, keep our children — all of dollars o henry them — safe from harm? Can we claim, as a nation, that we’re all together there, letting them know that they are loved, and teaching them to love in return? Can we say that we’re truly doing enough to give all the children of this country the chance they deserve to live out their lives in happiness and with purpose? Lincoln’s Second Inaugural posed a knotty theological question about what the “mighty scourge of war” revealed about the Almighty’s judgments upon us. Obama’s straightforward questions in A Probel Beyond examples, Newtown dispense with reflections on the Almighty’s mysterious purpose: “I’ve been reflecting on this the last few days, and if we’re honest with ourselves, the answer is no. We’re not doing enough. And we will have to change.” The speech arrives at the first names of the twenty children who were killed, stated simply, one after the other: “Charlotte. Daniel.

Olivia. Josephine. Ana. One Thousand? Dylan. Madeleine. Catherine. Chase. Jesse. James. Grace. Emilie. Jack. Noah. Caroline. Jessica. Benjamin. Avielle. Allison.” He does not need to assemble their stories because the selection has already been made.

In time, the eloquent clarity and Essay examples, starkness of The Great Unimpeded Essay this speech will erode, too. His second departure from the template of war oratory was in June 2015, after nine people were killed in the oldest African Methodist Episcopal Church in the South. Capital A Probel Essay Examples? Obama delivered the eulogy for one of the victims, South Carolina State Senator and Reverend Clementa Pinckney. The first line — “Giving all praise and honor to God,” without any presidential pleasantries — tells us right away that this is one thousand not a speech but an actual sermon. Obama recalls Pinckney’s life and is as honest as a President can be about racial terrorism in America. The shooter, he said, “drew on a long history of Beyond Repair Essay bombs and Essay, arson and shots fired at churches, not random, but as a means of control, a way to terrorize and oppress.” Against that terrorism stands the black church and its heroic history. The church, “our beating heart,” is where “our dignity as a people is inviolate.” The pivot of the sermon is not the pregnant pause that usually comes before Obama reaches toward that transcendent Z and consigns X and Y to the past. (There is no X, Y, or Z in this speech, nor was there a teleprompter in the church where he gave it.) The pivot is a preacher’s pivot: “ Ohhh ,” he says with a gentle laugh, about Punishment: A Probel examples halfway through, “but God works in mysterious ways,” and the congregation erupts in knowing cheers. The killer, Obama says, “didn’t know he was being used by God.” This is a new interpretation, untried in any other speech.

To suggest that the shooter was, unbeknownst to himself, an who took my cheese agent of God’s will, that he was sent not as a punishment for our sins (for Pinckney was no sinner) but as the divine mechanism that allows us to receive and A Probel Beyond Essay, express God’s grace — such an argument could fly only in a sermon. It needs the rhythm of Role Assimiliation of Central Asian a sermon, it needs the delivery of a sermon, and Punishment: A Probel Beyond Repair Essay examples, it needs the affirmations and amens of the congregation. The congregation, after all, has to follow the preacher into a paradox: that we are saved by tragedy, that while the shooter was “blinded by who took, hatred,” his blindness makes us see love. A Probel Beyond Repair Essay? The shooter visited terror upon a church, but in the same moment, “ God has visited grace upon us, for he has allowed us to see where we’ve been blind.” Lincoln could not have made this argument. My Cheese? Nor could Obama have made this argument before. All the other models of A Probel Beyond Essay oratory were exhausted. The sermon soars. The band bursts in occasionally, punctuating Obama’s catalog of ways we can “express God’s grace”: by taking down the Confederate flag, as South Carolina’s governor had finally done soon after the shooting; “by recognizing our common humanity by treating every child as important, regardless of the The Egiptian of 2011 Essay, color of Capital Punishment: A Probel Beyond Repair their skin or the station into which they were born.” If we were to change our gun laws, we would “express God’s grace.” Near the sermon’s end, after a long pause, Obama sings the Unimpeded Disaster Essay, first verse of “Amazing Grace.” He picks a key that’s a little low for his voice, but the vibrato is true and tender. The band finds the key and the congregation joins him. How strange and sad that after countless speeches, Obama’s pinnacle would not be his own words or the words of a speechwriter, or even a speech at all, but an 18th-century English hymn.

It is beautiful, and Capital Punishment: Beyond Repair examples, also a last resort. After that the speeches grow bitter. In October 2015, after a shooting at a community college in Oregon, Obama’s speech acknowledged its own redundancy: “Somehow this has become routine. The reporting is of 2011 routine. My response here at this podium ends up being routine.” We’re left with a basic civics lesson recited to a listless classroom: “This is a political choice that we make to allow this to happen every few months in Capital Beyond Repair Essay, America. We collectively are answerable to How to Resolve Workplace Conflicts, those families who lose their loved ones because of Capital Punishment: Essay our inaction.” In June 2016, after the shooting at the Pulse nightclub in Orlando, we are left with a grim, graceless prediction: “If we don’t act, we will keep seeing more massacres like this — because we’ll be choosing to Islam's Role in Cultural of Central Asian in Russia, allow them to Capital A Probel Beyond Essay, happen. We will have said, we don’t care enough to do something about it.” We will have said . It is a rare instance in the Obama corpus of the future-perfect tense. Lincoln said at Gettysburg that “we cannot dedicate, we cannot consecrate, we cannot hallow this ground.” That refrain has become, in Obama’s late speeches, the pained possibility that our dedications, consecrations, and The Great Unimpeded Essay, hallowings are themselves acts of Beyond Repair Essay bad faith.

It turns out this is who we are. “Not our President”? Not our Party either. Nothing about this political vision was new. Unimpeded? It was the power of Obama’s biography that gave the Capital A Probel Beyond Repair, rhetoric new appeal. My sister grabbed a sheet, tripped on it, ran out of the room naked. I stepped back, mouth open. Issue 27 The Last Last Summer Joshua Cohen. Issue 27 Old Ship Kristin Dombek.

Issue 27 Don't Be Scared, Homie Sam Frank. Issue 27 In Tbilisi Victoria Lomasko. Look, I was tortured. They say I snitched on a comrade who later died by soldiers’ bullets. I didn’t snitch. Issue 27 Ward’s Fool Caleb Crain. Some people will do anything to avoid writing. Issue 27 All That Counts Is Getting to a Normal World A. S. Hamrah. For Janowitz, the who took, patriarchal American family is Capital Punishment: Beyond a prison, which subjugates and erases brilliant, sensitive women. Many of Sanders’s campaign proposals rested on unexamined assumptions about gender and race. Online Only This Is Not the Apocalypse George Blaustein.

Online Only Act Normal or Go Away George Blaustein. Online Only On Horseshit George Blaustein. Online Only Letter from Amsterdam George Blaustein. Issue 23 Screw Us and We Multiply George Blaustein. The nomination of a Supreme Court justice is the closest thing the United States has to Revolution of 2011, the election of Capital A Probel Repair Essay a pope.

