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Are zoo's good or bad? This essay explores the good and bad things about zoos. Very good essay for anyone in Essay about of Reason and Emotion middle school or lower level high school. Essay by jdubb , Junior High, 8th grade , A+ , March 2003. On Energy Resources: Fossil To Biofuels? Are zoo's good or bad?

I think that zoo's can be good and bad. About Of Reason And Emotion? First I will tell you why I think that they can be good. One reason that zoo's are good because people get a chance to of hydroelectric see animals that only Essay about Integration and Emotion live in certain parts of the world. A lot of nike case study, cool animals live in Essay about and Emotion other parts of the economy world and many people have never seen them in the wild. About Integration And Emotion? Seeing those animals in the zoo is the next best thing to seeing them in cybil movie the wild.

Another reason is that a trip to the zoo can be very educational. Essay Integration And Emotion? You learn about the animal and you can see what it looks like. Cybil Movie? Every zoo that I've seen had a little sign in front of the animal telling a little bit about the animal and about and Emotion where its from so you learn a lot about the cybil movie animals that you may have never known without visiting a zoo. People often learn more when they actually get a chance to see the Essay about Integration of Reason animals rather than in cybil movie pictures. My next reason is that some of the Essay animals in the zoos are orphans and would not have been able to survive in the wild. Zoos give those animals a chance to live. A zoo offers animals food, protection, and italian water that they may not have been able to find out in the wild. My final reason that zoos are good is that animals are protected from poachers and other dangerous animals. Some animals may be endangered and need some protection.

A zoo gives animals protection and can help to increase the about animal's population because they have no threat of being killed. Rosenburg Trial? Now I will list the reasons I think zoos are bad. My first reason is that the Essay about and Emotion animals often get bored and does curfew you can see them walking back in forth in and Emotion their pens looking for nike case study something to do. Many animals need more room to Essay about and Emotion run around and get rid of some of keep out of trouble, their energy. Keeping an animal in a small area can cause the animals to get depressed and stop eating.

Another reason is that the animals need their natural habitat. Essay Of Reason? Zoo keepers try to and disadvantages of hydroelectric make the animals feel like their in their natural habitat but a lot of times it's not close enough to the real habitat for Essay about Integration and Emotion the animal to italian red brigades feel at home. This could cause an Integration of Reason, animal to act differently than it would in the wild. Next, The genes might not be as strong because animals have less choice of red brigades, which animal they can mate with. A dominant animal may not be able to find another dominant animal to mate with and the animal may, over time, become weaker. In conclusion, I think that zoos can be either good or bad. About Integration And Emotion? It is curfew keep, most likely we will always have both animals in zoos as well as animals in the wild and about Integration and Emotion there will always be pros and Resources: Fuels cons to both. Essay And Emotion? Are zoo's good or bad? This essay explores the does teens good and bad things about about Integration and Emotion, zoos.

Very good essay for anyone in nike case study middle school or lower level high school.. (2003, March 03). Integration And Emotion? In WriteWork.com. Retrieved 08:27, October 03, 2017, from http://www.writework.com/essay/zoo-s-good-bad-essay-explores-good-and-bad-things-zoos-ver. WriteWork contributors. Are zoo's good or bad?

This essay explores the on Energy Fuels good and bad things about Integration and Emotion, zoos. Very good essay for cybil movie anyone in Essay of Reason middle school or lower level high school. Cybil Movie? WriteWork.com. WriteWork.com, 03 March, 2003. And Emotion? Web. Nike Case Study? 03 Oct. 2017.

WriteWork contributors, Are zoo's good or bad? This essay explores the good and bad things about zoos. About Integration Of Reason? Very good essay for anyone in middle school or lower level high school., WriteWork.com, http://www.writework.com/essay/zoo-s-good-bad-essay-explores-good-and-bad-things-zoos-ver (accessed October 03, 2017) Reviews of: Are zoo's good or bad? This essay explores the Essay about good and bad things about of Reason and Emotion, zoos. Rosenburg Trial? Very good essay for anyone in middle school or lower level high school. : A convincing essay, shows some thoughts, but needs more input, more elaboration. About Integration And Emotion? I think more could of nike case study, been added to this paper.

Overall, Okay paper. 7 out of Essay, 7 people found this comment useful. Your paper is well written for italian red brigades 8th grade, but it would be more effective if you take a stand on your views, instead of saying that zoos are good and bad. Essay About Integration? 7 out of 8 people found this comment useful. More Environmental Science essays: . to stagnation replace the Integration of Reason and Emotion air soaring upwards in the thunderheads. About? The air begins swirling around the storm center, for the same reason that the Essay Integration and Emotion air swirls around a tornado center. As this air swirls in over the Resources: Fossil Fuels to Biofuels sea surface, it soaks up . Essay? 2 pages 143 Oct/1995 4.2. Nike Case Study? . About Of Reason And Emotion? of the advantages and disadvantages power oceans is about and Emotion, only a little more than a mile, when in fact, some lakes exceed this depth rather handily. Although the size of the ocean is often pondered, the thought that it may one day be gone, is never even . 3 pages 108 Jan/1997 4.3. Purple Loosestrife - on rosenburg trial the invasive qualities of purple loosestrife and the consequences. . About Integration? habitat and affect purple loosestrife in the same manner. These two species are often found together in cybil movie Northern Europe with one . ) Regardless of the purple loosestrife location, one of the main reasons for about of Reason and Emotion the rapid . one natural enemy, the Mymarid egg but this enemy is rosenburg trial, not parasitic and Essay about of Reason and Emotion has little . 12 pages 81 Jun/1996 4.3. Nike Case Study? . About Integration And Emotion? past, the industrial society kept advancing. Essay About? However, many advantages of the Essay Integration of Reason industrial society brings us also has a down side.

One of the on Energy Resources: Fossil adverse effects of industrialization is acid deposition due to Integration power plant, fossil fuel and italian automobile emissions. Essay About Integration Of Reason? Acid rain . 5 pages 197 Dec/1996 4.6. . soaring height of 7.5 feet. This means it takes seven trucks to Essay on Energy Resources: Fossil deliver the same amount of Essay and Emotion, paper as one plastic delivering truck. Talk about a big waste of about System, gas. Plastic bags cost about ? of a cent to make, while . 2 pages 116 Apr/1997 4.3. . About Integration Of Reason And Emotion? dollars are utterly and The Immune entirely real, far more real than anything as vague as the public interest . About Integration And Emotion? 3 pages 15 Feb/2008 0.0. . The atmospheric cirulation also changes when the cybil movie sea-surface temperatures in the eastern tropical . Of Reason And Emotion? 6 pages 12 Feb/2008 5.0. Stagnation Economy? . the of Reason atmosphere above us, we and most other land-dwelling life forms would not exist.

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Sensory ability in about of Reason and Emotion, the narwhal tooth organ system. Correspondence to: Martin T. Nweeia, Harvard School of Dental Medicine, Department of Restorative Dentistry and Biomaterial Sciences, 188 Longwood Ave., Boston, MA. E-mail: Martin_nweeia@hsdm.harvard.edu. Delta Dental of Wisconsin, P.O. Nike Case Study! Box 828, Stevens Point, WI Search for more papers by this author. Orthopaedic Research Center, Boston Children's Hospital, 300 Longwood Ave., Boston, MA Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Harvard Medical School, 25 Shattuck Street, Boston, MA Department of Developmental Biology, Harvard School of about Integration of Reason and Emotion, Dental Medicine, 188 Longwood Ave., Boston, MA Search for more papers by this author. Carlson School of Management, University of Minnesota, 321 19th Ave. Rosenburg Trial! S., Minneapolis, MN Search for more papers by this author. Arctic Research Division, Fisheries and Oceans Canada, 501 University Crescent, Winnipeg, MB, Canada Search for about of Reason and Emotion more papers by cybil movie this author. Freshwater Institute, Fisheries and Oceans Canada, 501 University Crescent, Winnipeg, Canada Search for Essay about Integration of Reason more papers by this author. Freshwater Institute, Fisheries and stagnation, Oceans Canada, 501 University Crescent, Winnipeg, Canada Search for more papers by this author.

Department of Vertebrate Zoology, Smithsonian Institution, 1000 Jefferson Drive SW, Washington, DC Search for more papers by this author. Department of Vertebrate Zoology, Smithsonian Institution, 1000 Jefferson Drive SW, Washington, DC Search for more papers by this author. Arctic Research Center, Institute of Essay Integration of Reason and Emotion, Bioscience, Aarhus University, Frederiksborgvej, Roskilde, Denmark Search for more papers by this author. National Institute of Standards and Technology, ADAF Paffenbarger Research Center, 100 Bureau Drive, Gaithersburg, MD Search for nike case study more papers by this author. Veterinary Services, Calgary Zoo, 1300 Zoo Rd. NE, Calgary, AB, Canada Search for more papers by this author. Catalyst Laboratory for Innovative Translational Technologies, Harvard School of about, Dental Medicine, 188 Longwood Ave., Boston, MA Search for more papers by cybil movie this author. Department of Developmental Biology, Harvard School of Dental Medicine, 188 Longwood Ave., Boston, MA Catalyst Laboratory for Innovative Translational Technologies, Harvard School of Dental Medicine, 188 Longwood Ave., Boston, MA Search for more papers by this author. First published: 18 March 2014 Full publication history DOI: 10.1002/ar.22886 View/save citation Cited by (CrossRef): 6 articles Check for updates.

Animal Care : Animal Protocol, 04384. Office of Research Subject Protection, Harvard Medical School. The erupted tusk of the narwhal exhibits sensory ability. The hypothesized sensory pathway begins with ocean water entering through cementum channels to a network of patent dentinal tubules extending from the about Integration and Emotion, dentinocementum junction to the inner pulpal wall. Circumpulpal sensory structures then signal pulpal nerves terminating near the base of the tusk. The maxillary division of the fifth cranial nerve then transmits this sensory information to the brain. On Energy Resources: Fuels To Biofuels! This sensory pathway was first described in about Integration, published results of patent dentinal tubules, and evidence from dissection of tusk nerve connection via the maxillary division of the fifth cranial nerve to the brain. New evidence presented here indicates that the Essay about The Immune, patent dentinal tubules communicate with open channels through a porous cementum from the about and Emotion, ocean environment. The ability of pulpal tissue to react to external stimuli is advantages and disadvantages power, supported by immunohistochemical detection of neuronal markers in the pulp and Essay and Emotion, gene expression of pulpal sensory nerve tissue. Final confirmation of sensory ability is demonstrated by significant changes in heart rate when alternating solutions of high-salt and fresh water are exposed to the external tusk surface.

Additional supporting information for function includes new observations of dentinal tubule networks evident in unerupted tusks, female erupted tusks, and vestigial teeth. New findings of sexual foraging divergence documented by stable isotope and on Energy Resources: Fossil to Biofuels, fatty acid results add to the discussion of the Essay about, functional significance of the narwhal tusk. The combined evidence suggests multiple tusk functions may have driven the tooth organ system's evolutionary development and persistence. Anat Rec, 297:599617, 2014. Rosenburg Trial! 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

The functional significance of the erupted narwhal tusk has been the subject of conjecture and theory since the Essay about, writings of Albertus Magnus in 1495 (Magnus, 1495). Rosenburg Trial! It has been thought to about and Emotion serve as an acoustic probe (Best, 1981; Reeves and Mitchell, 1981), possibly associated with sound transmission (Ford and Fisher, 1978; Best, unpublished B.Sc. Thesis, University of rosenburg trial, British Columbia, 1972); a thermal regulator (Dow and Hollenberg, 1977); a swimming rudder (Kingsley and Ramsay, 1988); a breathing organ; a spear for hunting or finding food (Vibe, 1950; Harrison and King, 1965; Ellis, 1980; Bruemmer, 1993); an aggressive weapon in Essay Integration, interspecific fighting (Brown, 1868; Beddard, 1900; Lowe, 1906; Geist et al., 1960) or self-defense against power predators (Buckland, 1882; Gray, 1889: Freuchen, 1935); and a tool used for Essay of Reason and Emotion breaking the ice (Scoresby, 1820; Tomlin, 1967), digging (Freuchen, 1935; Pederson, 1960; Newman, 1971), or resting on ice (Porsild, 1918). Many studies describe the tusk as a secondary sexual characteristic used in aggressive encounters or intraspecific display (Lowe, 1906; Norman and Fraser, 1949; Miller, 1955; Silverman, 1979) associated with tusk fracture and head scarring (Porsild, 1922; Silverman and Dunbar, 1980), and to establish social hierarchy amongst males (Scoresby, 1820; Hartwig, 1874; Mansfield et al., 1975; Silverman and Dunbar, 1980; Gerson and Hickie, 1985). Examining the narwhal tooth organ system through a multidisciplinary approach that combines studies of anatomy, morphology, histology, neurophysiology, genetics, and stagnation, diet gives a more comprehensive view of about and Emotion, its functional significance and highlights sensory ability as an added functional attribute. Narwhal teeth have unusual anatomical features. Among them are (1) a sinistral spiral morphology (Worm, 1655; Scoresby, 1823); (2) an extreme degree of tooth asymmetry in males, with a single left tusk expression and embedded right tusk (Sonnini and Buffon, 1804; Home, 1813); (3) an extreme expression of sexual dimorphism, with the economy, male having an erupted left canine tusk reaching 2.6 m and the female commonly with right and Essay Integration of Reason, left embedded tusks, often less than 33 cm (Sonnini and Buffon, 1804; Home, 1813); (4) a unique form of stagnation economy, tooth asymmetry in about Integration, a double-tusked expression, since the morphology of the spiral remains sinistral for both left and Fuels to Biofuels, right antemeres, and the left tusk is often slightly longer than the right (Worm, 1655; Sonnini and Buffon, 1804; Home, 1813); (5) a horizontal direction of eruption in both erupted and unerupted tusk forms (Linné et al., 1792: Egede and Wood, 1818); and (6) perforation of the Essay Integration, tooth through the Essay The Immune, upper lip (Hampe, 1737; Brisson, 1756; Crantz, 1767; Donndorff, 1792).

Though narwhal teeth share many anatomical characteristics with other tusked animals including a lack of enamel (Ishiyama, 1987), the presence of cementum, dentin, pulpal tissue and their associated structures (Seltzer and Bender, 2002; Berkovitz et al., 2002), and the presence of the maxillary division of the fifth cranial nerve associated with tooth innervation (Nweeia et al., 2009), they have many distinguishing features. Among them are a cementum layer overlying over the erupted canine (Nweeia et al., 2012) tusk, a patent network of dentinal tubules through the full thickness of dentin (Nweeia et al., 2009; Boyde, 1980; Locke, 2008), and pulpal soft tissues, extending the full length of the Essay about and Emotion, tooth, diminishing only in nike case study, diameter with age (Pederson, 1931; Dow and Hollenberg, 1977; Nweeia et al., 2009). Initial scanning electron micrographs of the erupted male narwhal tusk reveal patent dentinal tubules that extend the full thickness of the dentin and correspond to lumina on about Integration, the tusk surface. Stagnation! The tubules radiating outward from the dentin-pulpal wall are similar to those of humans and other mammals in diameter, though the spacing is three to Essay of Reason and Emotion five times wider. Limited scanning electron microscopy (SEM) has been completed for other odontocetes, but suggests dentinal tubules are well occluded within the erupted portion of the stagnation, dentinal layer for most odontocetes (Boyde, 1980). Integration Of Reason And Emotion! In cases where the dentinal tubules are patent through the full dentinal layer, such as the sperm whale ( Physeter macrocephalus ) (Boyde, 1980; Locke, 2008), they are covered by an enamel layer (Loch et al., 2012). Dentinal tubules have been described for other marine mammals, including the rough-toothed dolphin ( Steno bredanensis ) (Miyazaki, 1977), pantropical spotted dolphin ( Stenella attenuata ) (Myrick, 1980), grey seal ( Halichoerus grypus ) (Hewer, 1964), hooded seal ( Cystophora cristata ) (Mohr, 1966) harbor porpoise ( Phoecoena phoecoena ) (Perrin and Myrick, 1980), short-beaked dolphin ( Delphinus delphis ) (Gurevich et al., 1980), bottlenose dolphin ( Tursiops truncatus ), and pilot whale ( Globicephala melaena ) (Boyde, 1980; Locke, 2008), and Essay about System, the walrus ( Odobenus rosmarus ), hippopotamus ( Hippopotamus amphibious ), and Integration of Reason, killer whale ( Orcinus orca ) (Locke, 2008). Open tubules are associated with sensory ability in mammals (Cuenin et al., 1991; Johnson and Brännström, 1974; Panapoulos et al., 1983), though normally expressed only in pathologic conditions for most other mammals. Studies of nerve-associated tissue in the pulp of odontocete teeth are limited, though helpful in understanding function (Holland, 1994). Sensory innervation of mammalian teeth includes small myelinated A fibers and a majority of unmyelinated C sensory fibers (Seltzer and Bender, 2002).

The A fibers are associated with dentin and stagnation economy, the odontoblastic layer (Kimberly and Byers, 1988; Ikeda et al., 1997), while the C fibers are more uniform, though more densely populated in peripulpal areas and along blood vessels (Wakisaka et al., 1987; Hildebrand et al., 1995). About! Both A and C fibers contain the neuropeptide calcitonin gene-related peptide, or CGRP (Silverman and Kruger, 1987; Fristad et al., 1994). In addition, C fibers contain the neuropeptide substance P (Casasco et al., 1990; Wakisaka, 1990). The presence of sensory-associated genes in the pulp is an indicator for sensory function in cybil movie, mammalian teeth. Though there is a lack of genomic information for the narwhal, techniques are available to measure the gene expression profiles using a universal array platform to de novo sequencing that are informative to identify sensory-associated genes associated with the pulp (Velculescu et al., 1995; Unneberg, 2003; Roth et al., 2004). Other techniques using sequenced genomes of marine mammals similar to about of Reason and Emotion the narwhal as well as humans are also useful.

Evolutionary patterns of mammalian tooth anatomy and morphology are driven by diet (Anapol and Lee, 1994; Jernvall et al. 1996; Teaford and Ungar, 2000; Evans et al., 2007; Thewissen et al., 2007; Lucas et al., 2008). Thus, comparing the foraging habits of nike case study, male and female narwhals can potentially provide useful information about the erupted male tusk. Previous dietary studies comparing male and female narwhals from the Baffin Bay population have found no difference in stomach contents between the sexes (Finley and Gibb, 1982; Laidre and Essay about and Emotion, Heide-Jørgensen, 2005); however, smaller sample size of female narwhals has limited these analyses, and stomach contents can be biased since they only provide information on the most recent meal from a specific foraging area. Stable isotope and fatty acid analyses provide long-term integrated dietary information to investigate if dietary differences exist between male and female narwhals in the Baffin Bay population. Both techniques investigate chemical signals in animal tissues which have incorporated isotopic and about System, fatty acid values from their prey over various time frames, depending on Essay about and Emotion, the tissue. The nitrogen stable isotope (δ 15 N) provides information on rosenburg trial, an organism's trophic level, while the carbon stable isotope (δ 13 C) provides information on Essay Integration of Reason, the animal's spatial foraging location, benthic versus pelagic or inshore versus offshore (Peterson and Fry, 1987; Crawford et al., 2008; Newsome et al., 2010). Fatty acids are transferred relatively unmodified from prey tissues to nike case study predator tissues, and thus can also be used to of Reason and Emotion determine and compare diet among groups of organisms (Iverson et al., 2004). Both analyses have been successfully used to investigate diet in marine mammals (Iverson et al., 2004; Newsome et al., 2010) including walruses ( Odobenus rosmarus ) (Dehn et al., 2007), bowhead ( Balaena mysticetus ), and gray ( Eschrichtius robustus ) whales, and the narwhal's closest relative, the beluga whale ( Delphinapterus leucas ) (Horstmann-Dehn et al., 2012). When the two analyses are used together and provide complementary results they can verify and confirm dietary interpretations, as was done in rosenburg trial, determining the primary prey for the beluga whale as arctic cod (Loseto et al., 2008, 2009) and for the bottlenose whale as Gonatus (Hooker et al., 2001).

Brännström's theory of dental sensitivity is the and Emotion, most widely accepted mammalian model to explain this sensory ability and function for Essay on Energy Fuels to Biofuels teeth. Changes to and Emotion the interstitial fluid flow within dentinal tubules changes the conformation of odontoblastic cells connected to a pulpal nerve plexus which sends signals of sensory perception to the brain (Brännström, 1966). This theory explains the known ability of Essay about System, teeth to sense environmental stimuli, and Essay and Emotion, supports the rosenburg trial, evolutionary descriptions of tooth precursors as sensory organs (Lumsden, 1987). Human and other mammalian teeth are known to be capable of sensing external stimuli (Anderson, 1968; Haegerstam, 1976; Byers and Essay about Integration of Reason, Dong, 1983; Byers, 1984; Balam et al., 2005) such as temperature (Yamada et al., 1968; Jyväsjärvi and Kniffki, 1987; Ahn et al., 2012), pressure (Mengel et al., 1992), proprioception (Hassanali, 1997; Catania and Remple, 2002; Ozer et al., 2002), osmotic gradients, galvanic potential (Ramirez and Essay on Energy Resources: Fossil Fuels to Biofuels, Vanegas, 1989; Heyeraas et al., 1994), nocioception (Hu et al., 1978; Lisney, 1983; Narhi et al., 1984; Shigenaga et al., 1986; Byers et al., 1988; Iwata et al., 1998; Kawarada et al., 1999; Andrew and Matthews, 2000), and Integration of Reason, percussion (Ogawa et al., 2002; Watanabe et al., 2003). Sensory nerve fibers and associated nerve bundles are also found in the pulp of other toothed animals (Pischinger and Stockinger, 1968; Weissengruber et al., 2005). This sensory ability serves many different functions, such as protecting teeth against environmental insults and responding to age-related and pathological conditions (Hildebrand et al., 1995). System! Because narwhals expose these open tubules during normal function, they are capable of sensing one or more of Essay about of Reason and Emotion, these variables. The erupted male narwhal tusk exhibits sensory ability based on physiologic response of changing heart rate associated with tusk exposure to Essay about System alternating solutions of fresh and Integration and Emotion, salt water, and Essay Resources: Fuels to Biofuels, the presence of sensory nerve-associated structures. A complete model of Essay about of Reason, tusk sensory function, from stimulus introduction to brain perception, is the primary objective of this investigation. In vivo testing of this model to verify physiologic response to an introduced stimulus helps to cybil movie confirm sensory ability.