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10 Things You May Not Know About Captain James Cook. 10 Things You May Not Know About Captain James Cook. October 06, 2017. On April 29, 1770, the A Probel Essay British HM Bark Endeavor became the dollars first European vessel to reach the east coast of Australia after it landed at Botany Bay near modern day Sydney. At the helm was James Cook, a taciturn mariner who would go on to circumnavigate the globe twice and explore everything from the Bering Strait and the islands of the South Pacific to the treacherous ice floes surrounding Antarctica. Cook’s three voyages of Capital Punishment: Beyond Repair, discovery helped fill in on Importance, many of the A Probel Beyond Repair Essay examples blank spots on Europeans’ world maps, but his mistreatment of natives in Hawaii eventually led to an untimely death. Two hundred forty-five years after he landed in who took my cheese, Australia, learn 10 surprising facts about the A Probel Essay explorer who vowed to sail “as far as I think it possible for man to go.” 1. Cook joined the The Egiptian of 2011 Royal Navy relatively late in life. Capital Punishment: Essay Examples! Cook worked on a Yorkshire farm in his youth before winning an apprenticeship with a merchant sailing company at age 17. He cut his teeth as a mariner on shipping voyages in the choppy waters of North and Baltic Seas, and The Egiptian, spent the next decade rising through the Capital A Probel Beyond Essay ranks and mastering the art of navigation. He was being groomed to become a captain, but in o henry, 1755, he shocked his superiors by quitting his merchant sailing career and enlisting in the British Royal Navy as a common seaman.

Cook was 26—far older than most new recruits—yet it didn’t take long for Capital Punishment: Beyond the Navy to recognize his talent. He was promoted to ship’s master in only two years, and Revolution, later became one of the Punishment: A Probel Beyond first men in on Importance of Philosophers, British naval history to Capital Punishment: Beyond Essay, rise through the enlisted ranks and take command of his own vessel. 2. He was an expert mapmaker. Cook first rose to prominence as a cartographer during the Seven Years’ War, when his detailed charts of the Saint Lawrence River helped the British pull off a surprise attack against French-held Quebec. In the Unimpeded Essay early 1760s, he was given a ship and tasked with charting the Punishment: A Probel Repair examples island of Newfoundland off the Resolve Workplace coast of Canada. The map he produced was so accurate that it was still in use in Capital Punishment: A Probel, the 20th century. Cook’s skill at Essay of Philosophers, charting the seas would later become a crucial tool in his explorer’s arsenal. He won command of his first round-the-world voyage in part because he could be trusted to navigate in uncharted territory and bring home precise maps of the lands he discovered. Cook landing at Punishment: A Probel Repair Essay, Botany Bay. 3. Cook’s first voyage included a secret mission from the British government.

Cook’s career as an explorer began in August 1768, when he left England on HM Bark Endeavour with nearly 100 crewmen in tow. Their journey was ostensibly a scientific expedition—they were charged with sailing to Tahiti to observe the transit of Venus across the face of the sun—but it also had a hidden military agenda. Cook carried sealed orders instructing him to seek out the “Great Southern Continent,” an undiscovered landmass that was believed to lurk somewhere near the bottom of the globe. Role In Cultural In Russia! The explorer followed orders and sailed south to the 40th parallel, but found no evidence of the Punishment: Beyond fabled continent. He then turned west and circled New Zealand, proving it was a pair of islands and not connected to a larger landmass. Cook would later resume his search for the Southern Continent during his second circumnavigation of the globe in the early 1770s, and came tantalizingly close to sighting Antarctica before pack ice forced him to turn back. 4. His ship Endeavour nearly sank on in Cultural Assimiliation of Central Migrants in Russia the Great Barrier Reef. After landing in Australia during his first voyage, Cook pointed his ship north and headed for the Dutch seaport of Batavia. Because he was in unmapped territory, he had no idea he was sailing directly into the razor-sharp coral formations of the Great Barrier Reef. On June 11, 1770, his ship Endeavour slammed into a coral reef and began taking on Capital Punishment: Beyond Essay water, endangering both his crew and his priceless charts of his Pacific discoveries. Cook’s men frantically pumped water out of the holds and who took, threw cannons and other equipment overboard to lighten the ship’s weight.

They even used an old sail to try and plug a hole in their hull. Capital Essay! After more than 20 desperate hours, they finally stopped the leak and limped toward the Australian coast. It would take Cook nearly two months of repairs to make his ship seaworthy again. Painting showing Cook’s ships Resolution and Adventure in Tahiti. 5. Cook helped pioneer new methods for warding off scurvy. In the 18th century, the specter of The Great Essay, scurvy—a disease caused by A Probel Essay examples, a lack of Resolve Conflicts, vitamin C—loomed over every long distance sea voyage. Cook, however, managed to keep all three of his expeditions nearly scurvy-free. This was partially because of his obsession with procuring fresh food at each of his stops, but many have also credited his good fortune to an unlikely source: sauerkraut. Repair Examples! While Cook didn’t know the cure or cause of scurvy, he did know that the nutrient-rich pickled cabbage seemed to dollars, keep the disease at bay, so he brought several tons of it on his voyages. His only problem was getting his crew to Capital Beyond Essay examples, eat it. To trick them, Cook simply had sauerkraut “dressed every day” for The Great Unimpeded Essay the officers’ table.

When the enlisted men saw their superiors eating it, they assumed it was a delicacy and requested some for themselves. 6. Punishment: Beyond! Even Britain’s enemies respected Cook. While Cook’s journeys took place during a time when Britain was variously at war with the United States, Spain and France, his reputation as a pioneering explorer allowed him to travel the and Adaptation Asian seas with relative impunity. In July 1772, a squadron of Spanish vessels briefly detained his ships, only to Capital A Probel Beyond Repair Essay, release them after they realized Cook in command. Likewise, when Cook’s third voyage set sail during the American Revolution, Benjamin Franklin wrote a memo to colonial ship captains instructing them to one thousand dollars, treat the British vessels as “common friends to A Probel Beyond Repair, mankind” if they encountered them at sea. 7. He searched for the Northwest Passage.

In 1776, a 47-year-old Cook set sail on his third voyage of discovery—this time a search for The Great Unimpeded Essay the elusive Northwest Passage in Capital Essay examples, the Arctic. After traveling halfway around the world, he led the ships HMS Resolution and Discovery on a perilous survey of the upper coasts of Essay on Importance of Philosophers, western Canada and Alaska. Cook came within 50 miles of the western entrance to the passage, but his attempts to Punishment: Beyond Repair Essay examples, locate it were ultimately thwarted by freezing weather, violent currents and heavy ice floes in the Bering Sea. When the extreme conditions drove his crew to the brink of dollars, mutiny, Cook reluctantly turned south for the summer. He would die before he had a chance to resume his search. Painting depicting Cook#039;s death in Capital Punishment: Beyond examples, Hawaii. 8. Natives mistook him for one thousand o henry a god when he landed in the Hawaiian Islands. During Cook’s third voyage, he became the first European to set foot on Hawaii, which he called the “Sandwich Islands” after his patron the Earl of Sandwich.

Hawaiians at Essay, Kealakekua Bay celebrated Cook’s January 1779 landing with joyous celebrations, and for one thousand o henry good reason: by some strange coincidence, the explorer’s arrival coincided with an annual festival honoring the Hawaiian fertility god Lono. Since the natives had never seen white men or massive sailing ships like Cook’s, they assumed he was their deity and Beyond Repair Essay, lavished him with feasts and gifts. The Europeans responded by greedily stripping Kealakekua of food and supplies, but when one of Cook’s sailors died from a stroke, the natives realized the strangely dressed Europeans weren’t immortals after all. From then on, Cook’s relationship with the dollars o henry Hawaiians became increasingly strained. 9. He suffered a grisly death.

While docked for repairs in Hawaii in February 1779, Cook became enraged after a group of natives stole a cutter ship from one of his boats. He went ashore and tried to take King Kalani‘opu‘u hostage, but the Repair Essay examples Hawaiians feared their leader would be killed and The Egiptian Revolution, swarmed to his aid. When Cook’s ship Discovery fired its cannons at another group of Hawaiians, the explorer panicked and discharged a rifle before fleeing to a waiting boat. He didn’t get far before he was pelted by stones and struck by a club. A Hawaiian warrior then brandished a knife—a gift from Cook—and plunged it into his back.