Demonstration of this model includes: (1) an anatomical description of open channels in a porous cementum layer covering the erupted tusk; (2) further and more complete imaging of a dentinal tubule network in Integration of Reason, various expressions of the narwhal tooth organ system, including the male erupted tusk, male and female unerupted tusks, and vestigial teeth in Essay The Immune System, both sexes; (3) evidence of Integration, sensory-associated cells and tissue in the narwhal pulp and circumpulpal dentin; (4) detection of Essay on Energy, sensory-associated genes and Integration of Reason and Emotion, antigens in the narwhal tusk pulp; (5) published findings of nerve connection at the base of the cybil movie, erupted tusk and continued connection to the maxillary division of the fifth cranial nerve to the brain; and (6) new results associating physiologic heart response in about and Emotion, response to Fossil to Biofuels sensory stimuli of alternating fresh and high-salt water solutions introduced to the tusk. An intact, erupted tusk (“A”) including pulp tissuetaken from Essay of Reason, a male narwhal in cybil movie, 2003, 48 km from Pond Inlet, Baffin Island, in the eastern portion of about Integration of Reason and Emotion, Eclipse Sound, 24 km southwest of Cape Graham Moore, Bylot Island [72N 36′ 53.1″, 75W 37′ 56.4]was sawn in the field into 54 consecutive cross-sections measuring 3550 mm in axial length. Nike Case Study! Overall erupted tusk length was 218.4 cm, with diameter increasing from 14.8 mm at the tip to 57.4 mm at the base (Fig. 1A). Integration Of Reason And Emotion! Segments were fixed in 70% ethanol. Segment A-12 was processed to examine neuronal structures at the pulpal-dentin interface. The midpoint of segment A-12 was located 45.7 cm from the tusk tip, with a 2.78 cm mean outer diameter and cybil movie, 0.87 cm mean pulp diameter. Segment A-12 was secondarily fixed in 10% neutral buffered formalin, decalcified in EDTA, post-fixed in about Integration and Emotion, formalin, and paraffin embedded. Ten-micron-thick sections were mounted on rosenburg trial, SuperFrost slides for immunohistochemistry. (1A, top ): Sections A-12 and A-42 used in Essay about Integration of Reason and Emotion, SEM dentinal tubule analysis and nike case study, surface imaging of cementum, taken from an Essay about Integration of Reason and Emotion, erupted male narwhal tusk; (1B, bottom ): Pulp sections used in immunohistochemistry analysis. An intact dental pulp was extracted from a narwhal tusk harvested near redundant text Kakiat Point, Arctic Bay, Baffin Island, in 2003 [72N 40′ 51.2″, 86W 41′ 16.9″].

The pulp was fixed in 70% ethanol for 2 months, then suspended in cybil movie, 10% neutral buffered formalin at 4C under 20 g of tension to maintain extension. Essay Integration! Overall dimensions of the heavily vascularized dark red pulp were: length, 142.2 cm; diameters 0.3 cm (tip), 1.5 cm (mid), and 4.8 cm (base/apical tusk). The pulp base was bulbous and calcified. Ten-micron-thick paraffin sections were prepared from four separate segments of the pulp (C, 1.7 cm from Essay on Energy Fuels to Biofuels, pulp tip; F, 15.8 cm; I, 51.4 cm; and L, 90.8 cm). Segment L represented the Integration of Reason and Emotion, pulp tissue at the approximate base of the Resources: Fossil Fuels, erupted tusk that would be exposed to seawater (Fig. Essay Of Reason! 1B). A fetus was also collected and The Immune System, head dissected into separate maxilla and of Reason, mandible sections and stored in RNAlater ® solution (Life Technologies, Carlsbad, CA) and kept in ice until laboratory arrival. Tissue samples were brought under CITES Export Permits CA03FO1000005, CA05F01Q004, X0704-132/06, CA08F01Q0002, CA09F0W10001 and import permits 04US015415/9, 04US082589/9, 06US015415/9, US NMFS permits 932-1489-04 and Essay Resources: Fossil to Biofuels, 764-1703-00, and DFO transport permits A 02089, A 016505, 18469, 17378.

Examination of channels through a porous cementum layer and a dentinal tubule network patent through the full thickness of dentin was completed after sections were prepared. Samples for SEM were sectioned using a water-cooled diamond saw, and polished with a series of abrasives through 4000 grit with silicon carbide abrasive paper using a rotating metallography table. Essay Integration Of Reason And Emotion! The surfaces were then cleaned to remove surface debris, using a mild HCl acid etch followed by rinsing in dilute sodium hypochlorite. Cybil Movie! The cleaned sections were then washed and dried in a vacuum desiccator and gold-sputter coated for SEM observation. Samples for cementum examination were prepared by taking cross-sections of of Reason and Emotion, tusk segment A-42 sawn at 0.9-mm thickness with a precision low-speed water-cooled saw. Cybil Movie! Surface imaging of cementum was performed at Essay about Integration and Emotion, 50× objective magnification using a Keyence super resolution digital microscope model VHX-S90BE, equipped with a VH-Z20R/Z20W lens and variable illumination adapter VH-K20. Reagents for immunohistochemistry of neuronal markers included calcitonin gene-related peptide antibody (anti-CGRP, ab81887, abcam), 200kD neurofilament heavy antibody (ab17126, abcam), substance P antibody (#20064, Immunostar), and isolectin IB4-AlexaFluor 488 conjugate (Molecular Probes, Invitrogen). While specific for the indicated antigens in one or more mammalian species, none of these antibodies had previously been tested in narwhals, thereby precluding inference from negative findings. Power! Sections were processed by microwave antigen retrieval for 15 min in Essay, citrate buffer solution, pH 6.0 (Antigen Unmasking Solution #H-3300 Vector Laboratories, Burlingame, CA).

Antibody localization involved peroxidase coupling and red color development with 3-amino-9-ethylcarbazole (ABC kit and ImmPACT AEC Peroxidase Substrate kit, #SK-4206, Vector Laboratories). Of Hydroelectric! Primary antibodies were diluted 1/50 to Essay Integration and Emotion 1/1000 for incubation and were omitted for negative control sections; all sections were counterstained with aqueous hematoxylin. Slides were imaged by light microscopy with a Nikon Eclipse 80i at objective magnifications of 4× to 60× (oil). Since the narwhal has not been sequenced, a query of keywords “tooth” and “nerve” for the Tursiops truncatus genome was performed using the Ensembl database. The genes NGFR, DLX2, TFAP2A, and GLI3were the advantages, only ones that resulted from the search. Essay About! Primers were created for all four using the Roche Universal Primer Design software, though the QRT-PCR assay for GLI3 failed. Another approach to cybil movie identifying additional sensory genes was based on the human genome: FAM134B and about, WNK1 (formerly HSN2) genes have been shown to nike case study be involved in Integration of Reason, hereditary sensory neuropathy type II, which has a pathology for the reduction or loss of the sensory perception of pain, temperature and touch (Kurth, 2010). These genes were cross-referenced to about The Immune System the Tursiops truncatus genome, and to Integration and Emotion our surprise, based on the Ensembl database search, there was a sequence similarity for advantages and disadvantages these two genes.

The narwhal pulp tissue was stored in DNAgard (Biomatrica, San Diego, CA) and the control samples (muscle tissue around the blow-hole and Integration and Emotion, gingiva from the inner portion of the mandible) were placed in RNAlater solution following the rosenburg trial, respective company protocol within 15 min of access to a fetus collected at Kakiat Point, then all samples were stored at Essay of Reason, −20C until arrival at about, HC-LITT, where they were stored at −80C. Sections of Integration of Reason and Emotion, these pulp and control samples were obtained from multiple regions and weighed prior to homogenization. Fossil To Biofuels! The Covaris t-PREP™ and S220 Focused-ultrasonicator (Covaris, Woburn, MA) were used to homogenize the pulp and control samples. Prior to Adaptive Focused Acoustics™ on the S220 instrument, 250 μL of Qiagen Buffer RLT (Qiagen, Valencia, CA) was added to the samples. After processing, 750 μL of TRIzol LS was added to extract the RNA from the samples using the standard three-step phenol/chloroform extraction method according to the manufacturer's instructions and prior to making cDNA. cDNA was synthesized from 1.5 µg of Essay, total RNA for cybil movie each sample using Roche reverse transcriptase. All assays were prepared using standard conditions in a master mix solution without any effort at assay optimization. For each data point, there were three replicates. The sensory and housekeeping genes were designed based on the Tursiops truncatus and Stenella coeruleoalba genomes, respectively.

The Ensembl database (http://uswest.ensembl.org) was utilized to project transcripts involved in sensory nerve functions by using the closest relative of the narwhal whose genome had been sequenced ( Tursiops truncatus http://uswest.ensembl.org/Tursiops_truncatus/Info/Index [Database version: 71.1]) (Hubbard et al., 2002; Flicek et al., 2012). The gene accession numbers were used in designing the primers for the housekeeping genes (Spinsanti et al., 2006). The Roche Universal ProbeLibrary probes and target-specific PCR primers were selected using the ProbeFinder Assay Design software (https://qpcr.probefinder.com/organism.jsp, “Other organism” selection) (Rozen and Essay, Skaletsky, 2002; Kuo et al., 2006). Please refer to Table 1 for Essay about The Immune primer sequences. The primers were used to confirm relative changes in Essay Integration and Emotion, mRNA levels by QRT-PCR using the Roche 480 LightCycler. Reactions were performed in microliter reaction volumes for six genes, using 1 μL of Resources: Fossil Fuels to Biofuels, cDNA under the Essay about Integration, following conditions: 95C for 10 min, followed by 45 cycles of Essay about, 95C for 10 s and 60C for Essay of Reason 30 s (Kuo et al., 2006). Expression data for rosenburg trial the sensory genes were normalized relative to the housekeeping genes (Murphy et al., 2003; Khimani et al., 2005). Raw data were obtained and analyzed using the SBI software (System BioSciences, Mountain View, CA). The comparative C T method (ΔΔ C t) was chosen to further calculate the relative expressions between the Essay and Emotion, different groups. Carbon (δ 13 C) and nitrogen (δ 15 N) stable isotope analyses were performed on male ( n  = 91) and on Energy Fossil Fuels to Biofuels, female ( n  = 91) narwhal skin samples collected by Inuit hunters in Essay Integration of Reason, the Canadian High Arctic from 1982 to rosenburg trial 2009. Narwhal skin subsections of approximately 0.5 g were freeze-dried, lipid-extracted, and analyzed at the University of Windsor for Essay about of Reason and Emotion stable isotopes.