Cook fell into the surf and was repeatedly stabbed and bashed with rocks. After he perished, the Hawaiians ritualistically prepared his corpse as they would that of a king. They preserved his hands in sea salt, then roasted the rest of his body in A Probel Repair, a pit before cleaning his bones. 10. NASA named spacecraft after his ships. Cook explored and mapped more territory than any navigator of his era, and his achievements later saw him honored by NASA. Cook’s HMS Discovery was one of dollars o henry, several historical vessels that inspired the Punishment: Essay examples name of the third space shuttle, and NASA later named their final shuttle “Endeavour” after the ship he commanded on his first circumnavigation of the Unimpeded Disaster Essay globe. When the shuttle Discovery made its final space flight in 2011, its crew carried a special medallion made by the Royal Society in honor of Cook. Get the Beyond Repair Essay latest History in the Headlines delivered straight to your inbox!

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essay on media news Robert G. Kaiser. I n 1998, Ralph Terkowitz, a vice president of The Washington Post Co., got to know Sergey Brin and Larry Page, two young Silicon Valley entrepreneurs who were looking for backers. Terkowitz remembers paying a visit to the garage where they were working and keeping his car and A Probel Beyond Repair Essay driver waiting outside while he had a meeting with them about the idea that eventually became Google. Islam's In Cultural Assimiliation And Adaptation Asian Migrants! An early investment in Google might have transformed the Post 's financial condition, which became dire a dozen years later, by Punishment: A Probel Repair, which time Google was a multi-billion dollar company. But nothing happened. “We kicked it around,” Terkowitz recalled, but the then-fat Post Co. had other irons in other fires. Such missteps are not surprising. People living through a time of one thousand dollars o henry, revolutionary change usually fail to grasp what is going on around them. The American news business would get a C minus or worse from any fair-minded professor evaluating its performance in the first phase of the Digital Age. Big, slow-moving organizations steeped in their traditional ways of doing business could not accurately foresee the next stages of a technological whirlwind. Obviously, new technologies are radically altering the ways in which we learn, teach, communicate, and are entertained.

It is impossible to know today where these upheavals may lead, but where they take us matters profoundly. How the digital revolution plays out over time will be particularly important for journalism, and therefore to the United States, because journalism is the craft that provides the lifeblood of a free, democratic society. The Founding Fathers knew this. They believed that their experiment in self-governance would require active participation by an informed public, which could only be possible if people had unfettered access to Punishment: A Probel Beyond Repair Essay information. James Madison, author of the First Amendment guaranteeing freedom of speech and of 2011 of the Capital A Probel examples, press, summarized the proposition succinctly: “The advancement and diffusion of knowledge is the Essay on Importance of Philosophers, only guardian of Punishment: A Probel Repair examples, true liberty.” Thomas Jefferson explained to his French friend, the Marquis de Lafayette, The only security of all is in a free press. The force of public opinion cannot be resisted when permitted freely to be expressed.” American journalists cherish another of Jefferson's remarks: “Were it left to me to decide whether we should have a government without newspapers or newspapers without a government, I should not hesitate a moment to prefer the The Egiptian of 2011 Essay, latter.”

The journalistic ethos that animated many of the Founders was embodied by a printer, columnist, and Capital Punishment: Beyond Repair editor from Philadelphia named Benjamin Franklin. The printing press, which afforded Franklin his livelihood, remained the engine of American democracy for The Great Unimpeded Essay, more than two centuries. But then, in the second half of the 20th century, new technologies began to undermine long-established means of sharing information. First television and Capital A Probel Beyond then the computer and who took my cheese the Internet transformed the way people got their news. Beyond Essay Examples! Nonetheless, even at the end of the century, the business of providing news and dollars analysis was still a profitable enough undertaking that it could support large organizations of professional reporters and editors in Capital Punishment: Beyond Repair Essay print and broadcast media. Now, however, in the first years of the 21st century, accelerating technological transformation has undermined the business models that kept American news media afloat, raising the possibility that the great institutions on my cheese which we have depended for news of the world around us may not survive. These are painful words to write for Punishment: Essay examples, someone who spent 50 years as a reporter and editor at The Washington Post . Who Took! For the Capital A Probel Repair, first 15 years of my career, the Post 's stories were still set in lead type by linotype machines, now seen only in museums.

We first began writing on and Adaptation Asian in Russia computers in the late 1970s, which seemed like an unequivocally good thing until the Capital Punishment: Beyond Essay examples, rise of the Internet in the 1990s. The Great Unimpeded Disaster Essay! Then, gradually, the ground began to shift beneath us. By the time I retired earlier this year, the Graham family had sold the Post to Jeff Bezos, the founder of Amazon, for $250 million, a small fraction of A Probel examples, its worth just a few years before. Donald Graham, the chief executive at the time, admitted that he did not know how to save the newspaper. In fact, digital technology has flummoxed the owners of traditional news media, especially newspapers, from the beginning. For example, in 1983, in dollars o henry the early years of computerized production of newspapers when almost no one knew what was coming, The New York Times almost committed digital suicide.

The Times decided it only needed to retain the rights to the electronic versions of Capital Punishment: A Probel, its stories for 24 hours after publication. How To Workplace! To make a little extra money, the Times sold rights to everything older than 24 hours to Mead Data Central, owners of the Lexis-Nexis service. Mead Data Central then sold electronic access to Times stories to law firms, libraries, and the public. By the early 1990s, as the Internet was becoming functional and popular, this arrangement was a big and growing problem: newspapers, including the Times , were planning “online,” computerized editions, but the A Probel examples, Times had sold control of The Egiptian of 2011, its own product to Mead Data. Luckily for the country's best newspaper, the Anglo-Dutch firm Reed Elsevier bought Mead Data in 1994. Capital Punishment: Beyond! The sale triggered a provision in the original Times -Mead contract that allowed the Times to Essay of Philosophers reclaim the electronic rights to its own stories.

That enabled the Times to put its journalism online in 1995. But putting newspapers online has not remotely restored their profitability. For the moment, The New York Times is making a small profit, but its advertising revenues are not reassuring. The Washington Post made profits of more than $120 million a year in the late 1990s, and Punishment: Repair examples today loses money—last year more than $40 million. The Egiptian Of 2011 Essay! Newsweek magazine failed, and Time magazine is teetering. A Probel Repair! Once-strong regional newspapers from Los Angeles to of Philosophers Miami, from Chicago to Philadelphia, find themselves in desperate straits, their survival in doubt.

News divisions of the major television networks have been cutting back for more than two decades, and are now but a feeble shadow of Capital Beyond Repair Essay examples, their former selves. Overall the economic devastation would be difficult to exaggerate. One statistic conveys its dimensions: the advertising revenue of all America's newspapers fell from $63.5 billion in 2000 to about $23 billion in 2013, and is still falling. Traditional news organizations' financial well-being depended on the willingness of advertisers to pay to reach the mass audiences they attracted. Advertisers were happy to The Great Unimpeded Disaster pay because no other advertising medium was as effective.

But in the digital era, which has made it relatively simple to target advertising in very specific ways, a big metropolitan or national newspaper has much less appeal. Internet companies like Google and Facebook are able to sort audiences by Capital A Probel, the most specific criteria, and thus to The Egiptian offer advertisers the possibility of spending their money only on ads they know will reach only people interested in what they are selling. So Google, the master of targeted advertising, can provide a retailer selling sheets and towels an audience existing exclusively of people who have gone online in the last month to Capital Punishment: Beyond Repair Essay examples shop for sheets and towels. This explains why even as newspaper revenues have plummeted, the ad revenue of Google has leapt upward year after year—from $70 million in 2001 to an astonishing $50.6 billion in in Cultural Assimiliation Asian Migrants 2013. Beyond Essay Examples! That is more than two times the combined advertising revenue of every newspaper in America last year. And the situation for dollars, proprietors of newspapers and magazines is likely to get worse. One alarming set of statistics: Americans spend about 5 percent of the Capital Punishment: A Probel Repair Essay, time they devote to media of all kinds to magazines and newspapers. But nearly 20 percent of advertising dollars still go to print media. So print media today are getting billions more than they probably deserve from advertisers who, governed by the inertia so common in who took human affairs, continue to buy space in publications that are steadily losing audience, especially among the young. When those advertisers wake up, revenues will plummet still further.

King County Journal. Union City Register Tribune. Halifax Daily News. Rocky Mountain News. News organizations have tried to Punishment: A Probel Repair adapt to the new realities. One Thousand O Henry! As the Punishment: A Probel Beyond examples, Internet became more popular and How to Resolve Workplace Conflicts more important in the first decade of the Capital Punishment: A Probel Beyond examples, 21st century, newspaper proprietors dreamed of paying for Unimpeded, their newsrooms by mimicking their traditional business model in the online world.

Their hope was to create mass followings for their websites that would appeal to advertisers the way their ink-on-paper versions once did. But that’s not what happened. The news organizations with the most popular websites did attract lots of eyeballs, but general advertising on their sites did not produce compelling results for advertisers, so they did not buy as much of it as the papers had hoped. And the price they paid for it steadily declined, because as the Internet grew, the number of sites offering advertising opportunities assured that “supply” outstripped “demand.” Advertising revenues for A Probel Beyond Repair Essay examples, the major news sites never amounted to even a significant fraction of the revenues generated by my cheese, printed newspapers in the golden age. There seems little prospect today that online advertising revenues will ever be as lucrative as advertising on paper once was. The other online innovation that has devastated newspapers is Craigslist, the free provider of what the newspapers call “classified advertising,” the small items in small print used by individuals and businesses for Punishment: examples, generations to The Egiptian buy and sell real estate and merchandise, and to A Probel Repair Essay hire workers. How To Resolve Conflicts Essay! Twenty years ago classifieds provided more than a third of the Capital Repair examples, revenue of The Washington Post . Craigslist has destroyed that business for one thousand o henry, the Post and every major paper in the country. The Philadelphia Inquirer/Daily News headquarters building on Broad Street in Punishment: A Probel Repair Essay examples Philadelphia, October 6, 2005. The paper is one of many major newspapers facing cutbacks and one thousand dwindling circulation. D espite two decades of trying, no one has found a way to Capital Punishment: A Probel Repair Essay examples make traditional news-gathering sufficiently profitable to assure its future survival. Serious readers of America's most substantial news media may find this description at odds with their daily experience.

After all, The New York Times , The Wall Street Journal , and who took my cheese The Washington Post still provide rich offerings of good journalism every morning, and Punishment: they have been joined by who took, numerous online providers of both opinion and news—even of classic investigative reporting. Digital publications employ thousands of reporters and editors in new and sometimes promising journalistic enterprises. Is this a disaster? Of course not—yet. But today's situation is probably misleading. The laws of economics cannot be ignored or repealed. Nor can the actuarial tables. Only about Capital Punishment: examples a third of Americans under 35 look at a newspaper even once a week, and the percentage declines every year. Who Took My Cheese! A large portion of today's readers of the few remaining good newspapers are much closer to the grave than to high school. Capital A Probel Repair! Today's young people skitter around the The Egiptian Revolution, Internet like ice skaters, exercising their short attention spans by looking for fun and, occasionally, seeking out Capital Punishment: Beyond Essay serious information. Audience taste seems to be changing, with the result that among young people particularly there is a declining appetite for the sort of my cheese, information packages the great newspapers provided, which included national, foreign and local news, business news, cultural news and Capital Repair Essay examples criticism, editorials and opinion columns, sports and obituaries, lifestyle features, and science news.

Alas for those who continue to want access to of Philosophers that kind of product, there is Capital Repair Essay, no right to The Egiptian of 2011 Essay reliable, intelligent, comprehensive journalism. We only get it when someone provides it. And if it doesn’t pay someone a profit, it’s not likely to be produced. New York City. 1959. TV news anchorman Walter Cronkite. © Dennis Stock/Magnum Photos. B efore digital technology changed the world, the news was quite orderly and Capital A Probel predictable. Islam's In Cultural Of Central In Russia! To find out what was happening, you bought a paper, listened to the radio, or watched television.

Most people relied on one or two sources for Punishment: A Probel Beyond examples, all their news—a newspaper and Unimpeded Disaster Essay a TV network, for Capital Punishment: Beyond Repair Essay, example. A few institutions and a few individuals dominated the The Egiptian Revolution, provision of news: Walter Cronkite and John Chancellor; The New York Times and The Washington Post ; Time and Newsweek . The universe of news providers was small and also remarkably homogeneous. David Brinkley could move from NBC to ABC without causing much of a stir. When Roone Arledge, whose first big accomplishment was to make ABC the leading network for sports, was empowered to build a new ABC News, he did it by raiding the staffs of Capital Beyond examples, NBC and CBS. My Cheese! Similarly, when Ted Turner launched CNN, he poached talent from the networks.

This small, nearly-closed world rarely provided any surprises. Politically, the big news organizations cast themselves as fair-minded and even-handed, never partisan. Time magazine may have been somewhat more conservative, The New York Times more liberal, but none drifted far from the center of the political spectrum. For nearly four decades after World War II, mainstream journalism was notably non-ideological. At the height of their success, all the best news organizations shared two important qualities: a strong sense of responsibility about their roles as providers of news and analysis, and Capital Punishment: Beyond Repair plenty of money to spend on How to Resolve Conflicts those missions.

In their heyday, roughly the last third of the 20th century, these institutions tended to unify American society. News anchors like Cronkite, Chancellor, Tom Brokaw, Dan Rather, and Peter Jennings were reassuring, avuncular figures with whom millions of Americans shared the dramas of the day. All the mainstream print and broadcast media sought to provide an Punishment: A Probel Beyond information supermarket whose aisles—from sports to business to politics, foreign affairs, entertainment news, and gossip—would hopefully attract mass audiences across all classes of society. And they made money—a lot of it—by selling those mass audiences to advertisers. NBC/NBCU Photo Bank via Getty Images.

The money allowed for an extravagant approach to news. Editors and producers could put their news instincts ahead of other considerations, including profits—at least occasionally. I did this myself, dispatching reporters around the one thousand, country and the world with something awfully close to abandon when I was a senior editor of The Washington Post . The best newspapers—the best of a much more crowded field than exists today—invested in Washington bureaus, foreign correspondents, and investigative reporting teams, not to mention luxuries almost unheard of now. Capital Punishment: Beyond Repair! For years, for example, no reporter for the Los Angeles Times had to The Egiptian Revolution of 2011 Essay suffer the indignity of Capital A Probel Beyond examples, flying in of 2011 Essay coach; business or first class was the norm. The broadcast media enjoyed even more extravagance. In the 1970s the three television networks each maintained large corps of foreign correspondents stationed in Capital Punishment: A Probel Beyond examples bureaus across the Revolution of 2011 Essay, globe, and also domestic bureaus in the major American cities. They all did serious documentaries and Punishment: A Probel Essay showed them in prime time. Editors and producers pursued stories that interested them, without much concern for how readers or viewers might react to the journalism that resulted. Members of this tribe of journalists shared a sense of one thousand, what “the news” was. The most influential of them were the editors and reporters on the best newspapers, whose decisions were systematically embraced and echoed by other editors and writers, as well as by the producers of television news. Punishment: Essay Examples! As many have noted now that their power has declined, these news executives were gatekeepers of a kind, deciding which stories got the most attention.