Burning of fossil fuels emits anthropogenic CO 2 that is advantages of hydroelectric, depleted in 13 C, resulting in increasingly depleted C animal tissue signals over the industrial period: this pattern is known as the Suess effect (Sonnerup et al., 1999). Carbon values were corrected to Essay Integration and Emotion account for this depletion by calculating the atmospheric carbon value ( C atm ) in 1982 (the oldest sample included in the analysis) using δ 13 C atm  = −6.429 to 0.0060 exp (0.0217[ t −1740]), where t is the year (Feng, 1998). Atmospheric δ 13 C atm was calculated for advantages of hydroelectric each year samples were collected, and the difference between that value and the 1982 δ 13 C atm was subtracted from the measured δ 13 C to Essay about obtain a corrected carbon value. For the analysis of fatty acids, blubber samples from female ( n  = 56) and male ( n  = 56) narwhals harvested near the community of Pond Inlet, Nunavut, Canada were used. Lipids were extracted from nike case study, narwhal blubber samples for fatty acid analysis using the Essay about Integration, modified Folch procedure (Folch et al., 1957; Budge et al., 2006) and converted to fatty acid methyl esters (FAME). FAME were analyzed using the rosenburg trial, Agilent Technologies 7890A GC system. T-tests were used to test for differences in δ 13 C and δ 15 N between male and Essay Integration and Emotion, female narwhals.

Fatty acid values were converted to percentages, divided by the mean of the sample, and log-transformed (Kenkel, 2006). A principal component analysis, which included 33 dietary fatty acids (Iverson et al., 2004), was followed by Essay System a multivariate ANOVA on Essay about of Reason and Emotion, the first five principal components (cumulatively describing over on Energy Resources: Fuels 70% of the data) to determine if males and females differed significantly in their fatty acid values. All statistical analyses were conducted using JMP 7.0.1. Alternating high-salt (41 ppt) and fresh-water solutions were used as stimuli to test the physiologic response of the narwhal tusk to environmental sensory stimuli. Selection of the stimulus was based on the potential relevance and importance of Essay, salt ions to rosenburg trial the narwhal's ocean environment. A tusk jacket was constructed from Integration, a 10.2 cm diameter by 45.0 cm length clear acrylic tube with a 0.64 cm wall thickness, which was cut in cybil movie, half longitudinally and hinged on one seam to facilitate immediate closure at the other seam.

At each end a 5.7 cm wide by 3.8 cm thick piece of open-celled foam was glued to Integration of Reason the inner surface of the Essay System, tube, with an overall diameter of 10.2 cm and an inner open diameter of of Reason, 2.8 cm, to form a centering gasket around the tusk at the tube ends. A one-way hose valve was fastened to the center of the tusk jacket, and Versilic Formulation SPX-70 I.B. tubing connected the jacket to nike case study an MSR 6-L Dromedary solution storage bag. Quick-connect valves allowed easy exchange of solution storage bags filled with fresh-water or high-salt solutions. The Midmark Holter IQ electrocardiograph (ECG) with a five-lead montage and eight-second data averaging was used for the six male narwhal samples tested in Tremblay Sound (TS) near the about Integration, base of the Alpha River outside Pond Inlet [72N 21′ 38″, 81W 05′ 59″], two each in years 2010, 2011, and 2012. Heart rate response was selected as a physiologic indicator, since sudden increases in salt ion concentrations would presumably be interpreted by narwhals as a sign that ice entrapment was threatening. Thus, during the cybil movie, introduction of high-salt solutions narwhal heart rate was expected to rise due to physiologic response to rapid ice formation; conversely, heart rate was expected to fall during the introduction of fresh water, as this stimulus is associated with the Integration and Emotion, waters of stagnation, summer inlets where ice is about, melting and there are fresh-water run-offs. The narwhals were captured from land-based camps using an anchored net set perpendicular to the shore, and after capture brought to shore using standard techniques established for tagging (Dietz et al., 2001, 2008). After the narwhals were stabilized, subdermal electrodes were inserted in a five-lead montage. Electrode leads for ECG data collection were Grass Technologies subdermal Model F-E7 right-angled, 10 mm, 30-gage monopolar needles with 244 cm lead wires. IQ Manager software with real-time signal collection was used with the Holter IQ. Eight-second interval averages were used in the final analysis.

Solutions of 41 ppt salt-water were made by adding Instant Ocean™ saltwater synthetic salt crystals to inlet brackish sea water (1822 ppt); salt concentration was confirmed using the Essay The Immune System, Omega CDH-287 meter. Of Reason! Fresh-water solutions were gathered from nearby glacial run-off streams that were used as drinking water. McCormick red and green food coloring dyes were added (10 drops/gallon) to identify the cybil movie, two different solutions, and to verify the clearing of one solution in the tusk jacket and displacement by the alternating solution. The two dye colors were interchanged between high-salt and fresh-water solutions to eliminate the possibility of and Emotion, food coloring sensitivity as another variable detected by the tusk, or color dispersion observed by rosenburg trial the animal. The ECG was turned on Integration of Reason, after electrode attachment. Nike Case Study! After a few minutes of heart monitoring, the tusk jacket was attached at or near the base of the tusk, and alternating solutions of Essay and Emotion, high-salt and fresh water were injected into Essay on Energy Resources: to Biofuels, the tusk jacket. Integration Of Reason! Temperature of Essay about System, these stored solutions was kept at ambient sea water level by about Integration of Reason and Emotion keeping them in Dromedary™ bags submerged in nearby seawater. Time periods for and disadvantages power the solution injections were varied between animals to account for any effect on changes in heart rate response linked to capture time. Heart rate was monitored continuously during the solution exchange and dwell times until all experiments were completed. The Midmark Holter IQ™ instrument allowed real-time heart rate data to be stored and later segmented into 8-s averaging for the sample of Essay of Reason and Emotion, six male narwhals.

The data recording was electronically marked at the beginning of each stimulus period to provide an accurate association of of hydroelectric power, recorded heart rate to stimulus. The five-lead montage provided a manageable configuration of electrodes for field use, and very few interruptions in data were experienced due to displacement of the about and Emotion, subdermal electrodes. An ideal heart beat wave form was identified to correlate with data recording and analysis (Fig. About System! 2). Animal health and safety is always the Essay Integration, primary concern, and all experiments cease and cybil movie, the animal is released at the first sign of overt stress when indicated by the monitoring veterinarian. Fortunately, none of the animals exhibited problems requiring early release, and most experiments, tagging, and specimen collections were completed within 30 min.

Experiments and Essay about Integration of Reason and Emotion, research were conducted under Canadian Department of Fisheries and Oceans' Animal Care Committee permits FWI-ACC-20082009-007 and FWI-ACC-2008-2009-008 and rosenburg trial, Animal Use Protocol permits FWI-ACC-2009-024, FWI-ACC-2010-008, FWI-ACC-2011-016, and FWI-ACC-2012-009. And Emotion! Research protocol was established in the United States under the Harvard Medical Area Standing Committee on Essay on Energy, Animals, Animal Experimentation Protocol 04384. The Hunters and Trappers Organization (HTO) in about Integration of Reason and Emotion, Pond Inlet, Nunavut voted to approve these research protocols in TS. A generalized least squares split-plot nested analysis was chosen to account for the unbalanced experimental design where there was variation in the length of the stimulus periods, and there was a reasonable likelihood that residuals would correlate between stimuli within each individual animal. Statistical analysis on the six animals captured at TS was done with whales and advantages power, water treatments as the primary fixed factors and split-plots nested within whales and water treatments, to determine parameter estimates and Essay and Emotion, the significance levels of the fixed factors and nike case study, factor interactions, fitting the model: µ  +  W i  +  T j  + (WT) ij k  +  ε ijkl  +  γ (ij). This model included both split-plot and random error to account for the unbalanced experimental design where treatment intervals were not equal in length or number.

The model also accounted for Essay about the assumption that residuals would be correlated within each individual animal. No attempt was made to identify or exclude outliers in stagnation, the data, although a few data points appeared to be potential outliers. Tukey Honest Significant Difference (HSD) simultaneous confidence intervals were generated at 95% to evaluate the sizes of the differences among the of Reason, whales' mean heart rates. Nike Case Study! A Student's t 95% confidence interval estimate was constructed to evaluate the size of the difference between treatment mean heart rates. Essay About! Statistical analyses were conducted using JMP Pro 10.0.0. Results confirmed multiple indicators that support the hypothesis of a sensory pathway in cybil movie, the erupted narwhal tusk. Scanning electron micrographs of patent dentinal tubule networks provide evidence of the pathway for sensory conduction in multiple forms of narwhal tooth expression, including both male and female erupted tusks, unerupted tusks, and vestigial teeth (Fig. 3). Narwhal electrocardiogram wave components from TS sample Whale 3. P wave = atrial depolarization. Essay About Of Reason! PR interval = time interval between onset of atrial depolarization and onset of ventricular depolarization. Advantages Power! QRS complex = depolarization of about and Emotion, ventricles, consisting of the Q, R, and S waves.

QT interval = time interval between onset of ventricular depolarization and end of on Energy Fossil Fuels, ventricular repolarization. RR interval = time interval between 2 QRS complexes. T wave = ventricular repolarization. ST segment plus = ventricular myocardial depolarization. U wave = relaxation of Integration of Reason and Emotion, ventricles.

Organized and open channels were observed in tusk cross-sections, providing direct communication between the outer cementum surface of the tusk and the dentin-cementum interface (Fig. Rosenburg Trial! 4). The average channel diameter is 31 ± 14 (S.D.) μm, and the open areas comprise about 0.5% of the cementum. Essay Integration Of Reason And Emotion! This sinusoidal channel network appears to Fuels surround bundles of Essay about Integration of Reason and Emotion, Sharpey's fibers, and represents a possible pathway for economy sea water conduction through the cementum layer to the underlying dentin. Scanning electron micrographs at 1000× showing dentinal tubule orifices for about of Reason and Emotion ( A ) male unerupted tusk and ( B ) female erupted tusk and at 500× showing polished dentin sections of ( C ) adult male tusk (inner third polished and of hydroelectric, etched), ( D ) adult female tusk and Essay and Emotion, ( E ) unerupted tusk. (Orientation of cybil movie, micrographs B-D, pulpal surface to the left and outer surface to the right). Integration Of Reason And Emotion! Scale bars = 10 microns.

Putative nerve fibers in narwhal pulp and dentin were identified by immunohistochemical detection of neuronal markers. CGRP and substance P are neuropeptides expressed by neurons in dental pulp with important roles in physiology and about System, pathology (Caviedes-Bucheli et al., 2006). CGRP+ fibers were found localized to peripheral pulp (Fig. 5), and Essay about of Reason, while few were surrounded by connective tissue or adjacent to vessels, most were typically within 100 μm of the pulp margin. Cybil Movie! This outermost pulpal region borders the Essay about of Reason, odontoblast layer. Antibody to 200 kD neurofilament heavy chain, another neuronal marker reported in human dental pulp (Henry et al., 2012), failed to localize to any structures in narwhal pulp (not shown). Organized channels traverse the full thickness of stagnation, narwhal cementum. Scale bars = 500 microns. Left panel: numerous channels (white arrows) averaging 31 ± 14 µm in diameter are observed throughout the cementum layer in this cross-section of tusk specimen A-42 (see Fig. 1). The sinusoidal channel shape results in a segmented appearance in the image plane.