The most obvious examples of their discretionary power came in the realm of investigative reporting. One of the cardinal events of this era was Walter Cronkite's decision in late October 1972 to report in detail on the CBS Evening News the findings of two young Washington Post reporters, Carl Bernstein and Bob Woodward, on the developing Watergate scandal. Cronkite’s decision highlighted the strength of the news culture, while also helping to put the one thousand dollars o henry, Post —then still emerging as a leading newspaper—at the center of national attention. This was a golden era in journalism, a time when a prosperous and Punishment: A Probel widely-respected press demonstrated an Islam's Assimiliation Asian Migrants in Russia unprecedented willingness to confront a sitting president. Repair! Watergate and the Vietnam War both made it much easier to challenge authority. Newspapers especially began to show increasing self-confidence—sometimes it felt like arrogance—by moving away from reactive journalism that focused on the events of the The Egiptian Revolution of 2011 Essay, previous day and devoting more space and Capital Punishment: Beyond energy to Essay of Philosophers “enterprise” journalism, which included not just in-depth investigations, but stories about trends in society, profiles, and feature stories. Thanks to this new boldness, the relationship between reporters and government deteriorated and became quite contentious. Deference gave way to skepticism and, often, cynicism about the believability of public officials and government agencies.

One of the great symbolic moments of this era was the decision by the Nixon administration to seek a court order to stop The New York Times from Punishment: A Probel Beyond Repair, publishing details of a secret Pentagon history of the Vietnam war that a disgruntled official had leaked to the paper. Initially a federal district court accepted the government’s argument that publication endangered “national security,” and issued an order to the Times to cease publication of stories based on the “Pentagon Papers.” The Times 's source, Daniel Ellsberg, then leaked another set of the papers to The Washington Post , which hurriedly began preparing stories about them. The government sought court action to on Importance block the Post as well. The Supreme Court agreed to take the case. The Times and Post hired some of the best (and most expensive) lawyers in the country to argue for publication. The court quickly decided in Punishment: Repair favor of the newspapers' right to publish. Nixon's attempt to impose “prior restraint” on who took the American press had failed. Two private corporations, the Times and Post companies, had defied the government and then persuaded the Supreme Court to Punishment: A Probel Repair Essay let them get away with it. Journalists still remember this as a critical moment in the history of their business. 1902-03: Ida Tarbell profiles John D. Rockefeller and the Standard Oil Company The progressive era of the late 19th and early 20th centuries was a time of social activism as Americans and their president, Theodore Roosevelt, fought corruption and monopolistic practices in who took government and industry.

Tarbell, a former school teacher, wrote a series of articles for McClure’s Magazine about the giant Standard Oil Company and its owner John D. Rockefeller. The series was published in book form in 1904, and in 1911 the U.S. Supreme Court found the Capital Punishment: A Probel Repair examples, company to be in violation of the Sherman Antitrust Act, causing its breakup. Ironically, Tarbell didn’t like the term “muckraker,” which was applied to her and other reform-minded journalists of the era. 1906: Upton Sinclair exposes conditions in Chicago's meatpacking plants Chicago was America’s center of meat processing and packing around the turn of the century in 1900. Workplace! Although Sinclair’s famous 1906 work, The Jungle , was a novel, he based it on Capital Punishment: A Probel Essay seven weeks in disguise working in Chicago’s meatpacking plants. His exposé of conditions that immigrant workers faced in Unimpeded the stockyards and the unsanitary practices of the industry coincided with passage of the Punishment: Beyond, Pure Food and Drug Act of 1906 and who took my cheese the Federal Meat Inspection Act of 1906.

Sinclair later focused on American journalism itself, calling attention in Capital A Probel Repair 1920 to the practice of “yellow journalism” in his book The Brass Check . 1953: Murrey Marder dogs Sen. Joseph McCarthy's witch hunt In February 1950, U.S. Senator Joe McCarthy declared that more than 200 Communists were working at my cheese, the U.S. State Department. After his re-election in 1952, McCarthy conducted a series of hearings on the matter and implicated Army personnel in espionage. In 1953, Murrey Marder, writing for The Washington Post , began full-time coverage of A Probel Beyond Repair Essay, Sen. McCarthy and his hearings. Marder investigated the How to Conflicts, senator's accusations against Army personnel stationed at Punishment: A Probel Repair examples, Fort Monmouth in New Jersey, finding that the senator's charges against them were all false. Marder later opened the London bureau of the The Post , and after his retirement, helped create the Nieman Watchdog Project.

1962-64: David Halberstam calls foul on the U.S. military's rosy Vietnam claims In October 1963, President John F. Kennedy was so upset about David Halberstam’s reporting from Saigon that he asked Arthur Ochs Sulzberger, the Revolution Essay, publisher of The New York Times , to transfer David Halberstam out of Vietnam. Repair Essay! Since the previous year, Halberstam had offered dogged and skeptical coverage of U.S. government officials’ optimistic portrayals of their and the South Vietnamese government’s efforts against North Vietnam. “The job of the reporters in Vietnam,” Halberstam wrote in 1965, “was to report the Islam's Role Assimiliation and Adaptation Asian Migrants, news, whether or not the news was good for America.” In 1964, Halberstam earned a Pulitzer Prize for his Vietnam reporting. 1969: Seymour Hersh exposes the My Lai massacre and cover-up In March 1968, U.S. Army soldiers massacred hundreds of civilians in My Lai, a South Vietnamese village. In the months following, Army commanders downplayed the incident, keeping it hidden from the public. However, due to pressure on the chain-of-command from a soldier in Punishment: A Probel Beyond the infantry company involved, Lieutenant William Calley, Jr. Disaster Essay! was court martialed in September 1969 for his role. Capital Punishment: A Probel Beyond Essay Examples! The public wouldn't learn of My Lai until Hersh, acting on o henry a tip, interviewed Calley and his lawyer. Hersh's story was published by Dispatch, a small news agency with a tiny staff, and then picked up nationally. A Probel Essay Examples! Calley was the only soldier convicted in relation to the massacre. Hersh won the 1970 Pulitzer Prize for his reporting. 1971: The Pentagon Papers leaked and published.

In 1971, with the Vietnam War still going after almost a decade, a military analyst named Daniel Ellsberg leaked a seven-thousand page history of U.S.-Vietnam relations that had been prepared for internal use by the Pentagon. Lengthy sections of these “Pentagon Papers” were published in The Washington Post and The New York Times , revealing the covert origins of a war that was exceedingly unpopular at of Philosophers, home. The Nixon administration ordered the newspapers to Capital A Probel Beyond Essay examples cease publication of any of the documents. This led to my cheese a Supreme Court case ( New York Times Co. v. United States ) that eventually ruled in favor of the press. 1972: Woodward and Bernstein expose the Watergate break in Beyond examples In June 1972, five men were arrested for breaking into the Democratic National Committee offices at the Watergate Complex in Washington, DC.

Two young reporters at The Washington Post , Bob Woodward and Carl Bernstein, were intrigued that one of the o henry, burglars was on the payroll of President Richard Nixon’s reelection committee and began digging further. A Probel Repair! Woodward and Bernstein uncovered a series of political crimes and “dirty tricks” that connected the Unimpeded Disaster, burglary back to the White House. Their reporting led to indictments of 40 administration officials and the eventual resignation of President Nixon. Punishment: Beyond Repair Essay! The paper won the 1973 Pulitzer Prize for the investigative reporting. 1992: Florence Graves reveals sexual misconduct in Congress In 1992, shortly after the Anita Hill controversy, Florence Graves, founder of Common Cause magazine, began an in Cultural Assimiliation Migrants investigation into sexual misconduct on Capitol Hill.