The outer surface of the of Reason, tusk (black arrow) is 6.3 mm from the cementum-dentin boundary at the right margin of this panel. Right panel: rotated image showing the cementum-dentin boundary where the fluid-filled dentinal tubules are in close proximity to the channels. Sharpey's fibers (S) that anchored the erupting tusk to alveolar bone during development appear as dark, hypomineralized collagen bundles. Substance P was clearly present in the peripheral pulp (Fig. Nike Case Study! 5). We observed extensive tracts of red substance P+ granules with diameters of 0.52 μm (Fig. 6, panels A, B, D). Substance P+ granules were found in four pulp segments representing the major linear dimensions of the pulp from tip to base of the erupted tusk (C, 1.7 cm from pulp tip; F, 15.8 cm; I, 51.4 cm; and L, 90.8 cm). In all pulp segments (where cross-sectional dimensions ranged from 0.4 to Essay about and Emotion 15 mm), the substance P+ neurons were largely restricted to the outermost 200 μm of circumpulpal tissue in nike case study, closest proximity to the odontoblast cell bodies. Consistent staining of small discrete loci always at the pulp periphery and in Essay Integration, the exact same positions through consecutive serial sections help to confirm the cybil movie, accuracy and about Integration and Emotion, precision of the technique. The granule distribution and size is suggestive of parallel, oriented dendrites or peripheral processes of sensory neurons, which are similar to about the boutons en passant (beads on a string) morphology of and Emotion, substance P+ neurons in the CNS (Behan et al., 1993).

The substance P+ granules provide strong evidence of cybil movie, peripheral innervation with potential for nociceptive transmission of Essay Integration of Reason and Emotion, excitatory impulses to the CNS. Other roles could involve substance P-mediated regulation of pulpal blood flow and extravasation and stagnation economy, other responses to inflammation. Substance P, a peptide product of the Tachykinin 1/TAC1 gene, acts on its receptor NK1R (Tachykinin receptor 1/TACR1) expressed by neurons and endothelial cells. Substance P released from about of Reason and Emotion, pulpal sensory nerves during experimental tooth pain is implicated in nociceptive pain transmission (Avellán et al., 2008) as well as inflammatory responses to pain, including increased pulpal blood flow (Kim, 1990). CGRP immunostaining (red color) of rosenburg trial, putative nerve fibers (white arrows) in peripheral zone of narwhal pulp adjacent to circumpulpal dentin. Panel APulp Segment F; panel BSegment L, upper left arrow is margin of large artery with smooth muscle wall; panel CSegment F; panel DSegment L. Control sections with primary antibody omitted showed no red reaction product. Scale bars = 20 microns. We examined substance P expression in the layers of odontoblasts, predentin, and dentin immediately adjacent to the peripheral pulp tissue. Odontoblasts were not evident at the pulp surface (Figs. 4A and 6B) because they remained attached to the circumpulpal dentin when the intact pulp was forcibly withdrawn from the tusk.

Sections from Segment A-12 of Essay, a tusk containing its pulp faithfully preserved this interface (Fig. Rosenburg Trial! 6DF). About Of Reason And Emotion! There is evidence of nike case study, substance P+ nerve fiber adjacent to odontoblast cell bodies, and further evidence of substance P+ fibers in close proximity to odontoblastic processes in the zone of dentinal tubules (Fig. 6EF). This anatomical association supports the possibility of odontoblast-initiated sensory transmission in the narwhal tusk. Substance P immunostaining (red color) of putative nerve fibers in narwhal pulp and dentin. Panel A, pulp segment L showing abundant red SP+ granules at pulp periphery (arrow); panel B, segment I showing linear arrays of SP+ granules near pulp periphery (arrows); panel C, segment C showing small cluster (arrow) of red SP+ granules at pulp periphery; panel D, segment I showing SP+ nerve fiber (arrow) adjacent to large artery with smooth muscle wall (sm); panel E, tusk segment A12 showing SP+ nerve (n) in peripheral pulp adjacent to odontoblast cell bodies (o) and dentin (d) with characteristic dentinal tubules (t); panel F, tusk segment A12 showing linear arrays of SP+ granules (arrows) in about Integration of Reason, odontoblast (o) layer of dentin approximately 200 microns from the peripheral pulp. Scale bars = 100 microns (A, B, D, E) and stagnation, 10 microns (C, F). Top : Fold-change of sensory genes when compared to Essay about Integration muscle tissue. Bottom: Fold-change of sensory genes when compared to mandibular soft tissue.

All the on Energy Fossil, genes were normalized using the about and Emotion, housekeeping genes (GAPDH, RPL4, RPS18, and stagnation economy, YWHAZ). The gene expression profiles for sensory genes were calculated based on fold-change. DLX2, FAM134B, NGFR, and TFAP2A genes were highly expressed in Integration and Emotion, the pulpal tissue when compared to both muscle and mandibular soft tissues (Fig. 7). When compared with pulpal tissue, the fold-change ranged from 1.64 (for FAM134B) to cybil movie 21.03 (for DLX2), and three of the genes that had a fold-change greater than 16.5 when compared to Essay about Integration of Reason muscle were highly expressed. Since the mandibular soft tissue might contain sensory nerves the gene expression profiles were not as significant, and these genes had fold-changes greater than 2.5. The gene expression profile of rosenburg trial, WNK1 was marginally higher in pulpal tissue compared to muscle tissue, and slightly down-regulated when compared to Essay about Integration and Emotion mandibular soft tissue (Hubbard et al., 2002; Kurth, 2010; Flicek et al., 2012). On the other hand, NGF was the only gene that was down-regulated compared with both muscle and mandibular soft tissue; thus, the expression was higher in both muscle and mandibular soft tissue than in the pulp. Carbon and nitrogen stable isotope values and dietary fatty acid percentages are both biomarkers that provide an indication of rosenburg trial, diet. Biomarkers were significantly different between male and female narwhals from the Baffin Bay (High Arctic) population, suggesting the of Reason and Emotion, sexes may have different foraging habits.

Carbon and nitrogen stable isotope data were normally distributed, as described by normal quantile plots, and variances were homogenous (Levene's test: Carbon, F 1, 432  = 0.433, P  = 0. Nike Case Study! 51; Nitrogen, F 1, 432  = 0.28, P  = 0.60). Male narwhals ( n  = 278) had significantly higher δ 13 C ( t -test: t  = 4.82, P   0.0001) and δ 15 N ( t -test: t  = 3.5, P  = 0.0004) values compared to Integration female narwhals ( n  = 156). A multivariate ANOVA on the first five fatty acid principal components found there was also a significant difference between male and Essay about System, female narwhals (MANOVA: F 5, 106  = 2.42, P  = 0.041, n  = 56). This significant difference between stable isotope and fatty acid values for male and Essay about Integration of Reason and Emotion, female narwhals supported divergent sexual foraging habits.

A plot of the actual versus predicted heart rates indicated that there may have been a few observations that were outliers, but these observations were not eliminated from the data set of six male narwhals from TS (Table 2) since they had little impact on the overall analysis. A summary of fit of the actual and predicted heart rates resulted in an R 2 value of nike case study, 0.87. Essay! A test of the fixed effects indicated that the difference among the whales was statistically significant ( P   0.0001) and that the treatment difference (high-salt versus fresh-water exposure) was significant ( P  = 0.0008); however, there was no significant two-way interaction between the Essay Resources: Fossil, whales and treatment ( P  = 0.36). A plot of the residuals showed a random pattern around zero, indicating that the assumption of equal variances was likely met. The Tukey HSD set of confidence intervals of the differences (Table 3, bottom) indicated that there was no difference in the estimated mean heart rates between whales 1 and Integration of Reason, 2, whales 1 and 3, and on Energy to Biofuels, whales 2, 5 and 6 at of Reason, the 95% confidence level. Nike Case Study! Whale 4 was significantly different from all others. The least squares means differences in Student's t test of the salt and Essay Integration of Reason and Emotion, fresh-water treatment conditions (Table 3, top) resulted in an overall mean estimated heart rate of stagnation economy, 60.42 bpm for the 41 ppt salt-water stimulus and an estimated 52.56 bpm for Essay about Integration and Emotion the fresh-water stimulus (Table 4), and these were significantly different ( P  = 0.0008). The estimated difference between the Essay about System, two means, with 95% confidence, was 7.86 bpm. The least squares means analysis of the whale-treatment interaction had a P -value of 0.36, indicating that all such confidence intervals of mean differences would overlap. Essay Of Reason! These results demonstrated a significant and repeatable difference in heart rate, with higher heart rate being associated with the 41 ppt salt-water exposure and lower heart rate with the fresh-water exposure (Fig. 8).

This change in heart rate occurred in all six animals, though there were differences in the heart rates measured between the different animals. The Immune! The magnitude of change for Essay about Integration the salt stimulus mean was between 3.7 and 12.0 beats per about The Immune System, minute. Mean heart rate measured for each of the six male narwhals while the Essay about Integration, tusk is stimulated with either 41 ppt salt water or fresh water. Sensory model of the erupted male narwhal tusk showing, from bottom left, the introduction of stagnation, water gradients penetrating cementum channels connected to patent dentinal tubules through the full thickness of the dentinal layer, connecting to odontoblastic processes and cells at the base of the tubules and at the periphery of the pulp, which stimulate nerve tissue connecting the base of tusk tissue to the maxillary branch of the fifth cranial nerve to the brain. Also pictured at Essay about and Emotion, the bottom right are pulp peripheral nerve-associated substance P and CGRP. Human and cybil movie, other mammalian teeth have sensory function and exhibit a highly adapted ability to sense variables including temperature, ion concentration gradients, physical pressure during loading, and proprioceptive position. It is therefore reasonable to expect that this function of Essay Integration, dentition is also found in the narwhal.

Anatomic form and physiologic field results are consistent with Brännström's hydrodynamic theory of teeth, the most widely accepted theory of sensory and pain perception associated with exposed dentinal tubules (Brännström, 1966, 1967). The theory hypothesizes that interstitial fluid within these tubules can be influenced by variables of temperature, pressure, hydration status, and electrochemical and osmotic gradients. Solutions introduced at the tusk surface have the effect of penetrating a porous cementum outer layer through a series of open and organized channels that create fluid flow within the dentinal tubules, outward during the exposure to high-salt solutions and inward after exposure to cybil movie fresh water. Essay! Mechanical effects on odontoblastic processes within these tubules, and economy, close associations of odontoblasts with nerve endings in and Emotion, the outer layer of pulpal tissue (Fig. 9), are involved in the initiation of rosenburg trial, sensory perception.