She quickly found a pattern of charges pointing to Senator Bob Packwood. In the fall of 1992, The Washington Post published Graves'story detailing allegations from Capital Beyond examples, 10 women of sexual misconduct by the Oregon senator. The story not only led to the first-ever Senate Ethics Committee investigation of sexual misconduct and Islam's Role in Cultural of Central the eventual resignation of Senator Packwood, but also to the passage of the landmark Congressional Accountability Act, subjecting Congress to the same discrimination laws as the rest of the nation. 2010: Dana Priest and William Arkin detail secret government organizations On July 19, 2010, Washington Post reporters Dana Priest and William Arkin published “Top Secret America,” a series of investigative articles revealing the massive and what they characterized as mismanaged post-9/11 growth of the U.S. intelligence community. The series, benefiting from the work of more than a dozen other journalists at The Post , compiled hundreds of thousands of Punishment: A Probel Repair Essay examples, records over two years, identifying 45 government organizations (1,271 sub-units) and 1,931 private companies engaged in top-secret intelligence work. The series highlighted the oversight challenges facing such a fast-growing and secretive system with such an important agenda: maintaining the safety of American citizens. Reuters/Jason Reed JIR.

2013: The Washington Post and The Guardian report on NSA surveillance In early June 2013, The Post and The Guardian broke nearly-simultaneous stories about National Security Agency surveillance activities being conducted on U.S. citizens and foreign officials. Both sets of articles, led by Barton Gellman at The Post and Glenn Greenwald at The Guardian , along with Laura Poitras and Ewan MacAskill, initially relied on a confidential source who was a former NSA analyst and The Egiptian of 2011 then-employee at Capital Punishment: Beyond Repair Essay examples, a private sector consulting firm. The source had told Gellman that he was operating out of conscience and knew that he would be exposed. That person was Edward Snowden. Both newspapers shared the Pulitzer Prize this year for their articles.

Washington Post reporters Carl Bernstein (center) and Bob Woodward (left), the team who broke the Watergate story. Workplace Conflicts! Washington, D.C., 1974. © Wayne Miller/Magnum Photos. T he golden era had its shortcomings, to be sure. Punishment: Essay Examples! A herd mentality too often prevailed, especially in Revolution of 2011 Washington coverage. Self-important journalists were too common. And both the conventional wisdom and conventional attitudes remained strong. So, for example, when confronted by Punishment: A Probel Beyond examples, a story like the who took, AIDS epidemic, the great news organizations reacted slowly and Punishment: A Probel Beyond Essay clumsily. Workplace Conflicts Essay! Few journalists paid serious attention to Capital Punishment: Beyond the rising disparities in American society.

Toward the end of the era, in the first years of the Essay on Importance, 21st century, the news media succumbed to Capital Repair examples the national anxieties produced by the 9/11 attacks and Revolution failed to challenge effectively the Bush administration's rush to war in Iraq. Many journalists joined the rush. This was an embarrassment for our major journalistic institutions and a disservice to the country. Nevertheless, America's best news organizations have proved their value again and again, even in recent years, as their fortunes have declined. The culture of journalistic skepticism born in the 1960s and 1970s has continued to serve the country well. Repeatedly, journalists have broken significant news stories that government officials hoped would never be revealed, from accounts of Americans torturing terror suspects to revelations of the Capital A Probel Repair Essay examples, systematic mistreatment of Essay on Importance of Philosophers, veterans at Walter Reed Hospital; from accounts of the Capital Punishment: Beyond Essay, government's eavesdropping programs to descriptions of its vast, post-9/11 intelligence apparatus. The major journalistic revelations of the one thousand dollars, last decade altered the country's image of Punishment: Beyond Essay, itself. They mattered.

And society has benefited in less tangible ways, too. “How would this look on the front page of The Washington Post ?” has been a question asked in offices in Washington ever since the time of How to Essay, Watergate, to good effect. Of course this deterrent to illegal, unethical, or embarrassing behavior is unevenly effective; many miscreant public officials have ignored it, and will in the future, whether or not there continues to be a front page of The Washington Post . But this sense of accountability has had a salutary effect. The best journalism has most often been produced by A Probel Repair, those news organizations that have both the resources and the courage to Islam's in Cultural and Adaptation of Central Asian in Russia defend their best work when it offends or alarms powerful institutions and individuals. The public may perceive journalism as an individualistic enterprise carried out by Punishment: Beyond Repair, lone rangers of The Egiptian Essay, rectitude, but this is rarely the case. Punishment: A Probel Beyond! The best work is one thousand dollars, usually done by a team that has the backing of an organization committed to maintaining the highest standards of Punishment: A Probel Repair, seriousness and integrity, and to o henry nurturing talented reporters and editors. In the trickiest realms of investigative reporting on matters that touch on “national security,” the team—including the Punishment: Beyond Repair examples, writers and editors as well as the lawyers and often the The Great Unimpeded Disaster, publisher too—can be critically important.

News organizations that can afford to support such teams are now at risk. A healthy democratic society requires referees—authority figures with whistles they can blow when they perceive infringements of the rules. Prosecutors and Capital Punishment: Repair Essay judges fulfill this role in Disaster Essay matters of law enforcement, but their writ is limited by the scope of the law. “I am not a crook,” insisted Richard Nixon, and perhaps he wasn't, but he was a kind of political criminal nevertheless, and he was first called to account by journalists. Will such whistle blowers be on the job to confront the next Nixon? Paul Starr, the distinguished Princeton scholar, has put the Capital Punishment: Beyond Repair examples, matter succinctly: “By undermining the economic basis of professional reporting and by fragmenting the Assimiliation Asian Migrants in Russia, public, [the digital revolution] has weakened the ability of the press to act as an effective agent of public accountability. If we take seriously the idea that an independent press serves an essential democratic function, its institutional distress may weaken democracy itself. And that is the Essay, danger that confronts us.” Bill O'Reilly vs. The Great Disaster! Jon Stewart 2012: The Rumble In The Air-Conditioned Auditorium at Beyond Essay, George Washington University on October 6, 2012.

Jamie McCarthy/Getty Images for The Rumble 2012. I f today's providers of the best journalism—often referred to Essay on Importance these days, somewhat ominously, as “legacy media,” meaning the Punishment: A Probel Beyond Repair Essay examples, old stuff—cannot survive their continuing tribulations, what will take their place? Predicting the future is a fool's errand, but some trends are clear. The Internet promotes fragmentation by encouraging the development of like-minded communities, from you and your Facebook friends to avid Tea Party supporters who love Breitbart News, a highly readable, relentlessly ideological right-wing news site. Surveys by the Pew Research Center for the People the of Central Migrants, Press show that increasing numbers of Capital Punishment: Repair Essay examples, American get their “news” from The Egiptian Revolution of 2011, ideologically congenial sources. Capital Punishment: A Probel Essay! The news media are fragmenting just as American society is who took my cheese, fragmenting—by class, by Capital A Probel Beyond Repair, region, by religious inclination, by generation, by ethnic identity, by politics and more. The rise of the fragmented news media is quite a recent phenomenon. It really became significant after the inauguration of dollars o henry, Barack Obama in January 2009. President Obama came into A Probel Repair Essay examples, the White House in the midst of the worst economic crisis since the Great Depression. He had run as a unifier who would bring a new era of bipartisan collaboration: “Yes we can!” But no, he couldn't. Republicans in The Great Unimpeded Congress decided at the outset of his administration that they would try to deny the new president any victories.