Direct exposure to the environment of the about Integration, patent dentinal tubule network in nike case study, narwhals is unusual. In contrast, the beluga ( Delphinapterus leucas )the closest relative to Essay about Integration of Reason the narwhalexhibits the Essay about The Immune System, more characteristic occluded dentinal tubules within the dentin layer, preventing any fluid conduction from the enamel-covered tooth surface to the ocean environment (Sergeant, 1959 and about, 1973). Primer sequences used in QRT-PCR experiments lists the Roche Universal Probe number and corresponding forward, reverse and amplicon sequences for the Universal Probe Library reactions. Essay On Energy Fossil! The sensory and housekeeping genes were designed using the Tursiops truncatus and Stenella coeruleoalba genomes, respectively. Tubules are present in all mammalian dentin and serve to Integration of Reason and Emotion supply the physiologic fluids that maintain the integrity of collagen that forms the collagen fibril network within dentin (Pashley, 1996; Kinney et al., 2003). It is well known that in on Energy Resources:, human root-canal-treated teeth, where the pulpal tissue has been removed and thus the internal supply of physiologic fluid, the dentin becomes more brittle and about Integration of Reason, loses elasticity over time (Jameson et al., 1993; Papa et al., 1994). This same physiologic function of cybil movie, maintaining collagen toughness within narwhal dentin would be even more critical at of Reason, the high bending stresses experienced within a tusk. Tensile stresses are greatest near the base and on the surface of a cantilevered beam, such as a narwhal tusk. Tissues with very high fracture toughness, such as the highly fibrous and collagenous dentin of the tusk, are best designed to nike case study respond to these stresses without fracturing. Essay Of Reason! This tubular tusk structure of cybil movie, toughened dentin is Essay about of Reason, a wonderful example of evolutionary engineering, where environmental demands have resulted in optimized organ design.

This explains the high density of tubules observed and the fact that narwhal tusks maintain a pulpal vascular network for nearly their entire length. The unique feature of narwhal tusk dentin, however, is the rosenburg trial, frequent and normal communication of these tubules with the exposed surface of the Essay Integration and Emotion, tusk. In other mammalian teeth, surface layers of enamel or cementum occlude tubules, and occluded tubules frequently occur within the dentin layer, so that exposure of tubules only occurs as a result of damage or pathology. The narwhal tusk has no surface enamel layer (Ishiyama, 1987), and the cementum observed on the surface is highly porous with a network of open and economy, organized channels surrounding abundant Sharpey's fiber bundles of hypomineralized collagen, thus providing the patent communication needed to sense surface stimuli. Dissection and imaging of male and Integration, female narwhal heads reveal connection of the maxillary division of the fifth cranial nerve from the rosenburg trial, brain to the tusk. This connection is supported by intracranial dissections, tusk alveolar examination, and Essay Integration, visible pathways of Essay System, nerve conduction observed by dissection and radiographic imaging (Tyler, 2006; Nweeia et al., 2009). Narwhal pulp has been reported to have features similar to about Integration of Reason other mammals (Dow and Hollenberg, 1977).

Nerve-associated tissue discovered in economy, narwhal pulpal tissue (Figs. 4 and 5) also provides evidence that the Brännström hydrodynamic theory of Integration of Reason, sensory function could apply to the narwhal tusk. Transmission of power, dental sensory or nociceptive (pain) signals to the CNS involves Aδ and C-type fibers. About Integration And Emotion! Rapid, sharp pain is associated with Aδ fibers, while dull, radiating pain typically involves C-type fibers, depending on and disadvantages power, the type of stimulus. The Aδ fibers account for about Integration of Reason the sensitivity of dentin, whereas C-type fibers are activated only power, if external stimuli reach the pulp proper (Narhi et al., 1992).

Hydrodynamic sensory perception in about of Reason, the narwhal tusk is supported by our findings of extensive innervation and expression of substance P, a known nociceptive neurotransmitter, in rosenburg trial, the peripheral region of the pulp. The close apposition of Essay about of Reason and Emotion, odontoblasts and cybil movie, substance P+ fibers is consistent with odontoblast-dependent sensory transmission initiated by fluid flow in dentinal tubules. Recent reports of mechano-sensitive ion channels such as TRPV14 and TREK-1 in Essay of Reason, odontoblast membranes, and PC1 and PC2 associated with the odontoblast primary cilia (Magloire et al., 2009, 2010), provide possible additional mechanisms for odontoblast-mediated sensory transmission. Significant presence and detection of a set of rosenburg trial, sensory-related genes in the pulp (including DLX2, FAM134B, NGFR, TFAP2A, and NGF), either highly expressed or less expressed relative to control samples of muscle and mandibular soft tissue, suggest a genetic basis for sensory function. The results of stable isotope and fatty acid analyses suggest sexual foraging differences that may relate to additional functional attributes of the about, tusk. Stable isotope values in large mammal tissues can reflect the previous year's diet (Sponheimer et al., 2006), whereas fatty acids in blubber have turnover rates on the order of rosenburg trial, 1.53 months (Nordstrom et al., 2008). The majority of our samples were collected in of Reason and Emotion, July and Essay The Immune System, August.

Thus, fatty acid signatures would reflect dietary habits during the Essay about Integration of Reason, late spring to early summer period, which may be after the breeding season in either mid-April (Best and Fisher, 1974) or May-June (Heide-Jørgensen and Garde, 2011). Fatty acid values varied between males and females, although much less strongly than stable isotopes, which may suggest males and females are foraging more similarly during the mating season or that both sexes limit feeding at this time. Economy! While more evidence is Essay about Integration of Reason and Emotion, certainly needed, there remains the Essay to Biofuels, possibility that tusk sensory function could play a role in locating food sources. Physiologic data from six live-captured male narwhals suggest statistically significant sensory perception to about and Emotion high-salt and fresh-water solutions (Fig. 7). It is interesting to of hydroelectric power note that Whale 1 presented with one-third of about of Reason and Emotion, its tusk broken off. Results indicate this tusk damage compromised the ability to distinguish between high-salt and Essay about System, freshwater solutions. Whale 2 also presented with a broken tusk, but only Essay about, a minor 23 cm loss of length, and thus sensation of salinity was only rosenburg trial, slightly compromised when compared to Whales 36. An established sensory pathway has thus been discovered from the external ocean environment through porous cementum, penetrating patent tubules conducting fluid shifts to sensory cells in the pulp, and transfer to the maxillary division of the fifth cranial nerve which connects to the base of the Integration, brain.

This anatomic model (Fig. 9), combined with field experiments showing sensitivity to high salinity gradients and associated increases in physiological heart rate response, show that the narwhal tusk organ has sensory ability. This is an organ with the ability to Essay The Immune sense characteristics of its external environment. More common associations of tooth sensitivity to their environment are linked to protection. Teeth sense stimuli that signal a threat to their function or integrity and the animal responds in about of Reason, a normal “fight or flight” reaction to avoid or neutralize the rosenburg trial, stimulus. Such stimuli are often episodic, appearing when the about and Emotion, threat is present and not as a normal part of the tooth's environment. The narwhal is the only example documented where teeth are shown to have the stagnation economy, ability to constantly sense environmental stimuli that would not necessarily be considered a threat.

Unusual tusk microanatomy provides a unique means of assessing the whale's environment by what appears to be their normal and commonly employed mechanism. The dentinal tubule network in the embedded (unerupted) tusk antemere opens the possibility that it may serve as a “reference tusk,” bathed in physiological fluid and used as a set point for sensing “high” versus “low” salinity by the erupted “sensory tusk.” Tested sensitivities to Essay of Reason high-salt and fresh-water solutions suggest that these dentinal tubules may also sense changes in temperature, pressure, hydration status, and/or electrochemical and osmotic gradients. Further examination may likely reveal other variables that can be sensed and interpreted, according to Brännström's hydrodynamic theory, by this extraordinary tooth organ system. Future experiments that test additional stimuli would provide a better understanding of the rosenburg trial, broader capability of this sensory organ system. The current evidence suggests that the tusk may have a multitude of specific and perhaps interacting functions. Its microanatomy and sensory ability compellingly point to function as a sensory organ system.

Although erupted tusks may present in both sexes, they are mostly found in males and thus are more likely associated with sexual selection. The microanatomy of the female tusk reveals a similar dentinal tubule network. However, their gross morphology of a more dense proportion of hard tissue with a very limited pulpal canal suggests that they may not have the Integration, same sensory ability. Other gross morphological differences in erupted female tusks, which are present in cybil movie, approximately 15% of the Integration of Reason, population (Roberge and Dunn, 1990), have also been documented (Clark, 1871; Pederson, 1931). Advantages And Disadvantages Of Hydroelectric Power! No field experiments were conducted on females with tusks, as none were part of the Essay about of Reason and Emotion, sample caught during this investigation. The use of teeth in intrasexual selection or “male-to-male rivalry” and competition amongst odontocetes has been documented in the literature, and may have relevance to narwhal tusk function.

New evidence of sensory ability suggests that intersexual selection or “mate choice” should be considered as a mechanism for sexual selection. Economy! Several hypotheses can be suggested for “mate choice” based on the sensory ability of the Essay about and Emotion, erupted male tusk. The first is that the tusk might detect waters where females in estrus may be gathered or attracted. Rosenburg Trial! A second is Essay about Integration of Reason, that the tusk could also detect waters where females are foraging, as observed from fatty acid and stable isotope results. As an expression of fitness, a third hypothesis is power, that some males may be better able to find sources of foods needed for newborn calves. Essay Of Reason! The results of stable isotope and fatty acid analyses suggest sexual foraging differences that may relate to additional functional attributes of the tusk. Rosenburg Trial! Tusk sensory ability as a retained function from an evolutionary precursor is a fourth hypothesis; a fifth is Essay about, that the tusk is a currently evolving sensory organ. About The Immune! Differences in tooth position and morphology suggest other functions such as species recognition, as they do in other odontocetes (MacLeod, 2000). Since behaviors linked to mating are difficult to Essay Integration of Reason collect throughout the year, and a significant time period from late October to March can be forbidding due to weather and rosenburg trial, ocean conditions including moving pack ice within Baffin Bay in the early spring (Mansfield et al., 1975), observations of narwhal behavior will continue to be difficult to gather.

Such observations may be essential, however, for a more complete understanding of the significance of tusk sensory function. Thanks are extended to the National Science Foundation Offices of Polar Programs and about Integration of Reason and Emotion, Integrative and Organismal Systems, elders and hunters from the High Arctic communities of Nunavut, Canada and northwestern Greenland, and the Arctic field teams and stagnation economy, The National Geographic Society. calcitonin gene-related peptide. fatty acid methyl esters. honest significant difference. hunters and trappers organization. scanning electron microscopy. Copyright 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. narwhal; tusk; Monodon monoceros ; tusk functional significance; Brännström hydrodynamic theory; tooth gene expression; pulp tissue; tusk histology. Issue online: 18 March 2014 Version of record online: 18 March 2014 Manuscript Accepted: 15 January 2014 Manuscript Received: 8 November 2013. Ahn DK , Doutova EA , McNaughton K , Light AR , Narhi M , Maixner W . 2012 . Functional properties of tooth pulp neurons responding to about Integration thermal stimulation . Cybil Movie! J Dent Res 91 : 401 406 . CrossRef | CAS | Web of Essay Integration of Reason and Emotion, Science® Times Cited: 2 Anapol F , S. Lee . 1994 . Morphological adaptation to diet in platyrrhine primates . Advantages And Disadvantages Of Hydroelectric Power! Am J Phys Anthropol 94 : 239 261 . Integration Of Reason And Emotion! Wiley Online Library | PubMed | CAS | Web of Science® Times Cited: 62 Anderson DJ . 1968 . Studies on sensory mechanisms in teeth . Ann R Coll Surg Engl 43 : 331 340 . Cybil Movie! PubMed | CAS Andrew D , Matthews B . Essay And Emotion! 2000 . Displacement of the contents of dentinal tubules and sensory transduction in stagnation, intradental nerves of the cat . J Physiol 529 ( Pt 3 ): 791 802 . Wiley Online Library | CAS | Web of of Reason and Emotion, Science® Times Cited: 33 Avellán NL , Sorsa T , Tervahartiala T , Forster C , Kemppainen P . Rosenburg Trial! 2008 . Experimental tooth pain elevates substance P and matrix metalloproteinase-8 levels in about Integration of Reason, human gingival crevice fluid . Acta Odontol Scad 66 : 18 22 . Essay Resources:! CrossRef | PubMed | CAS | Web of Science® Times Cited: 4 Balam TA , Yamashiro T , Zheng L , Murshid Ahmed S , Fujiyoshi Y , Takano-Yamamoto T . 2005 . Experimental tooth movement upregulates preproenkephalin mRNA in Essay about Integration and Emotion, the rat trigeminal nucleus caudalis and oralis . Brain Res 1036 : 196 201 . CrossRef | PubMed | CAS | Web of Essay to Biofuels, Science® Times Cited: 8 Beddard FE . Essay About Integration! 1900 . A book of whales . New York : Putnam and Sons.

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2006 . A sequence-oriented comparison of gene expression measurements across different hybridization-based technologies . Nat Biotechnol 24 : 832 840 . CrossRef | PubMed | CAS | Web of Science® Times Cited: 112 Kurth I . Hereditary Sensory and Autonomic Neuropathy Type II . 2010 , Nov 23 [Updated 2011 Nov. 3]. About! Pagon, R.A ., M.P. Adam , T.D. Bird et al, editors, GeneReviewt [Internet] . Essay About System! Seattle (WA): University of Washington, Seattle : 1993 2013 . Integration Of Reason! Laidre K , Heide-Jørgensen MP . 2005 . Winter feeding intensity of narwhals ( Monodon monoceros ) . Marine Mammal Sci 21 : 45 57 . Wiley Online Library | Web of Science® Times Cited: 25 Linné CV , Gmelin JF , Kerr R . About! 1792 . The animal kingdom, or zoological system, of the celebrated Sir Charles Linnaeus. Strahan A, Cadell, T, London, W. Creech, Edinburgh. Lisney SJ . 1983 . Integration Of Reason And Emotion! Some current topics of interest in the physiology of trigeminal pain: a review . J R Soc Med 76 : 292 296 . PubMed | CAS | Web of Science® Times Cited: 4 Loch C , Duncan W , Simoes-Lopes PC , Kieser J , Fordyce RW . Resources: Fossil Fuels! 2012 . Ultrastructure of Essay about Integration, enamel and dentine in extant dolphins (Cetacea: Delphinoidea and Inioidea ) . Zoomorphology 132 : 215 225 . CrossRef | Web of Science® Times Cited: 3 Locke M . 2008 . Advantages Of Hydroelectric! Structure of Ivory . J Morphol 268 : 423 450 . Wiley Online Library | PubMed | Web of of Reason, Science® Times Cited: 14 Loseto LL , Stern GA , Ferguson SH . 2008 . Nike Case Study! Size and biomagnification: how habitat selection explains beluga mercury levels . Environ Sci Technol 42 : 3982 3988 . CrossRef | PubMed | CAS | Web of Science® Times Cited: 28 | ADS Loseto LL , Stern GA , Gemmill B , Deibel D , Connelly T , Prokopowicz A , Fortier L , Ferguson SH . 2009 . Essay Of Reason And Emotion! Summer diet of beluga whales inferred by fatty acid analysis of the eastern Beaufort Sea food web . On Energy Fuels To Biofuels! J Exp Marine Biol Ecol 374 : 12 18 . CrossRef | CAS | Web of Essay about Integration of Reason and Emotion, Science® Times Cited: 25 Lowe AP . Essay Resources: Fossil! 1906 . Integration! The Cruise of the stagnation, Neptune: report on about and Emotion, the Dominion Government Expedition to Essay to Biofuels Hudson Bay and Essay, the Arctic Islands, 19031904 . Ottawa: Government Printing Bureau . Lucas P , Constantino P , Wood B , Lawn B . 2008 . Dental enamel as a dietary indicator in mammals . BioEssays 30 : 374 385 . Wiley Online Library | PubMed | Web of Essay about System, Science® Times Cited: 104 Lumsden AGS . 1987 . Developmental and evolutionary aspects of the Essay of Reason and Emotion, neural crest , Maderson PFA , editor. New York : Wiley. p 261 300 . MacLeod CD . 2000 . Species recognition as a possible function for variations in position and shape of the sexually dimorphic tusks of stagnation, Mesoplodon whales . Of Reason And Emotion! Evolution 54 : 2171 2173 . Wiley Online Library | PubMed | CAS | Web of Science® Times Cited: 6 Magloire H , Couble ML , Thivichon-Prince B , Maurin JC , Bleicher F . 2009 . Odontoblast: a mechano-sensory cell . Essay About The Immune! J Exp Zool Part B: Mol Dev Evol 312B : 416 424 . Wiley Online Library | PubMed | CAS | Web of Science® Times Cited: 22 Magloire H , Maurin JC , Couble ML , Shibukawa Y , Tsumura M , Thivichon-Prince B , Bleicher F . Essay About Of Reason And Emotion! 2010 . Topical review. Dental pain and odontoblasts: facts and hypotheses . J Orofacial Pain 24 : 335 349 . Web of rosenburg trial, Science® Times Cited: 35 Magnus A . 1495 . Diui Alberti magni De animalibus libri vigintisex novissime impressi. Integration And Emotion! Impressum Venetiis per Joannem [et] Gregorius de Gregoriis fratres, 21 May 1495, 254 leaves. Bookstamps of Emperor Franz I and of the Nationalbibliothek, Vienna.

From the William Norton Bullard Collection. Mansfield AW , Smith TG , Beck B . 1975 . The Narwhal (Monodon monoceros ) in Eastern Canadian Waters . Essay On Energy Resources: Fuels! J Fish Res Board Can 32 : 1041 1046 . Essay About Of Reason! CrossRef Mengel MK , Jyväsjärvi E , Kniffki KD . 1992 . Rosenburg Trial! Identification and characterization of afferent periodontal C fibres in the cat . About And Emotion! Pain 48 : 413 420 . CrossRef | PubMed | CAS | Web of Science® Times Cited: 13 Miller RS . 1955 . A survey of the cybil movie, mammals of Bylot Island, Northwest Territories . Arctic 8 : 167 176 . Essay About Integration Of Reason! CrossRef Miyazaki N . 1980 . Rosenburg Trial! Preliminary note on age determination and growth of the about and Emotion, rough-toothed dolphin, Steno bredanensis , off the Pacific Coast of Japan. Report of the International Whaling Commission (Special Issue 3), Cambridge, p. 171 179 . Mohr E . 1966 . Bemerkungën über Cystophora cristata und über Walross Luftsäcke . Zool Gart (Leipsig) 32 : 28 35 . Murphy RM , Watt KK , Cameron-Smith D , et al. Essay Resources: Fossil Fuels! 2003 . Effects of Essay about of Reason, creatine supplementation on housekeeping genes in human skeletal muscle using real-time RT-PCR . Physiol Genom 12 : 163 174 . CrossRef | PubMed | CAS | Web of Science® Times Cited: 61 Myrick AC Jr . 1980 . Examination of layered tissues of Essay Fossil Fuels to Biofuels, odontocetes for age determination using polarized light microscopy. Report of the International Whaling Commission (Special Issue 3), Cambridge, p.105 112 . Narhi M , Hirvonen T , Huopaniemi T . 1984 . The function of intradental nerves in relation to Integration of Reason and Emotion the sensations induced by dental stimulation. Acupuncture and Electrotherapeutics Research , Oxford (Elmsford, NY ); Pergamon Press, 9 : 107 113 . Web of Science® Times Cited: 2 Narhi M , Jyväsjärvi E , Virtanen A , Huopaniemi T , Ngassapa D , Hirvonen T . 1992 . Role of intradental A-and C-type nerve fibers in dental pain mechanisms . Proc Fin Dent Soc 88 ( Suppl 1 ): 507 516 . Newman MA . 1971 . Capturing Narwhals for the Vancouver Public Aquarium, 1970 . Polar Rec 15 : 922 923 . CrossRef Newsome SD , Clementz MT , Koch PL . 2010 . Using stable isotope biogeochemistry to advantages and disadvantages of hydroelectric power study marine mammal ecology . Marine Mammal Sci 26 : 509 572 . CAS | Web of Science® Times Cited: 118 Nordstrom CA , Wilson LJ , Iverson SJ , Tollit DJ . 2008 . About Integration And Emotion! Evaluating quantitative fatty acid signature analysis (QFASA) using harbour seals Phoca vitulina richardi in captive feeding studies . Stagnation Economy! Marine Ecol Prog Ser 360 : 245 . CrossRef | Web of Science® Times Cited: 31 Norman JR , Fraser FC . 1949 . Essay About Integration Of Reason! Field book of giant fishes, whales and Essay about System, dolphins . New York : G. P. Putnam's Sons. Nweeia MT , Eichmiller FC , Nutarak C , Eidelman N , Giuseppetti et al. 2009 . Considerations of Anatomy, Morphology, Evolution and Function for Dentition in Narwhal Anatomy. In Smithsonian at the Poles . In: Krupnik I , Lang MA , Miller SE , editors.

Washington, D.C .: Smithsonian Institution Scholarly Press. p. 227 228 , 233234, 238. Nweeia MT , Eichmiller FC , Nutarak C , Eidelman N , Giuseppetti AA , Quinn J , Mead JG , K'issuk K , Hauschka PV , Tyler EM , et al. Essay About Of Reason! 2012 . Vestigial tooth anatomy and tusk nomenclature for Monodon monoceros . Anat Rec 295 : 1006 1016 . Wiley Online Library | Web of on Energy Resources: Fuels, Science® Times Cited: 5 Ogawa T , Ishii N , Toda K , Soma K . 2002 . Changes in response properties of about of Reason, periodontal mechanoreceptors during tooth movement in rats . J Med Dent Sci 49 : 95 101 . Nike Case Study! PubMed Panopoulos P , Gazelius B , Olgart L . Essay About And Emotion! 1983 . Responses of feline intradental sensory nerves to hyperosmotic stimulation of dentin . Acta Odontol Scand 41 : 369 375 . CrossRef | PubMed | CAS | Web of Science® Times Cited: 20 Papa J , Cain C , Messer HH . Advantages And Disadvantages Power! 1994 . Moisture content of vital vs . Integration Of Reason And Emotion! endodontically treated teeth. Dent Traumatol 10 : 91 93 . Wiley Online Library | PubMed | CAS | Web of Science® Times Cited: 80 Pashley DH . 1996 . Dynamics of the of hydroelectric, pulpo-dentin complex . Essay Of Reason And Emotion! Crit Rev Oral Biol Med 7 : 104 133 . CrossRef | PubMed | CAS | Web of Science® Times Cited: 181 Pederson A . 1931 . Mammals and birds along the east coast of Greenland. Medd.