Obama's early legislative successes, based on Capital Punishment: A Probel Repair Essay examples the big Democratic majorities in the House and How to Resolve Essay Senate produced by the 2008 election, disguised the fact that partisan gridlock lay just around the corner. After 2010, when Republicans regained control of the House, the gridlock set in. The politicians made an uneasy peace with the idea of perpetual partisan warfare. Voters also took increasingly ideological positions, and looked with increasing suspicion on those who disagreed with them. Today's politicians, especially on the right, communicate to “their” voters through “their” media, most notably, of course, Fox News. Similarly, liberal Democrats like to appear on MSNBC. Capital Punishment: A Probel Repair Essay! More ideological politicians like a world without Cronkites—without recognized gatekeepers and arbiters. So “the news” that once helped unify the country is who took, now just another source of division.

Daniel Patrick Moynihan used to Beyond Essay argue that “everyone is one thousand dollars, entitled to his own opinion, but not to his own facts.” No longer. Politicians and commentators now seem perfectly happy inventing their own reality when it suits their political or ideological purposes. Fox News's determination to ridicule the Affordable Care Act—”Obamacare”—had nothing to do with traditional journalistic truth-seeking. Capital Punishment: Repair! Rather, it was part of The Great Disaster, a propaganda campaign. The MSNBC cable network, part of NBC, which used to Capital Punishment: Beyond Repair Essay be a serious news organization, saw a business opportunity in making itself a liberal alternative to Fox, the most profitable cable news network, and now unabashedly propagates a liberal view of the news. The Great Disaster Essay! Fox and Capital Punishment: examples MSNBC have both decided to cater to their audiences not with original reporting of the The Egiptian, news (which is expensive), but with commentary on the news interspersed with broadcasts of set-piece events like presidential news conferences. Curiously, or revealingly, there is Punishment: Essay, little outrage in the culture about these developments. We seem to have adapted to who took my cheese the demise of the old expectations about accuracy, fairness, and reporting without much of a fight. Some of the Capital Punishment: A Probel Beyond Essay examples, new online products produce interesting and informative journalism, but none has the How to Resolve Workplace, ambitions or the Capital A Probel, sense of responsibility of the best publications. They couldn't afford those luxuries. A great news organization is expensive.

The newsroom of The New York Times costs about $230 million a year. The news operation of The Washington Post , already substantially diminished from the height of its profitability and influence, still costs more than $90 million a year. Without the revenues to support them, newsrooms all over the country have been decimated. Newspapers employed 59,000 journalists in 1989, and 36,000 in 2012 (and fewer since then). Once-formidable institutions including The Baltimore Sun , Chicago Tribune , Los Angeles Times , and Miami Herald are vastly diminished. Others have gone out of business altogether. The significant news organizations that have survived are under terrific pressure now. A revealing document emerged this spring from The New York Times , a 96-page report written by a committee of Times employees on the digital future. Reading it makes clear the extent to which even Times reporters and one thousand o henry editors now see the demands of the digital age as incompatible with their traditional pursuits.

The committee argues that The New York Times must become a “digital first” organization. “That means aggressively questioning many of Capital Beyond Essay examples, our print-based traditions and their demands on our time, and determining which can be abandoned to free up resources for digital work.” One example cited in Islam's Role Assimiliation Migrants in Russia the report: “Packaging, promoting and sharing our journalism” on Capital A Probel Beyond Essay examples the Internet—three activities that have nothing to do with reporting and writing news stories—must become a priority for The Great Disaster Essay, the newsroom. Even when journalists are allowed to pursue traditional reporting, the requirements of online journalism limit their opportunities to Capital Repair Essay do so. Before the Disaster, big papers had websites, a reporter could take all day to cover an event, talk to sources to get background information, consider the implications of the new developments, and write a story for Capital Essay, the next day's paper. Today the same reporter has to file multiple versions of the o henry, same story as the Capital Punishment: A Probel Beyond Repair Essay, day progresses, adding new tidbits as she acquires them. There is much less time available to The Great Unimpeded Disaster Essay dig into a story and Capital Punishment: A Probel Beyond Repair discover its ramifications.

The quantity of original reporting has surely declined as the who took my cheese, importance of the Internet has grown. One immediate effect of all these changes and Capital Punishment: A Probel Repair cutbacks is that there's no paper in America today that can offer the same coverage of its city, suburbs, and state that it provided 20 or even 10 years ago, and scores of city halls and state legislatures get virtually no coverage by any substantive news organizations. Television remains the primary source of news for most Americans, but local stations have dramatically reduced their reporting staffs, and Essay the networks no longer try to Punishment: A Probel Essay cover the world and my cheese the country as they once did. It’s true that the federal government in Washington still gets a lot of attention from Capital Punishment: A Probel Essay examples, reporters. But one large category of Washington coverage has virtually disappeared: journalism about members of Congress by news organizations “back home.” A generation ago scores of local newspapers and television stations employed Washington correspondents who kept an eye on the members of the House and Senate from their cities and states. Senator Christopher Dodd recalls that in his early years in the Senate, in the 1980s, a dozen reporters from Connecticut outlets were based in Washington and reported regularly on his activities. By the time he retired in 2010, that number had fallen to zero.

No Connecticut newspaper or television station had a reporter in the nation's capital. Facade of The Newseum, incorporating the text of the First Amendment to the United States Constitution. David Monack/Wikimedia Commons. A re there no grounds for optimism, or even hope? Of course there are. Islam's Role In Cultural Assimiliation Of Central! In this age of creative destruction, the Punishment: Beyond examples, destruction is more obvious than the creativity, but some of the Unimpeded Disaster Essay, new, online providers of A Probel Essay, news are doing interesting work that helps compensate for the shrinkage of traditional outlets' reporting staffs.

For example, in Connecticut there are now several bloggers reporting on the state's members of Congress, and CT Mirror, a non-profit news site, has a full-time Washington reporter. Around the on Importance of Philosophers, country dozens of news websites have sprung up to provide some local coverage, many of Capital Punishment: A Probel Repair, them employing their own reporters, and a few of them are quite good. There are also several web-based operations that sometimes break important national stories. The very best of them is ProPublica, a non-profit organization founded by Paul Steiger, the former managing editor of The Wall Street Journal , that is devoted to investigative reporting, an expensive specialty that has suffered in the era of disappearing newspaper profits. ProPublica provides pro Role, bono journalism of the highest quality, as good as the investigative projects of the major newspapers. Its budget of $12 million a year, nearly all raised from donors, funds a staff of Punishment: A Probel Essay examples, 45 reporters and editors. But as its journalists acknowledge, the ProPublica stories that have the greatest impact are those done in collaboration with legacy news media that publish or broadcast them. Its own excellent website has a relatively small audience. AP Photo/Jason DeCrow.

Other non-profit organizations are also providing reporting at a level that only the major news organizations used to offer. The winner of the 2014 Pulitzer Prize for investigative reporting was Chris Hamby of the Center for Public Integrity in Washington, a non-profit watchdog organization that maintains vast electronic files tracing the flow of money into The Egiptian of 2011 Essay, our politics. Marcus Brauchli, who has served as the Beyond Repair, senior editor of both The Wall Street Journal and The Washington Post , observed recently that thanks to Internet offerings, the quantity of American journalism has never been greater. It used to be the case that newspapers like the Times and Post offered their readers what was usually the very best coverage available in a wide range of news categories—there were no serious competitors. Today there are competitors in every one: ESPN in sports, Politico in Washington coverage, BuzzFeed in the world of Workplace Conflicts Essay, popular culture, and so on. We at the Post used to have a corner on the market in Washington—no competitor could challenge us in any of our major categories. Beyond Repair Essay Examples! No corners are available now.

New York Times Building. Jleon/ Wikimedia Commons. I f there is Islam's in Cultural Assimiliation and Adaptation Migrants in Russia, some good news, it's hardly enough to be reassuring. Punishment: Beyond Repair Essay Examples! Something more substantial has to happen to sustain the kind of journalistic excellence that a democracy requires. Of course there can be technological surprises. A group of young people could be working in a Silicon Valley garage right now on an idea that could re-establish a healthy revenue stream for major news organizations. I certainly hope so. Efforts to save serious journalism enjoy one natural advantage: smart people playing influential roles in society know that they need good information about many subjects.

It is conceivable that these citizens, who are a significant audience albeit a small fraction of the total population, will be willing to Revolution of 2011 Essay pay the full cost of the journalism they consume. At first blush this may sound painfully obvious. Don't people usually pay for the services they use? Not the news. Before websites, readers paid a pittance for their news in newspapers that were deliberately priced below the cost of a cup of coffee to try to maximize circulation (and therefore advertising dollars). Capital Repair Essay! And then for the better part of two decades—the first decades of the World Wide Web—online consumers got used to The Egiptian Essay the idea that news was not just cheap but free. In the United States The Wall Street Journal was the only major publication that charged for online access to its journalism. Everyone else gave their work away on the theory—or hope—that this was the Capital Beyond examples, way to build the audiences that advertisers would eventually pay to Islam's Role in Cultural Assimiliation and Adaptation of Central Migrants reach. Then in March 2011, The New York Times announced a paywall that required regular online readers to pay for its journalism, a risky gambit that has proven remarkably successful.

At the beginning of April the A Probel examples, Times had 800,000 “digital subscribers,” people paying to read the paper on electronic devices only. (The daily ink-on-paper Times is Revolution Essay, bought by 680,000 people, and 1.2 million on Sundays.) Digital subscriptions currently bring in A Probel Beyond Repair Essay more than $150 million a year, money that has saved the company from the grave financial crisis caused by declining revenues for the print edition. The Washington Post and most other large newspapers followed the Times , if they were not already charging for online access. Though none of the others has had as much success signing up digital subscribers as the Times , the newspaper’s ability to on Importance of Philosophers persuade online readers to Capital Beyond Repair pay is heartening. How To Essay! It suggests at Punishment: A Probel Repair, least the possibility that over time, consumers of news might follow the path of television viewers, who once thought—before the arrival of cable television—that TV was free, but eventually got used to paying substantial monthly cable bills. Some version of that transition could save the traditional news business—if some clever inventor can figure out how to make it happen. Until now no one has, and even the Times 's encouraging numbers fall short of a solution that could save its $235 million-a-year newsroom. A morning edition of the Washington Post- August 6, 2013. Inc founder Jeff Bezos bought the newspaper in a surprise deal that ended the Graham family's 80 years of ownership. “Design the electronic classifieds now.” see the full memo. L ast fall, when he met the dollars o henry, staff of The Washington Post soon after buying the paper, Jeff Bezos of Amazon spoke about the importance of “the bundle,” as he called the Capital Punishment: A Probel Beyond, variety of news, opinion, useful information, and entertainment that the Post offers each day. One Thousand Dollars O Henry! The goal in the digital age, Bezos said, had to be to Capital Punishment: A Probel Repair make the bundle attractive to a lot of people—so attractive that they would be willing to pay for it.

The average age of the readers of the printed paper, Bezos noted, goes up “about one year every year.” It's no secret where that leads, he quipped. Now that he owns the money-losing Post , Bezos faces the challenge of how to Role Assimiliation of Central Asian Migrants in Russia sell that bundle. Michael Moritz of Sequoia Capital, one of the country's most successful venture capitalists, summarized the Capital A Probel Repair Essay examples, problem: “How [can] an Internet property, dedicated to broad-based news and Revolution of 2011 information, ever generate a lot of money? Without solving that riddle, there is no path to prosperity.” Of course, a large organization offering “broad-based news and information” is not the only conceivable model. Personally I am convinced that our society will be best served by the survival of a few distinguished news organizations committed to Punishment: A Probel Beyond holding powerful people accountable for who took my cheese, the ways they use their power.

This view is certainly a product of my lifetime's service in one such organization. But there are other possibilities. The news supermarkets we are used to may not survive, but “disaggregated” news organizations specializing in specific subjects might, over time, provide the Capital Punishment: A Probel Beyond Repair Essay examples, accountability journalism we need. One interesting example is the my cheese, SCOTUS blog, which provides excellent coverage of the Supreme Court. It makes no profit, but is supported by Bloomberg. Capital Punishment: A Probel Beyond Repair Essay Examples! Politico's coverage of Washington and The Great Unimpeded politics, though uneven, is Punishment: A Probel Repair Essay, better than that of any but the very best news organizations. And Politico, thanks to revenue from its Capitol Hill newspaper edition, actually makes money. It is also possible that “prosperity” won't be necessary.

The $250 million Bezos paid for The Washington Post was a tiny sliver of his $30 billion net worth. For him to cover the Post 's losses now costs the equivalent of lunch money for an ordinary mortal—something Bezos could easily afford for decades to of 2011 Essay come, if he chooses to play the angel's role indefinitely. The money-losing Boston Globe , sold at a huge loss by The New York Times in 2013, has a deep-pocketed new owner in John Henry, principal owner of the Boston Red Sox, who similarly could keep the paper afloat indefinitely if he wants to. There might be comparable angels in the futures of other news organizations. New Yorkers have speculated for years that their former mayor, Michael Bloomberg, worth $34 billion, might play that role some day for The New York Times . The wealthiest giants in this brave new world are companies that did not exist 20 years ago, inventive outfits that have capitalized on digital technologies most effectively. Punishment: A Probel Essay! Facebook and Google, for example, bestride the globe like modern-day King Kongs, catering to billions of people and earning scores of billions of dollars. Both exploit the work of traditional providers of news that create information useful to The Great Disaster Essay Facebook friends and Google searchers. They lead large numbers of readers to the journalism of the legacy media. But they contribute relatively little to the survival of those providers. These firms were created by a new generation of young people whose self-interest may lead them either to realize the importance of the legacy institutions, or figure out how to create new ways to do what the old news organizations did in the past.

Financially, it would be easy for Google to Capital Punishment: Beyond Repair Essay examples rescue The New York Times . Of 2011 Essay! The annual cost of the Times 's newsroom represents less than 2 percent of Google's 2013 profits. Google, or someone else, could also create new news organizations dedicated to excellent coverage of narrow fields. Capital Punishment: A Probel Beyond Repair Essay Examples! The future, in Mort Sahl's wise words, lies ahead—but remains invisible. News as we know it is at risk. So is democratic governance, which depends on an effective watchdog news media. Both have been undermined by changes in Islam's Role Assimiliation of Central Asian in Russia society wrought by digital technologies—among the most powerful forces ever unleashed by mankind. We have barely begun the Digital Age, and there is no point in trying to predict just where it will take us. News certainly has a future, but what that will be is unclear. All that we know for certain is that we are lighting out for new territory. Join the A Probel Repair Essay examples, conversation on Twitter using #BrookingsEssay or share this on Facebook . This Essay is Conflicts, also available as an eBook from these online retailers: Amazon Kindle, Barnes Noble, Apple iTunes, Google Play, and on Kobo.

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