Gronland 77:343506 (original in German). Fish Res Bd Can Transl Ser 1206: 412 417 . Perrin WF , Myrick AC, Jr. , Editors. 1980 . Age Determination of toothed whales and sirenians. International Whaling Commission, Report of the Workshop, p. 34 35 . Peterson BJ , Fry B . 1987 . Stable isotopes in stagnation economy, ecosystem studies . Ann Rev Ecol Syst 18 : 293 320 . CrossRef | Web of Science® Times Cited: 2560 Pischinger A , Stockinger L . Integration! 1968 . Die Nerven der menschlichen Zahnpulpa . Zeitschrift für Zellforschung und Mikroskopische Anatomie. 89 : 44 61 . CrossRef | PubMed | CAS | Web of nike case study, Science® Times Cited: 16 Porsild MP . 1918 . On “Savssats”: a crowding of Essay about of Reason and Emotion, arctic animals at holes in the sea ice . The Geographical Review, Vol. VI, No. 3 (September) . Porsild MP . Advantages Power! 1922 . About Integration Of Reason And Emotion! Scattered observations on the narwhal . Cybil Movie! J Mammal 3 : No. 1 , p 8 . CrossRef Ramirez F , Vanegas H . 1989 . Tooth pulp stimulation advances both medullary off-cell pause and tail flick . About Integration Of Reason! Neurosci Lett 100 : 1 3 , 153156.

CrossRef | PubMed | Web of Essay about System, Science® Times Cited: 32 Reeves RR , Mitchell E . 1981 . The whale behind the tusk . Nat Hist 90 : 50 57 . Web of Science® Times Cited: 6 Roberge MM , Dunn JB . About And Emotion! 1990 . Assessment of the subsistence harvest and biology of about The Immune, narwhal (Monodon monoceros L.) from Admiralty Inlet, Baffin Island, Northwest Territories (Canada) 1983 and 198689. Canada Technical Reports of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences, O (1947), 1 32 . Essay And Emotion! Roth ME , Feng L , McConnell KJ , Schaffer PJ , Guerra CE , Affourtit JP , et al. And Disadvantages Of Hydroelectric Power! 2004 . About Of Reason And Emotion! Nat Biotechnol 22 : 418 426 . CrossRef | PubMed | CAS | Web of Science® Times Cited: 27 Rozen S , Skaletsky HJ . 2000 . Primer3 on the www for general users and for biologist programmers . In: S. Krawetz and S. Misener , editors. Bioinformatics methods and protocols: methods in molecular biology . Totowa, NJ : Humana Press. p 365 386 . Scoresby W, Jr . 1820 . An account of the Arctic regions, with a history and description of the northern whale-fishery . Volumes 12. London: Archibald Constable and Essay The Immune System, Co . Essay Of Reason! Scoresby W . 1823 . Advantages Power! Journal of a voyage to the northern whale-fishery: including researches and discoveries on the eastern coast of West Greenland, made in the summer of 1822, in Integration of Reason and Emotion, the ship Baffin of cybil movie, Liverpool. Printed for Essay Integration of Reason Archibald Constable and rosenburg trial, Co., Edinburgh, and Integration of Reason and Emotion, Hurst, Robinson and Co. Cheapside, London. Seltzer S , Bender JB . Nike Case Study! 2002 . Dental Pulp. Hargreaves KM , Goodis HE , editors.

Quintessence Publishing Co., Inc., Illinois. Sergeant DE . 1959 . Age determination in odontocete whales from dentinal growth layers . Norsk Hvalfangst Tid. 6 : 275 277 . Sergeant DE . 1973 . Biology of Integration of Reason, white whales (Delphinapterus leucas) in Western Hudson Bay . J Fish Res Board Can 30 : 1070 1071 . CrossRef Silverman HB . 1979 . Social organization and behavior of the nike case study, narwhal, Monodon monoceros L . in Lancaster Sound, Pond Inlet, and Tremblay Sound, Northwest Territories. Essay About Integration! M.Sc. thesis, McGill University, Montreal. Silverman HB and Dunbar MJ . Stagnation! 1980 . Aggressive tusk use by the Narwhal ( Monodon monoceros L.) . Essay About Integration And Emotion! Nature 284 : 57 . CrossRef | Web of cybil movie, Science® Times Cited: 43 | ADS Silverman J , Kruger L . 1987 . An interpretation of dental innervation based on Essay of Reason and Emotion, the pattern of power, calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP)-immunoreactive thin sensory axons . Somatosensory Motor Res 5 : 157 175 . CrossRef | PubMed | CAS | Web of Science® Times Cited: 143 Sonnini DMCNS , Buffon L . 1804 . Histoire naturelle générale et particulière des cétacés.

Paris. Essay About Integration And Emotion! (Note: pages 227253 are section of Essay about The Immune, interest). Spinsanti G , Panti C , Lazzeri E , Marsili L , Casini S , Frati F , Fossi CM . 2006 . Selection of reference genes for quantitative RT-PCR studies in striped dolphin ( Stenella coeruleoalba ) skin biopsies . Of Reason! BMC Mol Biol 7 : 32 . CrossRef | PubMed | CAS | Web of Science® Times Cited: 51 Sponheimer M , Passey BH , de Ruiter DJ , Guatelli-Steinberg D , Cerling TE , Lee-Thorp JA . 2006 . Turnover of cybil movie, stable carbon isotopes in Essay about Integration, the muscle, liver, and stagnation economy, breath CO 2 of alpacas ( Lama pacos ) . Rapid Commun Mass Spect 20 : 1395 . Wiley Online Library | PubMed | CAS | Web of Science® Times Cited: 47 Teaford MF , Ungar PS . 2000 . Diet and the evolution of the about and Emotion, earliest human ancestors . Proc Natl Acad Sci 97 : 13506 13511 . CrossRef | PubMed | CAS | Web of Science® Times Cited: 149 | ADS Thewissen JGM , Cooper LN , Clementz MT , Bajpai S , Tiwari BN . 2007 . Whales originated from aquatic artiodactyls in the Eocene epoch of India . Nature 450 : 1190 1195 . CrossRef | PubMed | CAS | Web of Science® Times Cited: 86 | ADS Tomlin AG . 1967 . Mammals of the U.S.S.R. Volume 9. Cetacea. Cybil Movie! Jerusalem: Israel Program for Scientific Translation. Tyler EM . 2006 . Visualization of the dental anatomy of the narwhal Monodon monoceros . A thesis submitted to the Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine . p 36 . About! Unneberg P . 2003 . Transcript identification by analysis of rosenburg trial, short sequence tags influence of tag length, restriction site and transcript database . Nucleic Acid Res 31 : 2217 2226 . Integration Of Reason! CrossRef | PubMed | CAS | Web of Science® Times Cited: 11 Velculescu VE , Zhang L , Vogelstein B , Kinzler KW . 1995 . Serial analysis of of hydroelectric, gene expression. Integration! Science ( New York, NY ) 270 : 484 487 . Web of Science® Times Cited: 2877 Vibe C . 1950 . The marine mammals and marine fauna in the Thule District (N.W. Greenland) with observations on ice conditions in 1939, 1940, and cybil movie, 1941 . About Integration Of Reason And Emotion! Meddelelser om Grønland , 150 : 117 . Wakisaka S , Ichikawa H , Hishikawa S , Matsuo S , Takano Y , Akai M . 1987 . The distribution and origin of caltionin gene-related peptide containing nerve fibers in the feline dental pulp . Histochemistry 86 : 585 589 . CrossRef | PubMed | CAS | Web of advantages of hydroelectric, Science® Times Cited: 73 Wakisaka S . 1990 . Neuropeptides in the dental pulp: distribution, origins and correlation . Essay About Integration! J Endod 16 : 67 69 . CrossRef | PubMed | CAS | Web of Science® Times Cited: 37 Watanabe M , Tanaka E , Suemune S , Satoda T , Maeda N , Uchida T , Tanne K . 2003 . Expression of c-Fos protein in the trigeminal nuclear complex resulting from rosenburg trial, quantified force application to the rat molar . J Oral Rehab 30 : 1128 1137 . Wiley Online Library | PubMed | CAS | Web of Science® Times Cited: 11 Weissengruber GE , Egerbacher M , Forstenpointner G . Integration And Emotion! 2005 . Structure and innervation of the rosenburg trial, tusk pulp in the African elephant . J Anat 206 : 387 393 . About Of Reason And Emotion! Wiley Online Library | PubMed | CAS | Web of Science® Times Cited: 4 Worm O . 1655 . And Disadvantages Of Hydroelectric! Museum Wormianum. Seu, Historia rerum rariorum, tam naturalium, quam artificialium, tam domesticarum, quam exoticarum, quae Hafniae Danorum in aedibus authoris servantur. Adornata ab Olao Worm. Lugduni Batavorum, Apud Johannem elsevirium, Acad.

Typograph. About Of Reason And Emotion! Yamada M , Suzuta K , Higuchi H . 1968 . Sensitivity of the tooth to thermal stimulation . Japan J Physiol 18 : 310 325 . CrossRef | PubMed | CAS | Web of Science® Times Cited: 9. Articles related to the one you are viewing. 1 Robert W. Boessenecker , Danielle Fraser , Morgan Churchill , Jonathan H. Power! Geisler , A toothless dwarf dolphin (Odontoceti: Xenorophidae) points to explosive feeding diversification of modern whales (Neoceti), Proceedings of the Essay Integration, Royal Society B: Biological Sciences , 2017 , 284 , 1861, 20170531 CrossRef 2 E.K. Sawyer , D.K.

Sarko , Evolution of Essay The Immune System, Nervous Systems, 2017 , 437 CrossRef 3 W. David Lambert , Eurybelodon shoshanii, an unusual new shovel-tusked gomphothere (Mammalia, Proboscidea) from the late Miocene of Oregon, Journal of Essay about of Reason and Emotion, Vertebrate Paleontology , 2016 , 36 , 3, e1091352 CrossRef 4 Ecology of North America, 2015 , 259 CrossRef 5 Annalisa Berta , James L. Sumich , Kit M. Kovacs , Marine Mammals, 2015 , 397 CrossRef 6 Kathryn Grandfield , Netta Lev-Tov Chattah , Sabra Djomehri , Naomi Eidelmann , Frederick C Eichmiller , Samuel Webb , P James Schuck , Martin Nweeia , Sunita P Ho , The narwhal (Monodon monoceros) cementumdentin junction: A functionally graded biointerphase, Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part H: Journal of Engineering in Medicine , 2014 , 228 , 8, 754 CrossRef. Copyright 1999 - 2017 John Wiley Sons, Inc. All Rights Reserved.

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